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Sample records for multiple instantaneously injected

  1. Generalized solution for 1-D non-Newtonian flow in a porous domain due to an instantaneous mass injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Federico, V.; Ciriello, V.

    2011-12-01

    Non-Newtonian fluid flow in porous media is of considerable interest in hydrology, chemical and petroleum engineering, and biofluid mechanics. We consider an infinite porous domain of plane (d=1), cylindrical (d=2) or semi-spherical geometry (d=3), having uniform permeability k and porosity Φ, initially at uniform pressure and saturated by a weakly compressible non-Newtonian fluid, and analyze the dynamics of the pressure variation generated within the domain by an instantaneous mass injection m0 in its origin. The fluid is described by a rheological power-law model of given consistency index H and flow behavior index n; the flow law is a modified Darcy's law depending on H, Φ, n. Coupling flow law and mass balance equations yields the nonlinear partial differential equation governing the pressure field; an analytical solution is derived in space r and time t as a function of a self-similar variable η=r/tβ(n). We revisit and expand the work in previous papers by providing a dimensionless general formulation and solution to the problem for d=1,2,3. When a shear-thinning fluid (nfluids; the front velocity is proportional to t(n-2)/2 in plane geometry, t(2n-3)/(3-n) in cylindrical geometry, and t(3n-4)/(4-2n) in semi-spherical geometry. The front position is a markedly increasing function of n and is inversely dependent on d; the pressure front advances at a slower rate for larger values of compressibility, higher injected mass and lower porosity. When pressure is considered, it is seen that an increase in d from 1 to 3 brings about an order of magnitude reduction. An increase in compressibility implies a significant decrease in pressure, especially at early times. To reflect the uncertainty inherent in values of the problem parameters, we then consider selected properties of fluid (flow behavior index n) and porous domain (permeability k, porosity Φ, and medium compressibility cp) as independent random variables with uniform probability distribution. The

  2. THE FUZZY LOGIC BASED POWER INJECTION INTO ROTOR CIRCUIT FOR INSTANTANEOUS HIGH TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL IN INDUCTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami KESLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The power flow of the rotor circuit is controlled by different methods in induction machines used for producing high torque in applications involved great power and constant output power with constant frequency in wind turbines. The voltage with slip frequency can be applied on rotor windings to produce controlled high torque and obtain optimal power factor and speed control. In this study, firstly, the dynamic effects of the voltage applying on rotor windings through the rings in slip-ring induction machines are researched and undesirable aspects of the method are exposed with simulations supported by experiments. Afterwards, a fuzzy logic based inverter model on rotor side is proposed with a view to improving the dynamic effects, controlling high torque producing and adjusting machine speed in instantaneous forced conditions. For the simulation model of the system in which the stator side is directly connected to the grid in steady state operation, a C/C++ algorithm is developed and the results obtained for different load conditions are discussed.

  3. Injectivity, multiple zeros, and multistationarity in reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2015-01-01

    there is one or more solutions is non-trivial. We present a new method, based on so-called injectivity, to preclude or assert that multiple positive solutions exist. The results apply to generalized polynomials and variables can be restricted to the linear, parameter-independent first integrals...

  4. Multiple collagenase injections are safe for treatment of Dupuytren's contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendran, Varun K; Hentz, Vincent; Kenney, Deborah; Curtin, Catherine M

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old, right-hand-dominant man who had severe Dupuytren's disease with multiple cords and flexion contractures of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of both hands and underwent repeated collagenase injections for treatment. Collagenase has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of Dupuytren's contractures when administered as a single dose, but the results of multiple injections over a prolonged period are unknown. Antibodies to collagenase develop in all patients after several treatments, raising concerns about safety and efficacy as a result of sensitization from repeated exposures. The antibodies generated as a result of repeated exposure to collagenase could theoretically render it less effective with time and could also lead to immune reactions as severe as anaphylaxis. The authors present the case of a single patient who experienced continued correction of his contractures with only minor and self-limited adverse reactions after administration of 12 collagenase doses through 15 injections during a 4-year period. Over time, the injections continued to be effective at correcting metacarpophalangeal joint contractures, but less effective at correcting proximal interphalangeal joint contractures. The patient did eventually require a fasciectomy, but the safety and modest success of the repeated collagenase injections shows promise for a less invasive treatment with a better risk profile than open fasciectomy. Although further studies are needed, repeated administration of collagenase appears to be safe and modestly effective for severe Dupuytren's contractures, although a fasciectomy may ultimately be required in the most severe cases.

  5. Having multiple sexual partners among Iranian Injection Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of HIV from intra-venous drug users (IDUs to the community occurs predominantly through high-risk sexual behaviors. Limited information exists regarding the high-risk sexual behaviors of IDUs in Iran. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with having multiple sexual partners among Iranian IDUs. Methods. This is a national survey on drug-dependent adults. Participants were sampled from medical centers, prisons, and streets of capitals of 29 provinces in Iran, between May 2007 and February 2008. We analyzed data of 1,416 current IDUs. Socio-demographics and drug use characteristics were entered into a binary logistic regression model to determine predictors of having multiple sexual partners. Results. Having multiple sexual partners in the past or at the time of survey was reported by 56.4% of Iranian IDUs. Multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners in IDUs decreased by being married (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; P < .001 and increased by female gender (OR, 13.44; P = .02, having illegal income (OR, 1.72; P = .003, higher monthly family income (OR, 1.01; P = .003, pleasure, curiosity, and recreation as cause of first drug use (OR, 1.37; P = .04, ruins as usual place for injection (OR, 1.89; P = .001, and history of syringe sharing (OR, 1.50; P = .02. Conclusions. Having multiple sexual partners was reported by majority of Iranian IDUs, and this was linked to socio-demographics, initiation data, and other risk behaviors. This information should be considered in prevention efforts to reduce sexual transmission of HIV infection in Iran.

  6. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  7. Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.

  8. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-08-19

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  9. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Leung Chau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ injection (SQI, via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS; saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%–0.21%, and 53.49%–58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  10. ISAR imaging using the instantaneous range instantaneous Doppler method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wazna, TM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging, the Range Instantaneous Doppler (RID) method is used to compensate for the nonuniform rotational motion of the target that degrades the Doppler resolution of the ISAR image. The Instantaneous Range...

  11. Emission Constrained Multiple-Pulse Fuel Injection Optimisation and Control for Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injection profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of contro

  12. Emission Constrained Multiple-Pulse Fuel Injection Optimisation and Control for Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injection profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of contro

  13. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The instantaneous seismic data attribute provides a different means of seismic interpretation, for all types of seismic data. It first came to the fore in exploration seismology in the classic paper of Taner et al (1979), entitled " Complex seismic trace analysis". Subsequently a vast literature has been accumulated on the subject, which has been given an excellent review by Barnes (1992). In this research we will compare two different methods of computation of the instantaneous frequency. The first method is based on the original idea of Taner et al (1979) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method is based on the computation of the power centroid of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor Transform as computed by Margrave et al (2011) or the Stockwell Transform as described by Stockwell et al (1996). We will apply both methods to exploration seismic data and the DPRK events recorded in 2006 and 2013. In applying the classical analytic signal technique, which is known to be unstable, due to the division of the square of the envelope, we will incorporate the stabilization and smoothing method proposed in the two paper of Fomel (2007). This method employs linear inverse theory regularization coupled with the application of an appropriate data smoother. The centroid method application is straightforward and is based on the very complete theoretical analysis provided in elegant fashion by Cohen (1995). While the results of the two methods are very similar, noticeable differences are seen at the data edges. This is most likely due to the edge effects of the smoothing operator in the Fomel method, which is more computationally intensive, when an optimal search of the regularization parameter is done. An advantage of the centroid method is the intrinsic smoothing of the data, which is inherent in the sliding window application used in all Short-Time Fourier Transform methods. The Fomel technique

  14. Impact de l'utilisation des strategies d'injection multiple et de biodiesel sur un moteur diesel a rampe commune d'injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Etienne

    Using biodiesel/diesel fuel blends and multiple injection strategies in diesel engines have shown promising results in improving the trade-off relationship between nitrous oxides and particulate matters, but their effects are still not completely understood. In this context, this thesis focuses on the characterization of the multiple injection strategies and biodiesel impacts on pollutant emissions, performances and injection system behavior. To reach this goal, an experimental campaign on a diesel engine was performed and a model simulating the injection process was developed. The engine tests at low load with pilot injection allowed the reduction of NOx emissions up to 27% and those of PM up to 22.3% compared to single injection, provided that a precise tuning of the injection parameters was previously realized. This simultaneous reduction is explained by the reduction of the premixed combustion phase and injected fuel quantity during principal injection when a pilot injection is used. With triple injection for the tested engine load, the post-injection did not result in PM reduction since it contributes by itself to the PM production while the preinjection occurred too soon to burn conveniently and caused perturbations in the injection system as well. Using B20 blend in single injection caused a PM increase and a NOx reduction which might be explained by the poorer fuel atomization. However, pilot injection with B20 allowed to get a simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM, as observed with diesel. An injection simulation model was also developed and experimentally validated for different injection pressures as well as different energizing times and dwell times. When comparing the use of biodiesel with diesel, simulation showed that there was a critical energizing time for which both fuels yielded the same injection duration. For shorter energizing times, the biodiesel injection duration was shorter than for diesel, while longer energizing times presented the

  15. Perspectives and experiences of Dutch multiple sclerosis patients and multiple sclerosis-specialized neurologists on injectable disease-modifying treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leo H.; Heerings, Marco A.; Jongen, Peter J.; van der Hiele, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adherence to treatment with injectable disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) may benefit from adequate information provision and management of expectations. The communication between patients and physicians is very important in this respect. The current study inve

  16. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF HEPATIC-FIBROSIS INDUCED IN RATS BY MULTIPLE GALACTOSAMINE INJECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONKER, AM; DIJKHUIS, FWJ; HARDONK, MJ; MOERKERK, P; TENKATE, J

    Multiple injections of D-galactosamine induce liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rats. The purpose of this immunopathological study was to correlate inflammation and hepatic extracellular matrix remodeling after repeated administration of galactosamine. Rats were given 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and

  17. Novel instantaneous laser Doppler velocimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor, J M

    1974-02-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter capable of directly measuring instantaneous velocities is described. The new LDV uses a novel detection technique based on the utilization of a static slightly defocused spherical Fabry-Perot interferometer used in conjunction with a special mask for the detection of instantaneous Doppler frequency shifts. The essential characteristics of this LDV are discussed, and such a system recently developed is described. Results of turbulent flow measurements show good agreement with data obtained using hot wire anemometry.

  18. Multiple concurrent collagenase clostridium histolyticum injections to dupuytren’s cords: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dupuytren’s contracture (DC is a progressive fibroproliferative disorder characterized by development of nodules and collagen cords within the palmar fascia of the hand. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH is currently approved in adults with DC for the nonsurgical treatment of a single palpable cord during a 30-day treatment cycle. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the safety, efficacy, and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of injecting two cords (affected joints with multiple doses of CCH concurrently into the same hand in subjects with DC and multiple contractures. Methods Twelve subjects with DC were enrolled, each with ≥3 contractures caused by palpable cords. Efficacy assessments were taken 30 days after treatment and adverse events (AEs were recorded throughout. In the first treatment period, all subjects were injected with a single dose of CCH (0.58 mg into a single cord. The same subjects entered a second treatment period 30 days later, where two different cords (affected joints were injected concurrently on the same hand. A finger extension procedure was performed 24 hours after each administration of CCH to disrupt the enzymatically weakened cord. Results For metacarpophalangeal (MP joints, mean contracture reduction per joint treated was 29.0 ± 20.7 degrees following single injection vs 30.3 ± 10.9 degrees per treated joint following multiple injections. For proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints, mean reduction in contracture was 30.7 ± 21.1 and 22.1 ± 4.9 degrees per treated joint, respectively, for the two periods. All patients (100% were either “quite satisfied” or “very satisfied” following either treatment cycle. The most common treatment-related AEs were edema peripheral, contusion, and pain in the treated extremity; the differences in severity for local effects of the injections were minimal between treatment periods. No serious treatment-related AEs

  19. Multiple routes of drug administration and HIV risk among injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Rüütel, Kristi

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses relationships between drug administration routes and HIV serostatus, drug use, and sexual behaviors among current injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. We recruited 350 IDUs for a cross-sectional risk behavior survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated to explore injection risk behavior, sexual behavior, and HIV serostatus associated with multiple route use. Focus groups explored reasons why injectors might use non-injecting routes of administration. Those reporting multiple drug administration routes were less likely to be HIV seropositive (AOR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25-0.97) and had almost twice the odds of having more than one sexual partner (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.01-3.60) and of reporting having sexually transmitted diseases (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.02-5.59). IDUs who engage in noninjecting drug use may be reducing their risk of acquiring HIV though sharing injection equipment, but if infected may be a critical group for sexual transmission of HIV to people who do not inject drugs.

  20. Meralgia paraesthetica: Ultrasound-guided injection at multiple levels with 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Andrea S; Abd Ellah, Mohamed M H; Halpern, Ethan J; Sporer, Isabella; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto; Sojer, Martin; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Jaschke, Werner R

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound (US)-guided injections around the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) at different levels in meralgia paraesthetica (MP) patients. The study was approved by the university ethics committee and informed oral and written consent were obtained from all patients. Between June 2008 and August 2013, 20 patients with symptoms of MP, including nine men (mean age, 61.33 years) and 11 women (mean age 61.18 years), were treated with US-guided injection of steroids along the LFCN at three different levels in a mean of 2.25 sessions. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure symptoms before, immediately after and 12 months after treatment. Complete resolution of symptoms was documented in 15/20 patients (mean VAS decreased from 82 to 0), and partial resolution in the remaining five (mean VAS decreased from 92 to 42), which was confirmed at 12-month follow-up. By using the different levels of injection approach overall significantly better symptom relief was obtained (p Meralgia paraesthetica is an entrapment neuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Ultrasound proved effective in diagnosis and in guiding injection therapy. Injection at the anterior superior iliac spine has been used previously. Multiple injections along the nerve course were used in this study. Long-term follow-up (12 months) confirmed the results.

  1. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  2. Instantaneous Relaying: Optimal Strategies and Interference Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Zuleita

    2012-01-01

    In a multi-user wireless network equipped with multiple relay nodes, some relays are more intelligent than other relay nodes. The intelligent relays are able to gather channel state information, perform linear processing and forward signals whereas the dumb relays is only able to serve as amplifiers. As the dumb relays are oblivious to the source and destination nodes, the wireless network can be modeled as a relay network with *smart instantaneous relay* only: the signals of source-destination arrive at the same time as source-relay-destination. Recently, instantaneous relaying is shown to improve the degrees-of-freedom of the network as compared to classical cut-set bound. In this paper, we study an achievable rate region and its boundary of the instantaneous interference relay channel in the scenario of (a) uninformed non-cooperative source-destination nodes (source and destination nodes are not aware of the existence of the relay and are non-cooperative) and (b) informed and cooperative source-destination...

  3. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  4. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  5. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, DK; Sibi, Maj. E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods: A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2–4) in group US and 3 (2–5) in group NS (P =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. PMID:25624532

  6. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2013-03-25

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled, common rail injection system capable of injection pressures up to 200 MPa and a maximum of six injections per combustion event. Up to 100 MPa of the fuel injection pressure, the higher injection pressures create faster combustion rates that result in the higher in-cylinder gas temperatures as compared to conventional low-pressure fuel injection systems. When applying high-pressure injections, particulate emission reductions of up to 50% were observed with no change in hydrocarbon emissions, reductions of CO emissions and only slightly higher NOx emissions. Over 100 MPa, on the other hand, the higher injection pressures still reduced up to almost zero-level of particulate emission, at the same time that the NO emission is reduced greatly. Under these high-pressure injection conditions, strong correlations between soot and CO emissions were observed, which compete for the oxidizing OH species. Multiple or split high-pressure injections also investigated as a means to decrease particulate emissions. As a result, a four-split injection strategy resulted in a 55% reduction in particulates and with little or no penalty on NOx emissions. The high pressure split injection strategy with EGR was more effective in reducing particulate and CO emissions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE.

  7. Effect of multiple intravenous injections of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürll, M; Deniz, A; Westphal, B; Illing, C; Constable, P D

    2010-09-01

    Numerous adjunct therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment or control of fat mobilization syndrome in periparturient dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of multiple i.v. injections of 10% butaphosphan and 0.005% cyanocobalamin combination (Catosal, Bayer Animal Health, Leverkusen, Germany) between 1 and 2 wk antepartum (a.p.) on the metabolism and health of dairy cows. Forty-five late-gestation Holstein-Friesian cows (second pregnancy) were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 groups with 15 cows/group: group C6 (6 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of body weight (BW) and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last 2 wk of gestation); group C3 (3 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of BW and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last week of gestation); and group C0 (equivolume daily i.v. injections of 0.9% NaCl solution). Serum biochemical analysis was performed on jugular venous blood samples that were periodically obtained a.p. and postpartum (p.p.). Health status and milk production were monitored p.p. Serum cyanocobalamin concentration increased in groups C6 and C3 p.p. Multiple daily i.v. injections of Catosal before parturition increased p.p. glucose availability, as evaluated by p.p. serum glucose concentration, and decreased peripheral fat mobilization and ketone body formation, as evaluated by p.p. serum nonesterified fatty acid and beta-OH butyrate concentrations. The number of puerperal infections in the first 5 d after calving was decreased in group C6, relative to group C0. We conclude that multiple injections of Catosal during the close-up period have a beneficial effect on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that high-producing dairy cows in early lactation may have a relative or actual deficiency of cyanocobalamin. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Case Report of Vasculitis Necrotizing after Interferon beta-1b Injection in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazdeh

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There are several introduced forms of treatment for patients with relapse-remitting & secondary progressive multiple sclerosis in recent years. Interferon beta-1b (Betaferon is the first of these agents that administered subcutaneously once in every two days. Case Report: This report is related to a 33 years old female. After 6 times of Betaferon injection vasculitis necrotizing was occurred with perforated ulcer (33.5 cm on the Lt side prox. lower limb . Simultaneoulsly ulcer (0.50.5 cm on the Lt side prox. upper limb , small ulcer (11 cm on the Rt side prox. lower limb and erythemia on the Rt side prox. upper limb around injection site. Conclusion: Betaferon was stopped to ensure ulcers is healed. The patient showed improvement after 3 months without debridment. It is recommended to proceed with the above plan until complete recovery is achieved.

  9. The relational model is injective for Multiplicative Exponential Linear Logic (without weakenings)

    CERN Document Server

    de Carvalho, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We show that for a suitable fragment of linear logic the syntactical equivalence relation on proofs induced by cut-elimination coincide with the semantic equivalence relation on proofs induced by the multiset based relational model: one says that the interpretation in the model (or the semantics) is injective. More precisely, we prove that two cut-free proofs of the multiplicative and exponential fragment of linear logic with the same interpretation in the multiset based relational model are the same "up to the connections between the doors of exponential boxes". This result is proven in an untyped framework: two cut-free untyped Proof-Structures (PS) have the same Linear Proof-Structure (LPS). An immediate consequence is that two cut-free PS without weakenings with the same relational interpretation are the same; hence relational semantics is injective.

  10. Hybrid wireless-over-fiber transmission system based on multiple injection-locked FP LDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chu, Chien-An; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Ting-Chien; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-07-27

    A hybrid wireless-over-fiber (WoF) transmission system based on multiple injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike the traditional hybrid WoF transmission systems that require multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs to support different kinds of services, the proposed system employs multiple injection-locked FP LDs to provide different kinds of applications. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system delivers downstream intensity-modulated 20-GHz microwave (MW)/60-GHz millimeter-wave (MMW)/550-MHz cable television (CATV) signals and upstream phase-remodulated 20-GHz MW signal. Excellent bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 4-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system has practical applications for fiber-wireless convergence to provide broadband integrated services, including telecommunication, data communication, and CATV services.

  11. Can aerobic exercise alleviate flu-like symptoms following interferon beta-1a injections in patients with multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Kjølhede, Tue; Stenager, Egon

    2016-01-01

    IFNß-1a injections in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise can alleviate FLS following IFNß-1a injections in PwMS, and secondarily to examine whether or not fluctuations in circulating cytokines provide a mechanism that can explain a potential...

  12. Fostering adherence to injectable disease-modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaresi, Alessandra; Rottoli, Maria Rosa; Patti, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis requires long-term management, often with disease-modifying therapies. Poor medication adherence, especially to injectables, can increase relapse and hospitalisation rates and consume healthcare resources. We discuss adherence definitions and terminology and its prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS). Typical causes of poor adherence in patients with MS include: insufficient efficacy or tolerability, concurrent disorders, and consequences of MS (e.g., forgetfulness, depression, fatigue and poor motor skills). Ways to improve adherence rates are reviewed, focusing on interdisciplinary healthcare teams, good communication between healthcare workers and patients (and their families), ongoing support and digital tools to promote adherence. We consider open communication and continuing education to be key, and that MS nurses have a pivotal role in ensuring patients' adherence to MS medicines.

  13. A prospective randomised study of local anaesthetic injection after multiple rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Avni; Baskonus, Ilyas; Maralcan, Gokturk

    2003-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two patients with second and third degree internal haemorrhoids were randomised to rubber band ligation only (n = 72) or rubber band ligation + local anaesthetic injection (n = 70). Pain was assessed by the patients at intervals of 6 hours and 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after banding. Other symptoms, complications, analgesic requirements and patient satisfaction were also recorded for 10 days following the treatment. There was a significant reduction in pain at 60 minutes and 6 hours after the procedure in the rubber band ligation plus local anaesthetic injection patients compared with the rubber band ligation only group (P rubber band ligation only on days 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after ligation. On day 10 after banding, there was no difference between the two groups with respect to symptoms such as nausea, feeling of heaviness and/or tenesmus, fainting; complications, analgesic consumption or overall patient satisfaction. Bupivacaine injection after multiple rubber band ligation may be useful in reducing pain during the first 6 hours of the postbanding period.

  14. Stagnation region gas film cooling: Spanwise angled injection from multiple rows of holes. [gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, D. W.; Lecuyer, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The stagnation region of a cylinder in a cross flow was used in experiments conducted with both a single row and multiple rows of spanwise angled (25 deg) coolant holes for a range of the coolant blowing ratio with a freestream to wall temperature ratio approximately equal to 1.7 and R(eD) = 90,000. Data from local heat flux measurements are presented for injection from a single row located at 5 deg, 22.9 deg, 40.8 deg, 58.7 deg from stagnation using a hole spacing ratio of S/d(o) = 5 and 10. Three multiple row configurations were also investigated. Data are presented for a uniform blowing distribution and for a nonuniform blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply. The data for local Stanton Number reduction demonstrated a lack of lateral spreading by the coolant jets. Heat flux levels larger than those without film cooling were observed directly behind the coolant holes as the blowing ratio exceeded a particular value. The data were spanwise averaged to illustrate the influence of injection location, blowing ratio and hole spacing. The large values of blowing ratio for the blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply resulted in heat flux levels behind the holes in excess of the values without film cooling. An increase in freestream turbulence intensity from 4.4 to 9.5 percent had a negligible effect on the film cooling performance.

  15. Asymptotic Rayleigh instantaneous unit hydrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The instantaneous unit hydrograph for a channel network under general linear routing and conditioned on the network magnitude, N, tends asymptotically, as N grows large, to a Rayleigh probability density function. This behavior is identical to that of the width function of the network, and is proven under the assumption that the network link configuration is topologically random and the link hydraulic and geometric properties are independent and identically distributed random variables. The asymptotic distribution depends only on a scale factor, {Mathematical expression}, where ?? is a mean link wave travel time. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of monthly subcutaneous injection of daclizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohan S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stanley Cohan1,2,3 1Providence Multiple Sclerosis Center, 2Providence Brain and Spine Institute, 3Providence Health & Services, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Despite the availability of multiple disease-modifying therapies for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS, there remains a need for highly efficacious targeted therapy with a favorable benefit–risk profile and attributes that encourage a high level of treatment adherence. Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against CD25, the α subunit of the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2 receptor, that reversibly modulates IL-2 signaling. Daclizumab treatment leads to antagonism of proinflammatory, activated T lymphocyte function and expansion of immunoregulatory CD56bright natural killer cells, and has the potential to, at least in part, rectify the imbalance between immune tolerance and autoimmunity in relapsing MS. The clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of subcutaneous daclizumab have been evaluated extensively in a large clinical study program. In pivotal studies, daclizumab demonstrated superior efficacy in reducing clinical and radiologic measures of MS disease activity compared with placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, a standard-of-care therapy for relapsing MS. The risk of hepatic disorders, cutaneous events, and infections was modestly increased. The monthly subcutaneous self-injection dosing regimen of daclizumab may be advantageous in maintaining patient adherence to treatment, which is important for optimal outcomes with MS disease-modifying therapy. Daclizumab has been approved in the US and in the European Union and represents an effective new treatment option for patients with relapsing forms of MS, and is currently under review by other regulatory agencies. Keywords: daclizumab, disease-modifying therapy, humanized monoclonal antibody, relapsing multiple sclerosis, therapeutic use

  17. Efficacy and safety of concurrent collagenase clostridium histolyticum injections for multiple Dupuytren contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephen; Gilpin, David; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Houston, Anthony; Kaufman, Gregory J; Cohen, Brian M; Jones, Nigel; Tursi, James P

    2014-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of 2 concurrent injections of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in the same hand to treat multiple Dupuytren flexion contractures. In a multicenter, open-label phase IIIb study, 60 patients received two 0.58-mg CCH doses injected into cords affecting 2 joints in the same hand during 1 visit, followed by finger extension approximately 24 hours later. Efficacy at postinjection day 30 (change in flexion contracture and active range of motion, patient satisfaction, physician-rated improvement, and rates of clinical success [flexion contracture 5° or less]) and adverse events were summarized. The concurrent injections were most commonly administered in cords affecting metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints on the same finger (47%) or 2 MCP joints on different fingers of the same hand (37%). Mean total (sum of the 2 treated joints) flexion contracture decreased 76%, from 87° to 24° (MCP joints: 86%; PIP joints: 66%). Mean total range of motion increased from 100° to 161°. Clinical success was 76% for MCP joints and 33% for PIP joints. Most patients were very satisfied (60%) or quite satisfied (28%) with treatment. Most investigators rated treated joints as very much improved (55%) or much improved (37%). The most common treatment-related adverse events (> 75% of patients) were contusion, pain in extremity, and edema peripheral (local edema). Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. Serious complications included 1 pulley rupture related to study medication and 1 flexor tendon rupture (following conclusion of the study). There were no systemic complications. Results suggest that 2 affected joints can be effectively and safely treated with concurrent CCH injections. There was an increased incidence of some adverse events with concurrent treatment (pruritus, lymphadenopathy, blood blister, and skin laceration) compared with treatment of a single joint. High degrees of patient

  18. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, K. M.; Hicks, Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of multiple 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. LDI is a fuel-lean combustor concept for aero gas turbine engines in which multiple small fuel-air mixers replace one traditionally-sized fuel-air mixer. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center (pilot) fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer (main) fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle, which varies with the configuration. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 600 to 800 F and equivalence ratios from 0.4 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section.

  19. Investigation of Diesel combustion using multiple injection strategies for idling after cold start of passenger-car engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Salavert, J.M.; Martin, J. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Aptdo. 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to better understand the combustion behaviour in a low compression ratio DI Diesel engine when multiple injection strategies are applied just after the engine cold starts in low temperature conditions (idling). More specifically, the aim of this study was twofold: on one hand, to understand the effect of the multiple injection strategies on the indicated mean effective pressure; on the other hand, to contribute to the understanding of combustion stability characterized by the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure. The first objective was fulfilled by analyzing the rate of heat release obtained by in-cylinder pressure diagnosis. The results showed that the timing of the pilot injection closest to the main injection was the most influential parameter based on the behaviour of the rate of heat release (regardless of the multiple injection strategy applied). For the second objective, the combustion stability was found to be correlated with the combustion centroid angle. The results showed a trend between them and the existence of a range of centroid angles where the combustion stability is strong enough. In addition, it was also evident that convenient split injection allows shifting the centroid to such a zone and improves combustion stability after start. (author)

  20. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  1. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  2. A discrete choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injection devices in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingler, S L; Swinburn, P; Ali, S; Perard, R; Lloyd, A J

    2013-08-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually managed with disease modifying drugs (DMDs), most commonly administered via self-injection. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence that different treatment-related attributes have for MS patients on their choice of MS DMD device. By establishing the relative importance of these characteristics for patients it should be possible to better understand the acceptability of a given device and to optimize the development of future devices. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed on the basis of a review of published literature. Attributes identified for inclusion in the survey were: ease of use; comfort of use; presence of additional functions, needle visibility; practicality and efficacy. Choice sets were presented as pairs of hypothetical treatments based upon a fractional factorial design. One-hundred device-using MS patients completed the survey online. Analysis was conducted using a mixed-logit approach. Analysis of the DCE data revealed that all attributes significantly predicted treatment choice. Efficacy exhibited the largest effect on treatment selection and this provided context for understanding the magnitude of impact for the other attributes. Reducing the discomfort associated with device use and eliminating the necessity for assembly or drug reconstitution were highly valued. The addition of reminder and time-stamping functions, improved needlestick injury prevention, and reduction in device size were secondary concerns but still deemed desirable. Efficacy is of primary importance to MS patients, but characteristics of drug delivery devices can play an important role in treatment decision-making. Not all device characteristics could be included, and results are based upon 100 participants only. Findings suggest there is significant potential value in developing self-injection devices that are not only efficacious but also convenient and comfortable to use. Reducing barriers

  3. Instantaneous polarization statistics of electromagnetic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuesong; LI Yongzhen; DAI Dahai; XIAO Shunping; ZHUANG Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    The problem of statistical description of instantaneous polarization of electromagnetic waves is studied. First, the physical meanings of instantaneous Stokes vectors' components are analyzed, which provide a short cut for solving statistical distribution functions of instantaneous Stokes vectors. Second, in the condition of Gaussian hypothesis, the analytical expressions of probability density function (PDF) of instantaneous Stokes vectors are presented. Finally, some computation results are presented in the condition of two independent polarization channels, which show the validity and simplicity of the statistical description method.

  4. Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA. The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation was determined in rats in a two-formulation, two-period, and two-sequence crossover experimental design. Following single and multiple intravenous administrations, a series of blood samples was collected by using an automated blood sampler and drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The 90% CI of the difference between the two intravenous formulations was contained within 80–125% of the geometric mean of pharmacokinetic parameters for AS and DHA in all animals dosed. Hematological effects were studied on days 1 and 3 after the final dosing, and a rapidly reversible hematological toxicity (significant reductions in reticulocyte levels was seen in the peripheral blood of the rats treated with each formulation. The results showed that bioequivalence with the parent compound and active metabolite was fulfilled in the 82.3–117.7% ranges of all parameters (AUC0–t, Cmax, concentration average and degree of fluctuation in the two-period and two-sequence crossover studies following single and repeated intravenous injections. For the metabolite, the equivalence was satisfied in most pharmacokinetic parameters tested due to the variability in the hydrolysis rate of AS to DHA. The WRAIR formulation of AS was considered to be bioequivalent to the Chinese formulation at steady-state according to the total drug exposure, in terms of both parent drug and active metabolite, rapidly reversal in reticulocyte decline, and extension of single and multiple administrations. Therefore, the parent drug and active metabolites should play similar important roles in the determination of efficacy and safety of the drug.

  5. Unnecessary multiple epidural steroid injections delay surgery for massive lumbar disc: Case discussion and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI in the lumbar spine are not effective over the long-term for resolving "surgical" lesions. Here, we present a patient with a massive L2-L3 lumbar disk herniation whose surgery was delayed for 4 months by multiple unnecessary ESI, resulting in a cauda equina syndrome. Methods: A 54-year-old male acutely developed increased low back and radiating left leg pain in October of 2014. In December of 2014, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan showed a massive central/left sided disk herniation at the L2-L3 level resulting in marked thecal sac and left L2 foraminal and L3 lateral recess root compression. Despite the marked degree of neural compression, pain management treated him with 3 ESI over the next 3 months. Results: At the end of April of 2015, he presented to spine surgeon with a cauda equina syndrome. When the new MRI scan confirmed the previously documented massive central-left sided L2-L3 disk herniation, the patient emergently underwent an L1-L3 laminectomy with central-left sided L2-L3 lateral/foraminal diskectomy. Postoperatively, the patient was neurologically intact. Conclusions: Pain specialists performed multiple unnecessary lumbar ESI critically delaying spinal surgery for 4 months in this patient with a massive lumbar disk herniation who ultimately developed a cauda equina syndrome. Unfortunately, pain specialists (e.g., radiologists, anesthesiologists, and physiatrists, not specifically trained to perform neurological examinations or spinal surgery, are increasingly mismanaging spinal disease with ESI/variants. It is time for spine surgeons to speak out against this, and "take back" the care of patients with spinal surgical disease.

  6. Effect of sensor-augmented pump treatment vs. multiple daily injections on albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Rosenlund, Signe; Willum Hansen, Tine; Rossing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The effect of glycaemic control on persisting albuminuria remains unclear. Insulin delivery and glucose variability may be important Objective: To investigate the effect of 1 year treatment with sensor-augmented insulin pump (SAP) or multiple daily injections (MDI) on albuminuria. DESIGN......: Randomized controlled open-label parallel trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 60 type 1 diabetes patients, with a history of albuminuria and on stable RAS-inhibition, were randomized to SAP or MDI. Urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured in 3 urine samples at all visits. Glucose variability......±12 years, UACR (geometric mean,IQR): 99(37-233) mg/g, (51)Cr-EDTA-GFR: 94±22 ml/min/1.73m(2), HbA1c: 9.0±1.1%, glucose variability (calculated as SD): 4.0±1.0 mmol/l; no groups differences (P≥0.06 for all). After 1 year, change in UACR was (mean(95%CI)) -13(-39-22) with SAP vs. 30(-12-92)% on MDI treatment...

  7. Switching from multiple daily injections to CSII pump therapy: insulin expenditures in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Guy; Gill, Max; Gunnarsson, Candace; Shafiroff, Jeff; Edelman, Steven

    2014-11-01

    To identify variations in expenditures and utilization of insulin and other antidiabetes medications by comparing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump therapy versus multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy. Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and Medicare Supplemental Database for 2006 to 2010 were used in a difference-in-differences approach that took advantage of variation in the timing of the switch from MDI therapy to CSII pump therapy. Continuous users of MDI therapy throughout the study period were compared with those who switched to the CSII pump therapy during this period. Specifications included: coefficient estimates from cross-sectional ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions with: 1) no additional controls, 2) controls for patient demographics and comorbidities, and 3) patient fixed effects. Propensity score matching at baseline mitigated concerns regarding patient selection bias. While insulin expenditures rose during the study period, switching to CSII pump therapy led to sizable reductions in insulin expenditures. This reduction in insulin expenditures due to switching varied between $657 (standard error [SE] $126; Pinsulin expenditures among MDI patients who switched to CSII pump therapy at various times throughout the study period.

  8. Administering Multiple Injectable Vaccines During a Single Visit-Summary of Findings From the Accelerated Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Samantha B; Patel, Manish; Hampton, Lee M; Burnett, Eleanor; Ehlman, Daniel C; Garon, Julie; Cloessner, Emily; Chmielewski, Elizabeth; Hyde, Terri B; Mantel, Carsten; Wallace, Aaron S

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) recommended that all 126 countries using only oral polio vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into their routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In many countries, the addition of IPV would necessitate delivery of multiple injectable vaccines (hereafter, "multiple injections") during a single visit, with infants receiving IPV alongside pentavalent vaccine (which covers diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis; hepatitis B; and Haemophilus influenzae type b) and pneumococcal vaccine. Unanticipated concerns emerged from countries over acceptability of multiple injections, sites of administration, and safety. We contextualized the issues surrounding multiple injections by documenting concerns associated with administration of ≥3 injections, existing evidence in the published literature, and findings of a systematic review on administration practices and techniques. Concerns associated with multiple-injection visits were documented from meetings and personal communications with immunization program managers. Published literature on the acceptability of multiple injections by providers and caregivers was summarized, and a systematic review of the literature on administration practices was completed on the following topics: spacing between injection sites (ie, vaccine spacing), site of injection, route of injection, and procedural preparedness. WHO and United Nations Children's Fund data from 2013-2015 were used to assess multiple-injection visits included in national immunization schedules. Healthcare provider and caregiver attitudes and practices indicated concerns about infant pain, potential adverse effects, and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness with multiple-injection visits. Published literature reinforced the record of safety and acceptance of the recommended schedule of IPV by the SAGE, but the evidence was

  9. Feeding cues and injected nutrients induce acute expression of multiple clock genes in the mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Oike

    Full Text Available The circadian clock is closely associated with energy metabolism. The liver clock can rapidly adapt to a new feeding cycle within a few days, whereas the lung clock is gradually entrained over one week. However, the mechanism underlying tissue-specific clock resetting is not fully understood. To characterize the rapid response to feeding cues in the liver clock, we examined the effects of a single time-delayed feeding on circadian rhythms in the liver and lungs of Per2::Luc reporter knockin mice. After adapting to a night-time restricted feeding schedule, the mice were fed according to a 4, 8, or 13 h delayed schedule on the last day. The phase of the liver clock was delayed in all groups with delayed feeding, whereas the lung clock remained unaffected. We then examined the acute response of clock and metabolism-related genes in the liver using focused DNA-microarrays. Clock mutant mice were bred under constant light to attenuate the endogenous circadian rhythm, and gene expression profiles were determined during 24 h of fasting followed by 8 h of feeding. Per2 and Dec1 were significantly increased within 1 h of feeding. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed a similarly acute response in hepatic clock gene expression caused by feeding wild type mice after an overnight fast. In addition to Per2 and Dec1, the expression of Per1 increased, and that of Rev-erbα decreased in the liver within 1 h of feeding after fasting, whereas none of these clock genes were affected in the lung. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection of glucose combined with amino acids, but not either alone, reproduced a similar hepatic response. Our findings show that multiple clock genes respond to nutritional cues within 1 h in the liver but not in the lung.

  10. Injectable interferon beta-1b for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan M Jankovic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Slobodan M JankovicPharmacology Department, Medical Faculty, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, SerbiaAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease with either a progressive (10%–15% or relapsing-remitting (85%–90% course. The pathological hallmarks of MS are lesions of both white and grey matter in the central nervous system. The onset of the disease is usually around 30 years of age. The patients experience an acute focal neurologic dysfunction which is not characteristic, followed by partial or complete recovery. Acute episodes of neurologic dysfunction with diverse signs and symptoms will then recur throughout the life of a patient, with periods of partial or complete remission and clinical stability in between. Currently, there are several therapeutic options for MS with disease-modifying properties. Immunomodulatory therapy with interferon beta-1b (IFN-β1b or -1a, glatiramer and natalizumab shows similar efficacy; in a resistant or intolerant patient, the most recently approved therapeutic option is mitoxantrone. IFN-β1b in patients with MS binds to specific receptors on surface of immune cells, changing the expression of several genes and leading to a decrease in quantity of cell-associated adhesion molecules, inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class II expression and reduction in inflammatory cells migration into the central nervous system. After 2 years of treatment, IFN-β1b reduces the risk of development of clinically defined MS from 45% (with placebo to 28% (with IFN-β1b. It also reduces relapses for 34% (1.31 exacerbations annually with placebo and 0.9 with higher dose of IFN-β1b and makes 31% more patients relapse-free. In secondary-progressive disease annual rate of progression is 3% lower with IFN-β1b. In recommended doses IFN-β1b causes the following frequent adverse effects: injection site reactions (redness, discoloration, inflammation, pain, necrosis and non

  11. Invasion percolation with inlet multiple injections and the water management problem in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, Loic; Prat, Marc [Universite de Toulouse; INPT, UPS; IMFT, Avenue Camille Soula 31400, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT 31400, Toulouse (France)

    2010-02-01

    Liquid water transport in the diffusion porous layers of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is analyzed as a process of quasi-static invasion from multiple interfacial injection sources. From pore network simulations based on a new version of the invasion percolation algorithm it is shown that a porous layer acts as a two-phase filter: the number of breakthrough points is significantly lower that the number of injection points owing to the merging of liquid paths within the porous layer. The number of breakthrough points at the gas diffusion layer/gas channel interface obtained with this model is consistent with the available experimental observations. (author)

  12. Spin injection in the multiple quantum-well LED structure with the Fe/AlO_x injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A spin-injection/-detection device has been fabricated based on the multiple quantum well light emitting diode (LED) structure. It is found that only a broad electroluminescence (EL) peak of a full width at half maximum of 8.6 nm appears at the wavelength of 801 nm in EL spectra with a circular luminescence polarization degree of 18%, despite PL spectra always show three well resolved peaks. The kinetic energy gained by injected electrons and holes in their drift along opposite directions broadens the EL peak, and makes three EL peaks converge together. The same process also destroys the injected spin polarization of electrons mainly dominated by the Bir-Aronov-Pikus spin relaxing mechanism.

  13. Automatic traveltime picking using instantaneous traveltime

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2013-02-08

    Event picking is used in many steps of seismic processing. We present an automatic event picking method that is based on a new attribute of seismic signals, instantaneous traveltime. The calculation of the instantaneous traveltime consists of two separate but interrelated stages. First, a trace is mapped onto the time-frequency domain. Then the time-frequency representation is mapped back onto the time domain by an appropriate operation. The computed instantaneous traveltime equals the recording time at those instances at which there is a seismic event, a feature that is used to pick the events. We analyzed the concept of the instantaneous traveltime and demonstrated the application of our automatic picking method on dynamite and Vibroseis field data.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Single and Multiple Doses of ACHN-490 Injection Administered Intravenously in Healthy Subjects▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cass, Robert T.; Brooks, Carter D.; Havrilla, Nancy A.; Tack, Kenneth J.; Borin, Marie T; Young, Don; Bruss, Jon B.

    2011-01-01

    ACHN-490 is an aminoglycoside with activity against multidrug-resistant pathogens, including those resistant to currently used aminoglycosides. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of ACHN-490 injection in healthy subjects. Study 1 used a parallel-group design with escalating single (SD) and multiple doses (MD). Study 2 explored a longer duration of the highest dose tolerated in the first study. Subj...

  15. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. O. Reges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1; 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2. Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  16. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-07-13

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  17. Numerical Analysis of the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Multiple Injection Strategies Using a Modified 2-D Flamelet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyujin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The multiple injection strategy has been widely used in diesel engines to reduce engine noise, NOx and soot formation. Fuel injection developments such as the common-rail and piezo-actuator system provide more precise control of the injection quantity and time under higher injection pressures. As various injection strategies become accessible, it is important to understand the interaction of each fuel stream and following combustion process under the multiple injection strategy. To investigate these complex processes quantitatively, numerical analysis using CFD is a good alternative to overcome the limitation of experiments. A modified 2-D flamelet model is further developed from previous work to model multi-fuel streams with higher accuracy. The model was validated under various engine operating conditions and captures the combustion and emissions characteristics as well as several parametric variations. The model is expected to be used to suggest advanced injection strategies in engine development processes.

  18. Instantaneous Formulation for Transitions Between Two Instantaneous Bound States and Its Gauge Invariance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chao-Hsi; CHEN Jiao-Kai; WANG Guo-Li

    2006-01-01

    We have precisely derived a "rigorous instantaneous formulation" for transitions between two bound states when the bound states are well-described by instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation (i.e. the kernel of the equation is instantaneous"occasionally"). The obtained rigorous instantaneous formulation, in fact, is expressed as an operator sandwiched by two "reduced BS wave functions" properly, while the reduced BS wave functions appearing in the formulation are the rigorous solutions of the instantaneous BS equation, and they may relate to Schr(o)dinger wave functions straightforwardly. We also show that the rigorous instantaneous formulation is gauge-invariant with respect to the Uem(1) transformation precisely, if the concerned transitions are radiative. Some applications of the formulation are outlined.

  19. Long-term persistence with injectable therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: an 18-year observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    Full Text Available Disease modifying therapies (DMTs reduce the frequency of relapses and accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. Long-term persistence with treatment is important to optimize treatment benefit. This long-term, cohort study was conducted at the Calgary MS Clinic. All consenting adults with relapsing-remitting MS who started either glatiramer acetate (GA or interferon-β 1a/1b (IFN-β between January 1st, 1996 and July 1st, 2011 were included. Follow-up continued to February 1st, 2014. Time-to-discontinuation of the initial and subsequently-prescribed DMTs (switches was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Group differences were compared using log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression models. Analysis included 1471 participants; 906 were initially prescribed GA and 565 were initially prescribed IFN-β. Follow-up information was available for 87%; 29 (2% were lost to follow-up and 160 (11% moved from Southern Alberta while still using DMT. Median time-to-discontinuation of all injectable DMTs was 11.1 years. Participants with greater disability at treatment initiation, those who started treatment before age 30, and those who started between 2006 and 2011 were more likely to discontinue use of all injectable DMTs. Median time-to-discontinuation of the initial DMT was 8.6 years. Those initially prescribed GA remained on treatment longer. Of 610 participants who discontinued injectable DMT, 331 (54% started an oral DMT, or a second-line DMT, or resumed injectable DMT after 90 days. Persistence with injectable DMTs was high in this long-term population-based study. Most participants who discontinued injectable DMT did not remain untreated. Further research is required to understand treatment outcomes and outcomes after stopping DMT.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin after single and multiple subcutaneous injections in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, K A; Leavens, T; Griffith, R W; Wetzlich, S E; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Tell, L A

    2011-10-01

    Tulathromycin, a novel triamilide in the macrolide class, is labeled for treatment of bacterial pneumonia in cattle and swine. This manuscript evaluates pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in goats. In two different studies, six juvenile and ten market-age goats received a single injection of 2.5 mg/kg of tulathromycin subcutaneously; in a third study, 18 juvenile goats were treated with 2.5, 7.5, or 12.5 mg/kg tulathromycin weekly with three subcutaneous injections. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from the plasma concentrations from single injections were similar between the two groups of goats and to previously reported parameters in cattle and swine. Mean terminal half-lives were 59.1 ± 7.6 and 61.2 ± 8.7 h for juvenile and market-age goats, respectively. In the multi-dose study, pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from plasma concentrations demonstrated significant differences at P < 0.05 among repeated injections but not among doses. Overall, pharmacokinetic parameters in goats are similar to those reported in cattle and swine, and tulathromycin may prove a useful drug for treating respiratory disease in goats.

  1. Perspectives and experiences of Dutch multiple sclerosis patients and multiple sclerosis-specialized neurologists on injectable disease-modifying treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Visser LH; Heerings MA; Jongen PJ; van der Hiele K

    2016-01-01

    Leo H Visser,1,2 Marco A Heerings,3 Peter J Jongen,4,5 Karin van der Hiele1,3,6 1Department of Neurology, Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital, Tilburg, 2Ethics of Care, University of Humanistic Studies, Utrecht, 3National Multiple Sclerosis Foundation, Rotterdam, 4Department of Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 5MS4 Research Institute, Nijmegen, 6Section Health, Medical and Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, Leiden...

  2. Instantaneous noise-based logic

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B; Peper, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    We show two universal, Boolean, deterministic logic schemes based on binary noise timefunctions that can be realized without time averaging units. The first scheme is based on a new bipolar random telegraph wave scheme and the second one makes use of the recent noise-based logic which is conjectured to be the brain's method of logic operations [Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 2338-2342, arXiv:0902.2033]. For binary-valued logic operations, the two simple Boolean schemes presented in this paper use zero (no noise) for the logic Low (L) state. In the random telegraph wave-based scheme, for multi-valued logic operations, additive superpositions of logic states must be avoided, while multiplicative superpositions utilizing hyperspace base vectors can still be utilized. These modifications, while keeping the information richness of multi-valued (noise-based) logic, result in a significant speedup of logic operations for the same signal bandwidth. The logic hyperspace of the first scheme results random telegraph waves...

  3. Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    An injectate containing lithium, sodium, chloride and bromide was added continuously at five sites along a 507 m study reach of St Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado to determine which sections of the stream were losing water to the stream bed and to ascertain how well the four tracers performed. The acidity of the stream (pH 3.6) made it possible for lithium and sodium, which are normally absorbed by ion exchange with stream bed sediment, to be used as conservative tracers. Net flow losses as low as 0.81 s-1, or 8% of flow, were calculated between measuring sites. By comparing the results of simultaneous injection it was determined whether subsections of the study reach were influent or effluent. Evaluation of tracer concentrations along 116 m of stream indicated that all four tracers behaved conservatively. Discharges measured by Parshall flumes were 4-18% greater than discharges measured by tracer dilution. -from Author

  4. Achilles tendon rupture in an elite athlete following multiple injection therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Bruce; Remedios, Denis; Loosemore, Mike; Maffulli, Nicola

    2008-11-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is common, and its management continues to be challenging, especially in elite athletes. Despite a wide range of novel management options, none guarantees a rapid return to high level sporting activity. Eccentric exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms and normalise imaging abnormalities, but time constraints on professional athletes often make this an unrewarding isolated management strategy. Eccentric exercises concurrent with ongoing training may not be as successful as eccentric training alone, reducing one's confidence in this modality for the "in-season" tendinopathy in the elite athlete. When a professional athlete is faced with a tendinopathy recalcitrant to eccentric exercise, manual therapy and orthotics, a more invasive approach is often attempted to expedite a return to unencumbered training. Numerous injection therapies are described, ranging from homeopathic products to glucocorticosteroids. The robustness of the literature surrounding these techniques is variable, but when an athlete is desperate to return to full training, clinicians working with elite athletes are often tempted to utilise more empirical management options. We present a patient who illustrates the potential dangers of injection therapy in the elite athlete, in particular sequential injection therapy involving vascular sclerosants, which to our knowledge has not previously been described. Written consent for the presentation of this case was obtained from the athlete concerned.

  5. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections of insulin for pregnant women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Diane; Tuffnell, Derek J; West, Jane; West, Helen M

    2016-06-07

    Diabetes results in a rise in blood glucose above normal physiological levels; if untreated this may cause damage to many systems including the cardiovascular and renal systems. Pregnancy increases resistance to insulin action; for those women who have pre-gestational diabetes, this results in an increasing insulin requirement. There are several methods of administering insulin. Conventionally, insulin has been administered subcutaneously, formally referred to as intensive conventional treatment, but now more usually referred to as multiple daily injections (MDI). An alternative method of insulin administration is the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump (CSII). To compare CSII with MDI of insulin for pregnant women with pre-existing and gestational diabetes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing CSII with MDI for pregnant women with diabetes. Three review authors independently assessed studies and two review authors extracted data. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with the third author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included five single-centre trials (undertaken in Italy) with 153 women and 154 pregnancies in this review.There were no clear differences in the primary outcomes reported between CSII and MDI in the included trials: caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 1.77; three trials, 71 women, evidence graded very low), large-for-gestational age (RR 4.15, 95% CI 0.49 to 34.95; three trials, 73 infants; evidence graded very low), and perinatal mortality (RR 2.33, 95% CI 0.38 to 14.32; four trials, 83 infants, evidence graded very low). Other primary outcomes were not reported in these trials (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, development of type 2 diabetes, composite outcome of serious neonatal outcomes, and neurosensory disability

  6. Insulin pump therapy, multiple daily injections, and cardiovascular mortality in 18,168 people with type 1 diabetes: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steineck, Isabelle; Cederholm, Jan; Eliasson, Björn; Rawshani, Araz; Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Zethelius, Björn; Avdic, Tarik; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Jendle, Johan; Gudbjörnsdóttir, Soffia

    2015-06-22

    To investigate the long term effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump therapy) on cardiovascular diseases and mortality in people with type 1 diabetes. Observational study. Swedish National Diabetes Register, Sweden 2005-12. 18,168 people with type 1 diabetes, 2441 using insulin pump therapy and 15,727 using multiple daily insulin injections. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the outcomes, with stratification of propensity scores including clinical characteristics, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, treatments, and previous diseases. Follow-up was for a mean of 6.8 years until December 2012, with 114,135 person years. With multiple daily injections as reference, the adjusted hazard ratios for insulin pump treatment were significantly lower: 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.83) for fatal coronary heart disease, 0.58 (0.40 to 0.85) for fatal cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease or stroke), and 0.73 (0.58 to 0.92) for all cause mortality. Hazard ratios were lower, but not significantly so, for fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease. Unadjusted absolute differences were 3.0 events of fatal coronary heart disease per 1000 person years; corresponding figures were 3.3 for fatal cardiovascular disease and 5.7 for all cause mortality. When lower body mass index and previous cardiovascular diseases were excluded, results of subgroup analyses were similar to the results from complete data. A sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounders in all individuals showed that an unmeasured confounders with hazard ratio of 1.3 would have to be present in >80% of the individuals treated with multiple daily injections versus not presence in those treated with pump therapy to invalidate the significantly lower hazard ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease. Data on patient education and frequency of blood glucose monitoring were missing, which might have

  7. Insulin pump therapy, multiple daily injections, and cardiovascular mortality in 18 168 people with type 1 diabetes: observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederholm, Jan; Eliasson, Björn; Rawshani, Araz; Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Zethelius, Björn; Avdic, Tarik; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Jendle, Johan; Gudbjörnsdóttir, Soffia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long term effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump therapy) on cardiovascular diseases and mortality in people with type 1 diabetes. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Diabetes Register, Sweden 2005-12. Participants 18 168 people with type 1 diabetes, 2441 using insulin pump therapy and 15 727 using multiple daily insulin injections. Main outcome measures Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the outcomes, with stratification of propensity scores including clinical characteristics, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, treatments, and previous diseases. Results Follow-up was for a mean of 6.8 years until December 2012, with 114 135 person years. With multiple daily injections as reference, the adjusted hazard ratios for insulin pump treatment were significantly lower: 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.83) for fatal coronary heart disease, 0.58 (0.40 to 0.85) for fatal cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease or stroke), and 0.73 (0.58 to 0.92) for all cause mortality. Hazard ratios were lower, but not significantly so, for fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease. Unadjusted absolute differences were 3.0 events of fatal coronary heart disease per 1000 person years; corresponding figures were 3.3 for fatal cardiovascular disease and 5.7 for all cause mortality. When lower body mass index and previous cardiovascular diseases were excluded, results of subgroup analyses were similar to the results from complete data. A sensitivity analysis of unmeasured confounders in all individuals showed that an unmeasured confounders with hazard ratio of 1.3 would have to be present in >80% of the individuals treated with multiple daily injections versus not presence in those treated with pump therapy to invalidate the significantly lower hazard ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease. Data on patient education and

  8. Precoding under Instantaneous Per-Antenna Peak Power Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Jedda, Hela; Mezghani, Amine; Swindlehurst, A. Lee; Nossek, Josef A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a multi-user (MU) multiple-input-single-output (MISO) downlink system with M single-antenna users and N transmit antennas with a nonlinear power amplifier (PA) at each antenna. Instead of emitting constant envelope (CE) signals from the antennas to have highly power efficient PAs, we relax the CE constraint and allow the transmit signals to have instantaneous power less than or equal to the available power at each PA. The PA power efficiency decreases but simulation results show t...

  9. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on aging of the silicone oil MS704 for sudden changes of temperature from 210.5 to 209.0 K and from 207.5 to 209.0 K studied by continuously monitoring the instantaneous shear modulus G [infinity]. The results are interpreted within the Tool-Narayanaswamy formalism with a reduc...

  10. Reduction of NOx Emission of a Diesel Engine with a Multiple Injection Pump by SCR Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with reduction of NOx-emission of a diesel engine with multiple injection pump by SCR catalytic converter. Main aim of the measurement was the detection of SCR catalyst converter efficiency. Tests were realized at the Research and Development workplace of Zetor Tractor a.s. Used engine was equipped with a multiple injection pump with electromagnetic regulator of a fuel charge. During the experiment selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filter were used as an after treatment of harmful pollutants reduction. Testing cycle of the eight-point test was chosen and Non-Road Steady Cycle (NRSC was maintained according to 97/68/EC directive. Results confirmed the dependencies between temperatures of SCR catalyst and exhaust gases and the volume of exhaust gases on efficiency of SCR catalyst. During the operation load of the engine, selective catalytic reduction reached efficiency over 90 %. Used after treatment system is suitable for reduction of harmful pollutants according to the Tier 4f norm.

  11. Screening and identification of multiple components in Tanreqing injection using RP-HPLC combined with DAD and ESI-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Yong; Xue, Dong-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2014-07-01

    A liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) method was developed for the screening and identification of the multiple components in Tanreqing injection, a well-known Chinese medicine injection in China. By combining the DAD spectrum and the accurate mass measurement of ESI-TOF/MS, twelve components in Tanreqing injection were identified. This study contributes to clarifying the nature of Tanreqing injection, and provides an effective and reliable process for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of complex traditional Chinese medicine preparations.

  12. Flow structure of conical distributed multiple gas jets injected into a water chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Yu, Yonggang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on an underwater gun firing project, a mock bullet with several holes on the head was designed and experimented to observe the combustion gas injected into a cylindrical water chamber through this mock bullet. The combustion gas jets contain one vertical central jet and 4 to 8 slant lateral jets. A high speed camera system was used to record the expansion of gas jets in the experimental study. In numerical simulations, the Euler two-fluid model and volume of fluid method were adopted to describe the gas-liquid flow. The results show the backflow zone in lateral jet is the main factor influencing the gas-liquid turbulent mixing in downstream. On cross sections, the gas volume fraction increased with time but the growth rate decreased. With a change of nozzle structure, the gas fraction was more affected than the shock structure.

  13. A Comparative Study on Energy and Exergy Analyses of a CI Engine Performed with Different Multiple Injection Strategies at Part Load: Effect of Injection Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Özkan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a four stroke four cylinder direct injection CI engine was run using three different injection pressures. In all measurements, the fuel quantity per cycle, the pre injection and main injection timing, the boost pressure and the engine speed were kept constant. The motor tests were performed under 130, 140 and 150 MPa rail pressure. During the theoretical part of the study, combustion, emission, energy and exergy analysis were made using the test results. An increase in the injection pressure increases combustion efficiency. The results show that combustion efficiency is not enough by itself, because the increase in the power need of the injection pump, decreases the thermal efficiency. The increase in the combustion temperature, increases the cooling loss and decreases the exergetic efficiency. In addition, the NOx emissions increased by 12% and soot emissions decreased 44% via increasing injection pressure by 17%. The thermal and exergetic efficiencies are found inversely proportional with injection pressure. Exergy destruction is found independent of the injection pressure and its value is obtained as ~6%.

  14. A patient care program for adjusting the autoinjector needle depth according to subcutaneous tissue thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving subcutaneous injections of glatiramer acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masid, Maria Luisa Sánchez; Ocaña, Rosalía Horno; Gil, María Jesús Díaz; Ramos, Maria Concepción Ramírez; Roig, Matilde Escutia; Carreño, Maria Rosario Coll; Morales, Jaime Cordero; Carrasco, Maria Luisa Vergara; Hidalgo, Leonor Mariana Rubio; Felices, Ana Maria Bernad; Castaño, Adela Harto; Romero, Purificación Castañeda; Martinez, Pablo Francoli; Sánchez-De la Rosa, Rainel

    2015-02-01

    The perceived pain on injection site caused by subcutaneous (SC) self-injection may negatively affect acceptance and adherence to treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain on injection may be caused by inaccurate injection technique, inadequate needle length adjustment, or repeated use of the same injection body area. However, information is lacking concerning the optimal needle depth to minimize the injection pain. The purpose of this program was to characterize the perceived injection-site pain associated with the use of various injection depths of the autoinjector of glatiramer acetate (GA) based on SC tissue thickness (SCT) of the injection site. This was a pilot program performed by MS-specialized nurses in patients with MS new to GA. Patients were trained by MS nurses on the preparation and administration of SC injection and on an eight-site rotation (left and right arms, thighs, abdomen, and upper quadrant of the buttock). The needle length setting was selected based on SCT measures as follows: 4 or 6 mm for SCT 50 mm. Injection pain was rated using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 5- and 40-minute postinjection and during two 24-day treatment periods. Thirty-eight patients with MS were evaluated. The mean SCT ranged from 15.5 mm in the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks to 29.2 mm in the thighs. The mean perceived pain on injection was below 3 for all the injection sites, at both time points (5 and 40 minutes) and during both 24-day evaluation periods. The mean VAS scores were significantly greater after 5 minutes of injection compared with that reported 40-minute postinjection during both 24-day treatment periods and for all the injection areas. Mean VAS measures at 5- and 40-minute postinjection significantly decreased during the second 24-day treatment period with respect to that reported during the first 24 SC injections for all injection sites. Our findings suggest that the adjustment of injection depth of SC GA autoinjector according to

  15. Análisis del Efecto de la Presión en Destilación Flash con Soluciones Múltiples Aplicando Cálculos de Equilibrio Instantáneo y Equilibrio entre Fases Analysis of the Effect of Pressure on Flash Distillation with Multiple Solutions, Applying Calculations of Instantaneous Equilibrium and Phase Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bolaños-Reynoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha analizado el efecto de la presión en destilación flash con soluciones múltiples aplicando cálculos de equilibrio instantáneo y equilibrio entre fases. La metodología establece la localización de soluciones múltiples en función de la temperatura (de burbuja a rocío y de la presión, mediante el empleo de dos herramientas de cálculo termodinámico, basadas en los métodos de Rachford y Rice y de la minimización de la energía libre de Gibbs. Los resultados determinan que si la presión en el sistema se incrementa, el intervalo de composición es minimizado y una de las soluciones múltiples tiende a no ser observable. Se concluye que las soluciones múltiples son termodinámicamente factibles y que ambas soluciones sólo coexisten en el estado estacionario, si no existen grandes cambios en la presión del sistemaThe effect of the pressure on flash distillation with multiple solutions was analyzed, applying calculations for instantaneous equilibrium and phase equilibrium. The methodology establishes the localization of multiple solutions as a function of the temperature (from bubble to dew and of the pressure, employing two thermodynamic calculation methods, based on those of Rachford and Rice and that of the minimization of the Gibb´s free energy. The results suggested that if the pressure in the system is increased, the composition range is minimized and one of the multiple solutions tends to not be observable. It is concluded that the multiple solutions are thermodynamically feasible and that both solutions only coexist in the stationary state, if there are no major changes in pressure in the system

  16. Predicting trend reversals using market instantaneous state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Collective behaviors taking place in financial markets reveal strongly correlated states especially during a crisis period. A natural hypothesis is that trend reversals are also driven by mutual influences between the different stock exchanges. Using a maximum entropy approach, we find coordinated behavior during trend reversals dominated by the pairwise component. In particular, these events are predicted with high significant accuracy by the ensemble's instantaneous state.

  17. Cosmic-Ray Electron Excess from Pulsars is Spiky or Smooth?: Continuous and Multiple Electron/Positron injections

    CERN Document Server

    Kawanaka, Norita; Nojiri, Mihoko M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the observed spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from astrophysical sources, especially pulsars, and the physical processes for making the spectrum spiky or smooth via continuous and multiple cosmic-ray injections. We find that (1) the average spectrum with the local birth rate of pulsars (including the off-axis ones) is relatively smooth, consistent with the PAMELA data, but requires an energetic source for the ATIC/PPB-BETS peak. Such a source should not occur repeatedly at the same rate. (2) A continuous injection produces a broad peak and a high energy tail above the peak, which can constrain the source duration ($\\lesssim 10^5$yr with the current data). (3) The H.E.S.S. data in the TeV range suggest that young sources with age less than $\\sim 3 \\times 10^4$yr are an order-of-magnitude less energetic than the average. (4) We also expect a large dispersion in the TeV spectrum due to the small number of sources, that is potentially a smoking-gun for the astrophysical origin. These ...

  18. Insulin pump treatment compared with multiple daily injections for treatment of type 2 diabetes (OpT2mise): a randomised open-label controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Yves; Cohen, Ohad; Aronson, Ronnie; Conget, Ignacio; Runzis, Sarah; Castaneda, Javier; Lee, Scott W

    2014-10-04

    Many patients with advanced type 2 diabetes do not meet their glycated haemoglobin targets and randomised controlled studies comparing the efficacy of pump treatment and multiple daily injections for lowering glucose in insulin-treated patients have yielded inconclusive results. We aimed to resolve this uncertainty with a randomised controlled trial (OpT2mise). We did this multicentre, controlled trial at 36 hospitals, tertiary care centres, and referal centres in Canada, Europe, Israel, South Africa, and the USA. Patients with type 2 diabetes who had poor glycaemic control despite multiple daily injections with insulin analogues were enrolled into a 2-month dose-optimisation run-in period. After the run-in period, patients with glycated haemoglobin of 8·0-12·0% (64-108 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation sequence (block size 2 with probability 0·75 and size 4 with probability 0·25) to pump treatment or to continue with multiple daily injections. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was change in mean glycated haemoglobin between baseline and end of the randomised phase for the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01182493. 495 of 590 screened patients entered the run-in phase and 331 were randomised (168 to pump treatment, 163 to multiple daily injections). Mean glycated haemoglobin at baseline was 9% (75 mmol/mol) in both groups. At 6 months, mean glycated haemoglobin had decreased by 1·1% (SD 1·2; 12 mmol/mol, SD 13) in the pump treatment group and 0·4% (SD 1·1; 4 mmol/mol, SD 12) in the multiple daily injection group, resulting in a between-group treatment difference of -0·7% (95% CI -0·9 to -0·4; -8 mmol/mol, 95% CI -10 to -4, pinsulin dose was 97 units (SD 56) with pump treatment versus 122 units (SD 68) for multiple daily injections (ppump treatment group compared with one in the multiple daily

  19. Simultaneous determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel by capillary electrophoresis using multiple short-end injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudeit, Daniel Alfonso; Piovezan, Marcel; Dolzan, Maressa D; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Leal Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TG) in biodiesel by CE using a short-end multiple injection (SE/MI) configuration system is described. The sample preparation for FG involves the extraction of glycerol with water and for TG a saponification reaction is carried out followed by extraction as in the case of FG. The glycerol extracted in both cases is submitted to periodate oxidation and the iodate ions formed are measured on a CE-SE/MI system. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that no analytical procedure has been previously reported for the determination of TG (or of FG and TG simultaneously) by CE. The optimum conditions for the saponification/extraction process were 1.25% KOH and 25°C, with a time of only 5 min, and biodiesel mass in the range of 50.0-200.0 mg can be used. Multiple injections were performed hydrodynamically with negative pressure as follows: 50 mbar/3s (FG sample); 50 mbar/6s (electrolyte spacer); 50 mbar/3s (TG sample). The linear range obtained was 1.55-46.5 mg/L with R(2) > 0.99. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively for TG. The method provides acceptable throughput for application in quality control and monitoring biodiesel synthesis process. In addition, it offers simple sample preparation (saponification process), it can be applied to a variety biodiesel samples (soybean, castor, and waste cooking oils) and it can be used for the determination of two key parameters related to the biodiesel quality with a fast separation (less than 30 s) using an optimized CE-SE/MI system.

  20. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  1. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  2. Instantaneous Current Feedback Control Strategy on Buck Mode Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Control strategies for Buck mode inverter have important effect on static and dynamic characteristics, reliability, load capacity, and short-circuit resistance. Instantaneous current feedback control strategies include instantaneous inductor current feedback control and instantaneous capacitor current feedback control, both of which have essential difference. When the Buck mode inverter respectively adopts instantaneous inductor current and capacitor current feedback control strategies, characteristics of stability, output voltage and power, short circuit, nonlinear load and dynamic are fully investigated in this paper.

  3. Instantaneous aerosol dynamics in a turbulent flow

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate aerosol particles evolution dynamics in a turbulent mixing layer is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation for the flow field and the direct quadrature method of moments for the aerosol evolution. Most par-ticles are nucleated in a thin layer region corresponding to a specific narrow temperature range near the cool stream side. However, particles undergo high growth rate on the hot stream side due to condensation. Coagulation decreases the total particle number density at a rate which is highly correlated to the in-stantaneous number density.

  4. Instantaneous frequencies of a chaotic system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Chandre; T Uzer

    2005-03-01

    The structure and geometry of high-dimensional, complex dynamical systems is usually hidden under a profusion of numerical data. We show that time–frequency analysis allows one to analyze these data regardless of the number of degrees of freedom. Our method takes snapshots of the system in terms of its instantaneous frequencies defined as ridges of the time–frequency landscape. Using the wavelet transform of a single trajectory, it can characterize key dynamical properties like the extent of chaos, resonance transitions and trappings.

  5. Mycobacterium abscessus post-injection abscesses from extrinsic contamination of multiple-dose bottles of normal saline in a rural clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Liu, Yufei; Yang, Zhicong; Cai, Yanshan; Deng, Zhiai; Qin, Pengzhe; Li, Tiegang; Dong, Zhiqiang; Yan, Ziqiang; Zhou, Duanhua; Luo, Huiming; Ma, Huilai; Pang, Xinglin; Fontaine, Robert E

    2009-09-01

    We investigated an outbreak of gluteal abscesses following intramuscular (IM) injections given at a clinic in rural China to identify the causative agent, source, and method of exposure. We defined a case as an abscess that appeared at the site of an injection given since June 1, 2006. We compared case rates by injection route, medication, and diluents. We reviewed injection practices, and cultured abscesses and environmental sites for mycobacteria. From October through December 2006, 5.8% (n=35) of 604 persons who had received injections at the clinic developed a case. All 35 cases occurred in 184 patients (attack rate=19.0%) who had received IM injections with various drugs that had been mixed with normal saline (NS); risk ratio=infinity; prubber septum of 100 ml multiple-dose bottles of NS in the clinic. Fourteen percent (n=527) of the 3887 registered residents of this village had been treated with IM drugs over a three-month period, often for minor illnesses. This outbreak of M. abscessus occurred from exposure to extrinsically contaminated NS through improper injection practices. Frequent treatment of minor illnesses with IM injections of antibiotics was likely an important contributing factor to the size of this outbreak.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Single and Multiple Doses of ACHN-490 Injection Administered Intravenously in Healthy Subjects▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Robert T.; Brooks, Carter D.; Havrilla, Nancy A.; Tack, Kenneth J.; Borin, Marie T.; Young, Don; Bruss, Jon B.

    2011-01-01

    ACHN-490 is an aminoglycoside with activity against multidrug-resistant pathogens, including those resistant to currently used aminoglycosides. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of ACHN-490 injection in healthy subjects. Study 1 used a parallel-group design with escalating single (SD) and multiple doses (MD). Study 2 explored a longer duration of the highest dose tolerated in the first study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either ACHN-490 injection or a placebo administered by a 10-min intravenous infusion. Study 1 enrolled 39 subjects (30 active and 9 placebo) and consisted of a single dose of 1 mg/kg body weight followed by ascending SD and MD cohorts of 4, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg for 10, 10, 5, and 3 days, respectively. Study 2 enrolled 8 subjects (6 active and 2 placebo) who received 15 mg/kg for 5 days. Safety was assessed from adverse event (AE) reporting, standard clinical laboratory procedures, and testing for renal, cochlear, and vestibular function. ACHN-490 exhibited linear and dose-proportional PK, with agreement between the studies for PK parameters assessed. The 15-mg/kg dose did not accumulate with repeated dosing over 5 days. Mean steady-state (±standard deviation) area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24), maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax), half-life (t1/2), clearance, and volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) for the 15-mg/kg, day 5 dose were 239 ± 45 h·mg/liter, 113 ± 17 mg/liter, 3 ± 0.3 h, 1.1 ± 0.1 ml/min/kg, and 0.24 ± 0.04 liters/kg, respectively. AEs were mild to moderate and rapidly resolved. No evidence of nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity was observed. PMID:21911572

  7. Pharmacokinetics and safety of single and multiple doses of ACHN-490 injection administered intravenously in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Robert T; Brooks, Carter D; Havrilla, Nancy A; Tack, Kenneth J; Borin, Marie T; Young, Don; Bruss, Jon B

    2011-12-01

    ACHN-490 is an aminoglycoside with activity against multidrug-resistant pathogens, including those resistant to currently used aminoglycosides. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of ACHN-490 injection in healthy subjects. Study 1 used a parallel-group design with escalating single (SD) and multiple doses (MD). Study 2 explored a longer duration of the highest dose tolerated in the first study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either ACHN-490 injection or a placebo administered by a 10-min intravenous infusion. Study 1 enrolled 39 subjects (30 active and 9 placebo) and consisted of a single dose of 1 mg/kg body weight followed by ascending SD and MD cohorts of 4, 7, 11, and 15 mg/kg for 10, 10, 5, and 3 days, respectively. Study 2 enrolled 8 subjects (6 active and 2 placebo) who received 15 mg/kg for 5 days. Safety was assessed from adverse event (AE) reporting, standard clinical laboratory procedures, and testing for renal, cochlear, and vestibular function. ACHN-490 exhibited linear and dose-proportional PK, with agreement between the studies for PK parameters assessed. The 15-mg/kg dose did not accumulate with repeated dosing over 5 days. Mean steady-state (±standard deviation) area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24)), maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max)), half-life (t(1/2)), clearance, and volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) for the 15-mg/kg, day 5 dose were 239 ± 45 h·mg/liter, 113 ± 17 mg/liter, 3 ± 0.3 h, 1.1 ± 0.1 ml/min/kg, and 0.24 ± 0.04 liters/kg, respectively. AEs were mild to moderate and rapidly resolved. No evidence of nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity was observed.

  8. Gesture recognition by instantaneous surface EMG images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weidong; Du, Yu; Jin, Wenguang; Wei, Wentao; Hu, Yu; Li, Jiajun

    2016-11-15

    Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network. Without any windowed features, the resultant recognition accuracy of an 8-gesture within-subject test reached 89.3% on a single frame of sEMG image and reached 99.0% using simple majority voting over 40 frames with a 1,000 Hz sampling rate. Experiments on the recognition of 52 gestures of NinaPro database and 27 gestures of CSL-HDEMG database also validated that our approach outperforms state-of-the-arts methods. Our findings are a starting point for the development of more fluid and natural muscle-computer interfaces with very little observational latency. For example, active prostheses and exoskeletons based on high-density electrodes could be controlled with instantaneous responses.

  9. Gesture recognition by instantaneous surface EMG images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weidong; Du, Yu; Jin, Wenguang; Wei, Wentao; Hu, Yu; Li, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network. Without any windowed features, the resultant recognition accuracy of an 8-gesture within-subject test reached 89.3% on a single frame of sEMG image and reached 99.0% using simple majority voting over 40 frames with a 1,000 Hz sampling rate. Experiments on the recognition of 52 gestures of NinaPro database and 27 gestures of CSL-HDEMG database also validated that our approach outperforms state-of-the-arts methods. Our findings are a starting point for the development of more fluid and natural muscle-computer interfaces with very little observational latency. For example, active prostheses and exoskeletons based on high-density electrodes could be controlled with instantaneous responses. PMID:27845347

  10. Efficient charge carrier injection into sub-250 nm AlGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnke, Frank, E-mail: mehnke@physik.tu-berlin.de; Kuhn, Christian; Guttmann, Martin; Reich, Christoph; Kolbe, Tim; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kueller, Viola; Knauer, Arne; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-04

    The design and Mg-doping profile of AlN/Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N electron blocking heterostructures (EBH) for AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting below 250 nm was investigated. By inserting an AlN electron blocking layer (EBL) into the EBH, we were able to increase the quantum well emission power and significantly reduce long wavelength parasitic luminescence. Furthermore, electron leakage was suppressed by optimizing the thickness of the AlN EBL while still maintaining sufficient hole injection. Ultraviolet (UV)-C LEDs with very low parasitic luminescence (7% of total emission power) and external quantum efficiencies of 0.19% at 246 nm have been realized. This concept was applied to AlGaN MQW LEDs emitting between 235 nm and 263 nm with external quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.002% to 0.93%. After processing, we were able to demonstrate an UV-C LED emitting at 234 nm with 14.5 μW integrated optical output power and an external quantum efficiency of 0.012% at 18.2 A/cm{sup 2}.

  11. A comparison of perinatal outcomes in singletons and multiples born after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection stratified for neonatal risk criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, M.M. van; Evers, J.L.H.; Dumoulin, J.C.; Hoeven, M.A. van der; Beijsterveldt, C.E. van; Bonsel, G.J.; Dykgraaf, R.H.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Steiner, K.; Tamminga, P.; Tonch, N.; Zonneveld, P. van; Dirksen, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital malf

  12. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections in individuals with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhadra, Khalid; Alahdab, Fares; Tamhane, Shrikant U; McCoy, Rozalina G; Prokop, Larry J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The relative efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections in individuals with type 1 diabetes is unclear. We sought to synthesize the existing evidence about the effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on glycosylated hemoglobin, hypoglycemic events, and time spent in hypoglycemia compared to multiple daily injections. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from January 2008 through November 2015 for randomized controlled trials that enrolled children or adults with type 1 diabetes. Trials identified in a previous systematic review and published prior to 2008 were also included. We included 25 randomized controlled trials at moderate risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin in patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion compared to multiple daily injections (mean difference 0.37; 95 % confidence interval, 0.24-0.51). This effect was demonstrated in both children and adults. There was no significant difference in minor or severe hypoglycemic events. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was associated with lower incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia. There was no significant difference in the time spent in hypoglycemia. In children and adults with type 1 diabetes and compared to multiple daily injections, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is associated with a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin. There was no difference in severe or minor hypoglycemia, but likely a lower incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

  13. Improving the Gas Instantaneous Water Heaters Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Kloub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a study of a theoretical and practical investigation of the gas Instantaneous (Tankless water Heaters performance. The results allow us to obtain realistic values of the control system in the various capacities gaseous flowing water heaters. The objective of this work is to study the operation of the plans in the field of controlling and checking low capacity gaseous flowing water in order to choose the proper plan of the logical values and measures for these equipments that may be used in industrial conditions. Also results of the work proved to be accurate. A design of the control system was made. The results of the practical experiment of the control system were similar to the arithmetic results.

  14. Numerical modelling of instantaneous plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, J. B.; Haines, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Molnar, P.

    1974-01-01

    Assuming lithospheric plates to be rigid, 68 spreading rates, 62 fracture zones trends, and 106 earthquake slip vectors are systematically inverted to obtain a self-consistent model of instantaneous relative motions for eleven major plates. The inverse problem is linearized and solved iteratively by a maximum-likelihood procedure. Because the uncertainties in the data are small, Gaussian statistics are shown to be adequate. The use of a linear theory permits (1) the calculation of the uncertainties in the various angular velocity vectors caused by uncertainties in the data, and (2) quantitative examination of the distribution of information within the data set. The existence of a self-consistent model satisfying all the data is strong justification of the rigid plate assumption. Slow movement between North and South America is shown to be resolvable.

  15. Regularization of Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Van Vorst, D. G.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We compare two different methods of computation of a temporally local frequency:1) A stabilized instantaneous frequency using the theory of the analytic signal.2) A temporally variant centroid (or dominant) frequency estimated from a time-frequency decomposition.The first method derives from Taner et al (1979) as modified by Fomel (2007) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method computes the power centroid (Cohen, 1995) of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor or Stockwell Transform. Common to both methods is the necessity of division by a diagonal matrix, which requires appropriate regularization.We modify Fomel's (2007) method by explicitly penalizing the roughness of the estimate. Following Farquharson and Oldenburg (2004), we employ both the L curve and GCV methods to obtain the smoothest model that fits the data in the L2 norm.Using synthetic data, quarry blast, earthquakes and the DPRK tests, our results suggest that the optimal method depends on the data. One of the main applications for this work is the discrimination between blast events and earthquakesFomel, Sergey. " Local seismic attributes." , Geophysics, 72.3 (2007): A29-A33.Cohen, Leon. " Time frequency analysis theory and applications." USA: Prentice Hall, (1995).Farquharson, Colin G., and Douglas W. Oldenburg. "A comparison of automatic techniques for estimating the regularization parameter in non-linear inverse problems." Geophysical Journal International 156.3 (2004): 411-425.Taner, M. Turhan, Fulton Koehler, and R. E. Sheriff. " Complex seismic trace analysis." Geophysics, 44.6 (1979): 1041-1063.

  16. Parallel optimization and genotyping of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphism markers by sample pooling approach using cycling-gradient CE with multiple injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarik, Marek; Benesova, Lucie; Fantova, Lucie; Horacek, Jiri; Heracek, Jiri; Loukola, Anu

    2006-10-01

    Increasing importance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in determination of disease susceptibility or in prediction of therapy response brings attention of many molecular diagnostic laboratories to simple and low-cost SNP genotyping methodologies. We have recently introduced a mutation detection technique based on analysis of homo- and heteroduplex PCR fragments resolved in cycling temperature gradient conditions on a conventional multicapillary-array DNA sequencer. The main advantage of this technique is in its simplicity with no requirement for sample cleanup prior to the analysis. In this report we present a practical application of the technology for genotyping of SNP markers in two separate clinical projects resulting in a combined set of 44 markers screened in over 500 patients. Initially, a design of PCR primers and conditions was performed for each SNP marker. Then, optimization of CE running conditions (limited just to the proper selection of temperature cycling) was performed on pools of 20 DNA samples to increase the probability of having each of the two allele types represented in the sample. After selecting the optimum conditions, screening of markers in patients was performed using a multiple-injection approach for further acceleration of the sample throughput. The rate of successful optimization of experimental conditions without any pre-selection based on the SNP sequence or melting characteristics was 80% from the initial SNP marker candidates. By studying the failed markers, we attempt to identify critical factors enabling successful typing. The presented technique is very useful for low to medium sized SNP genotyping projects mostly applied in pharmacogenomic research as well as in clinical diagnostics. The main advantages include low cost, simple setup and validation of SNP markers.

  17. Patient assessment of an electronic device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon ß-1a for multiple sclerosis: an observational study in the UK and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arcy C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caroline D’Arcy1, Del Thomas2, Dee Stoneman3, Laura Parkes31West London Neuroscience Centre, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Wye Valley NHS Trust, Hereford, UK; 3Merck Serono Ltd, Feltham, Middlesex, UKBackground: Injectable disease-modifying drugs (DMDs reduce the number of relapses and delay disability progression in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. Regular self-injection can be stressful and impeded by MS symptoms. Auto-injection devices can simplify self-injection, overcome injection-related issues, and increase treatment satisfaction. This study investigated patient responses to an electronic auto-injection device.Methods: Patients with RRMS (n = 63, aged 18–65 years, naïve to subcutaneous (sc interferon (IFN ß-1a therapy, were recruited to a Phase IV, observational, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01195870. Patients self-injected sc IFN ß-1a using the RebiSmart™ (Merck Serono S.A. – Geneva, Switzerland electronic auto-injector for 12 weeks, including an initial titration period if recommended by the prescribing physician. In week 12, patients completed a questionnaire comprising of a visual analog scale (VAS to rate how much they liked using the device, a four-point response question on ease of use (‘very difficult’, ‘difficult’, ‘easy’, or ‘very easy’, and a list of ten device functions to rank, based upon their experiences.Results: Six patients (9.5% discontinued the study: one switched to manual injection; two discontinued all treatment; three changed therapy. In total, 59 out of 63 patients (93.7% completed the VAS; 54 out of 59 (91.5%; 95% confidence interval: 81.3%–97.2% ‘liked’ using the electronic auto-injector (score ≥6, whereas 57 out of 59 (96.6% rated the device overall as ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to use. Device features rated as most useful were the hidden needle (mean [standard deviation] score: 3.3 [3.01]; n = 56, confirmation sound (3.9 [2.45], and

  18. Cost savings of home bortezomib injection in patients with multiple myeloma treated by a combination care in Outpatient Hospital and Hospital care at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Mohamed; Lamarsalle, Ludovic; Moreau, Stéphane; Vergnenègre, Françoise; Lefort, Sophie; Brillat, Catherine; Jeannet, Laetitia; Lagarde, Aline; Daulange, Annick; Jaccard, Arnaud; Vergnenègre, Alain; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    At home injectable chemotherapy for patients receiving treatment for hematological diseases is still in debate. Given the expense of new innovative medicines, at home treatment has been proposed as a suitable option for improving patient quality of life and decreasing treatment costs. We decided to assess the cost of bortezomib administration in France among multiple myeloma patients from an economic standpoint. Patients in this study were treated within a regional hematological network combining outpatient hospital care and Hospital care at Home administration. To make the cost comparison, our team simulated outpatient hospital care expenses. Fifty-four consecutive multiple myeloma patients who received at least one injection of bortezomib in Hospital care at Home from January 2009 to December 2011 were included in the study. The median number of injections was 12 (range 1-44) at home and 6 (range 0-30) in the outpatient care unit. When compared with the cost simulation of outpatient hospital care alone, bortezomib administration with combined care was significantly less expensive for the National Health Insurance (NHI) budget. The mean total cost per patient and per injection was 954.20 € for combined outpatient and Hospital care at Home vs 1143.42 € for outpatient hospital care alone. This resulted in an estimated 16.5 % cost saving (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p multiple myeloma patients treated with bortezomib in routine practice in a large rural area.

  19. Instantaneous phasor method for obtaining instantaneous balanced fundamental components for power quality control and continuous diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    This paper introduces an instantaneous phasor method that considers three phases simultaneously. This method produces the instantaneous fundamental balanced components of the polluted voltages or currents. A figure shows three-phase voltages that contain 5% of fundamental magnitude for each order of the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and the 11th harmonics, respectively. Additionally, the voltages have 5% unbalance for all voltage components. A 10% fundamental-frequency zero-sequence component, as well as a 10% fundamental-frequency negative-sequence component are also added to the phase voltages. Furthermore, certain high-frequency pulses arbitrarily given at 5% of a 35th order to represent a possible carrier frequency of power electronic circuits are also included.

  20. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily insulin injections in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honghong; Heng, Xueyuan; Liang, Cuige; Liu, Xiaomeng; Du, Wenhua; Li, Shoujie; Wang, Yueli; Dong, Qingyu; Li, Wenxia; Pan, Zhenyu; Gong, Qian; Gao, Guanqi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate prospectively the insulin dose requirements of Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with either multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy during a 2-week therapeutic intervention. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to MDI or CSII therapy. The effects of the two treatment methods were determined based on blood glucose parameters, total daily insulin dose and rates of hypoglycaemia. A total of 609 patients were enrolled in the study. Glycaemic goals were achieved after a mean ± SD of 6.90 ± 2.10 and 5.44 ± 2.22 days' treatment in the MDI and CSII groups, respectively. Once stabilized, the mean ± SD total daily insulin doses were 37.12 ± 10.19 IU and 32.58 ± 8.78 IU for the MDI and CSII groups, respectively. Once stabilized, the mean ± SD total basal and bolus doses were 19.46 ± 7.95 IU/day and 17.66 ± 3.53 IU/day for the MDI group, and 22.79 ± 7.55 IU/day and 9.81 ± 2.64 IU/day for the CSII group, respectively. There were significant differences in the total, basal and bolus insulin doses between the two groups. CSII therapy may be considered as an effective method to achieve good glycaemic control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Quality of life in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebæk, Niels; Kristensen, Lene Juel; Mose, Anne

    2014-01-01

    for more than one year) and 405 with MDI (238 for more than one year). Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes and Generic Module. HbA1c was analyzed centrally. RESULTS: Parents reported children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year to have less......AIMS: The aims of the study were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a National Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with either continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI...

  2. Comparison between two-phase and one-phase SLIPI for instantaneous imaging of transient sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Yogeshwar Nath; Kristensson, Elias; Koegl, Matthias; Jönsson, Joakim; Zigan, Lars; Berrocal, Edouard

    2017-09-01

    Imaging through optically dense sprays is challenging due to the detection of multiple light scattering, which blurs the recorded images and limits visibility. Structured laser illumination planar imaging (SLIPI) is a technique that is capable of reducing the intensity contribution that stems from multiple scattering in a light sheet imaging configuration. The conventional SLIPI approach is based on recording three modulated sub-images successively, each having a different spatial phase, and has, therefore, been mostly used for temporally averaged imaging. To circumvent this limitation and image spray dynamics, `instantaneous' two-phase (2p) and single-phase (1p) SLIPI approaches have recently been developed. The purpose of the work presented here is to compare these two approaches in terms of optical design, image post-processing routines, multiple scattering suppression ability, and spatial resolution. The two approaches are used to image a transient direct-injection spark-ignition ethanol spray, for both liquid laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering detection. The capabilities of the approaches for multiple scattering suppression and image formation have also been numerically modeled by means of Monte Carlo simulation. This article shows that both approaches efficiently suppress the contribution from multiple light scattering, providing images with an intensity profile close to the corresponding single scattering case. Experimentally, this suppression renders both an improvement in image contrast and the removal of undesired stray light components that could be interpreted as signal. However, while 2p-SLIPI preserves most of the initial spatial resolution, 1p-SLIPI results in a loss of spatial resolution, where high-frequency image information is not visible anymore. Thus, there is a trade-off between preserving the most detailed information of the spray structure—with 2p-SLIPI—and being able to record an SLIPI image from a single modulated image

  3. Reactor Network Synthesis Based on Instantaneous Objective Function Characteristic Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治山; 赵文; 王艳丽; 周传光; 袁希钢

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that whether the instantaneous objective function curves of plug-flow-reactor (PFR) and continuous-stirred-tank-reactor (CSTR) overlap or not, they have a consistent changing trend for complex reactions(steady state, isothermal and constant volume). As a result of the relation of the objective functions (selectivity or yield) to the instantaneous objective functions (instantaneous selectivity or instantaneous reaction rate), the optimal reactor network configuration can be determined according to the changing trend of the instantaneous objective function curves. Further, a recent partition strategy for the reactor network synthesis based on the instantaneous objective function characteristic curves is proposed by extending the attainable region partition strategy from the concentration space to the instantaneous objective function-unreacted fraction of key reactant space. In this paper,the instantaneous objective function is closed to be the instantaneous selectivity and several samples axe examined to illustrate the proposed method. The comparison with the previous work indicates it is a very convenient and practical systematic tool of the reactor network synthesis and seems also promising for overcoming the dimension limit of the attainable region partition strategy in the concentration space.

  4. Instantaneous crack detection using dual PZT transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Bum; Sohn, Hoon

    2008-03-01

    A new guided wave based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique is developed to detect crack damage in metallic plates commonly used in aircraft without using prior baseline data or a predetermined decision boundary. In conventional guided wave based techniques, damage is often identified by comparing the "current" data obtained from a potentially damaged condition of a structure with the "past" baseline data collected at the pristine condition of the structure. However, it has been reported that this type of pattern comparison with the baseline data can lead to increased false alarms due to its susceptibility to varying operational and environmental conditions of the structure. In order to tackle this issue, a reference-free damage detection technique is previously developed using two pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate transducers (PZTs) placed on both sides of a plate. In this study, this reference-free technique is further advanced so that the PZT transducers can be placed only on one side of the specimen. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden change in the thickness of the structure. Then, the proposed technique instantly detects the appearance of the crack by extracting this mode conversion from the measured Lamb waves. This study suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the current data set. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to instantaneous crack detection.

  5. Modeling Instantaneous Changes In Natural Scenes

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for modeling instantaneous changes natural scenes in real time using Lagrangian Particle Framework and a fluid-particle grid approach. This research can be divided into 3 distinct sections: the first one discusses a multi-camera rig that can measure ego-motion accurately up to 88%, how this device becomes the backbone of our framework, and some improvements devised to optimize a know framework for depth maps and 3d structure estimation from a single still image called make3d. The second part discusses the fluid-particle framework to model natural scenes, presents some algorithms that we are using to accomplish this task and we show how an application of our framework can extend make3d to model natural scenes in real time. This part of the research constructs a bridge between computer vision and computer graphics so that now ideas, answers and intuitions that arose in the domain of computer graphics can now be applied to computer vision and natural modeling. The final part of th...

  6. Successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection with testicular spermatozoa from a man with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shenmin; Gao, Liang; Wang, Wei; Ding, Jie; Xu, Yongle; Li, Hong

    2017-10-02

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the sperm morphology of a Chinese man affected with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) and observe the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. A Chinese man was diagnosed with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella by semen analysis and electron microscopy. Testicular spermatozoa were injected intracytoplasmically, and the following ICSI results were observed. All the spermatozoa from his ejaculate were immotile and morphologically abnormal in the flagellum. In transmission electron microscopy assays, most spermatozoa showed disorganized fibrous sheath, accompanied by distortion of various cytoskeletal components, and missing of the central pair microtubules. Testicular sperm was injected to the oocytes in two ICSI cycles, with fertilization rates of 45.5 and 40.0%. Finally, a healthy female infant was delivered at the second ICSI cycle. Fertilization and pregnancy could be achieved by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, regardless of severe flagellar defects. ICSI is effective for MMAF-affected man, and testicular sperm is an alternative when no motile sperm is available.

  7. Simulation study of blue InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes with different hole injection layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Le-Juan; Yin Yi-An; Yang Xiao-Dong; Li Shu-Ti; Liu Chao; Wang Hai-Long; Lu Tai-Ping; Zhang Kang; Xiao Guo-Wei; Zhou Yu-Gang; Zheng Shu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with p-GaN and p-AlGaN hole injection layers are numerically studied using the APSYS simulation software.The simulation results indicate that light-emitting diodes with p-AlGaN hole injection layers show superior optical and electrical performance,such as an increase in light output power,a reduction in current leakage and alleviation of efficiency droop.These improvements can be attributed to the p-AlGaN serving as hole injection layers,which can alleviate the band bending induced by the polarization field,thereby improving both the hole injection efficiency and the electron blocking efficiency.

  8. Relativistic bound-state equations for fermions with instantaneous interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    Three types of relativistic bound-state equations for a fermion pair with instantaneous interaction are studied, viz., the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation, the quasi-potential equation, and the two-particle Dirac equation. General forms for the equations describing bound states with arbitrary

  9. The instantaneous shear modulus in the shoving model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    We point out that the instantaneous shear modulus G∞ of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of viscous liquids’ relaxation time is the experimentally accessible highfrequency plateau modulus, not the idealized instantaneous affine shear modulus that cannot be measured...

  10. Mechanism of hole injection enhancement in light-emitting diodes by inserting multiple hole-reservoir layers in electron blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yukun; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Li, Yufeng; Ding, Wen [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics and Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yun, Feng, E-mail: fyun2010@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics and Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Shaanxi Supernova Lighting Technology Co. Ltd, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710075 (China); Su, Xilin [Shaanxi Supernova Lighting Technology Co. Ltd, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710075 (China); Guo, Maofeng [Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Shaanxi Supernova Lighting Technology Co. Ltd, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710075 (China); Zhang, Ye [Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-03-14

    In this study, gallium nitride (GaN) based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single and multiple hole-reservoir layers (HRLs) inserted in the electron-blocking layer (EBL) have been investigated numerically and experimentally. According to simulation results, a better electron confinement and a higher hole injection level can be achieved by the multiple HRLs inserted in the EBL region. To further reveal the underlying mechanism of hole injection enhancement experimentally, the active regions were intentionally designed to emit photons with three different wavelengths of 440 nm, 460 nm, and 480 nm, respectively. Based on the experimental results of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL (TRPL) measurements conducted at 298 K, the remarkable enhancement (148%) of PL intensities and significant increase in the decay times of the quantum wells close to p-GaN can be obtained. Therefore, the mechanism is proposed that carriers are able to reserve in the EBL region with multiple HRLs for a much longer time. Meanwhile, carriers could diffuse into the active region by tunnelling and/or thermo-electronic effect and then recombine efficiently, leading to the better carrier reservoir effect and higher hole injection in LEDs. As a result, by inserting multiple HRLs in the EBL region instead of single HRL, the experimental external quantum efficiency is enhanced by 19.8%, while the serious droop ratio is markedly suppressed from 37.0% to 27.6% at the high current injection of 100 A/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Performance of multiple mini-tube heat exchangers as an internal heat exchanger of a vapor-injection cycle heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jin Yong; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-04-01

    A multiple mini-tube (MMT) heat exchanger was considered as an internal heat exchanger of vapor-injection cycle heat pump. Heat transfer and pressure drop in multiple mini-tube heat exchangers were numerically and experimentally investigated. Results show that the best performance of the MMT heat exchanger can be obtained when the intermediate-pressure two-phase refrigerant is supplied to the shell-side and this refrigerant reaches a saturated vapor state at the exit of the heat exchanger.

  12. Instantaneous frequency based newborn EEG seizure characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mostefa; O'Toole, John M.; Colditz, Paul B.; Boashash, Boualem

    2012-12-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG), used to noninvasively monitor brain activity, remains the most reliable tool in the diagnosis of neonatal seizures. Due to their nonstationary and multi-component nature, newborn EEG seizures are better represented in the joint time-frequency domain than in either the time domain or the frequency domain. Characterising newborn EEG seizure nonstationarities helps to better understand their time-varying nature and, therefore, allow developing efficient signal processing methods for both modelling and seizure detection and classification. In this article, we used the instantaneous frequency (IF) extracted from a time-frequency distribution to characterise newborn EEG seizures. We fitted four frequency modulated (FM) models to the extracted IFs, namely a linear FM, a piecewise-linear FM, a sinusoidal FM, and a hyperbolic FM. Using a database of 30-s EEG seizure epochs acquired from 35 newborns, we were able to show that, depending on EEG channel, the sinusoidal and piecewise-linear FM models best fitted 80-98% of seizure epochs. To further characterise the EEG seizures, we calculated the mean frequency and frequency span of the extracted IFs. We showed that in the majority of the cases (>95%), the mean frequency resides in the 0.6-3 Hz band with a frequency span of 0.2-1 Hz. In terms of the frequency of occurrence of the four seizure models, the statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference( p = 0.332) between the two hemispheres. The results also indicate that there is no significant differences between the two hemispheres in terms of the mean frequency ( p = 0.186) and the frequency span ( p = 0.302).

  13. Effects of Instantaneous Multiband Dynamic Compression on Speech Intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzke Tobias

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment phenomenon, that is, the reduced dynamic range between threshold and uncomfortable level, is attributed to the loss of instantaneous dynamic compression on the basilar membrane. Despite this, hearing aids commonly use slow-acting dynamic compression for its compensation, because this was found to be the most successful strategy in terms of speech quality and intelligibility rehabilitation. Former attempts to use fast-acting compression gave ambiguous results, raising the question as to whether auditory-based recruitment compensation by instantaneous compression is in principle applicable in hearing aids. This study thus investigates instantaneous multiband dynamic compression based on an auditory filterbank. Instantaneous envelope compression is performed in each frequency band of a gammatone filterbank, which provides a combination of time and frequency resolution comparable to the normal healthy cochlea. The gain characteristics used for dynamic compression are deduced from categorical loudness scaling. In speech intelligibility tests, the instantaneous dynamic compression scheme was compared against a linear amplification scheme, which used the same filterbank for frequency analysis, but employed constant gain factors that restored the sound level for medium perceived loudness in each frequency band. In subjective comparisons, five of nine subjects preferred the linear amplification scheme and would not accept the instantaneous dynamic compression in hearing aids. Four of nine subjects did not perceive any quality differences. A sentence intelligibility test in noise (Oldenburg sentence test showed little to no negative effects of the instantaneous dynamic compression, compared to linear amplification. A word intelligibility test in quiet (one-syllable rhyme test showed that the subjects benefit from the larger amplification at low levels provided by instantaneous dynamic compression. Further analysis showed that the increase

  14. Patient adherence to subcutaneous IFN beta-1a injections using the RebiSmart(®) injection device: a retrospective real-world study among Dutch and German patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; de Voer, Gert; Osowski, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Long-term treatment adherence among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is a general concern, with an established correlation with clinical efficacy. Closely monitoring patients' treatment behavior may have a beneficial effect on adherence. This study assessed adherence, in daily life, to subcutaneous (sc) IFN beta-1a, self-administered using the RebiSmart(®) electronic injection device (the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device), in patients with MS. This was a retrospective observational study analyzing treatment adherence based on injection data, eg, injection date and dose, extracted from the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices collected from patients in Germany and the Netherlands. Data recorded in the period from 2007 to 2012 by the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices from 1,682 (79.7% from Germany, 20.3% from the Netherlands) patients were analyzed. A mean of 94.8% of the multi-dose cartridges (containing sc IFN beta-1a for three injections) were used completely, indicating a low incidence of application errors and drug wastage. The mean adherence rate was 90.7% and 82.9% over the entire observation period (mean treatment duration: 150.1 weeks). Median adherence rates were similar between German and Dutch patients (97.9% vs 99.0%). In daily clinical practice, patients using the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device were highly adherent to sc IFN beta-1a. The injection data stored electronically in the device may help patients to adhere to treatment regimens and, if viewed by physicians, promote discussion of adherence issues with patients.

  15. Patient adherence to subcutaneous IFN beta-1a injections using the RebiSmart® injection device: a retrospective real-world study among Dutch and German patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Marieke; de Voer, Gert; Osowski, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Long-term treatment adherence among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is a general concern, with an established correlation with clinical efficacy. Closely monitoring patients’ treatment behavior may have a beneficial effect on adherence. This study assessed adherence, in daily life, to subcutaneous (sc) IFN beta-1a, self-administered using the RebiSmart® electronic injection device (the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device), in patients with MS. Patients and methods This was a retrospective observational study analyzing treatment adherence based on injection data, eg, injection date and dose, extracted from the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices collected from patients in Germany and the Netherlands. Results Data recorded in the period from 2007 to 2012 by the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices from 1,682 (79.7% from Germany, 20.3% from the Netherlands) patients were analyzed. A mean of 94.8% of the multi-dose cartridges (containing sc IFN beta-1a for three injections) were used completely, indicating a low incidence of application errors and drug wastage. The mean adherence rate was 90.7% and 82.9% over the entire observation period (mean treatment duration: 150.1 weeks). Median adherence rates were similar between German and Dutch patients (97.9% vs 99.0%). Conclusion In daily clinical practice, patients using the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device were highly adherent to sc IFN beta-1a. The injection data stored electronically in the device may help patients to adhere to treatment regimens and, if viewed by physicians, promote discussion of adherence issues with patients. PMID:28744108

  16. Analysis of Signals with Fast-Varying Instantaneous Frequency: Window Selection and Insights from Synchrosqueezing Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Sheu, Yae-lin; Wu, Hau-tieng

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory for analyzing a signal that consists of multiple oscillatory components with fast-varying instantaneous frequencies. In order to describe this kind of signals, the adaptive harmonic model is extended to include fast-varying instantaneous frequency components. Moreover, we apply the Renyi entropy to measure the time-frequency representation provided by synchrosqueezing transform and determine an optimal window width. For a signal with multiple components, which induce coupling artifacts, we propose an adaptive optimal window approach by segmenting the signal into several sections. Examples presented include a synthetic signal and an application to attosecond physics considering the atomic time-varying dipole moment driven by a two-color midinfrared laser fields.

  17. Tulathromycin assay validation and tissue residues after single and multiple subcutaneous injections in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, K A; Leavens, T; Griffith, R W; Wetzlich, S E; Baynes, R E; Riviere, J E; Tell, L A

    2012-04-01

    Tulathromycin is a macrolide antimicrobial labeled for treatment of bacterial pneumonia in cattle and swine. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate tissue concentrations of tulathromycin in the caprine species. A tandem mass spectrometry regulatory analytical method that detects the common fragment of tulathromycin in cattle and swine was validated with goat tissues. The method was used to study tulathromycin depletion in goat tissues (liver, kidney, muscle, fat, injection site, and lung) over time. In two different studies, six juvenile and 25 market-age goats received a single injection of 2.5 mg/kg of tulathromycin subcutaneously; in a third study, 18 juvenile goats were treated with 2.5, 7.5, or 12.5 mg/kg tulathromycin weekly with three subcutaneous injections. Mean tulathromycin tissue concentrations were highest at injection site samples in all studies and all doses. Lung tissue concentrations were greatest at day 5 in market-age goats while in the multi-dose animals concentrations demonstrated dose-dependent increases. Concentrations were below limit of quantification in injection site and lung by day 18 and in liver, kidney, muscle, and fat at all time points. This study demonstrated that tissue levels in goats are very similar to those seen in swine and cattle.

  18. Increasing the instrumental throughput of gas chromatography method using multiple injections in a single experimental run: application in determination of friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in Maytenus ilicifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Piovezan, Marcel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Rebelo, Andrey Martinez; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Amadeu Micke, Gustavo

    2013-01-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a separation method using multiple injections in a single experimental run (MISER) employing gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the first time, without instrument modification, to increase the instrumental throughput. The method was applied to the determination of the triterpenes friedelan-3-ol and friedelin in a plant extract obtained from Maytenus ilicifolia leaves. The column used in the chromatography system was a ZB-50 (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.15 μm) with 50% phenyl-50% methyl-polysiloxane. The samples (1.0 μL) were injected using the split mode (1:90), with the injector at 280 °C and FID detector at 320 °C. The column temperature was programmed to isothermal mode at 300°C. Helium was used as the carrier gas with a constant flow of 1.5 mL min(-1). It was possible to perform three injections in the same run using the MISER method. An increase in the instrumental throughput by a factor of around 2.6 was observed when the use of multiple injections was compared with the single injection method. This method showed good linearity for both analytes with R(2)>0.99 and the values for the limit of detection were 0.24 mg L(-1) and 0.44 mg L(-1), for friedelan-3-ol and friedelin, respectively. Furthermore, the values for the limits of quantification were 0.79 mg L(-1) for friedelan-3-ol and 1.16 mg L(-1) for friedelin. The proposed method has potential for other GC applications, allowing an increase in the instrumental throughput of the methods by applying this separation technique.

  19. The structure of instantaneous frequencies of periodic analytic signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the structure of analytic signals is investigated by means of the relation between analytic signals and functions in the Hardy space. It is shown that an analytic signal is made up of two parts, one depending on the amplitude of the signal and another on the boundary value of an inner function. Based on this result, properties of the instantaneous frequencies of these two parts are studied, and it is found that negative instantaneous frequencies are caused by the amplitude of a signal. Finally, such conditions that an analytic signal is of positive instantaneous frequency are presented.

  20. Effects of multiple intravitreal anti-VEGF injections on retinal nerve fiber layer and intraocular pressure: a comparative clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franck; Amouyal; Danièle; Denis; Frédéric; Matonti

    2014-01-01

    Dear Sir,Ifound the article by Sobac1etal[1]very interesting.The authors concluded that repeated intravitreal injection(IVI)of ranibizumab or bevacizumab didn’t seem have adverse effects on retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL)thickness in wet age-related macular degeneration(AMD)patients.

  1. Paradoxical effects of injection stress and nicotine exposure experienced during adolescence on learning in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/h nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine/No Stress, Nicotine/No Stress, No Nicotine/Stress, and Nicotine/Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, and Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the "violation element," that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without adolescent

  2. Optimising geological storage of CO2 by development of multiple injection sites in regionally extensive storage sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Maxine; McDermott, Christopher; Williams, John; Mackay, Eric; Jin, Min; Tucker, Owain; Mallows, Tom; Hannis, Sarah; Pearce, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is considered a key technology to provide secure, low-carbon energy supply and industrial processes to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to the adverse effects of climatic change. Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), captured during hydrocarbon production at the Sleipner Field, in strata beneath the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has been in operation since 1996. Projects to store CO2 captured at power plants in strata underlying the North Sea are currently in design. Storage of the CO2 is planned in depleted hydrocarbon fields or regionally extensive sandstones containing brine (saline aquifer sandstones). The vast majority of the UK potential storage resource is within brine-saturated sandstone formations. The sandstone formations are each hundreds to thousands of square kilometres in extent and underlie all sectors of the North Sea. The immense potential to store CO2 in these rocks can only be fully achieved by the operation of more than one injection site within each formation. Here we report an investigation into the operation of more than one injection site within a storage formation using a UK North Sea case study of the Captain Sandstone and the included Goldeneye Field, which is part of the mature hydrocarbon province offshore Scotland. Research by the CO2MultiStore project was targeted to increase understanding and confidence in the operation of two sites within the Captain Sandstone. Methods were implemented to reduce the effort and resources needed to characterise the sandstone, and increase understanding of its stability and performance during operation of more than one injection site. Generic learning was captured throughout the research relevant to the characterisation of extensive storage sandstones, management of the planned injection operations and monitoring of CO2 injection at two (or more) sites within any connected sandstone formation. The storage of CO2 can be optimised

  3. Hole injection from the sidewall of V-shaped pits into c-plane multiple quantum wells in InGaN light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaoming; Liu, Junlin, E-mail: liujunlin@ncu.edu.cn; Jiang, Fengyi [National Engineering Technology Research Center for LED on Si Substrate, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2015-10-28

    The role which the V-shaped pits (V-pits) play in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been proposed to enable the formation of sidewall MQWs, whose higher bandgap than that of the c-plane MQWs is considered to act as an energy barrier to prevent carriers from reaching the dislocations. Here, with increasing proportion of current flowing via the V-pits, the emission of the c-plane MQWs broadens across the short-wavelength band and shows a blueshift successively. This phenomenon is attributed to hole injection from the sidewall of V-pits into the c-plane MQWs, which is a new discovery in the injection mechanism of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs.

  4. Computerized intraoperative calculation of instantaneous prosthetic aortic valve area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSesa, V J; Lachman, P; Collins, J J; Cohn, L H

    1988-01-01

    Improved assessment of valve area is essential to understanding the performance of prosthetic valves. The authors studied six patients undergoing aortic valve replacement using mechanical (ME) or porcine (PO) prostheses. Instantaneous cardiac output (CO) (L/min) was measured in the aorta using an ultrasonic flow probe. Left ventricular and aortic pressures (mmHg) were measured using Millar catheters. Data were analyzed using an IBM PC-AT. Valve area (cm2) was determined using Gorlin's formula (AG) and a new formula for instantaneous area derived mathematically and using a theoretic constant. AG, mean (AI) and peak (Apk) instantaneous areas were compared to geometric measures of area (Aactual) in vitro. Peak instantaneous area correlates best with measured area. Intraoperative assessment using the ultrasonic flow probe and computer analysis is helpful in understanding the dynamic properties of prosthetic valves in vivo.

  5. Measurement of ultrashort pulses with a non-instantaneous nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, K.W.; Ladera, C.L.; Trebino, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Kohler, B.; Wilson, K.R. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-02-01

    We show how non-instantaneous nonlinearities can be used to characterize an ultrashort pulse in an extension of the Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating technique. We demonstrate this principle using the Raman effect in fused silica.

  6. NUMERICAL APPROACH TO DETERMINING INSTANTANEOUS CONTACT REGION FOR CONJUGATE SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taiyong; LI Jingcai; HE Gaiyun; FAN Shengbo; HAO Yongjiang

    2008-01-01

    According to the defect of traditional method of determining instantaneous contact regions for conjugate surfaces, a numerical approach to the determination is proposed. A local coordinate system is built by using the surface unit tangent and unit normal at the contact point. Considering that the gap forming the boundary of instantaneous contact region in the direction of the common normal vectors is given, a system of nonlinear equations is built to find the instantaneous contact boundary in local coordinate system, a modified Powell's hybrid algorithm of finite-difference approximation to the Jacobian used to solve the system. The new method simplifies the task of determining instantaneous contact regions without calculating curvature and relative curvature. The validity of the proposed approach is verified by an example of hypoid gears.

  7. Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the pa...

  8. An evaluation of adherence in patients with multiple sclerosis newly initiating treatment with a self-injectable or an oral disease-modifying drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsell M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Munsell,1 Molly Frean,1 Joseph Menzin,1 Amy L Phillips2 1Boston Health Economics, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA; 2Health Economics & Outcomes Research, EMD Serono Inc., Rockland, MA, USA Objective: As the multiple sclerosis (MS disease-modifying drug (DMD treatment options have expanded to include oral therapies, it is important to understand whether route of administration is associated with DMD adherence. The objective of this study was to compare adherence to DMDs in patients with MS newly initiating treatment with a self-injectable versus an oral DMD. Methods: This retrospective database study used IMS Health Real World Data Adjudicated Claims – US data between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014. Adherence was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR, calculated as the total number of treated days divided by the total number of days from the first treated day until the end of 12-month follow-up. A binary measure representing adherence (MPR ≥0.8 versus nonadherence (MPR <0.8 to therapy was used. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of adherence to index DMD type (self-injectable vs oral. Covariates included patient baseline characteristics (ie, age, sex, comorbidities and index DMD type. Results: The analysis included 7,207 self-injectable and 1,175 oral DMD-treated patients with MS. In unadjusted analyses, the proportion of patients adherent to therapy (MPR ≥0.8 did not differ significantly between the self-injectable (54.1% and the oral DMD cohorts (53.0%; P=0.5075. After controlling for covariates, index DMD type was not a significant predictor of adherence (odds ratio [OR] 1.062; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.937–1.202; P=0.3473. Higher likelihood of adherence was associated with male sex (OR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.085–1.335; P=0.0005 and age groups older than 18–34 years (ORs 1.220–1.331; P<0.01. Depression was associated with a lower likelihood of adherence (OR 0.618; 95% CI: 0.511–0.747; P<0.0001. Conclusion: Male

  9. Protocol for a prospective observational study of cortical lower urinary tract control changes following intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin-A in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Rodolfo A; Karmonik, Christof; Boone, Timothy B; Khavari, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe debilitating disease that affects patients' quality of life. Up to 90% of patients with MS will develop lower urinary tract dysfunction within the first 18 years of the disease. If oral pharmacotherapy with anticholinergics, behavioural modifications and pelvic floor physical therapy are unsuccessful, intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin-A (OnaBotA; Botox Allergan, Dublin, Ireland) is a highly effective option for these patients. The local effects of OnaBotA are well understood, but not much is known of its afferent/sensory effects while treating the end organ. Our study will use functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related blood oxygen level-dependent signals to evaluate patients with MS and neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) prior to, and after, intradetrusor injection of OnaBotA with simultaneous urodynamic evaluation. Urinary concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor will also be collected since it has been shown that patients with an overactive bladder have higher concentrations of these neuropeptides. Methods and analysis Female patients with MS and lower urinary tract symptoms who previously have undergone urodynamic screening and are refractory to conservative and oral pharmacotherapy management for NDO and are interested in OnaBotA intradetrusor injection will be invited to participate in the study. An fMRI will be performed preintradetrusor injection and postintradetrusor injection of OnaBotA with simultaneous MRI compatible with material urodynamics. Images will be collected and analysed accordingly. Ethics and dissemination All of the patients are properly consented before enrolling in this study that has been previously approved by the Institutional Review Board. Results of neural connectivity activation will be presented at national and international meetings and published in scholarly journals. PMID:28159850

  10. A novel needle for subcutaneous injection of interferon beta-1a: effect on pain in volunteers and satisfaction in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Amer; Bozzato, Gian B; Vedrine, Lionel; Prais, Wes A; Berube, Julie; Laurent, Philippe E

    2008-10-10

    To reduce injection pain and improve satisfaction, a thinner (29-gauge [29G]), sharper (5-bevel) needle than the 27G/3-bevel needle used previously to inject interferon (IFN) beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg subcutaneously (sc) three times weekly (tiw), was developed for use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Two clinical trials in healthy volunteers and five surveys of patients with MS were conducted to assess whether the 29G/5-bevel needle with a Thermo Plastic Elastomer (TPE) needle shield (a sleeve that houses the tip of the needle in a secure location) is an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle with a rubber shield for injection of IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg sc tiw. Parameters assessed were: pain and ease of insertion (healthy volunteer and nurse responses on subjective pain measurement scales); and patient satisfaction (surveys of patients with MS). In healthy volunteers, the 29G/5-bevel needle with TPE shield was associated with the least perceived pain on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Verbal VAS (VB-VAS); mean VAS pain scores decreased by 40% and skin penetration improved by 69% compared with the 27G/3-bevel needle with standard rubber shield (p injections were less painful with the 29G/5-bevel needle than the 27G/3-bevel needle. Results from individual surveys indicated that the 29G/5-bevel needle was an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle for ease of insertion, injection-site reactions, bruising, burning and stinging. Together these studies indicate that the 29G/5-bevel needle with the TPE shield is an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle with standard rubber shield in terms of pain, ease of insertion and patient satisfaction. These improvements are expected to result in improved compliance in patients with MS treated with IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg sc tiw.

  11. [Continuous insulin therapy versus multiple insulin injections in the management of type 1 diabetes: a longitutinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Del Roio Liberatore Junior, Raphael; Custodio, Rodrigo; Martinelli Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy as treatment for type 1 diabetes melito. 40 patients with type 1 diabetes melito (21 female) with ages between 10 and 20 years (mean=14.2) and mean duration of diabetes of 7 years used multiple doses of insulin for at least 6 months and after that, continuous insulin infusion therapy for at least 6 months. Each one of the patients has used multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy. For analysis of HbA1c, mean glycated hemoglobin levels (mHbA1c) were obtained during each treatment period (multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy period). Although mHbA1c levels were lower during continuous insulin infusion therapy the difference was not statistically significant. During multiple doses of insulin, 14.2% had mHbA1c values below 7.5% vs. 35.71% while on continuous insulin infusion therapy; demonstrating better glycemic control with the use of continuous insulin infusion therapy. During multiple doses of insulin, 15-40 patients have severe hypoglycemic events versus 5-40 continuous insulin infusion therapy. No episodes of ketoacidosis events were recorded. This is the first study with this design comparing multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy in Brazil showing no significant difference in HbA1c; hypoglycemic events were less frequent during continuous insulin infusion therapy than during multiple doses of insulin and the percentage of patients who achieved a HbA1c less than 7.5% was greater during continuous insulin infusion therapy than multiple doses of insulin therapy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Signals from Gravitational Wave Detectors with Instantaneous Time-Frequency Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Stroeer, Alexander; Camp, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy relies on the use of multiple detectors, so that coincident detections may distinguish real signals from instrumental artifacts, and also so that relative timing of signals can provide the sky position of sources. We show that the comparison of instantaneous time-frequency and time- amplitude maps provided by the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used effectively for relative signal timing of common signals, to discriminate between the case of identical coincident signals and random noise coincidences, and to provide a classification of signals based on their time-frequency trajectories. The comparison is done with a chi-square goodness-of-fit method which includes contributions from both the instantaneous amplitude and frequency components of the HHT to match two signals in the time domain. This approach naturally allows the analysis of waveforms with strong frequency modulation.

  13. Relative effectiveness of insulin pump treatment over multiple daily injections and structured education during flexible intensive insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes: cluster randomised trial (REPOSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of insulin pumps with multiple daily injections for adults with type 1 diabetes, with both groups receiving equivalent training in flexible insulin treatment.Design Pragmatic, multicentre, open label, parallel group, cluster randomised controlled trial (Relative Effectiveness of Pumps Over MDI and Structured Education (REPOSE) trial).Setting Eight secondary care centres in England and Scotland.Participants Adults with type 1 diabetes who were willing to undertake intensive insulin treatment, with no preference for pumps or multiple daily injections. Participants were allocated a place on established group training courses that taught flexible intensive insulin treatment ("dose adjustment for normal eating," DAFNE). The course groups (the clusters) were then randomly allocated in pairs to either pump or multiple daily injections.Interventions Participants attended training in flexible insulin treatment (using insulin analogues) structured around the use of pump or injections, followed for two years.Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were a change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values (%) at two years in participants with baseline HbA1c value of ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol), and the proportion of participants achieving an HbA1c value of insulin dose, and episodes of moderate and severe hypoglycaemia. Ancillary outcomes included quality of life and treatment satisfaction.Results 317 participants (46 courses) were randomised (156 pump and 161 injections). 267 attended courses and 260 were included in the intention to treat analysis, of which 235 (119 pump and 116 injection) had baseline HbA1c values of ≥7.5%. Glycaemic control and rates of severe hypoglycaemia improved in both groups. The mean change in HbA1c at two years was -0.85% with pump treatment and -0.42% with multiple daily injections. Adjusting for course, centre, age, sex, and accounting for missing values, the difference was -0.24% (-2.7 mmol/mol) in favour

  14. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  15. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  16. An arbitrarily short reply to Sheldon Smith on instantaneous velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzenius, Frank

    The main issue is the question whether the standard calculus definition of velocities allows velocities to be part of the instantaneous states of objects. According to David Albert and I this is implausible, for if they were, then the instantaneous state of an object at a time t would in virtue of logic and definition alone impose a severe constraint on the history of instantaneous states of that object at other times. One can picture the constraint as follows: represent the position at time t by a dot on a piece of paper; represent the velocity at time t by an arrow that points away from that dot. The positions around time t can then be represented as a (parameterized) curve. The constraint now is that the curve must have the arrow as its tangent: as one gets close to t the curve must become parallel to the arrow (and must be parameterized at a rate that corresponds to the length of the arrow). This rules out many possible histories at times other than t. But surely an instantaneous state at time t ought not by logic and definition alone to constrain histories of instantaneous states at other times. Laws of nature and contingent relations can imply such constraints, but logic and definition should not. Compare: the intrinsic state at some spatial location x ought not by logic and definition alone to constrain the intrinsic states at other spatial locations. (For Lewis (1986) this is virtually a definition of "intrinsic".)

  17. Instantaneous Normal Modes and the Protein Glass Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Roland [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Krishnan, Marimuthu [ORNL; Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In the instantaneous normal mode method, normal mode analysis is performed at instantaneous configurations of a condensed-phase system, leading to modes with negative eigenvalues. These negative modes provide a means of characterizing local anharmonicities of the potential energy surface. Here, we apply instantaneous normal mode to analyze temperature-dependent diffusive dynamics in molecular dynamics simulations of a small protein (a scorpion toxin). Those characteristics of the negative modes are determined that correlate with the dynamical (or glass) transition behavior of the protein, as manifested as an increase in the gradient with T of the average atomic mean-square displacement at 220 K. The number of negative eigenvalues shows no transition with temperature. Further, although filtering the negative modes to retain only those with eigenvectors corresponding to double-well potentials does reveal a transition in the hydration water, again, no transition in the protein is seen. However, additional filtering of the protein double-well modes, so as to retain only those that, on energy minimization, escape to different regions of configurational space, finally leads to clear protein dynamical transition behavior. Partial minimization of instantaneous configurations is also found to remove nondiffusive imaginary modes. In summary, examination of the form of negative instantaneous normal modes is shown to furnish a physical picture of local diffusive dynamics accompanying the protein glass transition.

  18. QUALITY OF LIFE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS TREATED WITH INTERFERON BETA-1A FOR SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Platonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of a trial, studying quality of life of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. Obtained data show, that adolescents had decreased quality of life, including physical and psychosocial functioning. Decreasing of total rate of quality of life was concerned with, first of all, disorders in school and physical functioning, and emotional constituent was intact. It was shown, that pathogenetic treatment with interferon beta1? (Rebif did not significantly decreased psycho-emotional constituent of quality of life. On the contrary, patient in remission had increase of rates of psycho-social health on the basis of insignificant decrease of physical and emotional indices, ant that caused increase of summary rate of quality of life.Key words: adolescents, multiple sclerosis, quality of life.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:99-103

  19. A case report of a Wada test after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections: Pathophysiology of confusion after amobarbital injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Landazuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialepsis is defined as a predominant alteration of consciousness with preservation of motor tone and the ability to perform movements. While dialepsis is a common feature of both focal and generalized epilepsies, its precise symptomatogenic zone and pathogenesis remain undefined. This case report describes a patient who underwent intracarotid amobarbital procedures before and after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections. From our observations, we propose a possible pathogenesis for the generation of dialeptic seizures.

  20. INSTANTANEOUS KINEMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPECIAL 3-UPU PARALLEL MANIPULATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shihua; Huang Zhen

    2005-01-01

    The instantaneous kinematics of a special 3-UPU parallel platform manipulator is discussed. First, the instantaneous motions of the 3-UPU manipulator in four kinds of positions and a special manipulator are studied by reciprocal screw theory. Then, the principal screws in one of four positions are obtained. It is shown that the moving platform has five degrees of freedom (DOF) in the initial position or after a translation along the z-axis; In the generic position, the mechanism only has three DOF, moreover the three DOF characteristics are different in different position. The instantaneous kinematic characteristics of alike 3-UPU mechanisms are very different in different position and special structure. The results presented are important to the use of alike 3-UPU parallel manipulator and contribute to the mechanism theory

  1. Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Anne

    2016-08-01

    In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.

  2. Instantaneous oscillatory direction and phase for multivariate timeseries

    CERN Document Server

    Allefeld, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    This text describes a generalization of the analytic signal (Gabor, 1946) approach for the definition of instantaneous amplitude and phase to the case of multivariate signals. It was originally written as an appendix for another paper, where the determination of the locally dominant oscillatory direction (the instantaneous amplitude) described here is used as a preprocessing step for another kind of data analysis. The text is reproduced in a 'standalone' form because the procedure might prove useful in other contexts too, especially for the purpose of phase synchronization analysis (Rosenblum et al., 1996) between two (or more) multivariate sets of time series (Pascual-Marqui, 2007).

  3. Instantaneous normal mode analysis of melting of finite dust clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, André; Schella, André; Schablinski, Jan; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    The experimental melting transition of finite two-dimensional dust clusters in a dusty plasma is analyzed using the method of instantaneous normal modes. In the experiment, dust clusters are heated in a thermodynamic equilibrium from a solid to a liquid state using a four-axis laser manipulation system. The fluid properties of the dust cluster, such as the diffusion constant, are measured from the instantaneous normal mode analysis. Thereby, the phase transition of these finite clusters is approached from the liquid phase. From the diffusion constants, unique melting temperatures have been assigned to dust clusters of various sizes that very well reflect their dynamical stability properties.

  4. Instantaneous Rayleigh scattering from excitons localized in monolayer islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis;

    2000-01-01

    We show that the initial dynamics of Rayleigh scattering from excitons in quantum wells can be either instantaneous or delayed, depending on the exciton ensemble studied. For excitation of the entire exciton resonance, a finite rise time given by the inverse inhomogeneous broadening: of the exciton...... resonance is observed. Instead, when exciting only a subsystem of the exciton resonance, in our case excitons localized in quantum well regions of a specific monolayer thickness, the rise has an instantaneous component. This is due to the spatial nonuniformity of the initially excited exciton polarization...

  5. On Instantaneous Power Dissipation in Class B Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Zhivomirov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the analysis of the instantaneous power dissipation by the two active components in a class B power amplifier. Attention is paid to restrictions of the instantaneous power dissipation relations in reference literature, and the consequences of their misuse. A new generalized equation that takes into account the power dissipated by the two active devices is proposed. The theoretical statement is substantiated by Matlab® numeric computation and visualization, Cadence OrCAD® simulations and measurements of a real-world audio power amplifier performed by NI USB-6211 measurement complex.

  6. An evaluation of adherence in patients with multiple sclerosis newly initiating treatment with a self-injectable or an oral disease-modifying drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Michael; Frean, Molly; Menzin, Joseph; Phillips, Amy L

    2017-01-01

    Objective As the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying drug (DMD) treatment options have expanded to include oral therapies, it is important to understand whether route of administration is associated with DMD adherence. The objective of this study was to compare adherence to DMDs in patients with MS newly initiating treatment with a self-injectable versus an oral DMD. Methods This retrospective database study used IMS Health Real World Data Adjudicated Claims – US data between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014. Adherence was measured by medication possession ratio (MPR), calculated as the total number of treated days divided by the total number of days from the first treated day until the end of 12-month follow-up. A binary measure representing adherence (MPR ≥0.8) versus nonadherence (MPR <0.8) to therapy was used. Logistic regression evaluated the likelihood of adherence to index DMD type (self-injectable vs oral). Covariates included patient baseline characteristics (ie, age, sex, comorbidities) and index DMD type. Results The analysis included 7,207 self-injectable and 1,175 oral DMD-treated patients with MS. In unadjusted analyses, the proportion of patients adherent to therapy (MPR ≥0.8) did not differ significantly between the self-injectable (54.1%) and the oral DMD cohorts (53.0%; P=0.5075). After controlling for covariates, index DMD type was not a significant predictor of adherence (odds ratio [OR] 1.062; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.937–1.202; P=0.3473). Higher likelihood of adherence was associated with male sex (OR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.085–1.335; P=0.0005) and age groups older than 18–34 years (ORs 1.220–1.331; P<0.01). Depression was associated with a lower likelihood of adherence (OR 0.618; 95% CI: 0.511–0.747; P<0.0001). Conclusion Male sex and age older than 18–34 years were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of adherence, while depression was associated with a lower likelihood of adherence. Index DMD type

  7. A Methodology for the Optimization of Flow Rate Injection to Looped Water Distribution Networks through Multiple Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian León-Celi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal function of a water distribution network is reached when the consumer demands are satisfied using the lowest quantity of energy, maintaining the minimal pressure required at the same time. One way to achieve this is through optimization of flow rate injection based on the use of the setpoint curve concept. In order to obtain that, a methodology is proposed. It allows for the assessment of the flow rate and pressure head that each pumping station has to provide for the proper functioning of the network while the minimum power consumption is kept. The methodology can be addressed in two ways: the discrete method and the continuous method. In the first method, a finite set of combinations is evaluated between pumping stations. In the continuous method, the search for the optimal solution is performed using optimization algorithms. In this paper, Hooke–Jeeves and Nelder–Mead algorithms are used. Both the hydraulics and the objective function used by the optimization are solved through EPANET and its Toolkit. Two case studies are evaluated, and the results of the application of the different methods are discussed.

  8. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyondi D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee11Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7 were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

  9. Investigation of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) at multiple sites in post-delivery placentas derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Agata; Harmer, Karynn; Peters, Nicole; Yuen, Basil Ho; Ma, Sai

    2006-01-01

    Although earlier studies on pregnancies derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) reported increased non-mosaic aneuploidy among ICSI children, undetected mosaicism, such as confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has not been evaluated. We investigated the incidence of CPM in post-delivery placentas derived from ICSI, evaluated whether CPM was increased and whether it was a contributing factor to negative pregnancy outcome. [Fifty-one post-delivery placentas were collected from patients who underwent ICSI with a normal or negative pregnancy outcome]. Trophoblast and chorionic stroma from three sites were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and flow cytometry. Detected abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The incidence of CPM in the ICSI population was compared to the general population from published data. We detected three cases of CPM in our study. One abnormality was found by CGH analysis; partial trisomy 7q and a partial monosomy Xp limited to the trophoblast at two sites. The abnormality was associated with a child affected by spina bifida. Two cases of mosaic tetraploidy were observed by flow cytometry in pregnancies with a normal outcome. All three abnormalities were confirmed by FISH analysis. The incidence of CPM in the ICSI study population was 5.88% (3/51), which was not statistically different from published reports in the general population (5.88% (42/714), Chi square, P > 0.05). The post-ICSI population was not at risk for CPM in this study.

  10. Influence of multiple injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on urine and serum endogenous steroids concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Pralong, François; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2011-12-10

    Since it is established that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects testosterone production and release in the human body, the use of this hormone as a performance enhancing drug has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Nowadays, the only validated biomarker of a hCG doping is its direct quantification in urine. However, this specific parameter is subjected to large inter-individual variability and its determination is directly dependent on the reliability of hCG immunoassays used. In order to counteract these weaknesses, new biomarkers need to be evidenced. To address this issue, a pilot clinical study was performed on 10 volunteers submitted to 3 subsequent hCG injections. Blood and urine samples were collected during two weeks in order to follow the physiological effects on related compounds such as the steroid profile or hormones involved in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The hCG pharmacokinetic observed in all subjects was, as expected, prone to important inter-individual variations. Using ROC plots, level of testosterone and testosterone on luteinizing hormone ratio in both blood and urine were found to be the most relevant biomarker of a hCG abuse, regardless of inter-individual variations. In conclusion, this study showed the crucial importance of reliable quantification methods to assess low differences in hormonal patterns. In regard to these results and to anti-doping requirements and constraints, blood together with urine matrix should be included in the anti-doping testing program. Together with a longitudinal follow-up approach it could constitute a new strategy to detect a hCG abuse, applicable to further forms of steroid or other forbidden drug manipulation.

  11. Injection of Aβ1-40 into hippocampus induced cognitive lesion associated with neuronal apoptosis and multiple gene expressions in the tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Xiong, Liu-Lin; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Lei; Qian, Zhong-Yi; Zhang, Piao; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Gao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can incur significant health care costs to the patient, their families, and society; furthermore, effective treatments are limited, as the mechanisms of AD are not fully understood. This study utilized twelve adult male tree shrews (TS), which were randomly divided into PBS and amyloidbetapeptide1-40 (Aβ1-40) groups. AD model was established via an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Aβ1-40 after being incubated for 4 days at 37 °C. Behavioral, pathophysiological and molecular changes were evaluated by hippocampal-dependent tasks, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), silver staining, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, TUNEL assay and gene sequencing, respectively. At 4 weeks post-injection, as compared with the PBS group, in Aβ1-40 injected animals: cognitive impairments happened, and the hippocampus had atrophied indicated by MRI findings; meanwhile, HE staining showed the cells of the CA3 and DG were significantly thinner and smaller. The average number of cells in the DG, but not the CA3, was also significantly reduced; furthermore, silver staining revealed neurotic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampi; TUNEL assay showed many cells exhibited apoptosis, which was associated with downregulated BCL-2/BCL-XL-associated death promoter (Bad), inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), Cytochrome c (CytC) and upregulated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1); lastly, gene sequencing reported a total of 924 mobilized genes, among which 13 of the downregulated and 19 of the upregulated genes were common to the AD pathway. The present study not only established AD models in TS, but also reported on the underlying mechanism involved in neuronal apoptosis associated with multiple gene expression.

  12. A novel needle for subcutaneous injection of interferon beta-1a: effect on pain in volunteers and satisfaction in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prais Wes A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce injection pain and improve satisfaction, a thinner (29-gauge [29G], sharper (5-bevel needle than the 27G/3-bevel needle used previously to inject interferon (IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg subcutaneously (sc three times weekly (tiw, was developed for use in multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods Two clinical trials in healthy volunteers and five surveys of patients with MS were conducted to assess whether the 29G/5-bevel needle with a Thermo Plastic Elastomer (TPE needle shield (a sleeve that houses the tip of the needle in a secure location is an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle with a rubber shield for injection of IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg sc tiw. Parameters assessed were: pain and ease of insertion (healthy volunteer and nurse responses on subjective pain measurement scales; and patient satisfaction (surveys of patients with MS. Results In healthy volunteers, the 29G/5-bevel needle with TPE shield was associated with the least perceived pain on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS and Verbal VAS (VB-VAS; mean VAS pain scores decreased by 40% and skin penetration improved by 69% compared with the 27G/3-bevel needle with standard rubber shield (p Conclusion Together these studies indicate that the 29G/5-bevel needle with the TPE shield is an improvement over the 27G/3-bevel needle with standard rubber shield in terms of pain, ease of insertion and patient satisfaction. These improvements are expected to result in improved compliance in patients with MS treated with IFN beta-1a, 44 or 22 mcg sc tiw.

  13. Superluminal Physics and Instantaneous Physics as New Trends in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a similar way as passing from Euclidean Geometry to Non-Euclidean Geometry, we can pass from Subluminal Physics to Superluminal Physics, and further to Instantaneous Physics. In the lights of two consecutive successful CERN experiments with superlumi- nal particles in the Fall of 2011, we believe that these two new fields of research should begin developing.

  14. Voltage sag source location based on instantaneous energy detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Xinzhou, Dong; Wei, Kong

    2007-01-01

    Voltage sag is the major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of sensitive equipment. This paper presents the applications of instantaneous energy direction for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the analysis for system with distributed ge...... generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of the voltage sag source....

  15. Instantaneous detection of spatial gradient errors in differential GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have become a critical element of modern engineering and scientific applications. GPS is currently being used in the design of navigation systems for both civil and military aviation applications. Differential GPS carrier phase measurements between antennas provide a very precise measurement that is useful for these applications. In fact, ground infrastructure has already been implemented in the Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) to take advantage of these precise measurements for use in civil aviation. Furthermore, these antennas can also be used to detect and isolate certain signal-in-space (SIS) failures and anomalies that are hazardous to aviation applications, for example the ionospheric anomalies and ephemeris failures. This realization, in turn, has led to the development of numerous carrier-phase based monitors. One drawback of the majority of these monitors is that their performance within a given configuration is dependent on how antennas are paired to form double differences. In contrast, the null space monitor approach is developed to provide consistent detection performance regardless of how the antennas are paired which combines measurements from multiple, spatially separated ground antennas through a null space transformation. The instantaneous carrier phase monitor cannot detect all gradients due to the presence of integer ambiguities. These ambiguities cannot be resolved because the gradient magnitude is unknown a priori. Furthermore, it has been shown that the performance of such monitors is highly dependent on the reference antenna topology. The range of detectable gradients for all carrier phase monitors depends on two factors: the number of antennas and their configuration. Antenna configuration is often overlooked as a means to improve performance. and heuristic arguments typically prevail in the associated siting decisions. However. such heuristics do not provide the maximum detectable range of

  16. ExtaviJect® 30G device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: a prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeru G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Boeru,1 Ivan Milanov,2 Francesca De Robertis,3 Wojciech Kozubski,4 Michael Lang,5 Sònia Rojas-Farreras,6 Mark Tomlinson7 1Military Hospital, Bucharest, Romania; 2University Hospital Saint Naum, Sofia, Bulgaria; 3Department of Neurology, Vito Fazzi Hospital of Lecce, Lecce, Italy; 4Department of Neurology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 5NeuroPoint Patient Academy and Neurological Practice, Ulm, Germany; 6IMS Health, Barcelona, Spain; 7Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Background: The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®, a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients' and nurses' experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction. Methods: This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients' and nurses' experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9 and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D instruments, respectively. Results: Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98% received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93% attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97% patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related reported among the 227 (39

  17. Local injection of bortulinum toxin A at multiple points for decreasing the muscular tension of children with spastic cerebral palsy A comparative observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 70% children with cerebral palsy belong to the spastic one, and the increased muscular tension results in motor dysfunction and posture abnormality.OBJECTIVE: To observe the assistant effect of the local injection of BTX-A at multiple points in the rehabilitative treatment of spastic cerebral palsy.DESIGN: A comparative observation on the clinical efficacy.SETTINGS: Rehabilitation Center,Loufeng Hospital, Suzhou Industrial Park; Gansu Rehabilitation Center Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-nine children with cerebral palsy were selected from the outpatients and inpatients who accepted rehabilitative treatments in the Cerebral Palsy Treatment Center of Gansu Rehabilitation Center Hospital from April 2003 and October 2004. Inclusive criteria: ① Having high risk factors for brain injury before birth and within 1 month after birth, mainly manifested as central motor disorder and posture abnormality; ② Accompanied by increase of muscular tension in both lower limbs, appearing as tiptoes and scissors gaits while in standing position or walking; ③ Without fixed contracture of lower limb; ④ Had never been operated for lower limbs; ⑤ Had never been injected with BTX-A; ⑥ Clearly diagnosed to have spastic palsy. The enrolled children were not screened by disease conditions, course, age, etc., and informed consents were obtained from the parents of all the children. The children whose parents agreed to accept BTX-A treatment were taken as BTX-A treated group (n =45), and the others as control group (n = 24).METHODS: All the children accepted regular rehabilitative training after admission, 6 times a weeks,besides, those in the BTX-A treated group were given local injection of BTX-A at multiple points of target muscles, including bilateral adductor longus muscles, pectineal muscles, gastrocnemius muscles and soleus muscles. BTX-A was diluted with saline (5 U BTX-A in 0.1 mL), 3 - 4 U/kg for each piece of muscle. The number of injected sites

  18. Nonlinear structural joint model updating based on instantaneous characteristics of dynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuo-Cai; Xin, Yu; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new nonlinear joint model updating method for shear type structures based on the instantaneous characteristics of the decomposed structural dynamic responses. To obtain an accurate representation of a nonlinear system's dynamics, the nonlinear joint model is described as the nonlinear spring element with bilinear stiffness. The instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes of the decomposed mono-component are first extracted by the analytical mode decomposition (AMD) method. Then, an objective function based on the residuals of the instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes between the experimental structure and the nonlinear model is created for the nonlinear joint model updating. The optimal values of the nonlinear joint model parameters are obtained by minimizing the objective function using the simulated annealing global optimization method. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a single-story shear type structure subjected to earthquake and harmonic excitations is simulated as a numerical example. Then, a beam structure with multiple local nonlinear elements subjected to earthquake excitation is also simulated. The nonlinear beam structure is updated based on the global and local model using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed local nonlinear model updating method is more effective for structures with multiple local nonlinear elements. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the shake table test of a real high voltage switch structure. The accuracy of the proposed method is quantified both in numerical and experimental applications using the defined error indices. Both the numerical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively update the nonlinear joint model.

  19. Dynamics of Instantaneous Condensation in the ZRP Conditioned on an Atypical Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary J. Harris

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a generalized Doob’s h-transform we consider the zero-range process (ZRP conditioned to carry an atypical current, with focus on the regime where the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry loses its validity. For a single site we compute explicitly the boundary injection and absorption rates of an effective process which maps to a biased random walk. Our approach provides a direct probabilistic confirmation of the theory of “instantaneous condensation” which was proposed some while ago to explain the dynamical origin of the the failure of the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry for high currents in the ZRP. However, it turns out that for stochastic dynamics with infinite state space care needs to be taken in the application of the Doob’s transform—we discuss in detail the sense in which the effective dynamics can be interpreted as “typical” for different regimes of the current phase diagram.

  20. Instantaneous power theory and applications to power conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Akagi, Hirofumi; Aredes, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    This new edition, written by a team of experts in the field, is fully updated with information on the latest electric power technology. The instantaneous power theory, or “the p-q theory,” makes clear the physical meaning of what instantaneous real and imaginary power is in a three-phase circuit. Moreover, it provides insight into how energy flows from a source to a load, or circulates between phases, in a three-phase circuit. This theory can be used in the design and understanding of FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) compensators. The book introduces many concepts in the field of active filtering that are unique to this edition. It provides a study tool for final year undergraduate students, graduate students and engineers dealing ith harmonic pollution problems, reactive power compensation or power quality in general.

  1. Analysis of nonlinear behavior of loudspeakers using the instantaneous frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hai; Jacobsen, Finn

    2003-01-01

    It is well know that the weakest link in a sound reproduction chain is the loudspeaker. The most significant effect on the sound quality is nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Many methods are applied to analyze the nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Almost all of the methods are based...... on the Fourier transform. In this work, a new method using the instantaneous frequency is introduced for describing and characterizing loudspeaker nonlinearities. First, numerical integration is applied to simulate the nonlinearities of loudspeakers caused by two nonlinear parameters, force factor and stiffness......, separately. Then, a practical loudspeaker is used in an experiment and its nonlinear characteristics are analyzed with the instantaneous frequency. The results provide a clear physical interpretation of the nonlinearities of loudspeakers and will be useful for understanding the nonlinear behavior...

  2. Instantaneous frequency measurement of dissipative soliton resonant light pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Armas-Rivera, I; Carrascosa, A; Kuzin, E A; Beltrán-Pérez, G; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-12-15

    We measured the instantaneous frequency profile of two different dissipative soliton resonant (DSR) light pulses, the usual flat-top and less-common trapezoid-shaped light pulses. The DSR light pulses were provided by an ytterbium-doped polarization-maintaining fiber ring passively mode-locked laser using the adequately selected amount of net-normal dispersion. We confirmed that the DSR light pulses have a (moderately) low linear chirp across the pulse, except at the edges, where the chirp changes exponentially. This unique instantaneous frequency behavior can be succinctly resumed by the following parameters: linear chirp slope and leading and trailing chirp lifetimes. As the pump power increases, the linear chirp slope decreases, whereas the leading and trailing chirp lifetimes do not show an appreciable change. The results are compared with previous theoretical works.

  3. INSTANTANEOUS SHRINKING AND LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTIONS IN AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the instantaneous shrinking and localization of the support of functions in Yλ (r, p, q, N) and their applications to some nonlinear parabolic equations including the porous medium equation ut = Δum - uq, m > 0, q > 0 and the p-Laplace equation ut = div(|▽u|p-2▽u) - uq, p > 1, q > 0. In particular, as an application of the results, the necessary and sufficient condition for the solutions of the above p-Laplace equation with nonnegative finite Borel measures as initial conditions to have the instantaneous shrinking property of the support is obtained. This is an answer to an open problem posed by R. Kersner and A. Shishkov.

  4. ExtaviJect® 30G device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: a prospective European study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeru, Gabriel; Milanov, Ivan; De Robertis, Francesca; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lang, Michael; Rojas-Farreras, Sònia; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The ExtaviJect® 30G autoinjector was developed to facilitate parenteral self-administration of interferon beta-1b (Extavia®), a first-line disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to assess patient compliance with treatment when using the autoinjector, patients’ and nurses’ experiences of using the device, its tolerability, and patient satisfaction. Methods This was a 12-week, real-world, prospective, observational, noninterventional study conducted in nine European countries. Questionnaires were used to measure patient compliance and to assess patients’ and nurses’ experiences. All adverse events were recorded by severity, including injection site reactions or pain. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) instruments, respectively. Results Of 582 patients enrolled, 568 (98%) received at least one injection and attended the first follow-up visit at 6 weeks, and 542 (93%) attended the second follow-up visit at 12 weeks. For the whole study, 548 of 568 (97%) patients were compliant with treatment. Among the various questions assessing whether the device was easy and quick to use accurately, without fear of the needle, 56%–98% of patients and 59%–98% of nurses were in agreement. There were nine serious adverse events (four disease-related) reported among the 227 (39%) patients reporting adverse events. Scores increased in the TSQM-9 convenience domain between weeks 6 and 12 (P=0.0009), and in the EQ-5D visual analog scale between baseline and week 12 (P<0.0001), indicating improvement in health-related quality of life. Conclusion ExtaviJect 30G was convenient to use and was associated with high levels of compliance. PMID:24255602

  5. Hypoglycemic Event Frequency and the Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Using Multiple Daily Insulin Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddlesworth, Tonya; Price, David; Cohen, Nathan; Beck, Roy W

    2017-08-01

    The benefits of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in type 1 diabetes have been established among adults using insulin pumps. The DIAMOND randomized clinical trial examined the effectiveness of using CGM in improving glycemic control in participants using insulin injections. The frequency of hypoglycemic events in this trial has not been previously examined. Adults with type 1 diabetes using multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) with A1C values of 7.5% to 9.9% and not using CGM were randomized to adopt CGM (CGM group, n = 105) or continue with usual care (control group, n = 53). CGM data were collected from both groups at the beginning of the study and after 3 and 6 months. A hypoglycemic event was defined as a series of at least CGM values less than 3.0 mmol/L, separated by 20 min or more, with no intervening values of 3.0 mmol/L or more. Hypoglycemic event rates per 24 h were compared using a linear model adjusted for the baseline event rate per 24 h, baseline A1C, and site as a random effect. In the CGM group, the median hypoglycemic event rate fell by 30% (0.23 per 24 h at baseline and 0.16 per 24 h at follow-up) while in the control group the rate was nearly unchanged (0.31 per 24 h at baseline and 0.30 per 24 h at follow-up; p value = 0.03). In the DIAMOND randomized controlled trial, participants in the CGM group experienced a greater reduction in hypoglycemic event rate than participants receiving usual care in the control group. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02282397.

  6. Quality of life in Danish children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkebaek, N H; Kristensen, L J; Mose, A H; Thastum, M

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a National Danish population of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with either continuous subcutaneous insulin injection (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI), and to investigate whether HRQoL assessments were influenced by treatment duration. Participants were recruited through the Danish Registry for Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence. A total of 700 children and adolescents (360 girls), 8-17 years, were included. Of these, 295 were treated with CSII (160 for more than one year) and 405 with MDI (238 for more than one year). Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes and Generic Module. HbA1c was analyzed centrally. Parents reported children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year to have less diabetes-related symptoms and worry, less problems in communicating diabetes, and better generic functioning compared with those on MDI. Children and adolescents on CSII for more than one year reported less diabetes-related symptoms, but more treatment problems, and better generic functioning in all subscales except social functioning compared with those on MDI for more than one year. Comparing those on CSII and MDI for less than one year, no differences in HRQoL ratings were found, apart from better rating of treatment barriers in the MDI group. This Danish national study on HRQoL in children and adolescents on CSII or MDI showed better HRQoL in children and adolescents on long time CSII, particularly concerning generic HRQoL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Instantaneous Properties of Wave Slamming on the Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the instantaneous properties of wave slamming on the plate structure of an open structure. The advanced instantaneous measuring technique-Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is applied to acquire the instantaneous velocity field of wave slamming. From the cross-correlation analysis results of the images captured by the CCD camera, the flow fields of wave impacting on the structure are displayed visually, and the instantaneous whole-field fluid velocity vectors are obtained. The relation between the instantaneous peak impacting pressures and the instantaneous velocities of water particles is studied by probability analysis.

  8. Instantaneous GNSS attitude determination: A Monte Carlo sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiucong; Han, Chao; Chen, Pei

    2017-04-01

    A novel instantaneous GNSS ambiguity resolution approach which makes use of only single-frequency carrier phase measurements for ultra-short baseline attitude determination is proposed. The Monte Carlo sampling method is employed to obtain the probability density function of ambiguities from a quaternion-based GNSS-attitude model and the LAMBDA method strengthened with a screening mechanism is then utilized to fix the integer values. Experimental results show that 100% success rate could be achieved for ultra-short baselines.

  9. Probability density functions of instantaneous Stokes parameters on weak scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Korotkova, Olga

    2017-10-01

    The single-point probability density functions (PDF) of the instantaneous Stokes parameters of a polarized plane-wave light field scattered from a three-dimensional, statistically stationary, weak medium with Gaussian statistics and Gaussian correlation function have been studied for the first time. Apart from the scattering geometry the PDF distributions of the scattered light have been related to the illumination's polarization state and the correlation properties of the medium.

  10. Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter Kernel for the Lightest Pseudoscalar Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Lucha, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a phenomenologically successful, numerical solution of the Dyson-Schwinger equation that governs the quark propagator, we reconstruct in detail the interaction kernel that has to enter the instantaneous approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation to allow us to describe the lightest pseudoscalar mesons as quark-antiquark bound states exhibiting the (almost) masslessness necessary for them to be interpretable as the (pseudo) Goldstone bosons related to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of quantum chromodynamics.

  11. Instantaneous Wavelet Energetic Transfers between Atmospheric Blocking and Local Eddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Aimé

    2005-07-01

    A new wavelet energetics technique, based on best-shift orthonormal wavelet analysis (OWA) of an instantaneous synoptic map, is constructed for diagnosing nonlinear kinetic energy (KE) transfers in five observed blocking cases. At least 90% of the longitudinal variance of time and latitude band mean 50-kPa geopotential is reconstructed by only two wavelets using best shift. This superior efficiency to the standard OWAs persists for time-evolving structures. The cases comprise two categories, respectively dominated by zonal-wavenumber sets {1} and {1, 2}. Further OWA of instantaneous residual nonblocking structures, combined with new “nearness” criteria, yields three more orthogonal components, representing smaller-scale eddies near the block (upstream and downstream) and distant structures. This decomposition fulfills a vision expressed to the author by Saltzman. Such a decomposition is not obtainable by simple Fourier analysis.Eddy patterns apparent in the components' contours suggest inferring geostrophic energetic interactions, but the component Rossby numbers may be too large to support the inference. However, a new result enabled by this method is the instantaneous attribution of blocking strain-field effects to particular energetically interactive eddies, consistent with Shutts' hypothesis. Such attribution was only possible before in simplified models or in a time-average sense. In four of five blocks, the upstream eddies feed KE to the block, which in turn, in three of four cases, transmits KE to the downstream eddies. The small case size precludes statistically significant conclusions. The appendixes link low-order blocking structure and dynamics to some wavelet design principles and propose a new interaction diagnosis, similar to E-vector analysis, but instantaneous.

  12. Instantaneous Point, Line, and Plane Motions Using a Clifford Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwun-Lon Ting; Yi Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The motions of points, lines, and planes, embedded in a rigid body are expressed in a unified algebraic framework using a Clifford algebra. A Clifford algebra based displacement operator is addressed and its higher derivatives from which the coordinate-independent characteristic numbers with simple geometric meaning are defined. Because of the coordinate independent feature, no tedious coordinate transformation typically found in the conventional instantaneous invariants methods is needed.

  13. INSTANTANEOUS AND INTEGRAL POWER EQUATIONS OF NONSINUSOIDAL 3-PHASE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iu.A. Sirotin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify the mathematical relationship between the instantaneous powers (classical and vectorial and integral powers in non-sinusoidal mode and to get complex form of instantaneous powers in 3-phase 4-wire power supply in terms of the spectral approach. Methodology. We have applied the vector approach with one voice allows you to analyze the energy characteristics of 3-phase power supply circuits (for 4-wire and 3-wire circuits in sinusoidal and non–sinusoidal mode, both the time domain and frequency domain. We have used 3-dimensional representation of the energy waveforms with the complex multi-dimensional Fourier series. Results. For 4-wire network with a non-sinusoidal (regardless of their symmetry processes, we have developed the mathematical model one-dimensional representations of the complex form for the active (scalar instantaneous power (IP and 3-dimensional form (inactive vectorial IP. It is possible to obtain two dual integral power equations for complex scalar and vector integrated power of non-sinusoidal modes. The power equations generalize generalizes the equations of sinusoidal modes for 4-wire network. Originality. In addition to the classification of energy local regimes in the time domain for the first time we spent the classification of non-sinusoidal modes in the spectral region and showed the value and importance of the classification of regimes based on the instantaneous powers. Practical value. The practical value the obtained equations is the possibility of their use for improving the quality of electricity supply and the quality electricity consumption.

  14. Voltage Sag Source Location Based on Instantaneous Energy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Kong, Wei; Dong, Xinzhou

    2008-01-01

    Voltage sag is a major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of voltage-sensitive equipment. This paper presents the method based on variation components-based instantaneous energy for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the thorough analysi...... for system with distributed generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of voltage sag source....

  15. Range-instantaneous Doppler imaging of inverse synthetic aperture sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jia; JIANG Xingzhou; TANG Jingsong

    2003-01-01

    Because the existing range-Doppler algorithm in inverse synthetic aperture sonar (ISAS) is based on target model of uniform motion, it may be invalidated for maneuvering targets due to the time-varying changes of both individual scatter′s Doppler and imaging projection plane. To resolve the problem, a new range-instantaneous Doppler imaging method is proposed for imaging maneuvering targets based on time-frequency analysis. The proposed approach is verified using real underwater acoustic data.

  16. Automatic first-break picking using the instantaneous traveltime attribute

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Picking the first breaks is an important step in seismic processing. The large volume of the seismic data calls for automatic and objective picking. We introduce a new automatic first-break picker, which uses specifically designed time windows and an iterative procedure based on the instantaneous traveltime attribute. The method is fast as it only uses a few FFT\\'s per trace. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this automatic method by applying it on real test data.

  17. Smooth and fast versus instantaneous quenches in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sumit R; Myers, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    We examine in detail the relationship between smooth fast quantum quenches, characterized by a time scale $\\delta t$, and instantaneous quenches, within the framework of exactly solvable mass quenches in free scalar field theory. We study UV finite quantities like correlators at finite spatial distances and the excess energy produced above the final ground state energy. We show that at late times and large distances (compared to the quench time scale) the correlator approaches the instantaneous quench correlator. At early times, we find that for small spatial separation and small $\\delta t$, the correlator scales universally with $\\delta t$, exactly as in the scaling of renormalized one point functions found in earlier work. At larger separation, the dependence on $\\delta t$ drops out. The excess energy also scales in a universal fashion: in the $m\\delta t \\rightarrow0$ limit it is finite for $d \\leq 3$ and agrees with the instantaneous quench, while it is divergent in higher dimensions. We argue that similar...

  18. Decay ratio estimation using the instantaneous autocorrelation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Fernandez, Jose E.; Prieto-Guerrero, Alfonso [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto, E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.m [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The ACEDR measure reflects major long-term changes in BWR stability. {yields} Synthetic and real neutronic signals were used to validate the method. {yields} The method was tested on the Laguna Verde Unit 1. {yields} The method was tested in three events reported in the Ringhals stability benchmark. {yields} The ACEDR measure exhibits a series of interesting properties. {yields} The ACEDR can detect long signal trends. - Abstract: In this paper a novel method based on the instantaneous autocorrelation function (IACF) is proposed to determine the time evolution of the linear stability parameters of a boiling water reactor (BWR) using neutronic noise signals. The IACF allow us to track the instantaneous signal envelope changes in time by defining an envelope instantaneous decay ratio (EIDR) which is used as a measure of local stability. In order to account for long-term changes in BWR stability, the accumulated envelope-based decay ratio (ACEDR) measure is introduced as the product of the local EIDRs. As it is shown in this paper, the ACEDR measure clearly reflects major long-term changes in BWR stability. Last the natural resonant frequency of the nuclear reactor is estimated from the Fourier transform of a weighted version of the IACF called generalized local autocorrelation function (GLACF). In order to validate our method, synthetic and real neutronic signals were used. The methodology was tested on the Laguna Verde Unit 1 and three events reported in the Ringhals stability benchmark.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Amygdalin and Paeoniflorin After Single and Multiple Intravenous Infusions of Huoxue-Tongluo Lyophilized Powder for Injection in Healthy Chinese Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; Zhang, Run; Sun, Chenglong; Gong, Chuting; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li

    2016-02-01

    Huoxue-Tongluo lyophilized powder for injection (HTLPI), a traditional Chinese medicine preparation, is a compound of Persicae semen and Paeoniae Radix Rubra that is used mainly for treating blood-stasis obstruction syndrome in the acute stage of cerebral ischemic stroke. Amygdalin (AD) and paeoniflorin (PF) are 2 typical bioactive components in HTLPI and were selected as indicators for this pharmacokinetic study of HTLPI. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety profile, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF after single and multiple intravenous infusions of HTLPI in healthy Chinese volunteers. Twenty-one healthy Chinese subjects were recruited for this open-label, single ascending-dose (3, 6, and 9 g) and multiple-dose (6 g, once daily) study. Safety profile was assessed by adverse events and physical examination throughout the study. Serial plasma and urine samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters of AD and PF were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. In the single-dose phase of the study, the mean maximum plasma concentration and the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve of AD and PF increased proportionally with each dose escalation. In the multiple-dose phase, the steady state was achieved by day 4 after multiple-dose administration of 6 g HTLPI. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters achieved on day 1 were similar to those on day 7. No significant accumulation was observed after repeat doses of 6 g HTLPI. Approximately 79.6% of the administered AD and 48.4% of the administered PF were excreted unchanged in urine within 24 hours. No serious adverse events were observed during the entire study. The pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF were linear after a single intravenous infusion of HTLPI in the dose range of 3-9 g. No systemic accumulation was observed with repeat doses of HTLPI. Sex had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF. Intravenous infusion of

  20. Model for the determination of instantaneous values of the velocity, instantaneous, and average acceleration for 100-m sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanjiĆ, NataŠa J; Kapor, Darko V; Doder, Dragan V; Doder, Radoslava Z; SaviĆ, Biljana V

    2014-12-01

    Temporal patterns of running velocity is of profound interest for coaches and researchers involved in sprint racing. In this study, we applied a nonhomogeneous differential equation for the motion with resistance force proportional to the velocity for the determination of the instantaneous velocity and instantaneous and average acceleration in the sprinter discipline at 100 m. Results obtained for the instantaneous velocity in this study using the presented model indicate good agreement with values measured directly, which is a good verification of the proposed procedure. To perform a comprehensive analysis of the applicability of the results obtained, the harmonic canon of running for the 100-m sprint discipline was formed. Using the data obtained by the measurement of split times for segments of 100-m run of the sprinters K. Lewis (1988), M. Green (2001), and U. Bolt (2009), the method described yielded results that enable comparative analysis of the kinematical parameters for each sprinter. Further treatment allowed the derivation of the ideal harmonic velocity canon of running, which can be helpful to any coach in evaluating the results achieved at particular distances in this and other disciplines. The method described can be applied for the analysis of any race.

  1. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  2. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  3. [Prevalence of Dental Caries in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Multiple Insulin Injections and that of Individuals without Diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Diogo; Coelho, Ana; Paula, Anabela; Caramelo, Francisco; Carrilho, Francisco; Barros, Luísa; Batista, Carla; Melo, Miguel; Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Eunice

    2017-05-31

    In addition to macro and microvascular complications that are associated with the disease, hyperglycaemia is also a risk factor for several oral complications. The aim of this study is to establish a relationship between dental caries in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with multiple insulin injections and that of individuals without diabetes. It is also an aim to characterize the oral hygiene habits of this population. An observational clinical study of analytical and cross-sectional nature was conducted. Thirty patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 individuals without diabetes were observed and questioned about information regarding their medical history. Oral examination was conducted according to the standards of the World Health Organization and ICDAS was used for caries detection. Statistical analysis was performed and the significance level was set at 5%. Patients with diabetes mellitus showed similar caries levels to that of individuals without diabetes. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a higher dental plaque index. Only 10% of the patients having episodes of nocturnal hypoglycaemia brush their teeth after glucose intake. Although there's some controversy in the literature regarding the prevalence of caries in patients with diabetes mellitus, the results are in agreement with a great number of studies. However, patients with diabetes mellitus have a higher plaque index which can be associated with a higher risk for developing certain oral pathologies. No statistically significant association was found between type 1 diabetes mellitus and dental caries.

  4. Study on the instantaneous protection reliability of low voltage circuit breakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-guo; DU Tai-hang; LUO Yan-yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of enhancing the instantaneous protection reliability of low voltage circuit breakers and describes their main failure modes. The instantaneous failure mechanism of low voltage circuit breakers was analyzed so that measures to improve instantaneous protection reliability can be determined. Furthermore, the theory of the instantaneous characteristics Calibration device for low voltage circuit breakers and the method of eliminating the non-periodic component of test current are given in detail. Finally, the test results are presented.

  5. Emission factors for passenger cars: application of instantaneous emission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Peter; Keller, Mario

    This paper discusses the use of 'instantaneous' high-resolution (1 Hz) emission data for the estimation of passenger car emissions during real-world driving. Extensive measurements of 20 EURO-I gasoline passenger cars have been used to predict emission factors for standard (i.e. legislative) as well as non-standard (i.e. real-world) driving patterns. It is shown that emission level predictions based upon chassis dynamometer tests over standard driving cycles significantly underestimate emission levels during real-world driving. The emission characteristics of modern passenger cars equipped with a three-way catalytic converter are a low, basic emission level on the one hand, and frequent emission 'peaks' on the other. For real-world driving, up to one-half of the entire emission can be emitted during these short-lasting peaks. Their frequency depends on various factors, including the level of 'dynamics' (speed variation) of the driving pattern. Because of this, the use of average speed as the only parameter to characterize emissions over a specific driving pattern is not sufficient. The instantaneous emissions approach uses an additional parameter representing engine load in order to resolve the differences between driving patterns with comparable average speeds but different levels of 'dynamics'. The paper includes an investigation of different statistical indicators and discusses methods to further improve the prediction capability of the instantaneous emission approach. The fundamental differences in emission-reduction strategies between different car manufacturers make the task of constructing a model valid for all catalyst passenger cars seemingly impossible, if the model is required to predict both fleet-averaged emission levels and emission factors for driving patterns of short duration for individual vehicles simultaneously.

  6. Differential Entropy and the Statistics of Instantaneous Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    1 A)AISB 047 DIFFERENIIAL ENTROPY AND THE STATISTICS OF i/IA E INSIANTANEOUS FAILURE(UI NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON N F D C A K RAJAOOPAL ET AL. 23...AUG 85 NRL -5627 FNCLASSIFIED /O 12/ NL""lIll"""l 1 0_ 12- 25 1111MI1I" 1111I NRL Memorandum Report 5627 Differential Entropy and the Statistics of...ACCESSiON NO 61153N 02-42 DN180-023 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Differential Entropy and the Statistics of Instantaneous Failure Ŗ PERSONAL

  7. Patient-rated suitability of a novel electronic device for self-injection of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis: an international, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IIIb study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdun di Cantogno Elisabetta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS currently requires long-term treatment with disease-modifying drugs, administered parenterally up to once daily. The need for regular self-injection can be a barrier to treatment for many patients. Autoinjectors can help patients overcome problems or concerns with self-injection and could, therefore, improve treatment adherence. This study was performed to assess the suitability of a new electronic device for the subcutaneous (sc administration of interferon (IFN beta-1a, 44 mcg three times weekly, for relapsing MS. Methods In this Phase IIIb, multicentre, single-arm study, patients with relapsing MS who had been consistently self-injecting sc IFN beta-1a using an autoinjector for at least 6 weeks were taught to use the new device and self-administered treatment for 12 weeks thereafter. Patient-rated suitability of the device was assessed at the end of Week 12 using the Patient User Trial Questionnaire. Patient satisfaction with, and evaluation of, the injection process was assessed using the MS Treatment Concern Questionnaire. Trainers evaluated the device using the Trainer User Trial Questionnaire. Results At Week 12, 71.6% (73/102 of patients considered the device 'very suitable' or 'suitable' for self-injection; 92.2% (94/102 reported some degree of suitability and only 7.8% (8/102 found the device 'not at all suitable'. At Weeks 4, 8 and 12, most patients reported that injection preparation and clean-up, performing injections and ease of device use in the previous 4 weeks compared favourably with, or was equivalent to, their previous experience of self-injection. Injection-related pain, injection reactions and 'flu-like' symptoms remained stable over the 12 weeks. Each device feature was rated 'very useful' or 'useful' by at least 80% of patients. All trainers and 95.2% (99/104 of patients found device functions 'very easy' or 'easy' to use. Overall convenience was considered the most important

  8. Patient-rated suitability of a novel electronic device for self-injection of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis: an international, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IIIb study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) currently requires long-term treatment with disease-modifying drugs, administered parenterally up to once daily. The need for regular self-injection can be a barrier to treatment for many patients. Autoinjectors can help patients overcome problems or concerns with self-injection and could, therefore, improve treatment adherence. This study was performed to assess the suitability of a new electronic device for the subcutaneous (sc) administration of interferon (IFN) beta-1a, 44 mcg three times weekly, for relapsing MS. Methods In this Phase IIIb, multicentre, single-arm study, patients with relapsing MS who had been consistently self-injecting sc IFN beta-1a using an autoinjector for at least 6 weeks were taught to use the new device and self-administered treatment for 12 weeks thereafter. Patient-rated suitability of the device was assessed at the end of Week 12 using the Patient User Trial Questionnaire. Patient satisfaction with, and evaluation of, the injection process was assessed using the MS Treatment Concern Questionnaire. Trainers evaluated the device using the Trainer User Trial Questionnaire. Results At Week 12, 71.6% (73/102) of patients considered the device 'very suitable' or 'suitable' for self-injection; 92.2% (94/102) reported some degree of suitability and only 7.8% (8/102) found the device 'not at all suitable'. At Weeks 4, 8 and 12, most patients reported that injection preparation and clean-up, performing injections and ease of device use in the previous 4 weeks compared favourably with, or was equivalent to, their previous experience of self-injection. Injection-related pain, injection reactions and 'flu-like' symptoms remained stable over the 12 weeks. Each device feature was rated 'very useful' or 'useful' by at least 80% of patients. All trainers and 95.2% (99/104) of patients found device functions 'very easy' or 'easy' to use. Overall convenience was considered the most important benefit of the device

  9. Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinner, Joachim; Willert, Christian

    2012-08-01

    Tomographic shadowgraphy is an image-based optical technique capable of reconstructing the three dimensional instantaneous spray distributions within a given volume. The method is based on a multiple view imaging setup with inline illumination provided by current-pulsed LEDs, which results in droplet shadows being projected onto multiple sensor planes. Each camera records image pairs with short inter-framing times that allow the trajectories of the individual droplets to be estimated using conventional three-dimensional particle tracking approaches. The observed volume is calibrated with a traversed micro-target. A comparison is made between several photogrammetric and polynomial least-square camera calibration techniques regarding their accuracy in deep volume calibration at magnifications close to unity. A calibration method based on volume calibration from multiple planar homographies at equally spaced z-planes was found to produce the most reliable calibration. The combination of back-projected images at each voxel plane efficiently reproduces the droplet positions in three-dimensional space by line-of-sight (LOS) intensity reconstruction. Further improvement of the reconstruction can be achieved by iterative tomographic reconstruction, namely simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART). The quality of spray reconstruction is investigated using experimental data from multiple view shadowgraphs of hollow cone and flat fan water sprays. The investigations are further substantiated with simulations using synthetic data.

  10. Tomographic shadowgraphy for three-dimensional reconstruction of instantaneous spray distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinner, Joachim; Willert, Christian [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Propulsion Technology, Measurement Technology, Cologne (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Tomographic shadowgraphy is an image-based optical technique capable of reconstructing the three dimensional instantaneous spray distributions within a given volume. The method is based on a multiple view imaging setup with inline illumination provided by current-pulsed LEDs, which results in droplet shadows being projected onto multiple sensor planes. Each camera records image pairs with short inter-framing times that allow the trajectories of the individual droplets to be estimated using conventional three-dimensional particle tracking approaches. The observed volume is calibrated with a traversed micro-target. A comparison is made between several photogrammetric and polynomial least-square camera calibration techniques regarding their accuracy in deep volume calibration at magnifications close to unity. A calibration method based on volume calibration from multiple planar homographies at equally spaced z-planes was found to produce the most reliable calibration. The combination of back-projected images at each voxel plane efficiently reproduces the droplet positions in three-dimensional space by line-of-sight (LOS) intensity reconstruction. Further improvement of the reconstruction can be achieved by iterative tomographic reconstruction, namely simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART). The quality of spray reconstruction is investigated using experimental data from multiple view shadowgraphs of hollow cone and flat fan water sprays. The investigations are further substantiated with simulations using synthetic data. (orig.)

  11. Multiple response optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with sample injection as detergent emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F.; Robaina, Nicolle F.; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O.; Cassella, Ricardo J.

    2011-05-01

    The present paper reports the optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) employing a strategy based on the injection of the samples as detergent emulsions. The method was optimized in relation to the experimental conditions for the emulsion formation and taking into account that the three analytes (Cu, Fe and Pb) should be measured in the same emulsion. The optimization was performed in a multivariate way by employing a three-variable Doehlert design and a multiple response strategy. For this purpose, the individual responses of the three analytes were combined, yielding a global response that was employed as a dependent variable. The three factors related to the optimization process were: the concentration of HNO 3, the concentration of the emulsifier agent (Triton X-100 or Triton X-114) in aqueous solution used to emulsify the sample and the volume of solution. At optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain satisfactory results with an emulsion formed by mixing 4 mL of the samples with 1 mL of a 4.7% w/v Triton X-100 solution prepared in 10% v/v HNO 3 medium. The resulting emulsion was stable for 250 min, at least, and provided enough sensitivity to determine the three analytes in the five samples tested. A recovery test was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimized procedure and recovery rates, in the range of 88-105%; 94-118% and 95-120%, were verified for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively.

  12. Use and Effectiveness of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) and Multiple Daily Insulin Injection Therapy (MIT) in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, R; Burgard, D; Perenthaler, T; Stein, G; Kramer, G; Steveling, A

    2016-02-01

    Today continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is frequently used in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The present cross-sectional trial aimed to document current practice, quality of diabetes control and incidence of acute complications in different age-groups under CSII vs. multiple daily insulin injection therapy (MIT). Moreover the survey analyzed socio-demographic backgrounds of the patients. A total of 901 patients (age 11.5±4.0, diabetes duration 4.0±3.6 years) was entered in the database. Clinical data, laboratory parameters and, using a standardized questionnaire, socio-demographic data were assessed. For age-related analyses patients were allocated to 4 groups: pre-school children (MIT. Patients with CSII vs. MIT had a longer diabetes duration, they used more frequently insulin analogues, performed more frequently blood-glucose self-tests and had a lower insulin dosage per kilogram body weight. In respect of HbA1c, the mean amplitude of blood-glucose excursions, but also of lipids, creatinine, microalbuminuria and blood pressure, there were no differences in neither age-group between patients with CSII and MIT. In patients with CSII and MIT, there was a tendency (pMIT there is an increase of HbA1c towards adolescence. It must also highlighted that CSII seems to be expansive and that CSII is more frequently used in patients with better educational levels and deriving from higher social classes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Multiple response optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with sample injection as detergent emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, A. Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, Vicosa/MG, 36570-000 (Brazil); Robaina, Nicolle F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de S.J. Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-141 (Brazil); Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. [Petrobras, Cenpes/PDEDS/QM, Av. Horacio Macedo 950, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-915 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de S.J. Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The present paper reports the optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) employing a strategy based on the injection of the samples as detergent emulsions. The method was optimized in relation to the experimental conditions for the emulsion formation and taking into account that the three analytes (Cu, Fe and Pb) should be measured in the same emulsion. The optimization was performed in a multivariate way by employing a three-variable Doehlert design and a multiple response strategy. For this purpose, the individual responses of the three analytes were combined, yielding a global response that was employed as a dependent variable. The three factors related to the optimization process were: the concentration of HNO{sub 3}, the concentration of the emulsifier agent (Triton X-100 or Triton X-114) in aqueous solution used to emulsify the sample and the volume of solution. At optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain satisfactory results with an emulsion formed by mixing 4 mL of the samples with 1 mL of a 4.7% w/v Triton X-100 solution prepared in 10% v/v HNO{sub 3} medium. The resulting emulsion was stable for 250 min, at least, and provided enough sensitivity to determine the three analytes in the five samples tested. A recovery test was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimized procedure and recovery rates, in the range of 88-105%; 94-118% and 95-120%, were verified for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively.

  14. A 16-Week Open-Label, Multicenter Pilot Study Assessing Insulin Pump Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Suboptimally Controlled with Multiple Daily Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Juan P; Bode, Bruce W; Bailey, Timothy S; Kipnes, Mark S; Brunelle, Rocco; Edelman, Steven V

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of insulin pump therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were suboptimally controlled with a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen. Methods In this subanalysis of a 16-week multicenter study, 21 insulin-pump-naïve patients [age 57 ± 13 years, hemoglobin A1c (A1C) 8.4 ± 1.0%, body weight 98 ± 20 kg, total daily insulin dose 99 ± 65 U, mean ± standard deviation] treated at baseline with MDI therapy with or without oral antidiabetic agents discontinued all diabetes medications except metformin and initiated insulin pump therapy. Insulin was titrated to achieve the best possible glycemic control with the simplest possible dosing regimen. Outcome measures included A1C, fasting and postprandial glucose, body weight, incidence of hypoglycemia, and PROs. Results Glycemic control improved significantly after 16 weeks: A1C 7.3 ± 1.0% (−1.1 ± 1.2%, p insulin doses were 66 ± 36, 56 ± 40, and 122 ± 72 U (1.2 U/kg), respectively, and 90% of patients were treated with two or fewer daily basal rates. Body weight increased by 2.8 ± 2.6 kg (p Insulin pump therapy using a relatively simple dosing regimen safely improved glucose control and PROs in patients with T2DM who were unable to achieve glycemic targets with MDI therapy. Controlled trials are needed to further assess the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps in this patient population. PMID:21880230

  15. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12-month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, R; Reznik, Y; Conget, I; Castañeda, J A; Runzis, S; Lee, S W; Cohen, O

    2016-05-01

    To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. After a 2-month dose-optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6-month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (-1.1 ± 1.2% vs -0.4 ± 1.1%; p pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI-pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Instantaneous velocity profile measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Instantaneous wall shear stress and streamwise velocities have been measured simultaneously in a flat-plate, turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number in an effort to provide experimental support for large eddy simulations. Data were obtained using a buried-wire, wall shear gage and a hot-wire rake positioned in the log region of the flow. Fluctuations of the instantaneous U(+) versus Y(+) profiles about a mean law of the wall are shown to be significant and complex. Peak cross-correlation values between wall shear stress and the velocities are high, and reflect the passage of a large structure inclined at a small angle to the wall. Estimates of this angle are consistent with those made by other investigators. Conditional sampling techniques were used to detect the passage of various sizes and types of flow disturbances (events), and to estimate their mean frequency of occurrence. Events characterized by large aand sudden streamwise accelerations were found to be highly coherent throughout the log region and were strongly correlated with large fluctuations in wall shear stress. Phase randomness between the near-wall quantities and the outer velocities was small. The results suggest that the flow events detected by conditional sampling applied to velocities in the log region may be related to the bursting process.

  17. Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation and Its Exact Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chao-Hsi; CHEN Jiao-Kai; LI Xue-Qian; WANG Guo-Li

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to solve Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equations exactly without any approximation if the kernel of the BS equations exactly is instantaneous, and take positronium as an example to illustrate the general features of the exact solutions. The key step for the approach is from the BS equations to derive a set of coupled and welldetermined integration equations in linear eigenvalue for the components of the BS wave functions equivalently, which may be solvable numerically under a controlled accuracy, even though there is no analytic solution. For positronium,the exact solutions precisely present corrections to those of the corresponding Schrodinger equation in order v1 (v is the relative velocity) for eigenfunctions, in order v2 for eigenvalues, and the mixing between S and D components in JPC = 1- states etc., quantitatively. Moreover, we also point out that there is a questionable step in some existent derivations for the instantaneous BS equations if one is pursuing the exact solutions. Finally, we emphasize that one should take the O(v) corrections emerging in the exact solutions into account accordingly if one is interested in the relativistic corrections for relevant problems to the bound states.

  18. Instantaneous power flow determination for single-phase UPFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrucky, B.; Drozdy, S.; Pokorny, M.; Pavlanin, R. [Zilina Univ., Zilina (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01

    The parallel shunt active filter in a unified power flow conditioner (UPFC) can filter and compensate the reactive power of basic and higher current harmonics. This paper reported on a study in which a new theory of orthogonal transform was used to control a single-phase UPFC system and transform it into a two-axes system. In addition to estimating the load current phase shifts, the study also determined the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The new theory is based on the premise that ordinary single-phase quantity can be complemented by a virtual fictitious phase so that both of them will create an orthogonal system, as is usual in three-phase systems. The theory uses efficient methods of analysis, such as time-sub-optimal determination of fundamental harmonics; average- and/or root-mean-square values; or instantaneous reactive power methods. The load current phase shift can be used to compensate for voltage drops. This paper outlined a practical application of the method in a case of active and reactive power determination for single-phase UPFC. It also presented some examples of the successful simulation experiments results focused on regulation output voltage of UPFC. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 appendix.

  19. A parametric estimation approach to instantaneous spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, Figen S; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Davila, Joseph M

    2014-12-01

    Spectral imaging, the simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy of a radiating scene, is a fundamental diagnostic technique in the physical sciences with widespread application. Due to the intrinsic limitation of two-dimensional (2D) detectors in capturing inherently three-dimensional (3D) data, spectral imaging techniques conventionally rely on a spatial or spectral scanning process, which renders them unsuitable for dynamic scenes. In this paper, we present a nonscanning (instantaneous) spectral imaging technique that estimates the physical parameters of interest by combining measurements with a parametric model and solving the resultant inverse problem computationally. The associated inverse problem, which can be viewed as a multiframe semiblind deblurring problem (with shift-variant blur), is formulated as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation problem since in many such experiments prior statistical knowledge of the physical parameters can be well estimated. Subsequently, an efficient dynamic programming algorithm is developed to find the global optimum of the nonconvex MAP problem. Finally, the algorithm and the effectiveness of the spectral imaging technique are illustrated for an application in solar spectral imaging. Numerical simulation results indicate that the physical parameters can be estimated with the same order of accuracy as state-of-the-art slit spectroscopy but with the added benefit of an instantaneous, 2D field-of-view. This technique will be particularly useful for studying the spectra of dynamic scenes encountered in space remote sensing.

  20. Instantaneous Frequency and Damping from Transient Ring-Down Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Brake, Matthew Robert

    2015-10-01

    Broadband impact excitation in structural dynamics is a common technique used to detect and characterize nonlinearities in mechanical systems since it excites many frequencies of a structure at once and can be applied with a variety of boundary conditions. Non-stationary time signals from transient ring-down measurements require time-frequency analysis tools to observe variations in frequency and energy dissipation as the response evolves. This work uses the short-time Fourier transform to estimate the instantaneous frequency and damping ratio from either measured or simulated transient ring-down data. By combining the discrete Fourier transform with an expanding or contracting window function that moves along the time axis, the resulting spectrum is used to estimate the instantaneous frequencies, damping and complex Fourier coefficients. This method is demonstrated on a multi-degree-of-freedom beam with a cubic spring attachment, and investigates the amplitudefrequency dependence in connection to the undamped nonlinear normal modes. A second example shows the results from experiment ring-down response on a beam with a lap joint, and reveals how the system behaves as energy dissipates.

  1. Instantaneous Power Compensation in Three-Phase Systems by Using p-q-r Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyosung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2002-01-01

    Three linearly independent instantaneous powers have been defined in the time domain in three-phase four-wire systems with the use of p-q-r theory. Any three-phase circuit can be transformed into three single-phase circuits by the p-q-r transformation Thus the instantaneous powers in any three-phase...... systems can be analysed as the same way of instantaneous power in single-phase systems.This paper analyses the instantaneous powers spectrally in the frequency domain for single-phase systems and three-phase systems. Each instantaneous power in three-phase systems has its own spectral pattern...... that is characterized by the spectral distribution of the system voltages and currents. The instantaneous power in single-phase systems has its own spectral pattern different from that of three-phase systems.From the spectral analysis of the instantaneous powers, powers are newly defined in the frequency domain...

  2. [Detonation temperature measurement of epoxypropane using instantaneous spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Ping; Xiao, Hai-Bo; Hu, Dong; Yuan, Chang-Ying

    2008-03-01

    After solving the problems of synchronization of the measuring system and the avoidance of false trigger signal, the instantaneous emission spectrum of epoxypropane with an exposure time of 2 micros and a resolution of 0.2 nm was acquired from a side window of a shock tube at the very moment when the epoxypropane transformed from deflagration to detonation. The measuring system consists of an advanced intensified charge-coupled-device spectroscopic detector, a digital delay generator DG535, an explosion shock tube and optical fibers. The DDT process was monitored by pressure transducers. After correcting the intensity of the spectrum obtained, the background curve of the heat radiation intensity of the detonation was given immediately. The detonation temperature of 2 416 K for epoxypropane was derived from fitting the curve with Planck blackbody formula by least squares principle. The detonation temperature of epoxypropane can provide an experimental datum for analyzing the microscopic mechanism of DDT process.

  3. Video measurements of instantaneous forces of flapping wing vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Alan; Mayhew, Michael; Black, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Flapping wings for small aerial vehicles have revolutionary potential for maneuverability and endurance. Ornithopters fail to achieve the performance of their biological equivalents, despite extensive research on how animals fly. Flapping wings produce peak forces due to the stroke reversal of the wing. This research demonstrates in-flight measurements of an ornithopter through the use of image processing, specifically measuring instantaneous forces. Results show that the oscillation about the flight path is significant, being about 20% of the mean velocity and up to 10 g's. Results match forces with deformations of the wing to contrast the timing and wing shape of the upstroke and the downstroke. Holding the vehicle fixed (e.g. wind tunnel testing or simulations) structural resonance is affected along with peak forces, also affecting lift. Non-contact, in-flight measurements are proposed as the best method for matching the flight conditions of flapping wing vehicles.

  4. Instantaneous Action at a Distance in a Holistic Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    The early work of Lorentz, Abraham and others, evolved through the work of Fokker, Dirac and others to ultimately culminate in the Feynman- Wheeler direct action at a distance theory. However this theory has encountered certain conceptual difficulties like non-locality in time, self force of the electron, pre acceleration and the perfect absorption condition of Feynman and Wheeler, that is the instantaneous action of the remaining charges in the universe on the charge in question. More recently, Hoyle and Narlikar have resurrected this theory, but within the context of a Steady State or Quasi Steady State cosmology. They argue that the theory infact has a better standing than the generally accepted quantum theoretic description. In this article we consider a quantum theoretic description and a cosmology which parallels the Hoyle-Narlikar approach. This leads to a synthesis and justification of the Dirac and Feynman-Wheeler approaches, clarifying the conceptual problems in the process. We deduce a scenario wit...

  5. Fractional flow reserve and instantaneous wave free ratio in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondareddy, S R; Singh, M; Stapleton, D; Rudzinski, W; Kaluski, E

    2015-06-01

    In the recent years it has become apparent that angiography-based assessment of coronary artery stenosis suffers from considerable inaccuracy and pitfalls. Besides interobserver variability in assessing stenosis severity, the correlation between angiographic severity and ischemia is suboptimal. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) guided by the physiologic lesion assessment employing fractional flow reserve (FFR) is rendered superior to angiographic lesion assessment and proven to improve cardiovascular outcomes and reduce cost. In this manuscript we discuss the accepted and emerging clinical indications for FFR use. The correlation between FFR and symptoms, stress imaging and intravascular ultrasound are reviewed along with the inherent limitations and pitfalls of these diagnostic technologies. The data regarding the correlation between Instantaneous (vasodilator free) wave-free ratio (iFR) and conventional FFR is summarized.

  6. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  7. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  8. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  9. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  10. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  11. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  12. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  13. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  14. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  15. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  16. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  17. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  18. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  19. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  20. Utilization, cost trends, and member cost-share for self-injectable multiple sclerosis drugs--pharmacy and medical benefit spending from 2004 through 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunze, April M; Gunderson, Brent W; Gleason, Patrick P; Heaton, Alan H H; Johnson, Steven V

    2007-01-01

    ...) drugs to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Initially covered as a medical expense, self-injectable MS drugs are increasingly considered specialty pharmaceuticals and are often covered under the pharmacy benefit...

  1. Changes in first-line injectable disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis: predictors of non-adherence, switching, discontinuation, and interruption of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Piccinni, Carlo; Sangiorgi, Diego; Perrone, Valentina; Aledda, Lucia; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Lombardo, Fabio

    2017-01-11

    This study was aimed to describe changes of Disease-Modifying Treatments (DMT) in an Italian cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify predictors of therapeutic modifications. Patients with MS and treated with the first-line injectable DMT (interferons-IFNs or glatiramer) between 1/7/2009 and 31/10/2012 were selected from administrative databases of the MS Center of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). Socio-demographic, therapeutic, and clinical information was collected in the 6 months preceding the index date. All patients were followed for 36 months to evaluate therapeutic changes in terms of non-adherence, switch, temporary discontinuation, and permanent interruption. Predictors of changes were estimated by multivariable regression models. Data on 1698 patients were collected: glatiramer was prescribed in 27% of cases, IFNβ-1b in 22%, IFNβ-1a-im in 20%, IFNβ-1a-sc-44mcg in 19%, and IFNβ-1a-sc-22mcg in 12%. Non-adherence was observed in 25% of cases, therapeutic switch in 30%, discontinuation in 37%, and permanent interruption in 28%. The risk of non-adherence was higher for IFNβ-1b, compared with IFNβ-1a-im (adjOR = 1.73). Therapeutic switch occurred especially in patients recently diagnosed (each year from diagnosis causes a decrease of this risk adjHR = 0.97); the risk of discontinuation was higher with EDSS = 4-6 and 7-9 (adjHR = 1.52 and 4.42, respectively). The risk of permanent interruption increased with the augmentation of disability (adjHR = 1.67 and 5.43 for EDSS 4-6 and 7-9). This study mirrored a detailed framework of DMT prescription and identified factors related to changes in the MS therapy. These findings could support healthcare providers in the evaluation and maximization of benefits associated with a long-term DMT.

  2. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  3. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  4. Comparative study on treatment satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus on multiple daily injection of insulin, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tara; Akle, Mariette; Nagelkerke, Nico; Deeb, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes management imposes considerable demands on patients. Treatment method used has an impact on treatment satisfaction. We aim to examine the relationship between treatment satisfaction and health perception with the method used for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Subjects and method: We have interviewed patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using questionnaires to assess treatment satisfaction and health perception. Patients were divided into three groups based on treatment used: multiple daily injection, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy. Comparison of scores was done between the groups. Results: A total of 72 patients were enrolled (36 males). Mean age (standard deviation) was 11.4 (4.4) years and duration of diabetes of 4.9 (3.5) years. Mean (standard deviation) HbA1c was 8.1 (1.2). Median (range) duration of sensor use was 17.7 (3–30) days/month. Mean scale for treatment satisfaction and health perception questions was 25.3, 29.7 and 31.7 and 60, 79.7 and 81 for the multiple daily injection, pump and sensor-augmented pump, respectively (p = 0.00). Significant difference was seen between the multiple daily injection and both other groups. Sensor-augmented pump group scored higher than the pump group. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Duration of sensor use showed no correlation with treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: The method used for diabetes treatment has an impact on patients’ satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pump users have a higher treatment satisfaction and better health perception than those on multiple daily injection. Augmenting pump therapy with sensor use adds value to treatment satisfaction without correlation with the duration of the sensors use.

  5. Comparative study on treatment satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus on multiple daily injection of insulin, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tara; Akle, Mariette; Nagelkerke, Nico; Deeb, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes management imposes considerable demands on patients. Treatment method used has an impact on treatment satisfaction. We aim to examine the relationship between treatment satisfaction and health perception with the method used for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. We have interviewed patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using questionnaires to assess treatment satisfaction and health perception. Patients were divided into three groups based on treatment used: multiple daily injection, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy. Comparison of scores was done between the groups. A total of 72 patients were enrolled (36 males). Mean age (standard deviation) was 11.4 (4.4) years and duration of diabetes of 4.9 (3.5) years. Mean (standard deviation) HbA1c was 8.1 (1.2). Median (range) duration of sensor use was 17.7 (3-30) days/month. Mean scale for treatment satisfaction and health perception questions was 25.3, 29.7 and 31.7 and 60, 79.7 and 81 for the multiple daily injection, pump and sensor-augmented pump, respectively (p = 0.00). Significant difference was seen between the multiple daily injection and both other groups. Sensor-augmented pump group scored higher than the pump group. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Duration of sensor use showed no correlation with treatment satisfaction. The method used for diabetes treatment has an impact on patients' satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pump users have a higher treatment satisfaction and better health perception than those on multiple daily injection. Augmenting pump therapy with sensor use adds value to treatment satisfaction without correlation with the duration of the sensors use.

  6. Comparative study on treatment satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus on multiple daily injection of insulin, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Hussain

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes management imposes considerable demands on patients. Treatment method used has an impact on treatment satisfaction. We aim to examine the relationship between treatment satisfaction and health perception with the method used for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Subjects and method: We have interviewed patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using questionnaires to assess treatment satisfaction and health perception. Patients were divided into three groups based on treatment used: multiple daily injection, insulin pump and sensor-augmented pump therapy. Comparison of scores was done between the groups. Results: A total of 72 patients were enrolled (36 males. Mean age (standard deviation was 11.4 (4.4 years and duration of diabetes of 4.9 (3.5 years. Mean (standard deviation HbA1c was 8.1 (1.2. Median (range duration of sensor use was 17.7 (3–30 days/month. Mean scale for treatment satisfaction and health perception questions was 25.3, 29.7 and 31.7 and 60, 79.7 and 81 for the multiple daily injection, pump and sensor-augmented pump, respectively (p = 0.00. Significant difference was seen between the multiple daily injection and both other groups. Sensor-augmented pump group scored higher than the pump group. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Duration of sensor use showed no correlation with treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: The method used for diabetes treatment has an impact on patients’ satisfaction and health perception in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pump users have a higher treatment satisfaction and better health perception than those on multiple daily injection. Augmenting pump therapy with sensor use adds value to treatment satisfaction without correlation with the duration of the sensors use.

  7. Estimation of the Frequency of Instantaneous Voltage Drops Dependent on Arrangement of Line Surge Arresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hironao; Kozuka, Masahiro; Itamoto, Naoki; Shinjo, Kazuo; Ishii, Masaru

    Lightning faults on transmission lines often cause instantaneous voltage drops in power systems. Influences of instantaneous voltage drops become increasingly serious in high technology industries etc. As countermeasures of instantaneous voltage drops, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are employed. On the other hand, line surge arresters are installed on transmission lines increasingly as one of the effective countermeasures of double-circuit faults caused by lightning strokes. Additionally, the arresters are effective as one of the reduction methods for the frequency of instantaneous voltage drops. In this paper, the frequency of instantaneous voltage drops reduced by installation of line surge arresters on transmission lines is estimated by employing EMTP analysis. Also, the accuracy of the method in estimating the frequency of instantaneous voltage drops in power systems is evaluated through comparison with experience.

  8. Equivalence between free quantum particles and those in harmonic potentials and its application to instantaneous changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuernagel, Ole

    2014-06-01

    In quantum physics the free particle and the harmonically trapped particle are arguably the most important systems a physicist needs to know about. It is little known that, mathematically, they are one and the same. This knowledge helps us to understand either from the viewpoint of the other. Here we show that all general time-dependent solutions of the free-particle Schrödinger equation can be mapped to solutions of the Schrödinger equation for harmonic potentials, both the trapping oscillator and the inverted "oscillator". This map is fully invertible and therefore induces an isomorphism between both types of system, they are equivalent. A composition of the map and its inverse allows us to map from one harmonic oscillator to another with a different spring constant and different center position. The map is independent of the state of the system, consisting only of a coordinate transformation and multiplication by a form factor, and can be chosen such that the state is identical in both systems at one point in time. This transition point in time can be chosen freely, the wave function of the particle evolving in time in one system before the transition point can therefore be linked up smoothly with the wave function for the other system and its future evolution after the transition point. Such a cut-and-paste procedure allows us to describe the instantaneous changes of the environment a particle finds itself in. Transitions from free to trapped systems, between harmonic traps of different spring constants or center positions, or, from harmonic binding to repulsive harmonic potentials are straightforwardly modelled. This includes some time-dependent harmonic potentials. The mappings introduced here are computationally more efficient than either state-projection or harmonic oscillator propagator techniques conventionally employed when describing instantaneous (non-adiabatic) changes of a quantum particle's environment.

  9. Instantaneous helical axis estimation from 3-D video data in neck kinematics for whiplash diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltring, H J; Long, K; Osterbauer, P J; Fuhr, A W

    1994-12-01

    To date, the diagnosis of whiplash injuries has been very difficult and largely based on subjective, clinical assessment. The work by Winters and Peles Multiple Muscle Systems--Biomechanics and Movement Organization. Springer, New York (1990) suggests that the use of finite helical axes (FHAs) in the neck may provide an objective assessment tool for neck mobility. Thus, the position of the FHA describing head-trunk motion may allow discrimination between normal and pathological cases such as decreased mobility in particular cervical joints. For noisy, unsmoothed data, the FHAs must be taken over rather large angular intervals if the FHAs are to be reconstructed with sufficient accuracy; in the Winters and Peles study, these intervals were approximately 10 degrees. in order to study the movements' microstructure, the present investigation uses instantaneous helical axes (IHAs) estimated from low-pass smoothed video data. Here, the small-step noise sensitivity of the FHA no longer applies, and proper low-pass filtering allows estimation of the IHA even for small rotation velocity omega of the moving neck. For marker clusters mounted on the head and trunk, technical system validation showed that the IHAs direction dispersions were on the order of one degree, while their position dispersions were on the order of 1 mm, for low-pass cut-off frequencies of a few Hz (the dispersions were calculated from omega-weighted errors, in order to account for the adverse effects of vanishing omega). Various simple, planar models relating the instantaneous, 2-D centre of rotation with the geometry and kinematics of a multi-joint neck model are derived, in order to gauge the utility of the FHA and IHA approaches. Some preliminary results on asymptomatic and pathological subjects are provided, in terms of the 'ruled surface' formed by sampled IHAs and of their piercing points through the mid-sagittal plane during a prescribed flexion-extension movement of the neck.

  10. Research on Instantaneous Thrust Measurement for Attitude-control Solid Rocket Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Hua-bing; WANG Jian-ping; LIN Feng; XU Wen-gan

    2008-01-01

    In order to measure the instantaneous thrust of a certain attitude-control solid rocket motor, based on the analysis of the measurement principles, the difference between the instantaneous thrust and steady thrust measurements is pointed out. According to the measurement characteristics, a dynamic digital filter compensation method is presented. Combined the identification-modeling, dynamic compensation and simulation, the system's dynamic mathematic model is established. And then, a compensation digital filter is also designed. Thus, the dynamic response of the system is improved and the instantaneous thrust measurement can be implemented. The measurement results for the rocket motor show that the digital filter compensation is effective in the instantaneous thrust measurement.

  11. Emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor in cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hee; Jung, Koo Young

    2012-07-01

    Instantaneous rigor as muscle stiffening occurring in the moment of death (or cardiac arrest) can be confused with rigor mortis. If trismus is caused by instantaneous rigor, orotracheal intubation is impossible and a surgical airway should be secured. Here, we report 2 patients who had emergency cricothyrotomy for trismus caused by instantaneous rigor. This case report aims to help physicians understand instantaneous rigor and to emphasize the importance of securing a surgical airway quickly on the occurrence of trismus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  13. Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Ghan, Steven; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai

    2017-04-26

    Much of the uncertainty in estimates of the anthropogenic forcing of climate change comes from uncertainties in the instantaneous effect of aerosols on cloud albedo, known as the Twomey effect or the radiative forcing from aerosol–cloud interactions (RFaci), a component of the total or effective radiative forcing. Because aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei can have a strong influence on the cloud droplet number concentration (Nd), previous studies have used the sensitivity of the Nd to aerosol properties as a constraint on the strength of the RFaci. However, recent studies have suggested that relationships between aerosol and cloud properties in the present-day climate may not be suitable for determining the sensitivity of the Nd to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations. Using an ensemble of global aerosol–climate models, this study demonstrates how joint histograms between Nd and aerosol properties can account for many of the issues raised by previous studies. It shows that if the anthropogenic contribution to the aerosol is known, the RFaci can be diagnosed to within 20% of its actual value. The accuracy of different aerosol proxies for diagnosing the RFaci is investigated, confirming that using the aerosol optical depth significantly underestimates the strength of the aerosol–cloud interactions in satellite data.

  14. User-interactive electronic skin for instantaneous pressure visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Hwang, David; Yu, Zhibin; Takei, Kuniharu; Park, Junwoo; Chen, Teresa; Ma, Biwu; Javey, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Electronic skin (e-skin) presents a network of mechanically flexible sensors that can conformally wrap irregular surfaces and spatially map and quantify various stimuli. Previous works on e-skin have focused on the optimization of pressure sensors interfaced with an electronic readout, whereas user interfaces based on a human-readable output were not explored. Here, we report the first user-interactive e-skin that not only spatially maps the applied pressure but also provides an instantaneous visual response through a built-in active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display with red, green and blue pixels. In this system, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are turned on locally where the surface is touched, and the intensity of the emitted light quantifies the magnitude of the applied pressure. This work represents a system-on-plastic demonstration where three distinct electronic components—thin-film transistor, pressure sensor and OLED arrays—are monolithically integrated over large areas on a single plastic substrate. The reported e-skin may find a wide range of applications in interactive input/control devices, smart wallpapers, robotics and medical/health monitoring devices.

  15. Adaptive Window Zero-Crossing-Based Instantaneous Frequency Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandra Sekhar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of estimating instantaneous frequency (IF of a real-valued constant amplitude time-varying sinusoid. Estimation of polynomial IF is formulated using the zero-crossings of the signal. We propose an algorithm to estimate nonpolynomial IF by local approximation using a low-order polynomial, over a short segment of the signal. This involves the choice of window length to minimize the mean square error (MSE. The optimal window length found by directly minimizing the MSE is a function of the higher-order derivatives of the IF which are not available a priori. However, an optimum solution is formulated using an adaptive window technique based on the concept of intersection of confidence intervals. The adaptive algorithm enables minimum MSE-IF (MMSE-IF estimation without requiring a priori information about the IF. Simulation results show that the adaptive window zero-crossing-based IF estimation method is superior to fixed window methods and is also better than adaptive spectrogram and adaptive Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD-based IF estimators for different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.

  16. Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Ghan, Steven; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai

    2017-05-09

    Much of the uncertainty in estimates of the anthropogenic forcing of climate change comes from uncertainties in the instantaneous effect of aerosols on cloud albedo, known as the Twomey effect or the radiative forcing from aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci), a component of the total or effective radiative forcing. Because aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei can have a strong influence on the cloud droplet number concentration (Nd ), previous studies have used the sensitivity of the Nd to aerosol properties as a constraint on the strength of the RFaci. However, recent studies have suggested that relationships between aerosol and cloud properties in the present-day climate may not be suitable for determining the sensitivity of the Nd to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations. Using an ensemble of global aerosol-climate models, this study demonstrates how joint histograms between Nd and aerosol properties can account for many of the issues raised by previous studies. It shows that if the anthropogenic contribution to the aerosol is known, the RFaci can be diagnosed to within 20% of its actual value. The accuracy of different aerosol proxies for diagnosing the RFaci is investigated, confirming that using the aerosol optical depth significantly underestimates the strength of the aerosol-cloud interactions in satellite data.

  17. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Tai Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method.

  18. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  19. Ancilla-driven instantaneous quantum polynomial time circuit for quantum supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Takahashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Instantaneous quantum polynomial time (IQP) is a model of (probably) nonuniversal quantum computation. Since it has been proven that IQP circuits are unlikely to be simulated classically up to a multiplicative error and an error in the l1 norm, IQP is considered as one of the promising classes that demonstrates quantum supremacy. Although IQP circuits can be realized more easily than a universal quantum computer, demonstrating quantum supremacy is still difficult. It is therefore desired to find subclasses of IQP that are easy to implement. In this paper, by imposing some restrictions on IQP, we propose ancilla-driven IQP (ADIQP) as the subclass of commuting quantum computation suitable for many experimental settings. We show that even though ADIQP circuits are strictly weaker than IQP circuits in a sense, they are also hard to simulate classically up to a multiplicative error and an error in the l1 norm. Moreover, the properties of ADIQP make it easy to investigate the verifiability of ADIQP circuits and the difficulties in realizing ADIQP circuits.

  20. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  1. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  2. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  3. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  4. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  5. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  6. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  7. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  8. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  9. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  10. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  11. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  12. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  13. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  14. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  15. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  16. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  17. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  18. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  19. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  20. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  1. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  2. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  3. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  4. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  5. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  6. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  7. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  8. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  9. Transmit Antenna Selection for Power Adaptive Underlay Cognitive Radio with Instantaneous Interference Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2017-03-31

    The high hardware cost associated with multiple antennas at the secondary transmitter of an underlay cognitive radio (CR) can be reduced by antenna selection. This paper analyzes different power adaptive transmit antenna selection (TAS) schemes for an underlay CR, which ensure that the instantaneous interference caused by the secondary transmitter to the primary receiver is below a predetermined level. We consider the optimal continuous power adaptive TAS and present a low-complexity antenna and power level selection scheme, named sequential antenna and power level selection scheme (SAPS), for discrete power adaptation. Exact statistical characterizations of the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio at the secondary receiver are derived for the considered schemes. Based on the newly derived statistics, we prove that the considered schemes achieve the highest diversity order equaling the number of antennas at the secondary transmitter. Further, we also derive a closed-form expression of the ergodic capacity for the underlay CR with SAPS scheme. Finally, we show that the proposed scheme outperforms existing schemes in terms of ergodic capacity.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT IN CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF ROTATING MACHINERY BASED ON INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiongming; Qin Shuren; Ji Zhong; Guo Yu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the recently quick-developing time-frequency analysis (TFA) technique and virtual instrument (VI) technique, a virtual instrument in characteristic analysis of rotating machinery is researched and developed successfully. By utilizing instantaneous frequency estimation (IFE) theoretics of TFA technique, and based on IFE of peak searching on the time-frequency spectrum, order analysis (OA) functions is put forward and implemented, such as order spectrum, order spectrum matrix, order tracking, order tracking filtering, and order component extraction, etc. Unlike the home and abroad existing popular characteristic analyzers, which need key phasing devices such as shaft encoder, phase-locked loop (PLL), phase-locked multiple frequency, tachometer, etc, to implement constant angle sampling directly or indirectly, whereas this instrument only uses the vibration signal of rotating machinery to carry out OA. This instrument makes up the shortage of these traditional instruments in analyzing the non-stationary signal of run-up and run-down process of rotating machinery. Therefore, it is a great breakthrough for the existing order analyzers.

  11. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifsa Pervez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2, barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process.

  12. The Frenet and Darboux Instantaneous Rotation for Curves on Space-Like Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Osman; Çalışkan, Ali

    1996-01-01

    In this paper , considering the Darboux instantaneous rotation vector of a solid perpendicular trihedron in the Minkowski 3-space R13, the Frenet instantaneous rotation vector was stated for the Frenet trihedron of a space -like space curve (c) with the binormal b being a time-like vector. The Darboux derivative formulas and the Darboux instantaneous rotation vector were found when the curve (c) is on a space -like surface. A fundamental relation, as a base for the geometry of space-like surf...

  13. Development and application of flexible substrate sensors in instantaneous heat flux measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Duo; GU JiaHua; WU Song

    2009-01-01

    A new type of sensor with the flexible substrate is introduced.It is applicable in measuring instanta-neous heat flux on the model surface in a hypersonic shock tunnel.The working principle,structure and manufacture process of the sensor are presented.The substrate thickness and the dynamic re-sponse parameter of the sensor are calculated.Because this sensor was successfully used in meas-uring the instantaneous heat flux on the surface of a flat plate in a detonation-driven shock tunnel,it may be effective in measuring instantaneous heat flux on the model surface.

  14. Enhanced carrier injection in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells LED with polarization-induced electron blocking barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengguo; Liu, Hongfei; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-03-01

    In this report, we designed a light emitting diode (LED) structure in which an N-polar p-GaN layer is grown on top of Ga-polar In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells (QWs) on an n-GaN layer. Numerical simulation reveals that the large polarization field at the polarity inversion interface induces a potential barrier in the conduction band, which can block electron overflow out of the QWs. Compared with a conventional LED structure with an Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer (EBL), the proposed LED structure shows much lower electron current leakage, higher hole injection, and a significant improvement in the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). These results suggest that the polarization induced barrier (PIB) is more effective than the AlGaN EBL in suppressing electron overflow and improving hole transport in GaN-based LEDs.

  15. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-03-19

    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  16. Instantaneous thermal modeling of the DC-link capacitor in PhotoVoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai

    2015-01-01

    Capacitors have been witnessed as one of the weak points in grid-connected PhotoVoltaic (PV) applications, and thus efforts have been devoted to the design of reliable DC-link capacitors in PV applications. Since the hot-spot temperature of the capacitor is one of the failure inducers......, instantaneous thermal modeling approaches considering mission profiles for the DC-link capacitor in single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. These thermal modelling approaches are based on: a) fast Fourier transform, b) look-up tables, and c) ripple current reconstruction. Moreover, the thermal...... modelling approaches for the DC-link capacitors take into account the instantaneous thermal characteristics, which are more challenging to the capacitor reliability during operation. Such instantaneous thermal modeling approaches enable a translation of instantaneous capacitor power losses to capacitor...

  17. Digital instantaneous frequency measurement technique utilising high-speed ADC’s and FPGA’s

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, PL

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Digital Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (DIFM) technique, which can measure the carrier frequency of a received waveform within a fraction of a microsecond. The resulting frequency range, resolution and accuracy...

  18. Geomagnetic Components D, H, X, Y, Z, and R 10-second Instantaneous Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are generated as part of the International Magnetospheric Study. The file consists of 10-second instantaneous measurements for the geomagnetic components...

  19. Instantaneous Gradient Based Dual Mode Feed-Forward Neural Network Blind Equalization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To further improve the performance of feed-forward neural network blind equalization based on Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA cost function, an instantaneous gradient based dual mode between Modified Constant Modulus Algorithm (MCMA and Decision Directed (DD algorithm was proposed. The neural network weights change quantity of the adjacent iterative process is defined as instantaneous gradient. After the network converges, the weights of neural network to achieve a stable energy state and the instantaneous gradient would be zero. Therefore dual mode algorithm can be realized by criterion which set according to the instantaneous gradient. Computer simulation results show that the dual mode feed-forward neural network blind equalization algorithm proposed in this study improves the convergence rate and convergence precision effectively, at the same time, has good restart and tracking ability under channel burst interference condition.

  20. Assessment of movement distribution in the lumbar spine using the instantaneous axis of rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Won [Trine University, Angola (Indonesia)

    2014-12-15

    The position of the torso and the magnitude of exertion are thought to influence the distribution pattern of intervertebral movements within the lumbar spine. Abnormal intervertebral movements have been correlated with the risk of spine injuries. Since the capability to measure movement distribution within the lumbar spine noninvasively is limited, a convenient method to diagnose joint motion function was proposed. The goal of this research was to test the efficacy of the instantaneous axis of rotation for assessment of the distribution of movement within the lumbar spine. The proposed method was evaluated in the bio mechanical model. The results showed that the location of instantaneous axis of rotation lowered with increased trunk exertion force, and slightly moved higher with increased trunk angle. Recognizing that abnormal location of the instantaneous axis of rotation correlated with spinal pain, these results suggest potential the location of the instantaneous axis of rotation relates to the risk of low back pain on distributed spinal kinematics.

  1. Modeling field-scale multiple tracer injection at a low-level waste disposal site in fractured rocks: Effect of multiscale heterogeneity and source term uncertainty on conceptual understanding of mass transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Jardine, Philip M.; Sanford, William E.

    2005-03-01

    Multiple factors may affect the scale-up of laboratory multi-tracer injection into structured porous media to the field. Under transient flow conditions and with multiscale heterogeneities in the field, previous attempts to scale-up laboratory experiments have not answered definitely the questions about the governing mechanisms and the spatial extent of the influence of small-scale mass transfer processes such as matrix diffusion. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of multiscale heterogeneity, mechanistic and site model conceptualization, and source term density effect on elucidating and interpreting tracer movement in the field. Tracer release and monitoring information previously obtained in a field campaign of multiple, conservative tracer injection under natural hydraulic gradients at a low-level waste disposal site in eastern Tennessee, United States, is used for the research. A suite of two-pore-domain, or fracture-matrix, groundwater flow and transport models are calibrated and used to conduct model parameter and prediction uncertainty analyses. These efforts are facilitated by a novel nested Latin-hypercube sampling technique. Our results verify, at field scale, a multiple-pore-domain, multiscale mechanistic conceptual model that was used previously to interpret only laboratory observations. The results also suggest that, integrated over the entire field site, mass flux rates attributable to small-scale mass transfer are comparable to that of field-scale solute transport. The uncertainty analyses show that fracture spacing is the most important model parameter and model prediction uncertainty is relatively higher at the interface between the preferred flow path and its parent bedrock. The comparisons of site conceptual models indicate that the effect of matrix diffusion may be confined to the immediate neighborhood of the preferential flow path. Finally, because the relatively large amount of tracer needed for field studies, it is

  2. Automatic tea service machine with instantaneous cooling unit; Shunkan reikyaku kiko tosai jido kyuchaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Nishiyama, A. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    The market of automatic tea service machines demands sanitation, reduction in time required for pouring tea, feeding the material, cleaning the inside of the machine, the maintenance and service of the machine, and excellent design. To meet these demands, Fuji Electric has changed the former configuration and components for functions and has developed a new series of instantaneous automatic tea service machines based on a new concept. This paper outlines the advantages of the instantaneous cooling tank and improvements in handling. (author)

  3. An analysis of the instantaneous floating point amplifier in DFS-V seismic recording system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benji, W.

    1987-04-01

    Instantaneous floating point amplifier is a key unit in digital seismic system. The detailed description is given of circuits, functions and mechanisms of major constituents of the instantaneous floating point amplifier in DFS-V seismic system; and the process of gain adjustment of signal sample is analysed in the paper. A comment on its distinctive zero drift correction method is made. The concrete measure is put forward to cope with the problem in digital offset filtering taken in DFS-V system.

  4. Existence of mild solutions to partial differential equations with non-instantaneous impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence of piecewise-continuous mild solutions for the initial value problems for a class of semilinear evolution equations. These equations have non-instantaneous impulses in Banach spaces and the corresponding solution semigroup is noncompact. We assume that the nonlinear term satisfies certain local growth condition and a noncompactness measure condition. Also we assume the non-instantaneous impulsive functions satisfy some Lipschitz conditions. An example is given to illustrate our results.

  5. Measurement of instantaneous viscoelastic properties by impedance-frequency curve of the ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiwa, Y; Hashiguchi, R; Ohyama, T; Isoyama, S; Satoh, S; Suzuki, H; Takishima, T

    1986-04-01

    We developed a method for estimating the instantaneous viscoelastic properties of the left ventricle (LV). This impedance-curve method is based on the instantaneous impedance-frequency curve of the left ventricle generated by a rapidly oscillating mechanical impulse applied to the epicardial surface of the heart. The theoretical basis of the method and experimentally obtained instantaneous impedance-frequency curves were examined to evaluate the validity of our basic assumptions. Using these impedance-curve data, we calculated the instantaneous viscoelastic properties of the LV during the cardiac cycle. The impedance curve shows a configuration that is almost the same as the theoretical curve based on the assumption that an RCL (R, resistor; C, capacitor; L, inductor) parallel circuit is the electrical analog for the LV. The impedance curve varied moment by moment during the development of instantaneous LV pressure. The elastic and viscous coefficients, calculated from the impedance curve, increased with increase of LV pressure. We concluded that the impedance-curve method can delineate the instantaneous viscoelastic properties of the ventricle (especially of the ventricular myocardium).

  6. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  7. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  8. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  9. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  10. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  11. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  12. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  13. Intratibial injection of human multiple myeloma cells in NOD/SCID IL-2Rγ(null mice mimics human myeloma and serves as a valuable tool for the development of anticancer strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schueler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We systematically analyzed multiple myeloma (MM cell lines and patient bone marrow cells for their engraftment capacity in immunodeficient mice and validated the response of the resulting xenografts to antimyeloma agents. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using flow cytometry and near infrared fluorescence in-vivo-imaging, growth kinetics of MM cell lines L363 and RPMI8226 and patient bone marrow cells were investigated with use of a murine subcutaneous bone implant, intratibial and intravenous approach in NOD/SCID, NOD/SCID treated with CD122 antibody and NOD/SCID IL-2Rγ(null mice (NSG. RESULTS: Myeloma growth was significantly increased in the absence of natural killer cell activity (NSG or αCD122-treated NOD/SCID. Comparison of NSG and αCD122-treated NOD/SCID revealed enhanced growth kinetics in the former, especially with respect to metastatic tumor sites which were exclusively observed therein. In NSG, MM cells were more tumorigenic when injected intratibially than intravenously. In NOD/SCID in contrast, the use of juvenile long bone implants was superior to intratibial or intravenous cancer cell injection. Using the intratibial NSG model, mice developed typical disease symptoms exclusively when implanted with human MM cell lines or patient-derived bone marrow cells, but not with healthy bone marrow cells nor in mock-injected animals. Bortezomib and dexamethasone delayed myeloma progression in L363- as well as patient-derived MM cell bearing NSG. Antitumor activity could be quantified via flow cytometry and in vivo imaging analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the intratibial NSG MM model mimics the clinical situation of the disseminated disease and serves as a valuable tool in the development of novel anticancer strategies.

  14. Effect of 4 years subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment on albuminuria, kidney function and HbA1c compared with multiple daily injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Rosenlund, Signe; Hansen, T W; Andersen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    , diabetes duration, estimated GFR, UACR, mean arterial pressure, HbA1c , cholesterol, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition, anti-hypertensive treatment and smoking (P ...AIM: The effect of insulin pump [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)] treatment on diabetes complications in a modern clinical setting is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of 4 years CSII treatment on HbA1c, albuminuria and kidney function compared with multiple daily...... on diabetes duration, gender, HbA1c and normo-, micro- or macroalbuminuria at baseline. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured yearly and annual change assessed from linear regression. RESULTS: CSII- vs. MDI-treated patients were comparable at baseline. After 4 years, HbA1c was 62 ± 11 vs. 68...

  15. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Explosive-Compound Classes on a Single Instrument via Flow-Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    8330  [25]  high  performance  liquid  chromatography  with  UV  detection  ( HPLC ‐UV).  The  reported  limits  of  quantitation  (LOQ) for these...for de‐ tection of NG by GC‐ECD to 14 minutes for TNT detection  by  HPLC ‐UV.        The need for multiple analytical  instruments  is exacerbat‐ ed...duct to 18C6 ether by FIA ESI MSMS is 25 times more sen‐ sitive  than  the  HPLC ‐UV‐Fluorescence  detection[27]  and  17 times faster. FIA ESI MSMS

  16. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  17. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  18. New procedure for gear fault detection and diagnosis using instantaneous angular speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Xining; Wu, Jili

    2017-02-01

    Besides the extreme complexity of gear dynamics, the fault diagnosis results in terms of vibration signal are sometimes easily misled and even distorted by the interference of transmission channel or other components like bearings, bars. Recently, the research field of Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS) has attracted significant attentions due to its own advantages over conventional vibration analysis. On the basis of IAS signal's advantages, this paper presents a new feature extraction method by combining the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Autocorrelation Local Cepstrum (ALC) for fault diagnosis of sophisticated multistage gearbox. Firstly, as a pre-processing step, signal reconstruction is employed to address the oversampled issue caused by the high resolution of the angular sensor and the test speed. Then the adaptive EMD is used to acquire a number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). Nevertheless, not all the IMFs are needed for the further analysis since different IMFs have different sensitivities to fault. Hence, the cosine similarity metric is introduced to select the most sensitive IMF. Even though, the sensitive IMF is still insufficient for the gear fault diagnosis due to the weakness of the fault component related to the gear fault. Therefore, as the final step, ALC is used for the purpose of signal de-noising and feature extraction. The effectiveness and robustness of the new approach has been validated experimentally on the basis of two gear test rigs with gears under different working conditions. Diagnosis results show that the new approach is capable of effectively handling the gear fault diagnosis i.e., the highlighted quefrency and its rahmonics corresponding to the rotary period and its multiple are displayed clearly in the cepstrum record of the proposed method.

  19. Natalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relapsing-remitting forms (course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis ( ... legs muscle cramps stomach pain diarrhea heartburn constipation gas weight gain or loss depression night sweats painful, ...

  20. Research on Nonlinear Characteristics of Image Measurement System for Instantaneous Concentration Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative measurement on instantaneous concentration field not only can provide scientific methods for people measuring environment wind tunnel, but also can provide important data for solving convection--diffusion problem in practical project. The established large environment and wind engineering wind tunnel needs to develop the measurement system of instantaneous concentration field in order to study concentration field of environmental pollution diffusion. Based on collecting, analyzing and selecting a large number of literatures, the paper comprehensively studies the image measurement of instantaneous concentration field, and develops the complete software and hardware system. And the developed measurement system is used to measure the results, and the nonlinear characteristics of instable concentration field are studied. Combined with experimental fluid mechanics, information technology, optical scattering and imaging theory, the paper makes quantitative calculation on instability of concentration field from an experimental point of view, which provides an important experimental result for using numerical method to explore the instability of concentration field.

  1. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  2. Possibilities to identify engine combustion model parameters by analysis of the instantaneous crankshaft angular speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Slobodan J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, novel method for obtaining information about combustion process in individual cylinders of a multi-cylinder Spark Ignition Engine based on instantaneous crankshaft angular velocity is presented. The method is based on robust box constrained Levenberg-Marquardt minimization of nonlinear Least Squares given for measured and simulated instantaneous crankshaft angular speed which is determined from the solution of the engine dynamics torque balance equation. Combination of in-house developed comprehensive Zero-Dimensional Two-Zone SI engine combustion model and analytical friction loss model in angular domain have been applied to provide sensitivity and error analysis regarding Wiebe combustion model parameters, heat transfer coefficient and compression ratio. The analysis is employed to evaluate the basic starting assumption and possibility to provide reliable combustion analysis based on instantaneous engine crankshaft angular speed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. NPEE-290025 and TR-14074

  3. Instantaneous Click Chemistry by a Copper-Containing Polymeric-Membrane-Installed Microflow Catalytic Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Ohno, Aya; Sato, Takuma; Uozumi, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-23

    The copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition (azide-alkyne cycloaddition) is an important reaction in click chemistry that ideally proceeds instantaneously. An instantaneous Huisgen cycloaddition has been developed that uses a novel catalytic dinuclear copper complex-containing polymeric membrane-installed microflow device. A polymeric membranous copper catalyst was prepared from poly(4-vinylpyridine), copper(II) sulfate, sodium chloride, and sodium ascorbate at the interface of two laminar flows inside microchannels. Elucidation of the structure by XANES, EXAFS, and elemental analysis, as well as second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations assigned the local structure near Cu as a μ-chloro dinuclear Cu(I) complex. The microflow device promotes the instantaneous click reaction of a variety of alkynes and organic azides to afford the corresponding triazoles in quantitative yield.

  4. Comparative study of instantaneous frequency based methods for leak detection in pipeline networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Shucksmith, J. D.; Boxall, J. B.; Staszewski, W. J.

    2012-05-01

    Methods of pressure transient analysis can be seen as a promising, accurate and low-cost tool for leak and feature detection in pipelines. Various systems have been developed by several groups of researchers in recent years. Such techniques have been successfully demonstrated under laboratory conditions but are not yet established for use with real field test data. The current paper presents a comparative study of instantaneous frequency analysis techniques based on pressure transients recorded within a live distribution network. The instantaneous frequency of the signals are analysed using the Hilbert transform (HT), the Normalised Hilbert transform (NHT), Direct Quadrature (DQ), Teager Energy Operator (TEO) and Cepstrum. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the instantaneous frequency analysis in detecting a leaks and other features within the network. NHT and DQ allowed for the identification of the approximate location of leaks. The performance TEO is moderate, with Cepstrum being the worst performing method.

  5. The instantaneous rate dependence in low temperature laboratory rock friction and rock deformation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Kronenberg, A.K.; Reinen, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake occurrence probabilities that account for stress transfer and time-dependent failure depend on the product of the effective normal stress and a lab-derived dimensionless coefficient a. This coefficient describes the instantaneous dependence of fault strength on deformation rate, and determines the duration of precursory slip. Although an instantaneous rate dependence is observed for fracture, friction, crack growth, and low temperature plasticity in laboratory experiments, the physical origin of this effect during earthquake faulting is obscure. We examine this rate dependence in laboratory experiments on different rock types using a normalization scheme modified from one proposed by Tullis and Weeks [1987]. We compare the instantaneous rate dependence in rock friction with rate dependence measurements from higher temperature dislocation glide experiments. The same normalization scheme is used to compare rate dependence in friction to rock fracture and to low-temperature crack growth tests. For particular weak phyllosilicate minerals, the instantaneous friction rate dependence is consistent with dislocation glide. In intact rock failure tests, for each rock type considered, the instantaneous rate dependence is the same size as for friction, suggesting a common physical origin. During subcritical crack growth in strong quartzofeldspathic and carbonate rock where glide is not possible, the instantaneous rate dependence measured during failure or creep tests at high stress has long been thought to be due to crack growth; however, direct comparison between crack growth and friction tests shows poor agreement. The crack growth rate dependence appears to be higher than the rate dependence of friction and fracture by a factor of two to three for all rock types considered. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Testing Jitter on PLL Clocks Based on Analysis of Instantaneous Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yanqing; HE Yigang; FANG Gefeng; YANG Hui; QI Shaozhong; LIU Hui

    2007-01-01

    A novel method based on the analysis of instantaneous phase is proposed to extract the jitter on phase-locked loops output clock. The method utilizes the Hilbert transform to extend the real signal of PLLs output into an analytic signal, and the implementation of Hilbert transform is based on the Fourier transform windowed with Hamming window. Then, the jitter of clock is extracted from the instantaneous phase of analytic signal. The experimental results of simulations validate that the proposed method can effectively extract the jitter on PLL clock, and it has better performance by comparing the sinusoidal jitter extraction results with the other methods.

  7. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using digital holography microscope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhananjay Kumar Singh; P K Panigrahi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size $d_p = 2.1$ m. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 l/min. The instantaneous 3D velocity field is obtained by correlating the particles obtained from the 3D numerical reconstruction of holograms using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV).

  8. On properties of the deterministic turbulence and reproducibility of its instantaneous and statistical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Borodulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As known from previous studies, the deterministic turbulence (DeTu is a post-transitional flow that is turbulent according to the generally accepted statistical characteristics but possesses, meanwhile, a significant degree of determinism, i.e., reproducibility of its instantaneous structure. It is found that the DeTu can occur in those cases when transition is caused by convective instabilities; in boundary layers, in particular. The present paper is devoted to a brief description of history of discovering the DeTu phenomenon, as well as to some recent advance in investigation of instantaneous and statistical properties of such turbulent boundary layer flows.

  9. Application of Ultrasonic Technique for Measurement of Instantaneous Burn Rate of Solid Propellants .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh Deepak

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonic pulse-echo technique has been applied for the measurement of instantaneous burnrate of aluminised composite solid propellants. The tests have been carried out on end-burning 30 mmthick propellant specimens at nearly constant pressure of about 1.9 MPa. Necessary software forpost-test data processing and instantaneous burn rate computations have been developed. The burnrates measured by the ultrasonic technique have been compared with those obtained from ballisticevaluation motor tests on propellant from the same mix. An accuracy of about +- 1 per cent ininstantaneous burn rate measurements and reproducibility of results have been demonstrated byapplying ultrasonic technique.

  10. Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation and Its Analog: Breit-like Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chao-Hsi; CHEN Jiao-Kai

    2005-01-01

    We take the (μ士e干) system as an example, but restrict ourselves to highlight the states with quantum number JP = 0-, to explore the different contents of the instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation and its analog,the relativistic version of Breit equation, by solving them exactly. The results show that the two equations are not equivalent, although they are analogous. Furthermore, since the Breit equation contains extra un-physical solutions,so we point out that it should be abandoned if one wishes to have an accurate description of the bound states for the instantaneous interacting binding systems.

  11. 甲基强的松龙鞘内注射治疗多发性硬化临床效果分析%Methyl prednisolone intrathecal injection for treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文铠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of intrathecal injection of methylprednisolone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients. Methods Our hospital receiving treatment of 40 cases of multiple sclerosis were analyzed,the patients were randomly divided into two groups of time.The control group using safflower,edaravone,mecobalamin and combined with traditional Chinese medicine therapy,the experimental group in the control group based on the combined with intrathecal injection of methylprednisolone treatment,treatment effects were compared between the two groups. Results In the experimental group, the total effective rate was 90%and the control group compared with the significant advantage(65%)(P<0.05);the experiment group were higher in our hospital overall satisfaction in our hospital after treatment,up to 90%higher than that of the control group(P<0.05);clinical symptoms in experimental group was(18.80±3.45),nerve function symptoms score(9.11±2.40), EDSS score(6.43±1.71) and compared with the control group,a significant advantage(P<0.05);the experiment group after treatment in our hospital(2.6±0.4) shorter than the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion Edaravone and Mecobalamin,safflower,at the same time with Chinese medicine treatment based on the use of intrathecal injection of methylprednisolone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis disease effect,is worthy to be popularized.%目的:探讨甲基强的松龙鞘内注射治疗多发性硬化病患者的临床效果。方法对我院接收治疗的40例多发性硬化病患者资料进行分析,将患者根据入院时间顺序随机分为两组。对照组采用红花、依达拉奉,甲钴胺同时配合中药治疗,实验组在对照组基础上联合甲基强的松龙鞘内注射治疗,比较两组治疗效果。结果实验组治疗总有效率为90%,与对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(65%)(P<0.05);实验组在我院治疗后对我院

  12. Instantaneous and time-averaged dispersion and measurement models for estimation theory applications with elevated point source plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Estimation theory, which originated in guidance and control research, is applied to the analysis of air quality measurements and atmospheric dispersion models to provide reliable area-wide air quality estimates. A method for low dimensional modeling (in terms of the estimation state vector) of the instantaneous and time-average pollutant distributions is discussed. In particular, the fluctuating plume model of Gifford (1959) is extended to provide an expression for the instantaneous concentration due to an elevated point source. Individual models are also developed for all parameters in the instantaneous and the time-average plume equations, including the stochastic properties of the instantaneous fluctuating plume.

  13. Temporal pattern recognition based on instantaneous spike rate coding in a simple auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabatiyan, A; Poulet, J F A; de Polavieja, G G; Hedwig, B

    2003-10-01

    Auditory pattern recognition by the CNS is a fundamental process in acoustic communication. Because crickets communicate with stereotyped patterns of constant frequency syllables, they are established models to investigate the neuronal mechanisms of auditory pattern recognition. Here we provide evidence that for the neural processing of amplitude-modulated sounds, the instantaneous spike rate rather than the time-averaged neural activity is the appropriate coding principle by comparing both coding parameters in a thoracic interneuron (Omega neuron ON1) of the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) auditory system. When stimulated with different temporal sound patterns, the analysis of the instantaneous spike rate demonstrates that the neuron acts as a low-pass filter for syllable patterns. The instantaneous spike rate is low at high syllable rates, but prominent peaks in the instantaneous spike rate are generated as the syllable rate resembles that of the species-specific pattern. The occurrence and repetition rate of these peaks in the neuronal discharge are sufficient to explain temporal filtering in the cricket auditory pathway as they closely match the tuning of phonotactic behavior to different sound patterns. Thus temporal filtering or "pattern recognition" occurs at an early stage in the auditory pathway.

  14. Estimation of the thermal diffusivity of solids based on instantaneous velocimetry using an interferometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SETTU BALACHANDAR; N C SHIVAPRAKASH; L KAMESWARA RAO

    2017-03-01

    A conceptually new approach is proposed to estimate the thermal diffusivity of optically transparent solids at ambient temperature based on the ‘position-dependent instantaneous velocity’ of isothermal surfaces using a self-reference interferometer. A new analytical model is proposed using the exact solution to relate the instantaneous velocity of isothermal surfaces with the thermal diffusivity of solids. The experiment involves setting up a one-dimensional non-stationary heat flow inside the solid via step-temperature excitation to launch a spectrum of dissimilar ‘moving isothermal surfaces’ at the origin. Moving isothermal surfaces exhibit macroscale ‘rectilinear translatory motion’; the instantaneous velocity of any isothermal surface at any location in the heat affected region is unique and governed by the thermal diffusivity of the solids. The intensity pattern produced by the self-reference interferometer encodes the moving isothermal surfaces into the corresponding moving intensity points. The instantaneous velocities of the intensity points are measured. For a given thermo-optic coefficient, the corresponding values of the isothermal surfaces are predicted to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the solids using BK7 glass as an example. Another improved method is proposed in which thermal diffusivity is estimated without measuring thermo-optic coefficient and quartz glass is utilized as a specimen. The results obtained using the proposed approaches closely match with the literature value.

  15. Instantaneous nonvertical electronic transitions with shaped femtosecond laser pulses: Is it possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2003-01-01

    In molecular electronic transitions, a vertical transition can be induced by an ultrashort laser pulse. That is, a replica of the initial nuclear state-times the transition dipole moment of the electronic transition-can be created instantaneously (on the time scale of nuclear motion) in the excited...

  16. Sediment suspension in oscillatory flow: measurements of instantaneous concentration at high shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staub, Carsten; Jonsson, Ivar G; Svendsen, Ib A.

    1996-01-01

    Different syphon type suspended load probes were used together with a specially developed ''carousel'' sampler for measurements of the instantaneous sediment concentration in turbulent oscillatory flow over a sand bed, Shields parameters were well above the ripple/flat bed transition region, resu...

  17. The Quest for Instantaneous Perfection and the Demand for "Push-Button" Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagiannis, Stella C.

    2009-01-01

    Educational leaders in the United States are faced with a society seeking instantaneous perfection, immediate and perfect solutions. In education, this leads to a demand for push-button administration and an abandonment of trust in educators' judgment. As exemplified by the No Child Left Behind Act (2002), the search for quick fixes results in…

  18. The Quest for Instantaneous Perfection and the Demand for "Push-Button" Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagiannis, Stella C.

    2009-01-01

    Educational leaders in the United States are faced with a society seeking instantaneous perfection, immediate and perfect solutions. In education, this leads to a demand for push-button administration and an abandonment of trust in educators' judgment. As exemplified by the No Child Left Behind Act (2002), the search for quick fixes results in…

  19. Solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification through a valve-free stepwise injection of multiple reagents employing centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic capillary barrier pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hainan; Tran, Hong Hanh; Chung, Bong Hyun; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2013-03-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique for sequentially introducing multiple sample liquids into microchannels driven by centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic barrier pressure and apply the technique for performing solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification. Three microchannels with varying widths, all equipped with independent sample reservoirs at the inlets, were fabricated on a hydrophobic elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). First, glass beads were packed inside the reaction chamber, and a whole cell containing the DNA extract was introduced into the widest channel by applying centrifugal force for physical adsorption of the DNA onto the glass beads. Next, washing and elution solutions were sequentially introduced into the intermediate and narrowest microchannels, respectively, by gradually increasing the amount of centrifugal force. Through a precise manipulation of the centrifugal force, the DNA adsorbed onto the glass beads was successfully washed and eluted in a continuous manner without the need to introduce each solution manually. A stepwise injection of liquids was successfully demonstrated using multiple ink solutions, the results of which corresponded well with the theoretical analyses. As a practical application, the D1S80 locus of human genomic DNA, which is widely used for forensic purposes, was successfully purified using the microdevice introduced in this study, as demonstrated through successful target amplification. This will pave the way for the construction of a control-free valve system for realizing on-chip DNA purification, which is one of the most labor-intensive and hard-to-miniaturize components, on a greatly simplified and miniaturized platform employing hydrophobic PDMS.

  20. Continuous measurements of instantaneous heart rate and its fluctuations before and after hatching in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, K; Pearson, J T; Burggren, W W; Ar, A; Tazawa, H

    2000-03-01

    There has been considerable interest in heart rate (fh) fluctuations in relation to cardiovascular control systems and foetal conditions during pregnancy in mammals. Prominent fluctuations in fh also occur in avian embryos, which are an important experimental model for studying developmental physiology. The present study determined the instantaneous fh of seven chick embryos continuously from the last stage of prenatal development (day 18), throughout the pipping (perinatal) period (days 19-21) until hatching and, subsequently, of newly hatched chicks (up to day 2). The distinctive patterns of instantaneous fh fluctuations took the form of specific changes within a broad mean fh baseline. Cyclic oscillations (ultradian rhythm) occurred until an early stage of the perinatal period, when the fh baseline started rising. Subsequently, the baseline dropped and respiratory arrhythmia began to appear concomitant with external pipping. During the final stage of external pipping, when the fh baseline rose again prior to hatching, three unique patterns of instantaneous fh fluctuations were evident: relatively long-lasting cyclic small accelerations, irregular intermittent large accelerations and short-term repeated large accelerations. Furthermore, repeated alternate occurrences of the latter two types of acceleration formed an additional oscillating pattern with a period of 10-15 min. During the early period after hatching, when the fh baseline reached its maximum, instantaneous fh changed relatively slowly accompanied by transient rapid decelerations, probably due to augmented vagal tone. Subsequently, the mean fh baseline dropped to its minimum, and a circadian rhythm and three types of previously reported fh fluctuations (types I-III) appeared. Developmental patterns of mean fh and the appearance of distinctive patterns of instantaneous fluctuations in fh and circadian rhythms were not influenced by an ultimate failure of hatching after a normal development. The

  1. HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY SPECTRA BASED ON NONEQUIDISTANT SAMPLING - THE SPECTRUM OF COUNTS AND THE INSTANTANEOUS HEART-RATE SPECTRUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSTEENIS, HG; TULEN, JHM; MULDER, LJM

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares two methods to estimate heart rate variability spectra i.e., the spectrum of counts and the instantaneous heart rate spectrum. Contrary to Fourier techniques based on equidistant sampling of the interbeat intervals, the spectrum of counts of the instantaneous heart rate spectrum

  2. HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY SPECTRA BASED ON NONEQUIDISTANT SAMPLING - THE SPECTRUM OF COUNTS AND THE INSTANTANEOUS HEART-RATE SPECTRUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSTEENIS, HG; TULEN, JHM; MULDER, LJM

    This paper compares two methods to estimate heart rate variability spectra i.e., the spectrum of counts and the instantaneous heart rate spectrum. Contrary to Fourier techniques based on equidistant sampling of the interbeat intervals, the spectrum of counts of the instantaneous heart rate spectrum

  3. Measured Instantaneous Viscous Boundary Layer in Turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Quan

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of the instantaneous viscous boundary layer (BL) thickness $\\delta_v(t)$ in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection. It is found that $\\delta_v(t)$ obtained from the measured instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field exhibits intermittent fluctuations. For small values, $\\delta_v(t)$ obeys a lognormal distribution, whereas for large values the distribution of $\\delta_v(t)$ exhibits an exponential tail. The variation of $\\delta_v(t)$ with time is found to be driven by the fluctuations of the large-scale mean flow velocity, as expected, and the local horizontal velocities close to the plate can be used as an instant measure of this variation. It is further found that the mean velocity profile measured in the laboratory frame can now be brought into coincidence with the theoretical Blasius laminar BL profile, if it is resampled relative to the time-dependent frame of $\\delta_v(t)$.

  4. Gradient for the acoustic VTI full waveform inversion based on the instantaneous traveltime sensitivity kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2015-08-19

    The instantaneous traveltime is able to reduce the non-linearity of full waveform inversion (FWI) that originates from the wrapping of the phase. However, the adjoint state method in this case requires a total of 5 modeling calculations to compute the gradient. Also, considering the larger modeling cost for anisotropic wavefield extrapolation and the necessity to use a line-search algorithm to estimate a step length that depends on the parameters scale, we propose to calculate the gradient based on the instantaneous traveltime sensitivity kernels. We, specifically, use the sensitivity kernels computed using dynamic ray-tracing to build the gradient. The resulting update is computed using a matrix decomposition and accordingly the computational cost is reduced. We consider a simple example where an anomaly is embedded into a constant background medium and we compute the update for the VTI wave equation parameterized using vh, η and ε.

  5. Instantaneous Power Theory with Fourier and Optimal Predictive Controller Design for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksan Tiyarachakun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel harmonic identification algorithm of shunt active power filter for balanced and unbalanced three-phase systems based on the instantaneous power theory called instantaneous power theory with Fourier. Moreover, the optimal design of predictive current controller using an artificial intelligence technique called adaptive Tabu search is also proposed in the paper. These enhancements of the identification and current control parts are the aim of the good performance for shunt active power filter. The good results for harmonic mitigation using the proposed ideas in the paper are confirmed by the intensive simulation using SPS in SIMULINK. The simulation results show that the enhanced shunt active power filter can provide the minimum %THD (Total Harmonic Distortion of source currents and unity power factor after compensation. In addition, the %THD also follows the IEEE Std.519-1992.

  6. The third post-Newtonian gravitational waveforms for compact binary systems in general orbits: instantaneous terms

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Chandra Kant; Iyer, Bala R

    2015-01-01

    We compute the instantaneous contributions to the spherical harmonic modes of gravitational waveforms from compact binary systems in general orbits up to the third post-Newtonian order. We further extend these results for compact binaries in quasi-elliptical orbits using the 3PN quasi-Keplerian representation of the conserved dynamics of compact binaries in eccentric orbits. Using the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, starting from the different mass and current type multipole moments, we compute the spin weighted spherical harmonic decomposition of the instantaneous part of the gravitational waveform. These are terms which are functions of the retarded time and do not depend on the history of the binary evolution. Together with the hereditary part, which depends on the binary's dynamical history, these waveforms form the basis for construction of accurate templates for the detection of gravitational wave signals from binaries moving in quasi-elliptical orbits.

  7. Instantaneous Kinematics Analysis via Screw-theory of a Novel 3-CRC Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein de la Torre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mobility and kinematics analysis of a novel parallel mechanism that is composed by one base, one platform and three identical limbs with CRC joints. The paper obtains closed-form solutions to the direct and inverse kinematics problems, and determines the mobility of the mechanism and instantaneous kinematics by applying screw theory. The obtained results show that this parallel robot is part of the family 2R1T, since the platform shows 3 DOF, i.e.: one translation perpendicular to the base and two rotations about skew axes. In order to calculate the direct instantaneous kinematics, this paper introduces the vector mh, which is part of the joint velocity vector that multiplies the overall inverse Jacobian matrix. This paper compares the results between simulations and numerical examples using Mathematica and SolidWorks in order to prove the accuracy of the analytical results.

  8. Dynamic hydrologic modeling using the zero-parameter Budyko model with instantaneous dryness index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Basudev

    2016-09-01

    Long-term partitioning of hydrologic quantities is achieved by using the zero-parameter Budyko model which defines a dryness index. However, this approach is not suitable for dynamic partitioning particularly at diminishing timescales, and therefore, a universally applicable zero-parameter model remains elusive. Here an instantaneous dryness index is proposed which enables dynamic hydrologic modeling using the Budyko model. By introducing a "decay function" that characterizes the effects of antecedent rainfall and solar energy on the dryness state of a basin at a time, I propose the concept of instantaneous dryness index and use the Budyko function to perform continuous hydrologic partitioning. Using the same decay function, I then obtain discharge time series from the effective rainfall time series. The model is evaluated by considering data form 63 U.S. Geological Survey basins. Results indicate the possibility of using the proposed framework as an alternative platform for prediction in ungagued basins.

  9. Instantaneous strain measurements during high-temperature stress cycling of a dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D.M.; Mishra, R.S.; Mukherjee, A.K. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1995-06-01

    Experimental results obtained from stress cycling tests performed during high-temperature creep of a dispersion strengthened niobium alloy indicate that the instantaneous strain following the stress change decreases with accumulated strain. The true work-hardening rate was shown to be a small fraction of the elastic modulus which remained fairly constant throughout the strain history. The instantaneous strain change from a stress addition was typically greater than the strain from the corresponding stress reduction. This effect is quite pronounced for small stress changes and diminishes as the magnitude of the stress change increases. This implies that the mobility of dislocations is impeded in the reverse direction unless the magnitude of stress reduction exceeds the value of the internal stress.

  10. Experimental evaluation of instantaneous phase based index for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratneshwar; Cross, Kevin; Janoyan, Kerop D.; Sazonov, Edward S.; Fuchs, Michael; Krishnamurthy, Vidya

    2006-03-01

    The sensitivity and consistency of a damage index based on instantaneous phase values obtained through vibration measurements of a structure is investigated experimentally. An 'empirical mode decomposition' is performed to decompose structural vibrations into a small number of 'intrinsic mode functions' following the methodology generally known as the Hilbert-Huang Transform. Instantaneous phase information is derived through the Hilbert transform of intrinsic mode functions. The damage index is based on the idea that the difference in phase functions between any two points on a structure is altered if the structure is damaged. Experimental investigations are performed on a beam structure with varying excitations (white noise signals), damage levels, and damage locations. The damage index shows generally consistent results, but its sensitivity to damages needs improvements for practical applications.

  11. DC uninterrupted power supply having instantaneous switching followed by low impedance switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Russell E.; Northup, Robert L.; Shimp, Alan G.

    1991-10-01

    An uninterruptible power supply is provided that incorporates switching circuitry permitting a path for instantaneous DC backup power to be supplied to a voltage-declining primary power supply bus. Once the instantaneous transition is made, battery power is switched to a low impedance path to provide long-term battery power delivery to the bus. At a point where the backup batteries no longer supply useful power to a load, disabling circuitry disconnects the batteries from the load so that excessive draining of the batteries does not result in irreversible battery damage. The uninterruptible power supply of the invention further includes an automatic battery charging circuitry that seeks to maintain the power supply batteries at optimal charge level. To enable an operator to adequately assess battery charge condition, the invention provides battery test circuitry that causes a simulated load to appear at the power supply batteries. Visual representations are then made as to battery status.

  12. Instantaneous spectrum estimation of earthquake ground motions based on unscented Kalman filter method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Representing earthquake ground motion as time varying ARMA model, the instantaneous spectrum can only be determined by the time varying coefficients of the corresponding ARMA model. In this paper, unscented Kalman filter is applied to estimate the time varying coefficients. The comparison between the estimation results of unscented Kalman filter and Kalman filter methods shows that unscented Kalman filter can more precisely represent the distribution of the spectral peaks in time-frequency plane than Kalman filter, and its time and frequency resolution is finer which ensures its better ability to track the local properties of earthquake ground motions and to identify the systems with nonlinearity or abruptness. Moreover, the estimation results of ARMA models with different orders indicate that the theoretical frequency resolving power ofARMA model which was usually ignored in former studies has great effect on the estimation precision of instantaneous spectrum and it should be taken as one of the key factors in order selection of ARMA model.

  13. Seeding optimization for instantaneous volumetric velocimetry. Application to a jet in crossflow

    CERN Document Server

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Every volumetric velocimetry measurements based on tracer (particles, bubbles, etc.) detection can be strongly influenced by the optical screening phenomenon. It has to be taken into account when the the statistical properties associated to the performances of the particle detection and tracking algorithms are significantly affected. It leads to a maximum concentration of particles in the images thus limiting the final spatial resolution of the instantaneous three-dimensional three-components (3D3C) velocity fields. A volumetric velocimetry system based on Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to show that above a critical visual concentration of particles in the images, the concentration and accuracy of the final instantaneous raw velocity vector field drop. The critical concentration depends on physical parameters as well as on the processing algorithms. Three distinct regimes are identified. In the first regime, the concentration is well adapted to volumetric velocimetry, the largest concent...

  14. Instantaneous Kinematics Analysis via Screw-Theory of a Novel 3-CRC Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein de la Torre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mobility and kinematics analysis of a novel parallel mechanism that is composed by one base, one platform and three identical limbs with CRC joints. The paper obtains closed-form solutions to the direct and inverse kinematics problems, and determines the mobility of the mechanism and instantaneous kinematics by applying screw theory. The obtained results show that this parallel robot is part of the family 2R1T, since the platform shows 3 DOF, i.e.: one translation perpendicular to the base and two rotations about skew axes. In order to calculate the direct instantaneous kinematics, this paper introduces the vector mh, which is part of the joint velocity vector that multiplies the overall inverse Jacobian matrix. This paper compares the results between simulations and numerical examples using Mathematica and SolidWorks in order to prove the accuracy of the analytical results.

  15. Design and Development of ZigBee Based Instantaneous Flat-plate Collector Efficiency Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamani, K.; Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Computing the efficiency of flat-plate collector is vital in solar thermal system testing. This paper presents the design of ZigBee enabled data acquisition system for instantaneous flat-plate collector efficiency calculation. It involves measurement of parameters like inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, ambient temperature and solar radiation intensity. The designed system has a base station and a sensor node. ZigBee wireless communication protocol is used for communication between the base station and the sensor node for wireless data acquisition. The wireless sensor node which is mounted over the collector plate includes the necessary sensors and associated signal-conditioners. An application program has been developed on LabVIEW platform for data acquisition, processing and analysis and is executed in base station PC. Instantaneous flat-plate collector efficiency is computed and reported.

  16. Effect of Morphology of Instantaneous Inoculant on Inoculated Result of Melted Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Da

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of some elements in inoculant were analyzed. The effect of the morphology of instantaneous inoculant on its melting velocity was studied. When the inoculants pass through the same sieve number, the volume and the ratio of surface area to volume are different. It is evident from the theoretical analysis and experiment under some conditions that the melting velocity of inoculant depends on the morphology of inoculant. The morphology of inoculant during production should be controlled carefully.

  17. Post-processing methods of PIV instantaneous flow fields for unsteady flows in turbomachines

    OpenAIRE

    Cavazzini, G.; A. Dazin; Pavesi, G; Dupont, P; G. Bois

    2012-01-01

    The Particle Image Velocimetry is undoubtedly one of the most important technique in Fluid-dynamics since it allows to obtain a direct and instantaneous visualization of the flow field in a non-intrusive way. This innovative technique spreads in a wide number of research fields, from aerodynamics to medicine, from biology to turbulence researches, from aerodynamics to combustion processes. The book is aimed at presenting the PIV technique and its wide range of possible applications so as to p...

  18. A minimum-error, energy-constrained neural code is an instantaneous-rate code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik C; Jones, Douglas L; Ratnam, Rama

    2016-04-01

    Sensory neurons code information about stimuli in their sequence of action potentials (spikes). Intuitively, the spikes should represent stimuli with high fidelity. However, generating and propagating spikes is a metabolically expensive process. It is therefore likely that neural codes have been selected to balance energy expenditure against encoding error. Our recently proposed optimal, energy-constrained neural coder (Jones et al. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 9, 61 2015) postulates that neurons time spikes to minimize the trade-off between stimulus reconstruction error and expended energy by adjusting the spike threshold using a simple dynamic threshold. Here, we show that this proposed coding scheme is related to existing coding schemes, such as rate and temporal codes. We derive an instantaneous rate coder and show that the spike-rate depends on the signal and its derivative. In the limit of high spike rates the spike train maximizes fidelity given an energy constraint (average spike-rate), and the predicted interspike intervals are identical to those generated by our existing optimal coding neuron. The instantaneous rate coder is shown to closely match the spike-rates recorded from P-type primary afferents in weakly electric fish. In particular, the coder is a predictor of the peristimulus time histogram (PSTH). When tested against in vitro cortical pyramidal neuron recordings, the instantaneous spike-rate approximates DC step inputs, matching both the average spike-rate and the time-to-first-spike (a simple temporal code). Overall, the instantaneous rate coder relates optimal, energy-constrained encoding to the concepts of rate-coding and temporal-coding, suggesting a possible unifying principle of neural encoding of sensory signals.

  19. Instantaneous mechanical fastening of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates by a self-piercing rivet

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 政人; 三宅, 崇太郎; 長谷川, 寛幸; 平野, 義鎭; Ueda, Masahito; Miyake, Sotaro; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    A modified self-piercing rivet (SPR) has been proposed to mechanically fasten CFRP laminates. The modified SPR consists of a rivet body and two flat washers. The two flat washers were used to suppress delamination in the CFRP laminates at the point of piercing. The advantages of the modified SPR for fastening CFRP laminates are instantaneous process time and low cost. Any pretreatments such as surface treatments or hole drilling are not required. In this study, the viability of the modified S...

  20. The transient response of a quantum wave to an instantaneous potential step switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, F [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Cruz, H [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (Spain); Muga, J G [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-12-06

    The transient response of a stationary state of a quantum particle in a step potential to an instantaneous change in the step height (a simplified model for a sudden bias switch in an electronic semiconductor device) is solved exactly by means of a semianalytical expression. The characteristic times for the transient process up to the new stationary state are identified. A comparison is made between the exact results and an approximate method.

  1. Estimating the Instantaneous Drag-Wind Relationship for a Horizontally Homogeneous Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Chamecki, Marcelo; Nepf, Heidi M.

    2016-07-01

    The mean drag-wind relationship is usually investigated assuming that field data are representative of spatially-averaged metrics of statistically stationary flow within and above a horizontally homogeneous canopy. Even if these conditions are satisfied, large-eddy simulation (LES) data suggest two major issues in the analysis of observational data. Firstly, the streamwise mean pressure gradient is usually neglected in the analysis of data from terrestrial canopies, which compromises the estimates of mean canopy drag and provides misleading information for the dependence of local mean drag coefficients on local velocity scales. Secondly, no standard approach has been proposed to investigate the instantaneous drag-wind relationship, a critical component of canopy representation in LES. Here, a practical approach is proposed to fit the streamwise mean pressure gradient using observed profiles of the mean vertical momentum flux within the canopy. Inclusion of the fitted mean pressure gradient enables reliable estimates of the mean drag-wind relationship. LES data show that a local mean drag coefficient that characterizes the relationship between mean canopy drag and the velocity scale associated with total kinetic energy can be used to identify the dependence of the local instantaneous drag coefficient on instantaneous velocity. Iterative approaches are proposed to fit specific models of velocity-dependent instantaneous drag coefficients that represent the effects of viscous drag and the reconfiguration of flexible canopy elements. LES data are used to verify the assumptions and algorithms employed by these new approaches. The relationship between mean canopy drag and mean velocity, which is needed in models based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, is parametrized to account for both the dependence on velocity and the contribution from velocity variances. Finally, velocity-dependent drag coefficients lead to significant variations of the calculated

  2. Holographically emulating sequential versus instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons in a hot environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, R.; Kämpfer, B.

    2016-10-01

    Minor extensions of the soft-wall model are used to accommodate two variants of Regge trajectories of vector meson excitations. At nonzero temperatures, various options for either sequential or instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons as normalizable modes are found, thus emulating deconfinement at a certain temperature in the order of the (pseudo)critical temperature of QCD. The crucial role of the blackness function, which steers the thermodynamic properties of the considered system, is highlighted.

  3. Holographically emulating sequential versus instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons in a hot environment

    CERN Document Server

    Zöllner, Rico

    2016-01-01

    Descent extensions of the soft-wall model are used to accommodate two variants of Regge trajectories of vector meson excitations. At non-zero temperatures, various options for either sequential or instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons as normalisable modes are found, thus emulating deconfinement at a certain temperature in the order of the (pseudo-) critical temperature of QCD. The crucial role of the blackness function, which steers the thermodynamic properties of the considered system, is highlighted.

  4. Outcomes of switching directly to oral fingolimod from injectable therapies: Results of the randomized, open-label, multicenter, Evaluate Patient OutComes (EPOC) study in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward; Edwards, Keith; Burch, Gordon; Wynn, Daniel R; LaGanke, Chris; Crayton, Heidi; Hunter, Samuel F; Huffman, Cynthia; Kim, Edward; Pestreich, Linda; McCague, Kevin; Barbato, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The Evaluate Patient OutComes (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01216072) study was conducted in North America to assess patient- and physician-reported treatment satisfaction in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who received oral fingolimod for 6 months after switching from an injectable disease-modifying therapy (iDMT), without an intervening washout. In this open-label, multicenter study, patients were randomized 3:1 to once-daily fingolimod 0.5mg or iDMT. The primary study objective was to evaluate differences in satisfaction measured using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication v1.4. Of 1053 patients randomized, 790 patients received fingolimod and 263 patients received iDMT. Treatment satisfaction improved significantly in patients who switched to fingolimod compared with those who continued iDMT. Patients also reported significant improvements in health-related quality of life, reduced depression, and reduced fatigue severity after a switch to fingolimod. No difference between the treatment groups was detected on the Patient Reported Indices for MS Activities scale. The safety profile of fingolimod was consistent with that reported in the pivotal phase 3 studies. The most commonly reported adverse events were more prevalent in patients who switched to fingolimod than in those who continued iDMT (headache: 12% vs 3%; fatigue: 12% vs 6%). No significant relationship between lymphocyte counts and infection rates was observed and there was no evidence of additive immune-system effects, which might be expected when switching to a different class of immunomodulatory therapy with no intervening washout. Patients who switched from iDMT to fingolimod had significant improvements in most self-reported outcomes compared with those who continued iDMT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. First-dose effects of fingolimod after switching from injectable therapies in the randomized, open-label, multicenter, Evaluate Patient OutComes (EPOC) study in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bruce; Cascione, Mark; Freedman, Mark S; Agius, Mark; Kantor, Daniel; Gudesblatt, Mark; Goldstick, Lawrence P; Agashivala, Neetu; Schofield, Lesley; McCague, Kevin; Hashmonay, Ron; Barbato, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    In pivotal phase 3 studies, fingolimod treatment initiation was associated with a transient reduction in heart rate (HR). Atrioventricular (AV) conduction delays, which were typically asymptomatic, were detected in a small minority of patients. We report the first-dose effects of fingolimod in patients who switched from injectable therapies during the Evaluate Patient OutComes (EPOC) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01216072). This was a phase 4, 6-month, randomized, active-comparator, open-label, multicenter study. It included over 900 fingolimod-treated patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis, with subgroups of individuals who were receiving common concomitant HR-lowering medications or had pre-existing cardiac conditions (PCCs). Vital signs were recorded hourly for 6h post-dose. A 12-lead electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline and at 6h post-dose. A transient decrease in mean HR and blood pressure occurred within 6h of the first fingolimod dose. The incidence of symptomatic bradycardia was low (1%); eight patients reported dizziness and there was one case each of fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea, cardiac discomfort, and gait disturbance. These symptomatic events were typically mild or moderate in severity and all resolved spontaneously, without intervention or fingolimod discontinuation. First-dose effects in patients with PCCs and in those receiving concomitant HR-lowering medications were consistent with effects observed in the overall study population and with results from previous clinical trials. The EPOC study provides additional data demonstrating the transient and generally benign nature of fingolimod first-dose effects on HR and AV conduction in a large population that is more representative of patients encountered in routine clinical practice than in the pivotal trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of an on-line flow injection Sr/matrix separation method for accurate, high-throughput determination of Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Patrick; Limbeck, Andreas; Boulyga, Sergei F; Stingeder, Gerhard; Hirata, Takafumi; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    This work introduces a newly developed on-line flow injection (FI) Sr/Rb separation method as an alternative to the common, manual Sr/matrix batch separation procedure, since total analysis time is often limited by sample preparation despite the fast rate of data acquisition possible by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometers (ICPMS). Separation columns containing approximately 100 muL of Sr-specific resin were used for on-line FI Sr/matrix separation with subsequent determination of (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios by multiple collector ICPMS. The occurrence of memory effects exhibited by the Sr-specific resin, a major restriction to the repetitive use of this costly material, could successfully be overcome. The method was fully validated by means of certified reference materials. A set of two biological and six geological Sr- and Rb-bearing samples was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios with precisions of 0.01-0.04% 2 RSD (n = 5-10). Based on our measurements we suggest (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of 0.713 15 +/- 0.000 16 (2 SD) and 0.709 31 +/- 0.000 06 (2 SD) for the NIST SRM 1400 bone ash and the NIST SRM 1486 bone meal, respectively. Measured (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios for five basalt samples are in excellent agreement with published data with deviations from the published value ranging from 0 to 0.03%. A mica sample with a Rb/Sr ratio of approximately 1 was successfully characterized for its (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope signature to be 0.718 24 +/- 0.000 29 (2 SD) by the proposed method. Synthetic samples with Rb/Sr ratios of up to 10/1 could successfully be measured without significant interferences on mass 87, which would otherwise bias the accuracy and uncertainty of the obtained data.

  7. Real-world effectiveness of natalizumab and fingolimod compared with self-injectable drugs in non-responders and in treatment-naïve patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperini, Luca; Saccà, Francesco; Cordioli, Cinzia; Cortese, Antonio; Buttari, Fabio; Pontecorvo, Simona; Bianco, Assunta; Ruggieri, Serena; Haggiag, Shalom; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Capra, Ruggero; Centonze, Diego; Di Battista, Giancarlo; Ferraro, Elisabetta; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Millefiorini, Enrico; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Pozzilli, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    In this independent, multicentre post-marketing study we directly compared the effectiveness of natalizumab (NTZ), fingolimod (FNG) and self-injectable drugs (INJ), in non-responders to first immunomodulating treatment and in highly active treatment-naïve patients with multiple sclerosis. As main outcome measure we considered the proportions of patients with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA-3), defined as absence of relapses, disability worsening and radiological activity. A total of 567 non-responders to interferon beta (IFNB) or glatiramer acetate (GA) [dataset A] and 216 highly active treatment-naïves [dataset B] were followed up to 24 months from the beginning of NTZ, FNG or INJ, i.e. switching from IFNB to GA or viceversa (in the case of non-responders) or starting high-dose IFNB (in the case of highly active treatment-naïves). Propensity score matching in a 1:1:1 ratio was used to select only patients with similar baseline characteristics, retaining 330 and 120 patients in dataset A and B, respectively. In dataset A, the 24-month proportion with NEDA-3 was greater in both NTZ group (67%) and FNG group (42%) than in INJ group (35%) (p ≤ 0.016); however, NTZ was superior to FNG in promoting the attainment of NEDA-3 status (p = 0.034). In dataset B, the 24-month proportion with NEDA-3 was greater in NTZ group (75%) and FNG group (67%) than in INJ group (40%), but the small cohort sizes most likely prevented the detection of any statistically significant difference. Our study provides real-world evidence that NTZ was more effective than both FNG and INJ in non-responders, while it could seem that, in highly active treatment-naïves, NTZ was as effective as FNG and both were superior to INJ.

  8. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12‐month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Y.; Conget, I.; Castañeda, J. A.; Runzis, S.; Lee, S. W.; Cohen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. Methods After a 2‐month dose‐optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6‐month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between‐group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. Results The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (−1.1 ± 1.2% vs −0.4 ± 1.1%; p pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI–pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusions Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. PMID:26854123

  9. Instantaneous ballistic velocity of suspended Brownian nanocrystals measured by upconversion nanothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carlos D. S.; Xie, Xiaoji; Debasu, Mengistie L.; Qin, Xian; Chen, Runfeng; Huang, Wei; Rocha, João; Liu, Xiaogang; Carlos, Luís D.

    2016-10-01

    Brownian motion is one of the most fascinating phenomena in nature. Its conceptual implications have a profound impact in almost every field of science and even economics, from dissipative processes in thermodynamic systems, gene therapy in biomedical research, artificial motors and galaxy formation to the behaviour of stock prices. However, despite extensive experimental investigations, the basic microscopic knowledge of prototypical systems such as colloidal particles in a fluid is still far from being complete. This is particularly the case for the measurement of the particles' instantaneous velocities, elusive due to the rapid random movements on extremely short timescales. Here, we report the measurement of the instantaneous ballistic velocity of Brownian nanocrystals suspended in both aqueous and organic solvents. To achieve this, we develop a technique based on upconversion nanothermometry. We find that the population of excited electronic states in NaYF4:Yb/Er nanocrystals at thermal equilibrium can be used for temperature mapping of the nanofluid with great thermal sensitivity (1.15% K-1 at 296 K) and a high spatial resolution (<1 μm). A distinct correlation between the heat flux in the nanofluid and the temporal evolution of Er3+ emission allows us to measure the instantaneous velocity of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes.

  10. PIV EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF INSTANTANEOUS FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF CIRCULAR ORIFICE SYNTHETIC JET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The instantaneous flow characteristics of circular orifice synthetic jet was experimentally studied by a phase-locked Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The instantaneous flowfields, including the forming, developing and breaking down of the vortex for the jet were clearly shown by the PIV experimental results. As the basis of the study of the instantaneous flow, 36 images were taken and phase-averaged for each condition. The PIV experiment was mainly focused on the time evolution of the vortex pairs formed in the push cycle, the saddle point existing in the suck cycle, the variation of the centerline velocity in the whole cycle and the cross-stream velocity profiles and their self-similarity. Finally, the orifice depth was changed from 1.5 mm to 2 mm and 3.5 mm in order to study the effect of different orifice depths on the flow structure, which shows that at all stream wise sections, the peak of the mass flux and momentum flux increases as the orifice depth increases. Furthermore, the nondimensional distance of the mass flux from the exit is the maximum, while the nondimensional distance of the centerline velocity peak from the exit is the minimum, and nondimensional distance of the momentum flux from the exit section is between them.

  11. Automatic classification of infant sleep based on instantaneous frequencies in a single-channel EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čić, Maja; Šoda, Joško; Bonković, Mirjana

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a novel approach for the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal quantification in which the empirical mode decomposition method, a time-frequency method designated for nonlinear and non-stationary signals, decomposes the EEG signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMF) with corresponding frequency ranges that characterize the appropriate oscillatory modes embedded in the brain neural activity acquired using EEG. To calculate the instantaneous frequency of IMFs, an algorithm was developed using the Generalized Zero Crossing method. From the resulting frequencies, two different novel features were generated: the median instantaneous frequencies and the number of instantaneous frequency changes during a 30s segment for seven IMFs. The sleep stage classification for the daytime sleep of 20 healthy babies was determined using the Support Vector Machine classification algorithm. The results were evaluated using the cross-validation method to achieve an approximately 90% accuracy and with new examinee data to achieve 80% average accuracy of classification. The obtained results were higher than the human experts' agreement and were statistically significant, which positioned the method, based on the proposed features, as an efficient procedure for automatic sleep stage classification. The uniqueness of this study arises from newly proposed features of the time-frequency domain, which bind characteristics of the sleep signals to the oscillation modes of brain activity, reflecting the physical characteristics of sleep, and thus have the potential to highlight the congruency of twin pairs with potential implications for the genetic determination of sleep.

  12. Instantaneous transfer entropy for the study of cardio-respiratory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Faes, Luca; Citi, Luca; Orini, Michele; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Measures of transfer entropy have been proposed to quantify the directional coupling and strength between two complex physiological variables. Particular attention has been given to nonlinear interactions within cardiovascular and respiratory dynamics as influenced by the autonomic nervous system. However, standard transfer entropy estimates have shown major limitations in dealing with issues concerning stochastic system modeling, limited observations in time, and the assumption of stationarity of the considered physiological variables. Moreover, standard estimates are unable to track time-varying changes in nonlinear coupling with high resolution in time. Here, we propose a novel definition of transfer entropy linked to inhomogeneous point-process theory. Heartbeat and respiratory dynamics are characterized through discrete time series, and modeled through probability density functions (PDFs) which characterize and predict the time until the occurrence of the next physiological event as a function of the past history. As the derived measures of entropy are instantaneously defined through continuos PDFs, a novel index (the Instantaneous point-process Transfer Entropy, ipT ransfEn) is able to provide instantaneous tracking of the information transfer. The new measure is tested on experimental data gathered from 16 healthy subjects undergoing postural changes, showing fast tracking of the tilting events and low variability during the standing phase.

  13. Effect of instantaneous and continuous quenches on the density of vibrational modes in model glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Edan; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-08-01

    Computational studies of supercooled liquids often focus on various analyses of their "underlying inherent states"—the glassy configurations at zero temperature obtained by an infinitely fast (instantaneous) quench from equilibrium supercooled states. Similar protocols are also regularly employed in investigations of the unjamming transition at which the rigidity of decompressed soft-sphere packings is lost. Here we investigate the statistics and localization properties of low-frequency vibrational modes of glassy configurations obtained by such instantaneous quenches. We show that the density of vibrational modes grows as ωβ with β depending on the parent temperature T0 from which the glassy configurations were instantaneously quenched. For quenches from high temperature liquid states we find β ≈3 , whereas β appears to approach the previously observed value β =4 as T0 approaches the glass transition temperature. We discuss the consistency of our findings with the theoretical framework of the soft potential model, and contrast them with similar measurements performed on configurations obtained by continuous quenches at finite cooling rates. Our results suggest that any physical quench at rates sufficiently slower than the inverse vibrational time scale—including all physically realistic quenching rates of molecular or atomistic glasses—would result in a glass whose density of vibrational modes is universally characterized by β =4 .

  14. Representation of Instantaneous and Short-term Loudness in the Human Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eThwaites

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signals pass through numerous transforms in the auditory system before perceptual attributes such as loudness and pitch are derived. However, relatively little is known as to exactly when these transformations happen, and where, cortically or sub-cortically, they occur. In an effort to examine this, we investigated the latencies and locations of cortical entrainment to two transforms predicted by a model of loudness perception for time-varying sounds: the transforms were instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, where the latter is hypothesized to be derived from the former and therefore should occur later in time. Entrainment of cortical activity was estimated by electro- and magneto-encephalographic (EMEG activity, recorded while healthy subjects listened to continuous speech. There was entrainment to instantaneous loudness bilaterally at 45 ms, 100 ms and 165 ms, in Heschl’s gyrus, dorsal lateral sulcus and Heschl’s gyrus respectively. Entrainment to short-term loudness was found in both the dorsal lateral sulcus and superior temporal sulcus at 275 ms. These results suggest that short-term loudness is derived from instantaneous loudness, and that this derivation occurs after processing in sub-cortical structures.

  15. Recognizing knee pathologies by classifying instantaneous screws of the six degrees-of-freedom knee motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alon; Degani, Amir

    2007-05-01

    We address the problem of knee pathology assessment by using screw theory to describe the knee motion and by using the screw representation of the motion as an input to a machine learning classifier. The flexions of knees with different pathologies are tracked using an optical tracking system. The instantaneous screw parameters which describe the transformation of the tibia with respect to the femur in each two successive observation is represented as the instantaneous screw axis of the motion given in its Plücker line coordinates along with its corresponding pitch. The set of instantaneous screw parameters associated with a particular knee with a given pathology is then identified and clustered in R(6) to form a "signature" of the motion for the given pathology. Sawbones model and two cadaver knees with different pathologies were tracked, and the resulting screws were used to train a classifier system. The system was then tested successfully with new, never-trained-before data. The classifier demonstrated a very high success rate in identifying the knee pathology.

  16. Auto-identification of engine fault acoustic signal through inverse trigonometric instantaneous frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ning

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic signals of internal combustion engines contain valuable information about the condition of engines. These signals can be used to detect incipient faults in engines. However, these signals are complex and composed of a faulty component and other noise signals of background. As such, engine conditions’ characteristics are difficult to extract through wavelet transformation and acoustic emission techniques. In this study, an instantaneous frequency analysis method was proposed. A new time–frequency model was constructed using a fixed amplitude and a variable cycle sine function to fit adjacent points gradually from a time domain signal. The instantaneous frequency corresponds to single value at any time. This study also introduced instantaneous frequency calculation on the basis of an inverse trigonometric fitting method at any time. The mean value of all local maximum values was then considered to identify the engine condition automatically. Results revealed that the mean of local maximum values under faulty conditions differs from the normal mean. An experiment case was also conducted to illustrate the availability of the proposed method. Using the proposed time–frequency model, we can identify engine condition and determine abnormal sound produced by faulty engines.

  17. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  18. Tracking instantaneous entropy in heartbeat dynamics through inhomogeneous point-process nonlinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Measures of entropy have been proved as powerful quantifiers of complex nonlinear systems, particularly when applied to stochastic series of heartbeat dynamics. Despite the remarkable achievements obtained through standard definitions of approximate and sample entropy, a time-varying definition of entropy characterizing the physiological dynamics at each moment in time is still missing. To this extent, we propose two novel measures of entropy based on the inho-mogeneous point-process theory. The RR interval series is modeled through probability density functions (pdfs) which characterize and predict the time until the next event occurs as a function of the past history. Laguerre expansions of the Wiener-Volterra autoregressive terms account for the long-term nonlinear information. As the proposed measures of entropy are instantaneously defined through such probability functions, the proposed indices are able to provide instantaneous tracking of autonomic nervous system complexity. Of note, the distance between the time-varying phase-space vectors is calculated through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance of two pdfs. Experimental results, obtained from the analysis of RR interval series extracted from ten healthy subjects during stand-up tasks, suggest that the proposed entropy indices provide instantaneous tracking of the heartbeat complexity, also allowing for the definition of complexity variability indices.

  19. Signal Separation and Instantaneous Frequency Estimation Based on Multi-scale Chirplet Sparse Signal Decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-jie YU; Jie-si LUO; Mei-li SHI

    2010-01-01

    An approach based an multi-scale chirplet sparse signal de-composition is proposed to separate the multi-component polynomial phase signals, and estimate their instantaneous frequencies. In this paper, we have generated a family of multi-scale chirplet functions which provide good local correlations of chirps over shorter time inter-val. At every decomposition stage, we build the so-called family of chirplets and our idea is to use a structured algorithm which exploits information in the family to chain chirplets together adaptively as to form the polynomial phase signal component whose correlation with the current residue signal is largest. Simultaneously, the polynomial instantaneous frequency is estimated by connecting the linear frequen-cy of the chirplet fixations adopted in the current separation. Simula-tion experiment demonstrated that this method can separate the com-ponents of the multi-component polynomial phase signals effectively even in the low signal-to-noise ratio condition, and estimate its in-stantaneous frequency accurately.

  20. Estimation of instantaneous complex dynamics through Lyapunov exponents: a study on heartbeat dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Measures of nonlinearity and complexity, and in particular the study of Lyapunov exponents, have been increasingly used to characterize dynamical properties of a wide range of biological nonlinear systems, including cardiovascular control. In this work, we present a novel methodology able to effectively estimate the Lyapunov spectrum of a series of stochastic events in an instantaneous fashion. The paradigm relies on a novel point-process high-order nonlinear model of the event series dynamics. The long-term information is taken into account by expanding the linear, quadratic, and cubic Wiener-Volterra kernels with the orthonormal Laguerre basis functions. Applications to synthetic data such as the Hénon map and Rössler attractor, as well as two experimental heartbeat interval datasets (i.e., healthy subjects undergoing postural changes and patients with severe cardiac heart failure), focus on estimation and tracking of the Instantaneous Dominant Lyapunov Exponent (IDLE). The novel cardiovascular assessment demonstrates that our method is able to effectively and instantaneously track the nonlinear autonomic control dynamics, allowing for complexity variability estimations.

  1. 鞘内注射甲基强的松龙治疗多发性硬化研究%Study on Multiple Sclerosis Treatment by Intrathecal Injection of Methylprednisolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳玲; 李吕力; 李瑶宣; 梁浩; 滕晓茗

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of methylprednisolone in patients of acute multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Seventy cases were divided into intrathecal methylprednisolone group (n=32) and methylprednisolone impact group (n=38). The reduction of Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and the rate of side effects after treatment were evaluated. The average total cost of hospitalization, the average cost per hospital day and the proportional contribution of medications were analysed with the software of SPSS13.0. Results: The average improvement of EDSS after 5 days treatment was significantly obvious in intrathecal methylprednisolone group compared with that of methylprednisolone impact group (P 0.05). There were significantly lower values in the average total cost of hospitalization, the average cost per hospital day, average hospitalization day and the proportional contribution of medications in intrathecal methylprednisolone group than those of methylprednisolone impact group(P < 0.05). Con-Clusion: The intrathecal methylprednisolone therapy showed a fast improvement of EDSS scale, reduced average hospitalization day and lower average total cost of hospitalization in patients with multiple sclerosis.%目的:探讨鞘内注射甲基强的松龙治疗急性期多发性硬化(MS)的疗效.方法:将70例MS按主要治疗方法分为鞘内注射甲基强的松龙(MPS)组32例和MPS冲击组38例,比较治疗后2组不同时间的Kurtzke神经功能障碍量表(EDSS)评分减少数、住院总费用、日均住院费用、药品比例及平均住院天数.结果:鞘内注射MPS组5d时的EDSS评分减少数较MPS冲击组多,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);15d时评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);鞘内注射MPS组的平均住院总费用、日均住院费用、平均住院天数、药品比例少于MPS冲击组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:鞘内注射甲基强的松龙治疗MS,神经功

  2. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  3. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  4. Subdural injection: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid-Puentes, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two cases are reported of accidental subdural injection during epidural procedures for pain control. The first one was a man with chronic lumbar pain who suffered such complication during an epidural injection of steroids using the interlaminar approach. The second one was a woman with intracranial hypotension syndrome who required the application of an epidural blood patch in order to control multiple CSF fistulae. The procedure had to be aborted twice due to the subdural pattern observed after injection of the contrast medium. Accidental subdural block is a rare complication of epidural injection for analgesic or anesthetic procedures.

  5. Upscaling instantaneous to daily evapotranspiration using modelled daily shortwave radiation for remote sensing applications: an artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Loise; Mallick, Kaniska; Kiely, Gerard; Roupsard, Olivier; Peichl, Mathias; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Upscaling instantaneous evapotranspiration retrieved at any specific time-of-day (ETi) to daily evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key challenge in mapping regional ET using polar orbiting sensors. Various studies have unanimously cited the shortwave incoming radiation (RS) to be the most robust reference variable explaining the ratio between ETd and ETi . This study aims to contribute in ETi upscaling for global studies using the ratio between daily and instantaneous incoming shortwave radiation (RSd / RSi) as a factor for converting ETi to ETd. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) machine-learning algorithm first to predict RSd from RSi followed by using the RSd / RSi ratio to convert ETi to ETd across different terrestrial ecosystems. Using RSi and RSd observations from multiple sub-networks of the FLUXNET database spread across different climates and biomes (to represent inputs that would typically be obtainable from remote sensors during the overpass time) in conjunction with some astronomical variables (e.g. solar zenith angle, day length, exoatmospheric shortwave radiation), we developed the ANN model for reproducing RSd and further used it to upscale ETi to ETd. The efficiency of the ANN is evaluated for different morning and afternoon times of day, under varying sky conditions, and also at different geographic locations. RS-based upscaled ETd produced a significant linear relation (R 2 = 0.65 to 0.69), low bias (-0.31 to -0.56 MJ m-2 d -1 ; approx. 4 %), and good agreement (RMSE 1.55 to 1.86 MJ m-2 d -1 ; approx. 10 %) with the observed ETd, although a systematic overestimation of ETd was also noted under persistent cloudy sky conditions. Inclusion of soil moisture and rainfall information in ANN training reduced the systematic overestimation tendency in predominantly overcast days. An intercomparison with existing upscaling method at daily, 8-day, monthly, and yearly temporal resolution revealed a robust performance of the ANNdriven RS

  6. Upscaling instantaneous to daily evapotranspiration using modelled daily shortwave radiation for remote sensing applications: an artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Loise; Mallick, Kaniska; Kiely, Gerard; Roupsard, Olivier; Peichl, Matthias; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Upscaling instantaneous evapotranspiration retrieved at any specific time-of-day (ETi) to daily evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key challenge in mapping regional ET using polar orbiting sensors. Various studies have unanimously cited the shortwave incoming radiation (RS) to be the most robust reference variable explaining the ratio between ETd and ETi. This study aims to contribute in ETi upscaling for global studies using the ratio between daily and instantaneous incoming shortwave radiation (RSd / RSi) as a factor for converting ETi to ETd.This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) machine-learning algorithm first to predict RSd from RSi followed by using the RSd / RSi ratio to convert ETi to ETd across different terrestrial ecosystems. Using RSi and RSd observations from multiple sub-networks of the FLUXNET database spread across different climates and biomes (to represent inputs that would typically be obtainable from remote sensors during the overpass time) in conjunction with some astronomical variables (e.g. solar zenith angle, day length, exoatmospheric shortwave radiation), we developed the ANN model for reproducing RSd and further used it to upscale ETi to ETd. The efficiency of the ANN is evaluated for different morning and afternoon times of day, under varying sky conditions, and also at different geographic locations. RS-based upscaled ETd produced a significant linear relation (R2 = 0.65 to 0.69), low bias (-0.31 to -0.56 MJ m-2 d-1; approx. 4 %), and good agreement (RMSE 1.55 to 1.86 MJ m-2 d-1; approx. 10 %) with the observed ETd, although a systematic overestimation of ETd was also noted under persistent cloudy sky conditions. Inclusion of soil moisture and rainfall information in ANN training reduced the systematic overestimation tendency in predominantly overcast days. An intercomparison with existing upscaling method at daily, 8-day, monthly, and yearly temporal resolution revealed a robust performance of the ANN-driven RS-based ETi

  7. Deltoid injections of risperidone long-acting injectable in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Palumbo, Joseph M; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites.

  8. 面条机搅拌杯多重倒扣成型注塑模具设计%Injection Mould Design for Multiple Undercut Forming of Noodle Machine Stirring Cup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵战锋

    2016-01-01

    针对某面条机搅拌杯产品存在多重倒扣难以脱模的问题,设计了单型腔模具结构。采用圆周式薄片侧浇口,并实现了流道废料自动切除。针对产品不同部位的脱模要求设计了不同的脱模机构:型腔侧扣位采用前模抽芯机构进行脱模,型芯侧外侧面多重扣位采用哈夫滑块抽芯机构进行脱模,型芯侧内侧面多重扣位采用斜顶机构进行脱模,产品的完全顶出采用推件板顶出方式顶出脱模。结合一侧哈夫滑块抽芯时,需先行将螺纹镶件抽出的特点,在该哈夫滑块的结构基础上,设计了复合式斜导柱+弯销+螺纹滑块脱模机构,实现了产品上各局部扣位的脱模。设计的模具完成了所有的侧抽芯脱模动作,实现了自动化注塑生产。%According to the problems that demoulding is difficult due to multiple undercuts existed in the noodle machine stir-ring cup product,the single cavity mould structure was designed. Circular sheet type side gate was used and the automatic removal of the runner scraps was realized. For demoulding requirements of different parts of the product,different demoulding mechanisms were designed,the cavity side undercut was demoulded by the front mould core pulling mechanism,the outer side multiple under-cuts in core side was demoulded by the half slide block core pulling mechanism,inner side multiple undercuts in core side was de-moulded by the inclined top mechanism,complete ejection of the product was done through ejector plate. Combining the character-istic which the threaded inserts need to be pulledfirstly when one side half slide block does core pulling,the composite angle guide pillar + forniciform dowel + thread slide block demoulding mechanism were designed,which successfully realized the demoulding of undercuts in the each local parts of the products. The designed mouldfinished all side core-pulling demoulding actions,and auto-matic injection production was

  9. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  10. A Study on the Instantaneous Turbulent Flow Field in a 90-Degree Elbow Pipe with Circular Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the special application of 90-degree elbow pipe in the HTR-PM, the large eddy simulation was selected to calculate the instantaneous flow field in the 90-degree elbow pipe combining with the experimental results. The characteristics of the instantaneous turbulent flow field under the influence of flow separation and secondary flow were studied by analyzing the instantaneous pressure information at specific monitoring points and the instantaneous velocity field on the cross section of the elbow. The pattern and the intensity of the Dean vortex and the small scale eddies change over time and induce the asymmetry of the flow field. The turbulent disturbance upstream and the flow separation near the intrados couple with the vortexes of various scales. Energy is transferred from large scale eddies to small scale eddies and dissipated by the viscous stress in the end.

  11. A digital instantaneous frequency measurement technique utilising high speed analogue to digital converters and field programmable gate arrays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, PLR

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern information and sensor systems, the timely estimation of the carrier frequency of received signals is of critical importance. This paper presents a digital instantaneous frequency measurement (DIFM) technique, which can measure the carrier...

  12. Molecular diversity of HIV-1 among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: massive expansion of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B and emergence of multiple unique recombinant clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Ong, Lai Yee; Razak, Siti Humaira; Lee, Yeat Mei; Ng, Kim Tien; Yong, Yean Kong; Azmel, Azureen; Takebe, Yutaka; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B' of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID) however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B' (11%) and CRF01_AE (5%)] and CRF01_AE/B' unique recombinants (13%) were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B' recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers) and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the escalating

  13. A Phase IIb, Multicenter, Open-Label, Safety, and Efficacy Study of High-Dose, Propylene Glycol-Free Melphalan Hydrochloride for Injection (EVOMELA) for Myeloablative Conditioning in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Parameswaran; Aljitawi, Omar S; Arce-Lara, Carlos; Nath, Rajneesh; Callander, Natalie; Bhat, Gajanan; Allen, Lee F; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after high-dose melphalan conditioning is considered a standard of care procedure for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Current formulations of melphalan (eg, Alkeran for Injection [melphalan hydrochloride]; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) have marginal solubility and limited chemical stability upon reconstitution. Alkeran requires the use of propylene glycol as a co-solvent, which itself has been reported to cause such complications as metabolic/renal dysfunction and arrhythmias. EVOMELA (propylene glycol-free melphalan HCl; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) is a new i.v. melphalan formulation that incorporates Captisol (Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA), a specially modified cyclodextrin that improves the solubility and stability of melphalan and eliminates the need for propylene glycol. This new formulation has been shown to be bioequivalent to Alkeran. EVOMELA (200 mg/m(2)) was administered as 2 doses of 100 mg/m(2) each in a phase IIb, open-label, multicenter study to confirm its safety and efficacy as a high-dose conditioning regimen for patients with MM undergoing ASCT. At 5 centers, 61 patients (26 women) with a median age of 62 years (range, 32-73) were enrolled. All patients achieved myeloablation with a median time of 5 days post-ASCT, and all successfully achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment with median times of 12 days post-ASCT and 13 days post-ASCT, respectively; treatment-related mortality on day 100 was 0%. Overall response rate (according to independent, blinded review) was high (100%), with an overall complete response rate of 21% (13% stringent complete response; 8% complete response) and overall partial response rate of 79% (61% very good partial response; 18% partial response). The incidence of grade 3 mucositis and stomatitis was low (10% and 5%, respectively) with no grade 4 mucositis or stomatitis reported (graded according to National

  14. Automated bolus advisor control and usability study (ABACUS: does use of an insulin bolus advisor improve glycaemic control in patients failing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI therapy? [NCT01460446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavan David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming, people may rely on empirical estimates, which can result in persistent hypoglycaemia and/or hyperglycaemia. Use of automated bolus advisors (BA has been shown to help insulin pump users to more accurately meet prandial insulin dosage requirements, improve postprandial glycaemic excursions, and achieve optimal glycaemic control with an increased time within optimal range. Use of a BA containing an early algorithm based on sliding scales for insulin dosing has also been shown to improve HbA1c levels in people treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI. We designed a study to determine if use of an automated BA can improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in people treated with MDI. Methods/design The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS is a 6-month, prospective, randomised, multi-centre, multi-national trial to determine if automated BA use improves glycaemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in people using MDI with elevated HbA1c levels (#62;7.5%. A total of 226 T1DM and T2DM participants will be recruited. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of 90 participants, which will provide #62;80% power to detect a mean difference of 0.5%, with SD of 0.9%, using a one-sided 5% t-test, with 5% significance level. Other measures of glycaemic control, self-care behaviours and psychosocial issues will also be assessed. Discussion It is critical that healthcare providers utilise available technologies that both facilitate effective glucose management and address concerns about safety and lifestyle. Automated BAs may help people using MDI to

  15. Reconstruction of temporal variations of evapotranspiration using instantaneous estimates at the time of satellite overpass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Delogu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration estimates can be derived from remote sensing data and ancillary, mostly meterorological, information. For this purpose, two types of methods are classically used: the first type estimates a potential evapotranspiration rate from vegetation indices, and adjusts this rate according to water availability derived from either a surface temperature index or a first guess obtained from a rough estimate of the water budget, while the second family of methods relies on the link between the surface temperature and the latent heat flux through the surface energy budget. The latter provides an instantaneous estimate at the time of satellite overpass. In order to compute daily evapotranspiration, one needs an extrapolation algorithm. Since no image is acquired during cloudy conditions, these methods can only be applied during clear sky days. In order to derive seasonal evapotranspiration, one needs an interpolation method. Two combined interpolation/extrapolation methods based on the self preservation of evaporative fraction and the stress factor are compared to reconstruct seasonal evapotranspiration from instantaneous measurements acquired in clear sky conditions. Those measurements are taken from instantaneous latent heat flux from 11 datasets in Southern France and Morocco. Results show that both methods have comparable performances with a clear advantage for the evaporative fraction for datasets with several water stress events. Both interpolation algorithms tend to underestimate evapotranspiration due to the energy limiting conditions that prevail during cloudy days. Taking into account the diurnal variations of the evaporative fraction according to an empirical relationship derived from a previous study improved the performance of the extrapolation algorithm and therefore the retrieval of the seasonal evapotranspiration for all but one datasets.

  16. Instantaneous kinematic phase reflects neuromechanical response to lateral perturbations of running cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revzen, Shai; Burden, Samuel A; Moore, Talia Y; Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Full, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Instantaneous kinematic phase calculation allows the development of reduced-order oscillator models useful in generating hypotheses of neuromechanical control. When perturbed, changes in instantaneous kinematic phase and frequency of rhythmic movements can provide details of movement and evidence for neural feedback to a system-level neural oscillator with a time resolution not possible with traditional approaches. We elicited an escape response in cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) that ran onto a movable cart accelerated laterally with respect to the animals' motion causing a perturbation. The specific impulse imposed on animals (0.50 [Formula: see text] 0.04 m s[Formula: see text]; mean, SD) was nearly twice their forward speed (0.25 [Formula: see text] 0.06 m s[Formula: see text]. Instantaneous residual phase computed from kinematic phase remained constant for 110 ms after the onset of perturbation, but then decreased representing a decrease in stride frequency. Results from direct muscle action potential recordings supported kinematic phase results in showing that recovery begins with self-stabilizing mechanical feedback followed by neural feedback to an abstracted neural oscillator or central pattern generator. Trials fell into two classes of forward velocity changes, while exhibiting statistically indistinguishable frequency changes. Animals pulled away from the side with front and hind legs of the tripod in stance recovered heading within 300 ms, whereas animals that only had a middle leg of the tripod resisting the pull did not recover within this period. Animals with eight or more legs might be more robust to lateral perturbations than hexapods.

  17. a New Model for Describing Evolution and Control of Disaster System Including Instantaneous and Continuous Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Kun; Li, Zhi; Sun, Yun-Feng

    A new model for describing the disaster system including instantaneous and continuous action synchronously has been developed. The model is composed of three primary parts, that is, the impact from its causative disaster events, stochastic noise of disaster node and self-healing function, and every part is modeled concretely in terms of their characteristics in practice. Some key parameters, namely link appearance probability, retardation coefficient, ultimate repair capacity of government, dynamical modes considering different disaster evolving chains, and the positions of link with the specific performance in disaster network system are involved. Combined with a case study, the proposed model is applied to a certain disaster evolution system, and the influence law of different parameters on disaster evolution process, in disaster networks with instantaneous-action and/or continuous-action, is presented and compared. The results indicate that the destructive impact in the networks by link in continuous action is far greater an order of magnitude than that in instantaneous action. If a link in continuous action emerges in the disaster network system, properties of the causative event for the link, link appearance probability and its position in the network all have a notable influence to the severity of the disaster network. In addition, some peculiar phenomena are also commendably observed in the disaster evolution process based on the model, such as the multipeaks emerging in the destroyed rate number curve for some crisis nodes caused by their various inducing paths together with the relevant retardation coefficients, the existence of the critical value for ultimate repair capacity to recover the disaster node, and so on.

  18. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.

  19. Validation of a Partially Nonlinear Time Domain Model using instantaneous Froude-Krylov and Hydrostatic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerinel, Matthieu; Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Alves, Marco

    2013-01-01

    laboratory of Aalborg University. The device is a prototype of a singleWavestar float, scaled at 1:20, considering one degree of freedom only. The tests included a various range of incoming waves, from small regular waves to storm conditions irregular waves. The numerical simulations have been performed...... the instantaneous detection of the floating body wetted surface. The idea behind this approach is first to increase the model accuracy (compared to the fully linear model method), but also to keep the computational time relatively low. Results show a good agreement between experimental and numerical data, which...

  20. Velocities: mean, average and instantaneous in uniform accelerated motion, some pedagogical comments

    CERN Document Server

    Talero, Paco; Barbosa, Luis H

    2013-01-01

    The relation among instantaneous, mean and average velocities in one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration is studied. It was shown that the instant velocity evaluated in the time $t_{p}=\\left(t_2+t_1\\right)/2$ is similar to the mean and average velocities evaluated between the times $t_1$ and $t_2$. The reason for relations illustrated before were shown in detail. Also, the results obtained were used to propose a pedagogical strategy in order to study the one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration as a natural extension of one-dimensional motion with constant velocity.

  1. Finding the location of the instantaneous center of rotation using a particle image velocimetry algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-03-01

    This work is about planar rigid-body kinematics and, in particular, the principle of the instantaneous center of rotation (IC). Using a computer simulated approach, a workflow is presented that results in a visual representation of the locus of the IC, based on particle image velocimetry (PIV). Here, a small number of digital animations of textured objects are created with multibody dynamics software, and later imported in PIV software to extract the velocity field (magnitude and direction) of objects moving within a plane. We believe the workflow presented may help learners improve their understanding of the concept of the IC, thus enhancing their knowledge of rigid body kinematics.

  2. A Semi-Instantaneous Heat Exchanger for Mobile Solar Collectors Test System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Cao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A semi-instantaneous heat exchanger which can solve low efficiency and space shortage of mobil test system for thermal performance of solar collectors is proposed in this paper, In this paper, the structure parameters of heat exchanger and the power of heat resistance are designed based on the method of mean temperature difference. The experiment results show the performance of test system has been optimized. The efficiency of collectors test can be increased 50% and the total weight of the primary heater and working medium is reduced to 13.8%.The load of the test vehicle and occupancy volume have been decreased.

  3. The behavior of the instantaneous Poynting vector of symmetrical laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available - ries about 10% of the total oscillation energy, which is inde- pendent of the cone angle. As a result of the presence of the IPV in this region, an appearance of time-averaging fluxes in this region is shown. 2. INSTANTANEOUS POYNTING VECTOR.... (1) and Maxwell?s equations we can easily calcu- late the electric and magnetic field and by the use of the Lorentz gauge for simplification and we arrive at ~B�x; y; z� � ik � U�x; y; z�~j � ik ?U�x; y; z� ?y ~j � ei�kz??t�; (2a) ~E�x; y...

  4. Hysteresis effects in instantaneous frequency scaling of attenuation on 20 and 30 GHz satellite links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, D. G.; Pratt, T.; Bostian, C. W.

    1992-01-01

    It has been observed with 20/30 GHz satellite beacon measurements that the ratio of 30 GHz to 20 GHz attenuation changes during some fade events. This ratio displays a hysteresis effect. This effect can be explained by a change in the drop size distribution (DSD) during the event. However, it appears only above approximately 6-8 dB of attenuation at 20 GHz. Instantaneous frequency scaling of attenuation is being proposed as part of an algorithm for uplink power control (ULPC) and the dynamic range of such an algorithm must be appropriately limited to avoid the hysteresis.

  5. Two attosecond pulse transient absorption spectroscopy and extraction of the instantaneous AC Stark shift in helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bækhøj, Jens E.; Bojer Madsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    In two attosecond pulse absorption spectroscopy (TAPAS) the use of two attosecond XUV pulses allows the extraction of atomic and molecular quantum mechanical dipole phases from spectroscopic measurements. TAPAS relies on interference between processes that individually only include a single XUV photon, and therefore does not rely on high intensity attosecond pulses. To show the usefulness and limitations of the TAPAS method we investigate its capability of capturing the instantaneous AC Stark shift induced by a midinfrared 3200 nm pulse in the | 1{{s}}2{{p}}> state of helium.

  6. Instantaneous carbon-carbon bond formation using a microchannel reactor with a catalytic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uozumi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Yoichi M A; Beppu, Tomohiko; Fukuyama, Naoshi; Ueno, Masaharu; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2006-12-20

    Instantaneous catalytic carbon-carbon bond forming reactions were achieved in a microchannel reactor having a polymeric palladium complex membrane. The catalytic membrane was constructed inside the microchannel via self-assembling complexation at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases flowing laminarly, where non-cross-linked polymer-bound phosphine and ammonium tetrachloropalladate dissolved, respectively. A palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of aryl halides and arylboronic acids was performed using the microchannel reactor to give quantitative yields of biaryls within 4 s of retention time in the defined channel region.

  7. Nanocrystallization kinetics under instantaneous growth approximation: Experiments and cellular automata simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez, J.S.; Millan, M.; Conde, C.F.; Conde, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla-ICMSE, P.O. Box 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Nanocrystallization kinetics is analyzed in the frame of instantaneous growth approximation, which implies that the time required for a crystallite to reach its final size is negligible with respect to the time required for the nanocrystallization process. This approach strongly simplifies the kinetic analysis and allows us to obtain the nucleation rate from both isothermal and non-isothermal nanocrystallization processes. Moreover, as no constraining mechanism is considered but the absence of growth, the results could be discussed in the frame of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theory with a growth index equal to zero. Cellular automata simulations are in agreement with the observed kinetics and microstructure. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Financial Valuation of Mortality Risk via the Instantaneous Sharpe Ratio: Applications to Pricing Pure Endowments

    CERN Document Server

    Milevsky, Moshe A; Young, Virginia R

    2007-01-01

    We develop a theory for pricing non-diversifiable mortality risk in an incomplete market. We do this by assuming that the company issuing a mortality-contingent claim requires compensation for this risk in the form of a pre-specified instantaneous Sharpe ratio. We prove that our ensuing valuation formula satisfies a number of desirable properties. For example, we show that it is subadditive in the number of contracts sold. A key result is that if the hazard rate is stochastic, then the risk-adjusted survival probability is greater than the physical survival probability, even as the number of contracts approaches infinity.

  9. Utilization of Different Variables for the Visualization of Fluid Flows:Application to Instantaneous Channel Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gérard J. Poitras; L.-Emmanuel Brizzi; Yves Gagnon

    2001-01-01

    The results of different numerical algorithms for the computation of unsteady fluid flows are used to visualize different variables of the flow. In particular, the instantaneous vorticity, velocity and pressure fields, along with streamline plots, are presented as a function of time inside a visualization window of the computational domain.The different forms of visualization are used to analyze the flow inside a two-dimensional channel incorporating an obstacle, which can represent several interesting flows such as the flow over electronic components, heat transfer devices and buildings.

  10. Receive antenna selection for underlay cognitive radio with instantaneous interference constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad Fainan

    2015-06-01

    Receive antenna selection is a low complexity scheme to reap diversity benefits.We analyze the performance of a receive antenna selection scheme in spectrum sharing systems where the antenna that results in highest signal-to-interference plus noise ratio at the secondary receiver is selected to improve the performance of secondary transmission. Exact and asymptotic behaviours of the received SINR are derived for both general and interference limited scenarios over general fading environment. These results are then applied to the outage and average bit error rate analysis when the secondary transmitter changes the transmit power in finite discrete levels to satisfy the instantaneous interference constraint at the primary receiver.

  11. Energy-saving-oriented production scheduling method for injection molding process with multiple products%单机多产品注塑过程的节能调度方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宁云; 公桂霞; 吕建华; 杨毅

    2013-01-01

    A production scheduling method was proposed for injection molding (IM) process with multiple products produced by a single machine, in order to achieve global minimum energy consumption. The total energy consumption was split into three parts. The first part was defined as switchover energy consumption, i.e. , the energy used for replacing the die and mold, changing the color or material, etc. The second part was defined as transitional energy consumption, which was determined by the regulation time for controlling the end-product with desired quality. The third part was the energy consumed during the stable production periods, which was defined as stable energy consumption. The total energy consumption model was described by a directed graph, where the nodes represented the stable production of different products and the arcs represented product switchovers. The single-machine-multi-product scheduling problem was formulated as a typical traveling salesman problem (TSP). A genetic algorithm (GA) based lexicographic optimization framework was proposed to solve such a scheduling problem. The first-layer optimization was to search the feasible process parameters that contributed to reliable production of each product. The second-layer optimization was to solve a TSP problem by finding the optimal switching path among the multiple products in order to minimize the global energy consumption. The proposed scheduling method could improve production efficiency and reduce energy consumption. Experimental results in laboratory scale tests demonstrated its feasibility and effectiveness.%为减小单机多产品注塑过程的生产总能耗,提出一种基于旅行商算法(TSP)和遗传算法(GA)的节能调度方法.研究了注塑生产总能耗的3个重要组成:产品切换能耗、过渡调整能耗和稳定生产能耗,建立了产品切换过渡的能耗模型.以单产平稳模态为节点、过渡模态为支路,建立了单机多产品过程生产总能耗的有

  12. INVESTIGATION OF NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM FOR DETECTION OF NETWORK HOST ANOMALIES IN THE AUTOMATED SEARCH FOR XSS VULNERABILITIES AND SQL INJECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Shabalin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A problem of aberrant behavior detection for network communicating computer is discussed. A novel approach based on dynamic response of computer is introduced. The computer is suggested as a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO plant. To characterize dynamic response of the computer on incoming requests a correlation between input data rate and observed output response (outgoing data rate and performance metrics is used. To distinguish normal and aberrant behavior of the computer one-class neural network classifieris used. General idea of the algorithm is shortly described. Configuration of network testbed for experiments with real attacks and their detection is presented (the automated search for XSS and SQL injections. Real found-XSS and SQL injection attack software was used to model the intrusion scenario. It would be expectable that aberrant behavior of the server will reveal itself by some instantaneous correlation response which will be significantly different from any of normal ones. It is evident that correlation picture of attacks from different malware running, the site homepage overriding on the server (so called defacing, hardware and software failures will differ from correlation picture of normal functioning. Intrusion detection algorithm is investigated to estimate false positive and false negative rates in relation to algorithm parameters. The importance of correlation width value and threshold value selection was emphasized. False positive rate was estimated along the time series of experimental data. Some ideas about enhancement of the algorithm quality and robustness were mentioned.

  13. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  14. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit marchofdimes.com e-mail askus@marchofdimes.com Parenting Multiples While some families adapt easily to the ... and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in which a single sperm is injected directly into the egg. ART ...

  15. Concerning the instantaneous mass and the extent of an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H J; Heyl, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this article we want to answer the cosmologically relevant question what, with some good semantic and physical reason, could be called the mass of an infinitely extended, homogeneously matter-filled and expanding universe. To answer this question we produce a space-like sum of instantaneous cosmic energy depositions surrounding equally each spacepoint in the homogeneous universe. We calculate the added-up instantaneous cosmic energy per volume around an arbitrary space point in the expanding universe. To carry out this sum we use as basic metrics an analogy to the inner Schwarzschild metric applied to stars, but this time applied to the spacepoint-related universe. It is then shown that this leads to the added-up proper energy within a sphere of a finite outer critical radius defining the point-related infinity. As a surprise this radius turns out to be reciprocal to the square root of the prevailing average cosmic energy density. The equivalent mass of the universe can then also be calculated and, by the ...

  16. Fast instantaneous center of rotation estimation algorithm for a skied-steered robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Skid-steered robots are widely used as mobile platforms for machine vision systems. However it is hard to achieve a stable motion of such robots along desired trajectory due to an unpredictable wheel slip. It is possible to compensate the unpredictable wheel slip and stabilize the motion of the robot using visual odometry. This paper presents a fast optical flow based algorithm for estimation of instantaneous center of rotation, angular and longitudinal speed of the robot. The proposed algorithm is based on Horn-Schunck variational optical flow estimation method. The instantaneous center of rotation and motion of the robot is estimated by back projection of optical flow field to the ground surface. The developed algorithm was tested using skid-steered mobile robot. The robot is based on a mobile platform that includes two pairs of differential driven motors and a motor controller. Monocular visual odometry system consisting of a singleboard computer and a low cost webcam is mounted on the mobile platform. A state-space model of the robot was derived using standard black-box system identification. The input (commands) and the output (motion) were recorded using a dedicated external motion capture system. The obtained model was used to control the robot without visual odometry data. The paper is concluded with the algorithm quality estimation by comparison of the trajectories estimated by the algorithm with the data from motion capture system.

  17. Compensating for instantaneous signal mixing in transfer entropy analysis of neurobiological time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2012-01-01

    The transfer entropy (TE) has recently emerged as a nonlinear model-free tool, framed in information theory, to detect directed interactions in coupled processes. Unfortunately, when applied to neurobiological time series TE is biased by signal cross-talk due to volume conduction. To compensate for this bias, in this study we introduce a modified TE measure which accounts for possible instantaneous effects between the analyzed time series. The new measure, denoted as compensated TE (cTE), is tested on simulated time series reproducing conditions typical of neuroscience applications, and on real magnetoencephalographic (MEG) multi-trial data measured during a visuo-tactile cognitive experiment. Simulations show that cTE performs similarly to TE in the absence of signal cross-talk, and prevents false positive detection of information transfer in the case of instantaneous mixing of uncoupled signals. When applied to MEG data, cTE detects significant information flow from the visual cortex to the somatosensory area during task execution, suggesting the activation of mechanisms of multisensory integration.

  18. Diurnal cycle of the dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, S.

    2015-08-27

    In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments were carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18–20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals were used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing were estimated both from the model and observations. Diurnal cycle of the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing was studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative of the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing were evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions, along with anisotropic aerosol scattering, are mostly responsible for diurnal effects.

  19. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10{sup 14} to 1.8 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data.

  20. Assessing instantaneous energy in the EEG: a non-negative, frequency-weighted energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, John M; Temko, Andriy; Stevenson, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing measures of instantaneous energy typically include only amplitude information. But measures that include both amplitude and frequency do better at assessing the energy required by the system to generate the signal, making them more sensitive measures to include in electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. The Teager-Kaiser operator is a frequency-weighted measure that is frequently used in EEG analysis, although the operator is poorly defined in terms of common signal processing concepts. We propose an alternative frequency-weighted energy measure that uses the envelope of the derivative of the signal. This simple envelope- derivative operator has the advantage of being nonnegative, which when applied to a detection application in newborn EEG improves performance over the Teager-Kaiser operator: without post-processing filters, area-under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) is 0.57 for the Teager-Kaiser operator and 0.80 for the envelope-derivative operator. The envelope-derivative operator also satisfies important properties, similar to the Teager-Kaiser operator, such as tracking instantaneous amplitude and frequency.

  1. Preliminary verification of instantaneous air temperature estimation for clear sky conditions based on SEBAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhou, Chuxuan; Zhang, Guixin; Zhang, Hailong; Hua, Junwei

    2017-02-01

    Spatially distributed near surface air temperature at the height of 2 m is an important input parameter for the land surface models. It is of great significance in both theoretical research and practical applications to retrieve instantaneous air temperature data from remote sensing observations. An approach based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to retrieve air temperature under clear sky conditions is presented. Taking the meteorological measurement data at one station as the reference and remotely sensed data as the model input, the research estimates the air temperature by using an iterative computation. The method was applied to the area of Jiangsu province for nine scenes by using MODIS data products, as well as part of Fujian province, China based on four scenes of Landsat 8 imagery. Comparing the air temperature estimated from the proposed method with that of the meteorological station measurement, results show that the root mean square error is 1.7 and 2.6 °C at 1000 and 30 m spatial resolution respectively. Sensitivity analysis of influencing factors reveals that land surface temperature is the most sensitive to the estimation precision. Research results indicate that the method has great potentiality to be used to estimate instantaneous air temperature distribution under clear sky conditions.

  2. A new strategy of instantaneous angular speed extraction and its application to multistage gearbox fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Xining

    2017-05-01

    Owing to its unique benefits, Instantaneous Angular Speed (IAS) has become the focus of a great deal of research for monitoring mechanical parts of rotating machines in the past few years. However, the efficacy of IAS-based signal processing techniques essentially depends on the estimation method of IAS and the complexity of the mechanical system. When it is applied to complex systems like turbines, gearboxes, conventional IAS itself still has some flaws and insufficiencies such as longer data stream, quantization noise and structural noise. In order to address these issues, this paper proposes an alternative IAS estimation approach named Instantaneous Angular Phase Demodulation (IAPD) IAS together with an improved procedure involving signal reconstruction, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and envelope analysis. Thereafter, two kinds of multistage gearboxes under different working conditions are developed to experimentally demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the new IAS measurement. Analysis results suggest that the quantization noise can be significantly reduced or even avoided in the IAPD-IAS signal compared with the conventional IAS signal. Moreover, by means of the new procedure, the computational efficiency can be greatly improved and fault characteristics are dramatically enhanced in the envelope spectrum where deterministic frequency component and its harmonics corresponding to fault characteristics are displayed clearly.

  3. New Approach to Optimize the Apfs Placement Based on Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory by Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Dezaki, Hamed; Mohammadalizadeh-Shabestary, Masoud; Askarian-Abyaneh, Hossein; Rezaei-Jegarluei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In electrical distribution systems, a great amount of power are wasting across the lines, also nowadays power factors, voltage profiles and total harmonic distortions (THDs) of most loads are not as would be desired. So these important parameters of a system play highly important role in wasting money and energy, and besides both consumers and sources are suffering from a high rate of distortions and even instabilities. Active power filters (APFs) are innovative ideas for solving of this adversity which have recently used instantaneous reactive power theory. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to optimize the allocation of APFs. The introduced method is based on the instantaneous reactive power theory in vectorial representation. By use of this representation, it is possible to asses different compensation strategies. Also, APFs proper placement in the system plays a crucial role in either reducing the losses costs and power quality improvement. To optimize the APFs placement, a new objective function has been defined on the basis of five terms: total losses, power factor, voltage profile, THD and cost. Genetic algorithm has been used to solve the optimization problem. The results of applying this method to a distribution network illustrate the method advantages.

  4. Instantaneous phase shift of annual subsurface temperature cycles derived by the Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang-Yi; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Wang, Chung-Ho; Chen, Deng-Lung

    2015-03-01

    This study uses the Hilbert-Huang transform to compute the instantaneous (daily) phase shift between temperature signals at the ground surface and at a depth of 5 m. This approach is not restricted to the stationary harmonic surface temperature assumptions invoked by analytical solutions. The annual cycles are extracted from the ground surface temperatures and the shallow subsurface temperatures at 5 m depth recorded at the Hualien (23.98°N, 121.61°E) and Ilan (24.77°N, 121.75°E) meteorology stations of Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan from 1952 to 2008. Significant reductions in the phase shift and increases in the estimated thermal diffusivity from 1980s to 1990s are found and suggest that the recent warming of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation may affect heat transport in the subsurface environment. The marginal spectra of the instantaneous phase shifts and the precipitation intensity records at Hualien and Ilan reveal that precipitation may play a role in the evolution of seasonal variation in shallow subsurface heat transport.

  5. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion.

  6. Valuation of Mortality Risk via the Instantaneous Sharpe Ratio: Applications to Life Annuities

    CERN Document Server

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Promislow, David; Young, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory for valuing non-diversifiable mortality risk in an incomplete market. We do this by assuming that the company issuing a mortality-contingent claim requires compensation for this risk in the form of a pre-specified instantaneous Sharpe ratio. We apply our method to value life annuities. One result of our paper is that the value of the life annuity is {\\it identical} to the upper good deal bound of Cochrane and Sa\\'{a}-Requejo (2000) and of Bj\\"{o}rk and Slinko (2006) applied to our setting. A second result of our paper is that the value per contract solves a {\\it linear} partial differential equation as the number of contracts approaches infinity. One can represent the limiting value as an expectation with respect to an equivalent martingale measure (as in Blanchet-Scalliet, El Karoui, and Martellini (2005)), and from this representation, one can interpret the instantaneous Sharpe ratio as an annuity market's price of mortality risk.

  7. Description and clinical studies of a device for the instantaneous detection of office-place stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A; Pavlidis, Ioannis T; MacBride, Leslie; Zhu, Zhen; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    Occupational stress is universally experienced and is emerging as a major risk factor for physical and mental illness and a key factor in poor work performance and low job satisfaction. However, the technology does not currently exist to unobtrusively measure occupational stress in real-time. Here, we describe the design and clinical validation of an automated high-definition thermal imaging system that can be used to quantify human stress, remotely and instantaneously. Healthy human subjects underwent a computer-based version of the Stroop-color conflict test, which is a validated stress provocation test, in an experimental office facility. In separate experiments, the same subjects completed a mental arithmetic challenge. The thermal signal associated with stress provocation is near-instantaneous corrugator warming. The stress response was detected in all subjects for all stress-events compared to the respective baselines. Furthermore, there was remarkable inter-individual preservation of the corrugator signal with stress R(2) = 0.96, Pthermal imaging can be used for real-time detection of stress provocation. This technology may prove to be of help in ameliorating office-place stress.

  8. Joint location, inventory, and preservation decisions for non-instantaneous deterioration items under delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung

    2016-02-01

    This study models a joint location, inventory and preservation decision-making problem for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under delay in payments. An outside supplier provides a credit period to the wholesaler which has a distribution system with distribution centres (DCs). The non-instantaneous deteriorating means no deterioration occurs in the earlier stage, which is very useful for items such as fresh food and fruits. This paper also considers that the deteriorating rate will decrease and the reservation cost will increase as the preservation effort increases. Therefore, how much preservation effort should be made is a crucial decision. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal locations and number of DCs, the optimal replenishment cycle time at DCs, and the optimal preservation effort simultaneously such that the total network profit is maximised. The problem is formulated as piecewise nonlinear functions and has three different cases. Algorithms based on piecewise nonlinear optimisation are provided to solve the joint location and inventory problem for all cases. Computational analysis illustrates the solution procedures and the impacts of the related parameters on decisions and profits. The results of this study can serve as references for business managers or administrators.

  9. The excess proton at the air-water interface: The role of instantaneous liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, Federico; Hassanali, Ali A.

    2017-06-01

    The magnitude of the pH of the surface of water continues to be a contentious topic in the physical chemistry of aqueous interfaces. Recent theoretical studies have shown little or no preference for the proton to be at the surface compared to the bulk. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we revisit the propensity of the excess proton for the air-water interface with a particular focus on the role of instantaneous liquid interfaces. We find a more pronounced presence for the proton to be at the air-water interface. The enhanced water structuring around the proton results in the presence of proton wires that run parallel to the surface as well as a hydrophobic environment made up of under-coordinated topological defect water molecules, both of which create favorable conditions for proton confinement at the surface. The Grotthuss mechanism within the structured water layer involves a mixture of both concerted and closely spaced stepwise proton hops. The proton makes excursions within the first solvation layer either in proximity to or along the instantaneous interface.

  10. Robust triboelectric nanogenerator based on rolling electrification and electrostatic induction at an instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of ∼ 55%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Long; Xie, Yannan; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Sihong; Yang, Po-Kang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-27

    In comparison to in-pane sliding friction, rolling friction not only is likely to consume less mechanical energy but also presents high robustness with minimized wearing of materials. In this work, we introduce a highly efficient approach for harvesting mechanical energy based on rolling electrification and electrostatic induction, aiming at improving the energy conversion efficiency and device durability. The rolling triboelectric nanogenerator is composed of multiple steel rods sandwiched by two fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) thin films. The rolling motion of the steel rods between the FEP thin films introduces triboelectric charges on both surfaces and leads to the change of potential difference between each pair of electrodes on back of the FEP layer, which drives the electrons to flow in the external load. As power generators, each pair of output terminals works independently and delivers an open-circuit voltage of 425 V, and a short-circuit current density of 5 mA/m(2). The two output terminals can also be integrated to achieve an overall power density of up to 1.6 W/m(2). The impacts of variable structural factors were investigated for optimization of the output performance, and other prototypes based on rolling balls were developed to accommodate different types of mechanical energy sources. Owing to the low frictional coefficient of the rolling motion, an instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of up to 55% was demonstrated and the high durability of the device was confirmed. This work presents a substantial advancement of the triboelectric nanogenerators toward large-scope energy harvesting and self-powered systems.

  11. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  12. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  13. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  14. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  15. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  16. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  17. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 17, 2013 Last Edited: February 22, 2017 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cg-infusion-sets,meds-bg-injectables,cg-injection-aids, In this section Treatment and Care Medication Insulin & ...

  18. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  19. Current Injection Attack against the KLJN Secure Key Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsien-Pu; Kish, Laszlo B

    2015-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive) attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system's unconditional security.

  20. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion.

  1. Beam injection into RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  2. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  3. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  4. Improved tilt sensing in an LGS-based tomographic AO system based on instantaneous PSF estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Laser guide star (LGS)-based tomographic AO systems, such as Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), Multi-Object AO (MOAO) and Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), require natural guide stars (NGSs) to sense tip-tilt (TT) and possibly other low order modes, to get rid of the LGS-tilt indetermination problem. For example, NFIRAOS, the first-light facility MCAO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope requires three NGSs, in addition to six LGSs: two to measure TT and one to measure TT and defocus. In order to improve sky coverage, these NGSs are selected in a so-called technical field (2 arcmin in diameter for NFIRAOS), which is much larger than the on-axis science field (17x17 arcsec for NFIRAOS), on which the AO correction is optimized. Most times, the NGSs are far off-axis and thus poorly corrected by the high-order AO loop, resulting in spots with low contrast and high speckle noise. Accurately finding the position of such spots is difficult, even with advanced methods such as matched-filtering or correlation, because these methods rely on the knowledge of an average spot image, which is quite different from the instantaneous spot image, especially in case of poor correction. This results in poor tilt estimation, which, ultimately, impacts sky coverage. We propose to improve the estimation of the position of the NGS spots by using, for each frame, a current estimate of the instantaneous spot profile instead of an average profile. This estimate can be readily obtained by tracing wavefront errors in the direction of the NGS through the turbulence volume. The latter is already computed by the tomographic process from the LGS measurements as part of the high order AO loop. Computing such a wavefront estimate has actually already been proposed for the purpose of driving a deformable mirror (DM) in each NGS WFS, to optically correct the NGS spot, which does lead to improved centroiding accuracy. Our approach, however, is much simpler, because it does not require the complication of extra DMs

  5. The oxidation of uranium hydride during its instantaneous or gradual exposure to oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascott, J., E-mail: joe.glascott@awe.co.uk; Findlay, I.M.

    2015-11-15

    The oxidation behaviour of uranium hydride when exposed to oxygen gas either gradually or instantaneously at an ambient temperature of approximately 37 °C has been investigated. The proportion of the sample converted to oxide and the mean hydride mound temperature rise accompanying the oxidation process were recorded. Pressure changes in the reaction cell were used to deduce the nature of the oxide generated during the oxidation process and the nature of the gaseous reaction products. For the gradual oxidation of the hydride, typically only about 15% of the hydride mass was converted to oxide during the initial period of oxidation defined by an observed temperature excursion lasting a finite time; during this oxidation period it is concluded that, despite the only moderate recoded mean temperature rises, the generated oxide is U{sub 3}O{sub 8} rather than UO{sub 2}. Typically also for such gradual exposure experiments, hydrogen was the principal gaseous reaction product with negligible water being produced. For the instantaneous exposure of the hydride to oxygen, much higher hydride mound mean temperature rises were recorded but the proportion of hydride converted to oxide was quite variable and apparently dependent on several experimental variables; for these experiments, although hydrogen was a major reaction product typically some water was also produced. The boundary between pyrophoric and non-pyrophoric oxidation of uranium hydride for given oxidising conditions is discussed in terms of a calculated particle “thermal runaway temperature”. - Highlights: • Only about 15% of UH{sub 3} is oxidised on its gradual exposure to oxygen. • During the gradual exposure of UH{sub 3} to oxygen U{sub 3}O{sub 8} rather than UO{sub 2} is generated. • For such gradual exposure, predominantly H{sub 2} rather than H{sub 2}O was generated. • For the instantaneous exposure of UH{sub 3} to O{sub 2} the amount oxidised was variable. • For these experiments, H{sub 2

  6. 多次喷油实现清洁高效柴油预混燃烧的机理%Mechanism of Multiple Injections on Clean and High Efficiency Diesel PCCI Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿盈盈; 苏万华; 于文斌

    2012-01-01

    采用试验和数值模拟方法研究了多次喷油模式耦合高EGR率和进气增压实现高效清洁柴油机预混燃烧的潜力.结果表明,EGR可以推迟高温反应定时,降低化学反应速率,特别是在较高负荷时,EGR还明显降低NOx排放.平均指示压力(IMEP)为0.4,MPa左右时,较少的喷油量使得单次喷油和多次喷油模式着火前一时刻形成的混合气均在当量比φ〈2之内,故排放差别不大.氧体积分数为10%左右时,提高喷油量,进入侧隙内的气相燃油量增加并形成φ〉2的浓区,两模式的碳烟、CO和UHC排放均升高.但IMEP为0.7 MPa左右时,多次喷油更有利于生成稀且均匀的混合气,减少局部过浓区,故其碳烟、CO和UHC排放远低于单次喷油.高EGR率时,多次喷油耦合进气增压,混合气形成得到进一步改善,可在更高负荷下实现高效清洁燃烧.%Comparing with single fuel injection,the superiority of multi-injection combined with high exhaust gas recirculation(EGR)rate and intake boost in reducing emissions and increasing indicated thermal efficiency of diesel premixed charge compression ignition(PCCI)combustion is studied experimentally and numerically.It is found that EGR can delay the start of hot temperature reactions,reduce the reaction speed at higher load.EGR can also reduce NOx emissions.There are no significant differences in emissions and indicated thermal efficiency using single and multi-injection at IMEP around 0.4 MPa due to the small quantity of the fuel injected,and the mixture formed just before ignition distributes within φ2.At approximately 10% oxygen concentration,when increasing the fuel mass injected,more fuel will enter the side clearance,where rich mixture with φ2 is formed.As a result,the soot,CO and UHC emissions are increased using both injection modes.However,at IMEP of 0.7 MPa around,CO and UHC emissions using multi-injection are much lower than those using single injection.The mechanism

  7. Transmit Antenna Selection for Underlay Cognitive Radio with Instantaneous Interference Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2016-03-28

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology addresses the problem of spectrum under-utilization. In underlay CR mode, the secondary users are allowed to communicate provided that their transmission is not detrimental to primary user communication. Transmit antenna selection is one of the low-complexity methods to increase the capacity of wireless communication systems. In this article, we propose and analyze the performance benefit of a transmit antenna selection scheme for underlay secondary system that ensures the instantaneous interference caused by the secondary transmitter to the primary receiver is below a predetermined level. Closed-form expressions of the secondary link outage probability, higher order amount of fading, and ergodic capacity are derived for the proposed scheme. Monte-carlo simulations are also carried out to confirm various mathematical results presented in this article.

  8. Mammalian energetics. Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrie M; Wolfe, Lisa; Davis, Tracy; Kendall, Traci; Richter, Beau; Wang, Yiwei; Bryce, Caleb; Elkaim, Gabriel Hugh; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2014-10-03

    Pumas (Puma concolor) live in diverse, often rugged, complex habitats. The energy they expend for hunting must account for this complexity but is difficult to measure for this and other large, cryptic carnivores. We developed and deployed a physiological SMART (species movement, acceleration, and radio tracking) collar that used accelerometry to continuously monitor energetics, movements, and behavior of free-ranging pumas. This felid species displayed marked individuality in predatory activities, ranging from low-cost sit-and-wait behaviors to constant movements with energetic costs averaging 2.3 times those predicted for running mammals. Pumas reduce these costs by remaining cryptic and precisely matching maximum pouncing force (overall dynamic body acceleration = 5.3 to 16.1g) to prey size. Such instantaneous energetics help to explain why most felids stalk and pounce, and their analysis represents a powerful approach for accurately forecasting resource demands required for survival by large, mobile predators.

  9. Pricing Life Insurance under Stochastic Mortality via the Instantaneous Sharpe Ratio: Theorems and Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Virginia R

    2007-01-01

    We develop a pricing rule for life insurance under stochastic mortality in an incomplete market by assuming that the insurance company requires compensation for its risk in the form of a pre-specified instantaneous Sharpe ratio. Our valuation formula satisfies a number of desirable properties, many of which it shares with the standard deviation premium principle. The major result of the paper is that the price per contract solves a linear partial differential equation as the number of contracts approaches infinity. One can interpret the limiting price as an expectation with respect to an equivalent martingale measure. Another important result is that if the hazard rate is stochastic, then the risk-adjusted premium is greater than the net premium, even as the number of contracts approaches infinity. We present a numerical example to illustrate our results, along with the corresponding algorithms.

  10. Instantaneous starburst of the massive clusters Westerlund 1 and NGC 3603 YC

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtseva, Natalia; Gennaro, Mario; Rochau, Boyke; Stolte, Andrea; Andersen, Morten; Da Rio, Nicola; Henning, Thomas; Tognelli, Emanuele; Hogg, David; Clark, Simon; Water, Rens

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method to determine the age spread of resolved stellar populations in a starburst cluster. The method relies on a two-step process. In the first step, kinematic members of the cluster are identified based on multi-epoch astrometric monitoring. In the second step, a Bayesian analysis is carried out, comparing the observed photometric sequence of cluster members with sets of theoretical isochrones. When applying this methodology to optical and near-infrared high angular resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and adaptive optics observations of the ~5 Myr old starburst cluster Westerlund 1 and ~2 Myr old starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC, we derive upper limits for the age spreads of 0.4 and 0.1 Myr, respectively. The results strongly suggest that star formation in these starburst clusters happened almost instantaneously.

  11. Existence,uniqueness and ergodicity of Markov branching processes with immigration and instantaneous resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified Markov branching process incorporating with both state-independent immigration and instantaneous resurrection.The existence criterion of the process is firstly considered.We prove that if the sum of the resurrection rates is finite,then there does not exist any process.An existence criterion is then established when the sum of the resurrection rates is infinite.Some equivalent criteria,possessing the advantage of being easily checked,are obtained for the latter case.The uniqueness criterion for such process is also investigated.We prove that although there exist infinitely many of them,there always exists a unique honest process for a given q-matrix.This unique honest process is then constructed.The ergodicity property of this honest process is analysed in detail.We prove that this honest process is always ergodic and the explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is established.

  12. Optimal pricing and replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items with backlogging and trade credit under inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara Rajan, R.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we develop an economic order quantity model to investigate the optimal replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items under inflation and trade credit. Demand rate is a linear function of selling price and decreases negative exponentially with time over a finite planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the optimal selling price, optimal order quantity and optimal replenishment time. An easy-to-use algorithm is developed to determine the optimal replenishment policies for the retailer. We also provide optimal present value of profit when shortages are completely backlogged as a special case. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm provided to obtain optimal profit. And we also obtain managerial implications from numerical examples to substantiate our model. The results show that there is an improvement in total profit from complete backlogging rather than the items being partially backlogged.

  13. Existence,uniqueness and ergodicity of Markov branching processes with immigration and instantaneous resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing; CHEN AnYue

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified Markov branching process incorporating with both stateindependent immigration and instantaneous resurrection. The existence criterion of the process is firstly considered. We prove that if the sum of the resurrection rates is finite, then there does not exist any process. An existence criterion is then established when the sum of the resurrection rates is infinite.Some equivalent criteria, possessing the advantage of being easily checked, are obtained for the latter case. The uniqueness criterion for such process is also investigated. We prove that although there exist infinitely many of them, there always exists a unique honest process for a given q-matrix. This unique honest process is then constructed. The ergodicity property of this honest process is analysed in detail.We prove that this honest process is always ergodic and the explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is established.

  14. Instantaneous high-resolution focus tracking and a vibrometery system using parallel phase shift interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Michael; Safrani, Avner; Abdulhlaim, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    High resolution fast focus tracking and vibrometery system based on parallel phase shift polarization interferometry using three detectors is presented. The basic design and algorithm are described, followed by an experimental demonstration showing sub nm resolution of different controlled motion profiles instantaneously monitored at a feedback rate of 100 kHz. The fact that the method does not rely on active optical components, potentially allows extremely high vibration rates to be measured; limited only by the detector bandwidth and sampling rate. In addition, the relatively simple design relies only on standard optical equipment, combined with the simple algorithm, makes the task of setting up a high performance vibrometry system cheap and readily available.

  15. Direct Instantaneous Torque Control of 4 Phase 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Pratapgiri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The applications of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives has increased  in the recent past because of advantages like simple structure, no rotor winding, high torque to weight ratio, adaptability to harsh environments like coal mining etc. But the main disadvantage is that torque ripple is high because of the double saliency. This paper presents a high dynamic control technique called Direct Instantaneous Torque Control (DITC where in the torque is maintained within a hysteresis band by changing the switching states of the phases between 1, 0 or -1.Thus torque ripple minimization is an inherent property of DITC. DITC based SRM drive is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and results are discussed elaborately

  16. Effect of Coating on Instantaneous Interracial Heat Transfer During Near-Rapid Solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; YU Yan; FANG Yuan; LI Jian-guo

    2011-01-01

    For many rapid or near-rapid solidification processes, the interracial heat transfer between the melt and the substrate is a key issue on the cooling and solidification rate of castings. For the purpose of controlling and adjusting of the interfacial thermal resistance, the effects of C/BN, Zn and organic coatings on the instantaneous interracial heat flux and the solidified structure of AISI304 stainless steel solidification on copper substrate have been investiga- ted by using an experimental simulator. The results show that C/BN coatings can improve the uniformity of heat flux and solidified structure; Zn coating can increase the heat flux and solidification rate in the growth stage of the solidified shell; organic coating will decrease the heat flux and the solidification rate and make re-melted structure on the surface of the solidified shell.

  17. Orthogonality breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progress...

  18. INSTANTANEOUS STARBURST OF THE MASSIVE CLUSTERS WESTERLUND 1 AND NGC 3603 YC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtseva, Natalia; Brandner, Wolfgang; Gennaro, Mario; Rochau, Boyke; Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stolte, Andrea [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Andersen, Morten; Da Rio, Nicola [European Space Agency, Space Science Department, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Tognelli, Emanuele [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Hogg, David [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 424, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Clark, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Waters, Rens [Sterrenkundig Instituut Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-10

    We present a new method to determine the age spread of resolved stellar populations in a starburst cluster. The method relies on a two-step process. In the first step, kinematic members of the cluster are identified based on multi-epoch astrometric monitoring. In the second step, a Bayesian analysis is carried out, comparing the observed photometric sequence of cluster members with sets of theoretical isochrones. When applying this methodology to optical and near-infrared high angular resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and adaptive optics observations of the {approx}5 Myr old starburst cluster Westerlund 1 and {approx}2 Myr old starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC, we derive upper limits for the age spreads of 0.4 and 0.1 Myr, respectively. The results strongly suggest that star formation in these starburst clusters happened almost instantaneously.

  19. Instantaneous translocation statuses on the fluctuation of ionic current for DNA through graphene nanopore

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Wenping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanopore has the ultra-high DNA sequencing sensitivity for the atomic thickness and excellent electronic properties. Extracting the sequence information of DNA from the blocked ionic current is the crucial step for the ionic current based sequencing technology on nanopores. In this letter, the investigation of the effect of measurement induced noise of ionic current as well as the instantaneous translocation statuses from the fluctuation of ionic current signals for DNA through a graphene nanopore was carried out based on molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the molecular thermal noise of ionic current in a graphene nanopore was related with the time interval of measurement, and the tiny conformational and dynamical variations of DNA could be revealed from the fluctuation of the denoised ionic current through a graphene nanopore. Additionally, the neighborhood effect of ionic current blockage for DNA near a graphene nanopore (within 1.5 nm) was observed. These findings suggest that the ionic...

  20. All-optically induced ultrafast photocurrents: Beyond the instantaneous coherent response

    CERN Document Server

    Priyadarshi, Shekhar; Bieler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the non-instantaneous response of the optically induced coherent polarization tremendously influences the real-space shift of electronic charges in semiconductors. The possibility to coherently control this real-space shift with temporally non-overlapping excitation pulses allows for the observation of a new type of shift current, which only exists for certain polarization-shaped excitation pulses and vanishes in the continuous-wave limit. In contrast to previously studied shift currents, the new current requires a phase mismatch between two orthogonal transition dipole moments and leads, within a nonlinear second-order description, to a tensor which is antisymmetric with respect to the order of the two exciting electric field amplitudes. These observations, which can even be made at room temperature and are expected to occur in a variety of semiconductor crystal classes, contribute to a better understanding of light-matter interaction involving degenerate bands. Thus, they are expecte...

  1. Retrograde diurnal motion of the instantaneous rotation axis observed by a large ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W.

    2016-07-01

    Ring laser gyroscope technique directly senses the Earth's instantaneous rotation pole (IRP), whose polar motion contains strong retrograde diurnal components induced by external torques due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun. The first direct measurement of this retrograde diurnal motion with three large ring lasers was reported by Schreiber et al. (J Geophys Res 109(B18):B06405, 2004). Since then many technical improvements led to a significant increase in precision and stability of ring laser gyroscopes; however, precise determination of amplitude and phase at main partial waves has not been given in the literature. In this paper, I will report on determination of the retrograde diurnal motion of the IRP at main partial waves (Oo_1, J_1, K_1, M_1, O_1, Q_1 ) by the ring laser "G", located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  2. Optimal Production Planning for Manufacturing Systems with Instantaneous Stock-Dependent Demand and Imperfect Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an EPL model like manufacturing system in presence of production imperfectness and stock-demand dependence simultaneously. During the production process, the system can evolve from in-control state into out-of-control state at any random time, after which the defective items will be generated likely causing quantity loss. Meanwhile, the market demand rate is instantaneously dependent on the timely holding inventory. The manufacturer has to determine his production run length and cycle time by taking into account possible imperfect production, stock-dependent demand, and inventory holding capacity bound. We empolder a model to capture this problem and develop computational algorithm to solve it. We further conduct numerical studies to validate our model and solving method. Sensitivity analyses are reported to show the effect of parameters on the system performance.

  3. Toothbrush probe for instantaneous measurement of radial profile in tokamak boundary plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Kazuya; Sengoku, Seio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Amemiya, Hiroshi

    1997-04-01

    A new probe for the instantaneous measurement of radial profiles of the boundary scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma has been developed in a tokamak. Five asymmetric double-probe chips are aligned in parallel to a strong magnetic field in the boundary plasma in a tokamak. This probe is named the `toothbrush probe` and can measure the ion temperature as well as the electron temperature and the plasma density in the SOL plasma within only one tokamak plasma shot. First, only one asymmetric probe is mounted on the divertor plate and it is tried to determine the ion temperature. Then, a manufactured toothbrush probe is mounted in the SOL plasma and the radial plasma profiles are simultaneously obtained. Data on the e-folding length of the plasma profile obtained by the toothbrush probe can determine the information on the transport properties such as the diffusion coefficient and the thermal conductivity of electrons and ions. (author)

  4. Design of sensor networks for instantaneous inversion of modally reduced order models in structural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, K.; Lourens, E.; Van Nimmen, K.; Reynders, E.; De Roeck, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2015-02-01

    In structural dynamics, the forces acting on a structure are often not well known. System inversion techniques may be used to estimate these forces from the measured response of the structure. This paper first derives conditions for the invertibility of linear system models that apply to any instantaneous input estimation or joint input-state estimation algorithm. The conditions ensure the identifiability of the dynamic forces and system states, their stability and uniqueness. The present paper considers the specific case of modally reduced order models, which are generally obtained from a physical, finite element model, or from experimental data. It is shown how in this case the conditions can be directly expressed in terms of the modal properties of the structure. A distinction is made between input estimation and joint input-state estimation. Each of the conditions is illustrated by a conceptual example. The practical implementation is discussed for a case study where a sensor network for a footbridge is designed.

  5. Retrograde diurnal motion of the instantaneous rotation axis observed by a large ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W.

    2017-01-01

    Ring laser gyroscope technique directly senses the Earth's instantaneous rotation pole (IRP), whose polar motion contains strong retrograde diurnal components induced by external torques due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun. The first direct measurement of this retrograde diurnal motion with three large ring lasers was reported by Schreiber et al. (J Geophys Res 109(B18):B06405, significant increase in precision and stability of ring laser gyroscopes; however, precise determination of amplitude and phase at main partial waves has not been given in the literature. In this paper, I will report on determination of the retrograde diurnal motion of the IRP at main partial waves (Oo_1, J_1, K_1, M_1, O_1, Q_1) by the ring laser "G", located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  6. Instantaneous band gap collapse in VO{sub 2} caused by photocarrier doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Marc; Wegkamp, Daniel; Wolf, Martin; Staehler, Julia [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Berlin (Germany); Xian, Lede; Cudazzo, Pierluigi [Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (France); Gatti, Matteo [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (France); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); McGahan, Christina L.; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Rubio, Angel [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Berlin (Germany); Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (France); MPI for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the controversially discussed mechanism of the insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) in VO{sub 2} by means of femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (trPES). Our data show that photoexcitation transforms insulating monoclinic VO{sub 2} quasi-instantaneously into a metal without an 80 fs structural bottleneck for the photoinduced electronic phase transition. First-principles many-body perturbation theory calculations reveal an ultrahigh sensitivity of the VO{sub 2} band gap to variations of the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction thus supporting the fully electronically driven isostructural IMT indicated by our trPES results. We conclude that the ultrafast band structure renormalization is caused by photoexcitation of carriers from localized V 3d valence states, strongly changing the screening before significant hot-carrier relaxation or ionic motion has occurred.

  7. Predicting Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) antiaggregation pheromone concentrations using an instantaneous puff dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tara M; Ross, Darrell W; Thistle, Harold W; Ragenovich, Iral R; Guerra, Ivonne Matos; Lamb, Brian K

    2012-04-01

    An instantaneous puff dispersion model was used to assess concentration fields of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, antiaggregation pheromone, 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), within a 1-ha circular plot. Several combinations of MCH release rate and releaser spacing were modeled to theoretically analyze optimal deployment strategies. The combinations of MCH release rate and releaser spacing used in the modeling exercise were based on results of previous field studies of treatment efficacy. Analyses of model results suggest that a release rate up to six times the initial standard, at a correspondingly wider spacing to keep the total amount of pheromone dispersed per unit area constant, may be effective at preventing Douglas-fir beetle infestation. The model outputs also provide a visual representation of pheromone dispersion patterns that can occur after deployment of release devices in the field. These results will help researchers and practitioners design more effective deployment strategies.

  8. Instantaneous Purified Orbit: A New Tool for Analysis of Nonstationary Vibration of Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Dongfeng

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In some circumstances, vibration signals of large rotating machinery possess time-varying characteristics to some extent. Traditional diagnosis methods, such as FFT spectrum and orbit diagram, are confronted with a huge challenge to deal with this problem. This work aims at studying the four intrinsic drawbacks of conventional vibration signal processing method and instantaneous purified orbit (IPO on the basis of improved Fourier spectrum (IFS to analyze nonstationary vibration. On account of integration, the benefits of short period Fourier transform (SPFT and regular holospectrum, this method can intuitively reflect vibration characteristics of’a rotor system by means of parameter analysis for corresponding frequency ellipses. Practical examples, such as transient vibration in run-up stages and bistable condition of rotor show that IPO is a powerful tool for diagnosis and analysis of the vibration behavior of rotor systems.

  9. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann I Larsson

    Full Text Available Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9-2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1 was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime.

  10. Pad-mode-induced instantaneous mode instability for simple models of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-10-01

    Automotive disc brake squeal is fugitive, transient and remains difficult to predict. In particular, instantaneous mode squeal observed experimentally does not seem to be associated with mode coupling and its mechanism is not clear. The effects of contact pressures, friction coefficients as well as material properties (pressure and temperature dependency and anisotropy) for brake squeal propensity have not been systematically explored. By analysing a finite element model of an isotropic pad sliding on a plate similar to that of a previously reported experimental study, pad modes have been identified and found to be stable using conventional complex eigenvalue analysis. However, by subjecting the model to contact pressure harmonic excitation for a range of pressures and friction coefficients, a forced response analysis reveals that the dissipated energy for pad modes is negative and becomes more negative with increasing contact pressures and friction coefficients, indicating the potential for instabilities. The frequency of the pad mode in the sliding direction is within the range of squeal frequencies observed experimentally. Nonlinear time series analysis of the vibration velocity also confirms the evolution of instabilities induced by pad modes as the friction coefficient increases. By extending this analysis to a more realistic but simple brake model in the form of a pad-on-disc system, in-plane pad-modes, which a complex eigenvalue analysis predicts to be stable, have also been identified by negative dissipated energy for both isotropic and anisotropic pad material properties. The influence of contact pressures on potential instabilities has been found to be more dominant than changes in material properties owing to changes in pressure or temperature. Results here suggest that instantaneous mode squeal is likely caused by in-plane pad-mode instabilities.

  11. Instantaneous stress release in fault surface asperities during mining-induced fault-slip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Sainoki; Hani S. Mitri

    2016-01-01

    Fault-slip taking place in underground mines occasionally causes severe damage to mine openings as a result of strong ground motion induced by seismic waves arising from fault-slip. It is indicated from previous studies that intense seismic waves could be generated with the shock unloading of fault surface asperities during fault-slip. This study investigates the shock unloading with numerical simulation. A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model with idealized asperities is constructed with the help of discrete element code 3DEC. The idealization is conducted to particularly focus on simulating the shock unloading that previous numerical models, which replicate asperity degradation and crack development during the shear behavior of a joint surface in previous studies, fail to capture and simulate. With the numerical model, static and dynamic analyses are carried out to simulate unloading of asperities in the course of fault-slip. The results obtained from the dynamic analysis show that gradual stress release takes place around the center of the asperity tip at a rate of 45 MPa/ms for the base case, while an instantaneous stress release greater than 80 MPa occurs near the periphery of the asperity tip when the contact between the upper and lower asperities is lost. The instantaneous stress release becomes more intense in the vicinity of the asperity tip, causing tensile stress more than 20 MPa. It is deduced that the tensile stress could further increase if the numerical model is discretized more densely and analysis is carried out under stress conditions at a great depth. A model parametric study shows that in-situ stress state has a significant influence on the magnitude of the generated tensile stress. The results imply that the rapid stress release generating extremely high tensile stress on the asperity tip can cause intense seismic waves when it occurs at a great depth.

  12. Ambulatory Assessment of Instantaneous Velocity during Walking Using Inertial Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Mannini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for estimating the instantaneous velocity of the pelvis during walking was developed based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The instantaneous velocity was modeled by the sum of a cyclical component, decomposed in the Medio-Lateral (ML), VerTical (VT) and Antero-Posterior (AP) directions, and the Average Progression Velocity (APV) over each gait cycle. The proposed method required the availability of two IMUs, attached to the pelvis and one shank. Gait cycles were identified from the shank angular velocity; for each cycle, the Fourier series coefficients of the pelvis and shank acceleration signals were computed. The cyclical component was estimated by Fourier-based time-integration of the pelvis acceleration. A Bayesian Linear Regression (BLR) with Automatic Relevance Determination (ARD) predicted the APV from the stride time, the stance duration, and the Fourier series coefficients of the shank acceleration. Healthy subjects performed tasks of Treadmill Walking (TW) and Overground Walking (OW), and an optical motion capture system (OMCS) was used as reference for algorithm performance assessment. The widths of the limits of agreements (±1.96 standard deviation) were computed between the proposed method and the reference OMCS, yielding, for the cyclical component in the different directions: ML: ±0.07 m/s (±0.10 m/s); VT: ±0.03 m/s (±0.05 m/s); AP: ±0.06 m/s (±0.10 m/s), in TW (OW) conditions. The ARD-BLR achieved an APV root mean square error of 0.06 m/s (0.07 m/s) in the same conditions. PMID:28009854

  13. Reactive power and harmonic compensation based on the generalized instantaneous reactive power theory for three-phase power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang Zheng [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lai, Jih-Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A generalized theory of instantaneous reactive power for three-phase power systems is proposed in this paper. This theory gives a generalized definition of instantaneous reactive power, which is valid for sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced, three- phase power systems with or without zero-sequence currents and/or voltages. The properties and physical meanings of the newly defined instantaneous reactive power are discussed in detail. With this new reactive power theory, it is very easy to calculate and decompose all components, such as fundamental active/reactive power and current, harmonic current, etc. Reactive power and/or harmonic compensation systems for a three-phase distorted power system with and without zero-sequence components in the source voltage and/or load current are then used as examples to demonstrate the measurement, decomposition, and compensation of reactive power and harmonics.

  14. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  15. Mixture distribution measurement using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shudo, Toshio [Applied Energy System Group, Division of Energy and Environmental Systems, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ward, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Oba, Shuji [Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Reduction in cooling loss due to the heat transfer from burning gas to the combustion chamber wall is very important for improving the thermal efficiency in hydrogen engines. The previous research has shown that the direct injection stratified charge can be a technique to reduce the cooling loss and improve thermal efficiency in hydrogen combustion. For effective reductions in cooling loss by the stratified charge, it is very important to know the relation between the fuel injection conditions and mixture distribution. The current research employs the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy as a method to measure the hydrogen concentration distribution in the direct injection stratified charge. Measurement of instantaneous local equivalence ratio by the method clears the characteristics of mixture formation in hydrogen direct injection stratified charge. This research also tries to actively control the mixture distribution using a split fuel injection. (author)

  16. Intensification of highly exothermic fast reaction by multi-injection microstructured reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Julien; Jiang, Bo; Maeder, Thomas; Borhani, Navid; Thome, John; Renken, Albert; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured reactors (MSR) with characteristic dimensions below 100 μm are warranted to maintain close to isothermal conditions when carrying out quasi-instantaneous highly exothermic reactions. Unfortunately, such small dimensions increase the risk of clogging, create high pressure drop and are costly to number-up. The multi-injection (MI) MSR, where one of the reactants is added stepwise along the reactor length, allows working with larger dimensions (diameter >500 μm) while maintaining...

  17. Developing economic order quantity model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in vendor-managed inventory (VMI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Roya; Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Esmaeili, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    This paper develops an economic order quantity model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items with and without shortages to investigate the performance of the vendor-managed inventory (VMI) system. This model is developed for a two-level supply chain consisting of a single supplier and single retailer with a single non-instantaneous deteriorating item. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis are provided to illustrate how increasing or reducing the related parameters change the optimal values of the decision variables of the two proposed models. The results show that VMI works better and charges lower cost in all conditions.

  18. An Analysis of the Accuracy of Electromechanical Eigenvalue Calculations Based on Instantaneous Power Waveforms Recorded in a Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pruski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of calculating the eigenvalues (associated with electromechanical phenomena of the state matrix of the Polish Power System model on the basis of analysis of simulated and measured instantaneous power disturbance waveforms of generating units in Łaziska Power Plant. The method for electromechanical eigenvalue calculations used in investigations consists in approximation of the instantaneous power swing waveforms in particular generating units with the use of the waveforms being a superposition of the modal components associated with the searched eigenvalues and their participation factors. The hybrid optimisation algorithm consisting of the genetic and gradient algorithms was used for computations.

  19. Transverse (lateral) instantaneous force of an acoustical first-order Bessel vortex beam centered on a rigid sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G; Fellah, Z E A

    2012-01-01

    In a recent report [F.G. Mitri, Z.E.A. Fellah, Ultrasonics 51 (2011) 719-724], it has been found that the instantaneous axial force (i.e. acting along the axis of wave propagation) of a Bessel acoustic beam centered on a sphere is only determined for the fundamental order (i.e. m=0) but vanishes when the beam is of vortex type (i.e. m>0, where m is the order (or helicity) of the beam). It has also been recognized that for circularly symmetric beams (such as Bessel beams of integer order), the transverse (lateral) instantaneous force should vanish as required by symmetry. Nevertheless, in this commentary, the present analysis unexpectedly reveals the existence of a transverse instantaneous force on a rigid sphere centered on the axis of a Bessel vortex beam of unit magnitude order (i.e. |m|=1) not reported in [F.G. Mitri, Z.E.A. Fellah, Ultrasonics 51 (2011) 719-724]. The presence of the transverse instantaneous force components of a first-order Bessel vortex beam results from mathematical anti-symmetry in the surface integrals, but vanishes for the fundamental (m=0) and higher-order Bessel (vortex) beams (i.e. |m|>1). Here, closed-form solutions for the instantaneous force components are obtained and examples for the transverse components for progressive waves are computed for a fixed and a movable rigid sphere. The results show that only the dipole (n=1) mode in the scattering contributes to the instantaneous force components, as well as how the transverse instantaneous force per unit cross-sectional surface varies versus the dimensionless frequency ka (k is the wave number in the fluid medium and a is the sphere's radius), and the half-cone angle β of the beam. Moreover, the velocity of the movable sphere is evaluated based on the concept of mechanical impedance. The proposed analysis may be of interest in the analysis of transverse instantaneous forces on spherical particles for particle manipulation and rotation in drug delivery and other biomedical or

  20. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Covey, Daniel P.; Blaha, Charles D.; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M.; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Garris, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Object Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. Methods The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between −0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 μm) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 100 μm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. Results The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer

  1. A cluster randomised trial, cost-effectiveness analysis and psychosocial evaluation of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple injections during flexible intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes: the REPOSE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Simon; White, David; Lee, Ellen; Lawton, Julia; Pollard, Daniel; Waugh, Norman; Amiel, Stephanie; Barnard, Katharine; Beckwith, Anita; Brennan, Alan; Campbell, Michael; Cooper, Cindy; Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Dixon, Simon; Elliott, Jackie; Evans, Mark; Green, Fiona; Hackney, Gemma; Hammond, Peter; Hallowell, Nina; Jaap, Alan; Kennon, Brian; Kirkham, Jackie; Lindsay, Robert; Mansell, Peter; Papaioannou, Diana; Rankin, David; Royle, Pamela; Smithson, W Henry; Taylor, Carolin

    2017-04-01

    Insulin is generally administered to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDIs), but can also be delivered using infusion pumps. In the UK, pumps are recommended for patients with the greatest need and adult use is less than in comparable countries. Previous trials have been small, of short duration and have failed to control for training in insulin adjustment. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pump therapy compared with MDI for adults with T1DM, with both groups receiving equivalent structured training in flexible insulin therapy. Pragmatic, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group cluster randomised controlled trial, including economic and psychosocial evaluations. After participants were assigned a group training course, courses were randomly allocated in pairs to either pump or MDI. Eight secondary care diabetes centres in the UK. Adults with T1DM for > 12 months, willing to undertake intensive insulin therapy, with no preference for pump or MDI, or a clinical indication for pumps. Pump or MDI structured training in flexible insulin therapy, followed up for 2 years. MDI participants used insulin analogues. Pump participants used a Medtronic Paradigm(®) Veo(TM) (Medtronic, Watford, UK) with insulin aspart (NovoRapid, Novo Nordisk, Gatwick, UK). Primary outcome - change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at 2 years in participants whose baseline HbA1c was ≥ 7.5% (58 mmol/mol). Key secondary outcome - proportion of participants with HbA1c ≤ 7.5% at 2 years. Other outcomes at 6, 12 and 24 months - moderate and severe hypoglycaemia; insulin dose; body weight; proteinuria; diabetic ketoacidosis; quality of life (QoL); fear of hypoglycaemia; treatment satisfaction; emotional well-being; qualitative interviews with participants and staff (2 weeks), and participants (6 months); and ICERs in trial and modelled estimates of cost-effectiveness. We randomised 46 courses comprising 317 participants

  2. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  3. Cholangitis and multiple liver abscesses after percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC Colangitis y abscesos hepáticos múltiples tras la inyección percutánea de etanol (IPE en el tratamiento del carcinoma hepatocelular recurrente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Macias-García

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous ablation procedures are minimally invasive treatments for unresectable early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. These techniques are usually safe, but rare and even fatal complications have been described. We present a fatal result after percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI for the treatment of a recurrent HCC in a non-cirrhotic liver, with subsequent development of diffuse cholangitis and multiple liver abscesses. Although percutaneous drainage and intensive antibiotic treatment were employed, the patient finally died. We discuss about the etiology and the physiopathology of this rare complication in which the therapeutic options are limited and usually unsuccessful.

  4. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  5. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to ferric carboxymaltose injection, ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron dextran (Dexferrum, Infed), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit); any other ...

  6. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  7. Determination of instantaneous and daily net radiation from TM - Landsat 5 data in a subtropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bernardo Barbosa; Montenegro, Susana Maria Gico Lima; da Silva, Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro; Galvíncio, Josicleda Domiciano; de Oliveira, Leidjane Maria Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing makes it possible to identify the changes that occur on the surface of the Earth as a result of natural and/or man-made phenomena. Such changes impact on the net radiation at surface which in turn controls the Earth's climate. The present study aims to determine the impact of land use changes on net radiation at surface in a tropical watershed in Brazil, based on satellite images. The instantaneous net radiation (Rn,ins) (at the time of the satellite overpass) and the daily net radiation (Rn,24 h) were both estimated by TM - Landsat 5 images and complementary weather data. The net radiation (Rn) estimated from remote sensing data was compared to the measurements taken from two micrometeorological towers located in the study area. Most Rn,ins values were found to be between 457.4 W m-2 and 760.0 W m-2 during the months with more intense solar radiation (February, March, and November), especially in the areas with more vegetation cover (sugarcane and eucalyptus plantations and areas with woody savanna vegetation, locally called Cerradão). The months with the highest thermal and radiative contrast (June and November) were selected to show the spatial distribution of the daily (Instantaneous) Rn, which ranged from 28.0 (420) W m-2 to 98.0 (520) W m-2 in June and from 83.0 (450) W m-2 to 264.0 (800) W m-2 in November 9. The model used to calculate Rn,24 h provided values close to those taken at surface, even on days with higher cloud cover after the satellite overpass. The Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Relative Error (MRE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) associated with the Rn,24 h computations in the sugar cane plantation were 8.3 W m-2, 8.4%, and 10.4 W m-2, respectively, confirming the applicability and accuracy of the results. The Rn patterns registered on the woody savanna throughout the year differ very much from those found in cropped areas, particularly in sugar cane plots. This may cause an impact on the watershed climate.

  8. Instantaneous and Frequency-Warped Signal Processing Techniques for Auditory Source Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Avery Li-Chun

    This thesis summarizes several contributions to the areas of signal processing and auditory source separation. The philosophy of Frequency-Warped Signal Processing is introduced as a means for separating the AM and FM contributions to the bandwidth of a complex-valued, frequency-varying sinusoid p (n), transforming it into a signal with slowly-varying parameters. This transformation facilitates the removal of p (n) from an additive mixture while minimizing the amount of damage done to other signal components. The average winding rate of a complex-valued phasor is explored as an estimate of the instantaneous frequency. Theorems are provided showing the robustness of this measure. To implement frequency tracking, a Frequency-Locked Loop algorithm is introduced which uses the complex winding error to update its frequency estimate. The input signal is dynamically demodulated and filtered to extract the envelope. This envelope may then be remodulated to reconstruct the target partial, which may be subtracted from the original signal mixture to yield a new, quickly-adapting form of notch filtering. Enhancements to the basic tracker are made which, under certain conditions, attain the Cramer -Rao bound for the instantaneous frequency estimate. To improve tracking, the novel idea of Harmonic -Locked Loop tracking, using N harmonically constrained trackers, is introduced for tracking signals, such as voices and certain musical instruments. The estimated fundamental frequency is computed from a maximum-likelihood weighting of the N tracking estimates, making it highly robust. The result is that harmonic signals, such as voices, can be isolated from complex mixtures in the presence of other spectrally overlapping signals. Additionally, since phase information is preserved, the resynthesized harmonic signals may be removed from the original mixtures with relatively little damage to the residual signal. Finally, a new methodology is given for designing linear-phase FIR filters

  9. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling and fast quantum state preparation for strongly pulsed spin qubits in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    Qubits driven by resonant strong pulses are studied and a parameter regime is explored in which the dynamics can be solved in closed form. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling can be seen for longer pulses, whereas shorter pulses allow a fast preparation of the qubit state. Results...... are compared with recent experiments of pulsed nitrogen-vacancy center spin qubits in diamond....

  10. Instantaneous intake rate of free-grazing cattle as affected by herbage characteristics in heterogeneous tropical agro-pastoral landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirat, G.; Groot, J.C.J.; Messad, S.; Bocquier, F.; Ickowicz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous territories of Sub-Saharan Africa are composed of a mosaic of very different landscape units: cropland, forest, and savannah. This spatial, but also temporal heterogeneity leads to complexity in the analysis of cattle intake behaviour. The instantaneous intake rate (IIR) is generally analys

  11. Attractivity in a Delayed Three-species Ratio-dependent Predator-prey System without Dominating Instantaneous Negative Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Xu; Lan-sun Chen; M.A.J. Chaplain

    2003-01-01

    A delayed three-species ratio-dependent predator-prey food-chain model without dominating instantaneous negative feedback is investigated. It is shown that the system is permanent under some appropriate conditions, and sufficient conditions are derived for the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the system.

  12. Probe and method for simultaneous measurements of ''true'' instantaneous temperature and three velocity components in turbulent flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, G

    1978-05-01

    In the measurement of turbulent flows the need has always existed to obtain correct instantaneous values of temperature and three components of velocity at a particular point. Many proposed lengthy approximate correction methods that attempt to account for ''nonlinear'' effects (cross contamination between different quantities) in hot-wire measurements cannot be considered satisfactory. The availability of powerful digital computers for theoretical and experimental studies has placed pressure on experimentalists to develop better probes and methods. This paper attempts to answer these pressures by describing the development of a special four-wire probe and a method of processing the obtained signals. The use of four 0.625-microm-diam sensors makes the probe practically interference free. The processing method is based on the simultaneous solution of four complete nonlinear response equations for the sensors, yielding in principle exact instantaneous values of velocity components and temperature. Additional features of the processing method include: instantaneous full correction for tunnel free stream velocity and temperature fluctuations, first-order correction for dc drifts of the signals during data acquisition, subtraction of all 60-Hz related noise, and correction for streamwise displacement of sensors based on instantaneous streamwise velocity.

  13. Comparison of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) - First real world experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haerle, Tobias; Bojara, Waldemar; Meyer, Sven; Elsaesser, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a new adenosine-independent index of coronary stenosis severity. Most published data have been based on off-line analyses of pressure recordings in a core laboratory. We prospectively compared real-time iFR and fractional flow reserve (FFR) meas

  14. Hydraulics of Fuel-Injection Pumps for Compression-ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M

    1932-01-01

    Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.

  15. Orthogonality-breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency-dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic, and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progressive vanishing of the detected orthogonality-breaking signal as the spatial heterogeneity of the sample increases, thus confirming the insensitivity of this method to diagonal depolarization. The fact that the orthogonality-breaking signal is exclusively due to the sample dichroism is an advantageous feature for the precise decoupled characterization of such an anisotropic parameter in samples showing several simultaneous effects.

  16. The quantitative analysis of instantaneous floating-point amplifier in DFS-V seismic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianiu, H.; Wenze, Y.; Yanyun, D.; Qi, F.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of analysing the principle and circuit of instantaneous floating-point amplifier (IFP amplifier) in DFS-V seismic system, the authors developed a set of mathematic models for quantitative analysis of IFP amplifier, and designed the program for computing and plotting. The amplitude characteristic curves were computed and plotted on DUAL-6800 microcomputer by making use of the original parameters of DFS-V seismic system. The computation result shows that this system can effectively restrain the overflow distortion caused by zero-passage dipping-top sample to make high fidelity transmission of seismic signals, but its measurement accuracy is on the low side. In order to overcome the demerit, the authors changed the original parameters of IFP amplifier circuit and made a great deal of sweep computation, so that they found these ideal new parameters: prediction time(c) = 3..mu..s, upper reference level(V) = 6.8V and 7.2V, lower reference level(V) = 1.6V and 1.7V. As a result, no overflow distortion occurs, furthermore IFP amplifier shows much higher measurement accuracy than before, these favour the ameliorating of seismic signals.

  17. Instantaneous insulation in a micro-slab: A mechanism for flow generation in a rarefied gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manela, A.; Pogorelyuk, L.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the response of a gas in a micro-slab, set at an initial pure-conduction state, to instantaneous thermal insulation of its boundaries. In line with ongoing efforts in generating gas flows at the microscale, thermal insulation is suggested as a means for flow excitation with no moving parts. The problem is analyzed in the entire range of gas rarefaction rates and for arbitrary initial temperature differences between the walls. Analytical solutions are obtained in the linearized limit of small temperature differences for large (collisionless) and small (continuum) Knudsen numbers. These solutions are supported by direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations, which are then used to investigate the nonlinear problem with large initial temperature differences. Followed by the system's initial state, boundary insulation results in a series of time-decaying waves, propagating across the slab, and transferring the system between its conductive and adiabatic equilibrium states. While larger initial temperature differences result in higher flow rates, it is found that nonlinear effects reduce the efficiency of flow excitation through boundaries insulation. At high Knudsen numbers, this is rationalized through the system's initial state, in which the gas uniform temperature is lower than the arithmetic mean of walls temperatures. At low Knudsen numbers, the dominant effect of molecular collisions causes thermal dissipation, which in turn results in kinetic energy losses. The analysis may be readily applied to calculate the gas response to arbitrary time variations of the boundary-imposed heat flux.

  18. Replenishment policy for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in a two storage facilities under inflationary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under inflationary conditions with partially backlogged shortages. In today’s market structure consumers are looking for goods for which there is a delay in deterioration. At the same time, the consumers’ willingness to wait has been decreased over time, which leads to lost sales. Moreover in financial decision-making, the effects of inflation and time value of money cannot be oblivious to an inventory system. In this scenario, managing inventory of goods remains a challenging task for the decision makers, who may also have to rent warehouse under different prevailing factors such as, bulk discount, limited space in the retail outlet, or increasing inflation rates. With a focus on reduction of costs and increasing customer service, warehouse decision models are crucial for an organization’s profitability. Hence a mathematical model has been developed in the view of above scenario, in order to determine the optimal policy for the decision maker, by minimizing the present worth of total cost. The optimization procedure has been illustrated by a numerical example and detailed sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution has been performed to showcase the effect of various parameters. Managerial implications has also been presented to aid the decision making process.

  19. Estimation of Instantaneous Peak Flow Using Machine-Learning Models and Empirical Formula in Peninsular Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jimeno-Sáez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of hydraulic structures and flood risk management is often based on instantaneous peak flow (IPF. However, available flow time series with high temporal resolution are scarce and of limited length. A correct estimation of the IPF is crucial to reducing the consequences derived from flash floods, especially in Mediterranean countries. In this study, empirical methods to estimate the IPF based on maximum mean daily flow (MMDF, artificial neural networks (ANN, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS have been compared. These methods have been applied in 14 different streamflow gauge stations covering the diversity of flashiness conditions found in Peninsular Spain. Root-mean-square error (RMSE, and coefficient of determination (R2 have been used as evaluation criteria. The results show that: (1 the Fuller equation and its regionalization is more accurate and has lower error compared with other empirical methods; and (2 ANFIS has demonstrated a superior ability to estimate IPF compared to any empirical formula.

  20. Characterizing the kinetics of volume recovery in glasses by instantaneous temperature-jump experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Cohen, R.E.; Letton, A.

    1982-03-01

    This article proposes a temperature-jump (T-jump) approach for characterizing the kinetics of volume recovery in glassy materials. The kinetic characterization is based on the Kovacs-Aklonis model. This incorporates a retardation-time spectrum which shifts according to both the temperature and the instantaneous volume. The proposed experiments involve measuring the change in recovery rate caused by an abrupt temperature jump. Although an analogous procedure has been used to determine the activation energy for linear viscoelastic creep, the analysis for volume recovery is complicated by its inherent nonlinearity. Nevertheless, accounting for the nonlinearity by a reduction of the time scale permits the T-jump results to be analyzed. In particular, the T-jump approach can be used to: (i) test a particular functional form for the shift factor; and (ii) determine the previously unmeasurable parameter x, which defines the relative importance of the temperature dependence and the volume dependence in this function. In addition, numerical simulations indicate that the proposed method can be implemented in the laboratory. 7 figures.

  1. Artificial neural networks for instantaneous analysis of real-time Rutherford backscattering spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeulemeester, J., E-mail: Jelle.Demeulemeester@fys.kuleuven.b [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smeets, D. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1699 Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Vieira, A. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua S. Tome, 4200 Porto (Portugal); Comrie, C.M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Temst, K.; Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    This paper reports on the advantage of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to analyze large sets of real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) data. Real-time RBS, i.e. collecting RBS spectra at periodic time intervals during a thermal treatment, probes the full response of a thin film to the annealing in situ. Although very valuable insights can be gained by this technique, the time-consuming analysis of the vast amount of RBS spectra acquired during real-time RBS measurements has so far prevented the widespread use of real-time RBS. Setting up an ANN is quite an intensive process as well, but once trained, these ANNs can handle the analysis of large data sets practically instantaneously. As such, the beneficial combination of real-time RBS and ANN analysis forms a perfect synergy. In this test case, a network was trained and applied to analyze the Ni silicide growth during annealing of a thin 80 nm Ni film on Si(1 0 0). The ANN performance was validated by comparing the ANN results with the conventional analysis performed on the same data set.

  2. Accounting for exhaust gas transport dynamics in instantaneous emission models via smooth transition regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarianakis, Yiannis; Gao, H Oliver

    2010-02-15

    Collecting and analyzing high frequency emission measurements has become very usual during the past decade as significantly more information with respect to formation conditions can be collected than from regulated bag measurements. A challenging issue for researchers is the accurate time-alignment between tailpipe measurements and engine operating variables. An alignment procedure should take into account both the reaction time of the analyzers and the dynamics of gas transport in the exhaust and measurement systems. This paper discusses a statistical modeling framework that compensates for variable exhaust transport delay while relating tailpipe measurements with engine operating covariates. Specifically it is shown that some variants of the smooth transition regression model allow for transport delays that vary smoothly as functions of the exhaust flow rate. These functions are characterized by a pair of coefficients that can be estimated via a least-squares procedure. The proposed models can be adapted to encompass inherent nonlinearities that were implicit in previous instantaneous emissions modeling efforts. This article describes the methodology and presents an illustrative application which uses data collected from a diesel bus under real-world driving conditions.

  3. Instantaneous quantification of skeletal muscle activation, power production, and fatigue during cycle ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, A C; Cannon, D T; Cao, R; Porszasz, J; Casaburi, R; Knorst, M M; Rossiter, H B

    2015-03-01

    A rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling allows the velocity-specific decline in maximal power to be measured, i.e., fatigue. We reasoned that, should the baseline relationship between isokinetic power (Piso) and electromyography (EMG) be reproducible, then contributions to fatigue may be isolated from 1) the decline in muscle activation (muscle activation fatigue); and 2) the decline in Piso at a given activation (muscle fatigue). We hypothesized that the EMG-Piso relationship is linear, velocity dependent, and reliable for instantaneous fatigue assessment at intolerance during and following whole body exercise. Healthy participants (n = 13) completed short (5 s) variable-effort isokinetic bouts at 50, 70, and 100 rpm to characterize baseline EMG-Piso. Repeated ramp incremental exercise tests were terminated with maximal isokinetic cycling (5 s) at 70 rpm. Individual baseline EMG-Piso relationships were linear (r(2) = 0.95 ± 0.04) and velocity dependent (analysis of covariance). Piso at intolerance (two legs, 335 ± 88 W) was ∼45% less than baseline [630 ± 156 W, confidence interval of the difference (CIDifference) 211, 380 W, P power was reduced (P power is linear, velocity dependent, and reproducible. Deviation from this relationship at the limit of tolerance can quantify the "activation" and "muscle" related components of fatigue during cycling.

  4. Damping efficiency of the Tchamwa-Wielgosz explicit dissipative scheme under instantaneous loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahéo, Laurent; Grolleau, Vincent; Rio, Gérard

    2009-11-01

    To deal with dynamic and wave propagation problems, dissipative methods are often used to reduce the effects of the spurious oscillations induced by the spatial and time discretization procedures. Among the many dissipative methods available, the Tchamwa-Wielgosz (TW) explicit scheme is particularly useful because it damps out the spurious oscillations occurring in the highest frequency domain. The theoretical study performed here shows that the TW scheme is decentered to the right, and that the damping can be attributed to a nodal displacement perturbation. The FEM study carried out using instantaneous 1-D and 3-D compression loads shows that it is useful to display the damping versus the number of time steps in order to obtain a constant damping efficiency whatever the size of element used for the regular meshing. A study on the responses obtained with irregular meshes shows that the TW scheme is only slightly sensitive to the spatial discretization procedure used. To cite this article: L. Mahéo et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  5. Detailed instantaneous ionization rate of H$_2^+$ in intense laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Vafaee, M; Vafaee, Z; Katanforoush, A; Vafaee, Mohsen; Sabzyan, Hassan; Vafaee, Zahra; Katanforoush, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Component of the instantaneous ionization rate (IIR) is introduced and calculated for H$_2^+$ in a linearly polarized laser field with $1.0 \\times 10^{14}$W cm$^{-2}$ intensity and $\\lambda \\sim 1064 $nm wavelength by direct solution of the fixed-nuclei full dimensional time-dependent Schr \\"odinger equation. The component ionization rates, calculated for different values of inter-nuclear distance, are compared with those calculated via the virtual detector method (VD). Details of the time dependent behavior of the outgoing and incoming electron wavepakets of the H$_2^+$ system in intense laser field at attosecond time scale are studied based on the calculated component ionization rates. It has been shown clearly that the positive signals of the IIR (outgoing electron wavepacket signals) are strong and sharp but the negative signals of the IIR (returning electron wavepacket signals) are smooth and weak. It is also shown that for H-H distance R<5.6, when the laser pulse is turned on with a ramp, the R-depen...

  6. Investigation of some selected strategies for multi-GNSS instantaneous RTK positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Wielgosz, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    It is clear that we can benefit from multi-constellation GNSS in precise relative positioning. On the other hand, it is still an open problem how to combine multi-GNSS signals in a single functional model. This study presents methodology and quality assessment of selected methods allowing for multi-GNSS observations combining in relative kinematic positioning using baselines up to tens of kilometers. In specific, this paper characterizes loose and tight integration strategies applied to the ionosphere and troposphere weighted model. Performance assessment of the established strategies was based on the analyses of the integer ambiguity resolution and rover coordinates' repeatability obtained in the medium range instantaneous RTK positioning with the use of full constellation dual frequency GPS and Galileo signals. Since full constellation of Galileo satellites is not yet available, the observational data were obtained from a hardware GNSS signal simulator using regular geodetic GNSS receivers. The results indicate on similar and high performance of the loose, and tight integration with calibrated receiver ISBs strategies. These approaches have undeniable advantage over single system positioning in terms of reliability of the integer ambiguity resolution as well as rover coordinate repeatability.

  7. Noise Corruption of Empirical Mode Decomposition and Its Effect on Instantaneous Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Kaslovsky, Daniel N; 10.1142/S1793536910000537

    2010-01-01

    Huang's Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is an algorithm for analyzing nonstationary data that provides a localized time-frequency representation by decomposing the data into adaptively defined modes. EMD can be used to estimate a signal's instantaneous frequency (IF) but suffers from poor performance in the presence of noise. To produce a meaningful IF, each mode of the decomposition must be nearly monochromatic, a condition that is not guaranteed by the algorithm and fails to be met when the signal is corrupted by noise. In this work, the extraction of modes containing both signal and noise is identified as the cause of poor IF estimation. The specific mechanism by which such "transition" modes are extracted is detailed and builds on the observation of Flandrin and Goncalves that EMD acts in a filter bank manner when analyzing pure noise. The mechanism is shown to be dependent on spectral leak between modes and the phase of the underlying signal. These ideas are developed through the use of simple signals...

  8. Processing of Instantaneous Angular Speed Signal for Detection of a Diesel Engine Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Charchalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of diesel engine performance under its operating is critical for the prediction of malfunction development and subsequently functional failure detection. Analysis of instantaneous angular speed (IAS of the crankshaft is considered as one of the nonintrusive and effective methods of the detection of combustion quality deterioration. In this paper results of experimental verification of fuel system's malfunction detecting, using optical encoder for IAS recording are presented. The implemented method relies on the comparison of measurement results, recorded under healthy and faulty conditions of the engine. Elaborated dynamic model of angular speed variations enables us to build templates of engine behavior. Recorded during experiment, values of cylinder pressure were taken for the approximation of pressure basic waveform. The main task of data processing is smoothing the raw angular speed signal. The noise is due to sensor mount vibrations, signal emitter machining, engine body vibrations, and crankshaft torsional vibrations. Smoothing of the measurement data was carried out by the implementation of the Savitzky-Golay filter. Measured signal after smoothing was compared with the model of IAS run.

  9. Instantaneous angular speed monitoring of gearboxes under non-cyclic stationary load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, C. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in the condition monitoring and asset management market have led to the commercialisation of online vibration-monitoring systems. These systems are primarily utilised to monitor large mineral mining equipment such as draglines, continuous miners and hydraulic shovels. Online monitoring systems make diagnostic information continuously available for asset management, production outsourcing and maintenance alliances with equipment manufacturers. However, most online vibration-monitoring systems are based on conventional vibration-monitoring technologies, which are prone to giving false equipment deterioration warnings on gears that operate under fluctuating load conditions. A simplified mathematical model of a gear system was developed to illustrate the feasibility of monitoring the instantaneous angular speed (IAS) as a means of monitoring the condition of gears that are subjected to fluctuating load conditions. A distinction is made between cyclic stationary load modulation and non-cyclic stationary load modulation. It is shown that rotation domain averaging will suppress the modulation caused by non-cyclic stationary load conditions but will not suppress the modulation caused by cyclic stationary load conditions. An experimental investigation on a test rig indicated that the IAS of a gear shaft could be monitored with a conventional shaft encoder to indicate a deteriorating gear fault condition.

  10. Front-Crawl Instantaneous Velocity Estimation Using a Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Aminian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the performance is a crucial task for elite sports during both training and competition. Velocity is the key parameter of performance in swimming, but swimming performance evaluation remains immature due to the complexities of measurements in water. The purpose of this study is to use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU to estimate front crawl velocity. Thirty swimmers, equipped with an IMU on the sacrum, each performed four different velocity trials of 25 m in ascending order. A tethered speedometer was used as the velocity measurement reference. Deployment of biomechanical constraints of front crawl locomotion and change detection framework on acceleration signal paved the way for a drift-free integration of forward acceleration using IMU to estimate the swimmers velocity. A difference of 0.6 ± 5.4 cm·s−1 on mean cycle velocity and an RMS difference of 11.3 cm·s−1 in instantaneous velocity estimation were observed between IMU and the reference. The most important contribution of the study is a new practical tool for objective evaluation of swimming performance. A single body-worn IMU provides timely feedback for coaches and sport scientists without any complicated setup or restraining the swimmer’s natural technique.

  11. Integration of graphene sensor with electrochromic device on modulus-gradient polymer for instantaneous strain visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingting; Zhong, Yujia; Tao, Dashuai; Li, Xinming; Zang, Xiaobei; Lin, Shuyuan; Jiang, Xin; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2017-09-01

    In nature, some animals change their deceptive coloration for camouflage, temperature preservation or communication. This astonishing function has inspired scientists to replicate the color changing abilities of animals with artificial skin. Recently, some studies have focused on the smart materials and devices with reversible color changing or light-emitting properties for instantaneous strain visualization. However, most of these works only show eye-detectable appearance change when subjected to large mechanical deformation (100%-500% strain), and conspicuous color change at small strain remains rarely explored. In the present study, we developed a user-interactive electronic skin with human-readable optical output by assembling a highly sensitive resistive strain sensor with a stretchable organic electrochromic device (ECD) together. We explored the substrate effect on the electromechanical behavior of graphene and designed a strategy of modulus-gradient structure to employ graphene as both the highly sensitive strain sensing element and the insensitive stretchable electrode of the ECD layer. Subtle strain (0-10%) was enough to evoke an obvious color change, and the RGB value of the color quantified the magnitude of the applied strain. Such high sensitivity to smaller strains (0-10%) with color changing capability will potentially enhance the function of wearable devices, robots and prosthetics in the future.

  12. Instantaneous blow-up of semilinear non-autonomous equations with fractional diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Villa-Morales

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Cauchy initial value problem $$\\displaylines{ \\frac{\\partial }{\\partial t}u(t,x =k(t\\Delta _{\\alpha}u(t,x+h(tf(u(t,x, \\cr u(0,x = u_0(x, }$$ where $\\Delta _{\\alpha }$ is the fractional Laplacian for $0<\\alpha \\leq 2$. We prove that if the initial condition $u_0$ is non-negative, bounded and measurable then the problem has a global integral solution when the source term f is non-negative, locally Lipschitz and satisfies the generalized Osgood's condition $$ \\int_{\\|u_0\\|_{\\infty }}^{\\infty }\\frac{ds}{f(s}\\geq \\int_0^{\\infty}h(sds. $$ Also, we prove that if the initial data is unbounded then the generalized Osgood's condition does not guarantee the existence of a global solution. It is important to point out that the proof of the existence hinges on the role of the function h. Analogously, the function k plays a central role in the proof of the instantaneous blow-up.

  13. Inverse method for the instantaneous measure of wall shear rate magnitude and direction using electrodiffusion probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche-Gagnon, Marc-Etienne; Vetel, Jerome

    2016-11-01

    Several methods can be used when one needs to measure wall shear stress in a fluid flow. Yet, it is known that a precise shear measurement is seldom met, mostly when both time and space resolutions are required. The electrodiffusion method lies on the mass transfer between a redox couple contained in an electrolyte and an electrode flush mounted to a wall. Similarly to the heat transfer measured by a hot wire anemometer, the mass transfer can be related to the fluid's wall shear rate. When coupled with a numerical post-treatment by the so-called inverse method, precise instantaneous wall shear rate measurements can be obtained. With further improvements, it has the potential to be effective in highly fluctuating three-dimensional flows. We present developments of the inverse method to two-component shear rate measurements, that is shear magnitude and direction. This is achieved with the use of a three-segment electrodiffusion probe. Validation tests of the inverse method are performed in an oscillating plane Poiseuille flow at moderate pulse frequencies, which also includes reverse flow phases, and in the vicinity of a separation point where the wall shear stress experiences local inversion in a controlled separated flow.

  14. Effects of temperature on the maximal instantaneous muscle power of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, G; Ishii, M; Moia, C; Cerretelli, P

    1992-01-01

    The maximal instantaneous muscle power (wi,max) probably reflects the maximal rate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis (ATPmax), a temperature-dependent variable, which gives rise to the hypothesis that temperature, by affecting ATPmax, may also influence wi,max. This hypothesis was tested on six subjects, whose vastus lateralis muscle temperature (Tmuscle) was monitored by a thermocouple inserted approximately 3 cm below the skin surface. The Wi,max was determined during a series of high jumps off both feet on a force platform before and after immersion up to the abdomen for 90 min in a temperature controlled (T = 20 +/- 0.1 degrees C) water bath. Control Tmuscle was 35.8 +/- 0.7 degrees C, with control Wi,max being 51.6 (SD 8.7) W.kg-1. After cold exposure, Tmuscle decreased by about 8 degrees C, whereas wi,max 27% lower. The temperature dependence of Wi,max was found to be less (Q10 less than 1.5, where Q10 is the temperature coefficient as calculated in other studies) than reported in the literature for ATPmax. Such a low Q10 may reflect an increase in the mechanical equivalent of ATP splitting, as a consequence of the reduced velocity of muscle contraction occurring at low Tmuscle.

  15. Frequency Domain Analysis for Assessing Fluid Responsiveness by Using Instantaneous Pulse Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the ICU, fluid therapy is conventional strategy for the patient in shock. However, only half of ICU patients have well-responses to fluid therapy, and fluid loading in non-responsive patient delays definitive therapy. Prediction of fluid responsiveness (FR has become intense topic in clinic. Most of conventional FR prediction method based on time domain analysis, and it is limited ability to indicate FR. This study proposed a method which predicts FR based on frequency domain analysis, named instantaneous pulse rate variability (iPRV. iPRV provides a new indication in very high frequency (VHF range (0.4-0.8Hz of spectrum for peripheral responses. Twenty six healthy subjects participated this study and photoplethysmography signal was recorded in supine baseline, during head-up tilt (HUT, and passive leg raising (PLR, which induces variation of venous return and helps for quantitative assessment of FR individually. The result showed the spectral power of VHF decreased during HUT (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 348.00±434.92 ms2 in HUT and increased during PLR (573.96±756.36 ms2 in baseline; 718.92±973.70 ms2 in PLR, which present the compensated regulation of venous return and FR. This study provides an effective indicator for assessing FR in frequency domain and has potential to be a reliable system in ICU.

  16. Improvement in coronary haemodynamics after percutaneous coronary intervention: assessment using instantaneous wave-free ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Cuculi, Florim; Escaned, Javier; Broyd, Christopher; Foin, Nicolas; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Foale, Rodney A; Malik, Iqbal; Mikhail, Ghada W; Sethi, Amarjit S; Al-Bustami, Mahmud; Kaprielian, Raffi R; Khan, Masood A; Baker, Christopher S; Bellamy, Michael F; Hughes, Alun D; Mayet, Jamil; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Di Mario, Carlo; Davies, Justin E

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) can detect improvement in stenosis significance after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compare this with fractional flow reserve (FFR) and whole cycle Pd/Pa. Design A prospective observational study was undertaken in elective patients scheduled for PCI with FFR ≤0.80. Intracoronary pressures were measured at rest and during adenosine-mediated vasodilatation, before and after PCI. iFR, Pd/Pa and FFR values were calculated using the validated fully automated algorithms. Setting Coronary catheter laboratories in two UK centres and one in the USA. Patients 120 coronary stenoses in 112 patients were assessed. The mean age was 63±10 years, while 84% were male; 39% smokers; 33% with diabetes. Mean diameter stenosis was 68±16% by quantitative coronary angiography. Results Pre-PCI, mean FFR was 0.66±0.14, mean iFR was 0.75±0.21 and mean Pd/Pa 0.83±0.16. PCI increased all indices significantly (FFR 0.89±0.07, pcoronary haemodynamics elicited by PCI. FFR and iFR have a significantly larger dynamic range than resting Pd/Pa. iFR might be used to objectively document improvement in coronary haemodynamics following PCI in a similar manner to FFR. PMID:24047640

  17. Sustained Magnetic Responses in Temporal Cortex Reflect Instantaneous Significance of Approaching and Receding Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    Full Text Available Rising sound intensity often signals an approaching sound source and can serve as a powerful warning cue, eliciting phasic attention, perception biases and emotional responses. How the evaluation of approaching sounds unfolds over time remains elusive. Here, we capitalised on the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalograpy (MEG to investigate in humans a dynamic encoding of perceiving approaching and receding sounds. We compared magnetic responses to intensity envelopes of complex sounds to those of white noise sounds, in which intensity change is not perceived as approaching. Sustained magnetic fields over temporal sensors tracked intensity change in complex sounds in an approximately linear fashion, an effect not seen for intensity change in white noise sounds, or for overall intensity. Hence, these fields are likely to track approach/recession, but not the apparent (instantaneous distance of the sound source, or its intensity as such. As a likely source of this activity, the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus and right temporo-parietal junction emerged. Our results indicate that discrete temporal cortical areas parametrically encode behavioural significance in moving sound sources where the signal unfolded in a manner reminiscent of evidence accumulation. This may help an understanding of how acoustic percepts are evaluated as behaviourally relevant, where our results highlight a crucial role of cortical areas.

  18. An Instantaneous Low-Cost Point-of-Care Anemia Detection Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Punter-Villagrasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a small, compact and portable device for point-of-care instantaneous early detection of anemia. The method used is based on direct hematocrit measurement from whole blood samples by means of impedance analysis. This device consists of a custom electronic instrumentation and a plug-and-play disposable sensor. The designed electronics rely on straightforward standards for low power consumption, resulting in a robust and low consumption device making it completely mobile with a long battery life. Another approach could be powering the system based on other solutions like indoor solar cells, or applying energy-harvesting solutions in order to remove the batteries. The sensing system is based on a disposable low-cost label-free three gold electrode commercial sensor for 50 µL blood samples. The device capability for anemia detection has been validated through 24 blood samples, obtained from four hospitalized patients at Hospital Clínic. As a result, the response, effectiveness and robustness of the portable point-of-care device to detect anemia has been proved with an accuracy error of 2.83% and a mean coefficient of variation of 2.57% without any particular case above 5%.

  19. Instantaneous, parameter-free methods to define a solute’s hydration shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Anupam [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Higham, Jonathan [Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Henchman, Richard H. [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-21

    A range of methods are presented to calculate a solute’s hydration shell from computer simulations of dilute solutions of monatomic ions and noble gas atoms. The methods are designed to be parameter-free and instantaneous so as to make them more general, accurate, and consequently applicable to disordered systems. One method is a modified nearest-neighbor method, another considers solute-water Lennard-Jones overlap followed by hydrogen-bond rearrangement, while three methods compare various combinations of water-solute and water-water forces. The methods are tested on a series of monatomic ions and solutes and compared with the values from cutoffs in the radial distribution function, the nearest-neighbor distribution functions, and the strongest-acceptor hydrogen bond definition for anions. The Lennard-Jones overlap method and one of the force-comparison methods are found to give a hydration shell for cations which is in reasonable agreement with that using a cutoff in the radial distribution function. Further modifications would be required, though, to make them capture the neighboring water molecules of noble-gas solutes if these weakly interacting molecules are considered to constitute the hydration shell.

  20. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.