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Sample records for multiple infections electronic

  1. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  2. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  3. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection predicts antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In areas with intense malaria transmission, individuals are often simultaneously infected with multiple parasite strains. This study assessed the effect of multiple infections on treatment response in Ugandan children with uncomplicated malaria. Methods: Four hundred and seventy six blood specimens were ...

  4. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  5. Multiple electron generation in a sea of electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Wayne; Shabaev, Andrew; Efros, Alexander; Hellberg, Carl; Verne, Jacobs

    2009-03-01

    In traditional bulk semiconductor photovoltaics (PVs), each photon may excite a single electron-hole, wasting excess energy beyond the band-gap as heat. In nanocrystals, multiple excitons can be generated from a single photon, enhancing the PV current. Multiple electron generation (MEG) may result from Coulombic interactions of the confined electrons. Previous investigations have been based on incomplete or over-simplified electronic-state representations. We present results of quantum simulations that include hundreds of thousands of configuration states and show how the complex dynamics, even in a closed electronic system, yields a saturated MEG effect on a femtosecond timescale. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Electron-electron interaction in Multiple Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybert, M.; Marchewka, M.; Tomaka, G.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2012-07-01

    The complex investigation of the magneto-transport effects in structures containing multiple quantum well (MQWs) based on the GaAs/AlGaAs-heterostructures has been performed. The MQWs investigated have different electron densities in QWs. The parameters of 2DEG in MQWs were determined from the data of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdH) observed at low temperatures (0.6-4.2 K). The method of calculation of the electron states energies in MQWs has been developed which is based on the splitting of these states due to the exchange interaction (SAS-splitting, see D. Płoch et al., Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 195434) including the screening of this interaction. The IQHE and SdH observed in these multilayer structures with the third degree of freedom for electrons are interpreted from this.

  7. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Bo Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report one case of a three-year-old boy infected with Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP and presenting concomitant multiple organ damage of the heart, kidney, lung and liver, among others, together with a brief review for the diagnosis and treatment of MP infection with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS.

  8. Cushing's syndrome complicated by multiple opportunistic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R. C.; Gallas, P. R.; Romijn, J. A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    The case history of a 56-year-old man is described who suffered from severe adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome. The clinical course was complicated by simultaneous infections with Pneumocystis carinii, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and

  9. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  10. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sohrabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections.This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits.HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59% with mean age of 32.35 ± 9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%, 160 (28.42% and 5 (0.89% cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%, 42 (26.2%, 17 (10.6% and 9 (5.7% cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases.In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections. Keywords: Multiple HPV Types, Incidence, Genital infection, Cervical cancer, Iran

  11. Multiple electron capture in close ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1987-10-01

    Multiple electron capture is reported for Ca 17+ in Ar. Close collisions are defined by the observation of a coincident Ca K or Ar K x-ray. A large number of electrons is transferred to the projectile in a single close collision when the Ca ion projectile is of the order of the Ar L-shell electron velocity. The cross section for electron capture is reported

  12. Statistics of electron multiplication in multiplier phototube: iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Ortiz Sanchez, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    An iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situations are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average anti-r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (author)

  13. Statistics of electron multiplication in a multiplier phototube; Iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J. F.; Grau, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper an iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situation are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (Author) 11 refs

  14. Symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn, C N; Cruddas, M; Compston, D A

    1993-01-01

    In a case-control study of 214 patients with multiple sclerosis, recall of infectious mononucleosis in subjects seropositive for Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen was associated with a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.2). Those who reported having infectious mononucleosis before the age of 18 years had a relative risk of multiple sclerosis of 7.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 37.9). The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis may involve an age-dependent host response to Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  15. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  16. Electron Raman scattering in asymmetrical multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin-Enriquez, I; Riera, R; Marin, J L

    2005-01-01

    Optical properties of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells for the construction of quantum cascade lasers are calculated, and expressions for the electronic states of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells are presented. The gain and differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process are obtained. Also, the emission spectra for several scattering configurations are discussed, and the corresponding selection rules for the processes involved are studied; an interpretation of the singularities found in the spectra is given. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the efficiency of the lasers

  17. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  18. Morbillivirus receptors and tropism: multiple pathways for infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki eSato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses, which include measles virus (MeV, canine distemper virus, and rinderpest virus, are among the most important pathogens in their respective hosts and cause severe syndromes. Morbilliviruses are enveloped viruses with 2 envelope proteins, one of which is hemagglutinin (H protein, which plays a role in binding to cellular receptors. During morbillivirus infection, the virus initially targets lymphoid cells and replicates efficiently in the lymph nodes. The principal cellular receptor for morbillivirus is signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150, which is exclusively expressed on immune cells. This feature reflects the strong lymphoid cell tropism and viral spread in the infected body. Morbillivirus infection, however, affects various tissues in the body, including the lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, vascular endothelium, and brain. Thus, other receptors for morbilliviruses in addition to SLAM might exist. Recently, nectin-4 has been identified as a novel epithelial cell receptor for MeV. The expression of nectin-4 is localized to polarized epithelial cells, and this localization supports the notion of cell tropism since MeV also grows well in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. Although 2 major receptors for lymphoid and epithelial cells in natural infection have been identified, morbillivirus can still infect many other types of cells with low infectivity, suggesting the existence of inefficient but ubiquitously expressed receptors. We have identified other molecules that are implicated in morbillivirus infection of SLAM-negative cells by alternative mechanisms. These findings indicate that morbillivirus utilizes multiple pathways for establishment of infection. These studies will advance our understanding of morbillivirus tropism and pathogenesis.

  19. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Koçinaj, Allma; Gërçari, Antigona; Ferizi, Mybera; Lashi, Edlira; Gjunkshi, Lorela; Fida, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute), or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-...

  20. Multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Research in atomic physics at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Super-HILAC and Bevalac accelerators on multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions is described. Experiments have studied various aspects of the charge-transfer, ionization, and excitation processes. Examples of processes in which electron correlation plays a role are resonant transfer and excitation and Auger-electron emission. Processes in which electron behavior can generally be described as uncorrelated include ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions. A variety of experiments and results for energies from 1 MeV/u to 420 MeV/u are presented. 20 refs., 15 figs

  1. Multiple electron processes of He and Ne by proton impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhin, Pavel Nikolaevich; Montenegro, Pablo; Quinto, Michele; Monti, Juan; Fojon, Omar; Rivarola, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    A detailed investigation of multiple electron processes (single and multiple ionization, single capture, transfer-ionization) of He and Ne is presented for proton impact at intermediate and high collision energies. Exclusive absolute cross sections for these processes have been obtained by calculation of transition probabilities in the independent electron and independent event models as a function of impact parameter in the framework of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory. A binomial analysis is employed to calculate exclusive probabilities. The comparison with available theoretical and experimental results shows that exclusive probabilities are needed for a reliable description of the experimental data. The developed approach can be used for obtaining the input database for modeling multiple electron processes of charged particles passing through the matter.

  2. Public health interventions for epidemics: implications for multiple infection waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Lindsay; Hua, Yi; Wu, Jianhong; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2011-02-25

    Epidemics with multiple infection waves have been documented for some human diseases, most notably during past influenza pandemics. While pathogen evolution, co-infection, and behavioural changes have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the occurrence of subsequent outbreaks, the effect of public health interventions remains undetermined. We develop mean-field and stochastic epidemiological models for disease transmission, and perform simulations to show how control measures, such as drug treatment and isolation of ill individuals, can influence the epidemic profile and generate sequences of infection waves with different characteristics. We demonstrate the impact of parameters representing the effectiveness and adverse consequences of intervention measures, such as treatment and emergence of drug resistance, on the spread of a pathogen in the population. If pathogen resistant strains evolve under drug pressure, multiple outbreaks are possible with variability in their characteristics, magnitude, and timing. In this context, the level of drug use and isolation capacity play an important role in the occurrence of subsequent outbreaks. Our simulations for influenza infection as a case study indicate that the intensive use of these interventions during the early stages of the epidemic could delay the spread of disease, but it may also result in later infection waves with possibly larger magnitudes. The findings highlight the importance of intervention parameters in the process of public health decision-making, and in evaluating control measures when facing substantial uncertainty regarding the epidemiological characteristics of an emerging infectious pathogen. Critical factors that influence population health including evolutionary responses of the pathogen under the pressure of different intervention measures during an epidemic should be considered for the design of effective strategies that address short-term targets compatible with long-term disease outcomes.

  3. Direct and indirect stabilisation mechanisms in multiple electron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncin, P. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Barat, M. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Gaboriaud, M.N. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 -Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Szilagyi, Z.S. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires; Kazansky, A.K. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires

    1995-05-01

    During the last years both experimental and theoretical works have focused on the problem of the stabilisation of two excited electrons on the projectile. In this contribution we would like to give experimental examples of the two suggested mechanisms and their extension to multiple electron capture. Our data are discussed together with those obtained with other experimental techniques and with theoretical predictions. (orig./WL).

  4. Electron Microscopy of Ebola Virus-Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) replicates in host cells, where both viral and cellular components show morphological changes during the process of viral replication from entry to budding. These steps in the replication cycle can be studied using electron microscopy (EM), including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which is one of the most useful methods for visualizing EBOV particles and EBOV-infected cells at the ultrastructural level. This chapter describes conventional methods for EM sample preparation of cultured cells infected with EBOV.

  5. Multiple choice questions in electronics and electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    DAVIES, T J

    2013-01-01

    A unique compendium of over 2000 multiple choice questions for students of electronics and electrical engineering. This book is designed for the following City and Guilds courses: 2010, 2240, 2320, 2360. It can also be used as a resource for practice questions for any vocational course.

  6. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allma Koçinaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute, or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-year-old female and review the patient’s clinical and laboratory features, the causes of the disease, diagnosis as well as treatment.

  7. Stochastic acceleration of electrons from multiple uncorrelated plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, David; Michel, Pierre; Wurtele, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    One-dimensional theory puts a strict limit on the maximum energy attainable by an electron trapped and accelerated by an electron plasma wave (EPW). However, experimental measurements of hot electron distributions accelerated by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in ICF experiments typically show a thermal distribution with temperatures of the order of the kinetic energy of the resonant EPW's (Thot mvp2 , where vp is the phase velocity of the EPW's driven by SRS) and no clear cutoff at high energies. In this project, we are investigating conditions under which electrons can be stochastically accelerated by multiple uncorrelated EPW's, such as those generated by incoherent laser speckles in large laser spots like the ones used on NIF ( mm-size), and reproduce distributions similar to those observed in experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Behavioral changes induced by single and multiple electron beam pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, V.P.; McNulty, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single, and low-dose, high-dose-rate and multiple electron beam pulses on passive avoidance behavior in mice were studied. Passive avoidance was measured by recording the time that an animal took to enter a chamber from a narrow platform. There were four conditions in the experiment: (1) no shock no radiation-control, (2) radiation only, (3) shock only, and (4) radiation plus shock. Forty animals were run for each data point. Dose rate was held constant at 9 x 10/sup 7/ rads/sec. Average doses for the two single pulses were 7.18 and 8.72 rads. The average total dose for a 25 pulse per second condition was 324.0 rads. The differences between the single versus multiple pulse radiation-only conditions were significant with longer avoidance latencies in the multiple pulse condition. Avoidance latencies were also significantly longer in the shock plus radiation condition for the multiple beam pulse than the single pulse. It is concluded that single and multiple electron beam pulses significantly effect behavior, in this case producing avoidance

  9. Many-electron model for multiple ionization in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, C D; Montanari, C C; Miraglia, J E

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a many-electron model for multiple ionization of heavy atoms bombarded by bare ions. It is based on the transport equation for an ion in an inhomogeneous electronic density. Ionization probabilities are obtained by employing the shell-to-shell local plasma approximation with the Levine and Louie dielectric function to take into account the binding energy of each shell. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account by employing recent photoemission data. Results for single-to-quadruple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by protons are presented showing a very good agreement with experimental data

  10. Many-electron model for multiple ionization in atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C D [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montanari, C C [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28 (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-03-14

    We have developed a many-electron model for multiple ionization of heavy atoms bombarded by bare ions. It is based on the transport equation for an ion in an inhomogeneous electronic density. Ionization probabilities are obtained by employing the shell-to-shell local plasma approximation with the Levine and Louie dielectric function to take into account the binding energy of each shell. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account by employing recent photoemission data. Results for single-to-quadruple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by protons are presented showing a very good agreement with experimental data.

  11. Multiple purpose research complex on the basis of electron accelerators and terahertz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the basic positioning parameters of multiple purpose research complex are presented, the list of potential experiments and technological uses on the example of results received in the multiuser center of G.I. Budker Institut of nuclear physics Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences is discussed. This research complex is directed on work in the big universities and nano technology centers. Electron accelerators is intended for development of electron-beam technologies different material modification, for production of nano powder, nano materials and solution of ecological tasks. In this work the project of multiple purpose research complex on the basis of new generation electron accelerator Il-14 and workable terahertz free electron laser is suggested. Terahertz free electron laser will be used for researches in the sphere of physics and chemistry, biology and medicine, nanotechnology engineering and different methods of nanodiagnostics.

  12. Observation of laser multiple filamentation process and multiple electron beams acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-01-01

    The multiple filaments formation process in the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) was observed by imaging the transmitted laser beam after propagating in the plasma of different density. During propagation, the laser first self-focused into a single filament. After that, it began to defocus with energy spreading in the transverse direction. Two filaments then formed from it and began to propagate independently, moving away from each other. We have also demonstrated that the laser multiple filamentation would lead to the multiple electron beams acceleration in the LWFA via ionization-induced injection scheme. Besides, its influences on the accelerated electron beams were also analyzed both in the single-stage LWFA and cascaded LWFA

  13. Multiple scattering of slow muons in an electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, C.D.; Arista, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of the angular dispersion of slow muons in an electron gas is performed using 3 dielectric models which represent the case of metals (Lindhard model for a free electron gas) and the cases of semiconductors and insulators (Levine and Louie model and Brandt and Reinheimer model for systems with a band gap) and a non-linear model for both cases at very low velocities. The contribution of collective electronic excitations according to the dielectric model are found to be negligible. The results from the calculation using Lindhard expressions for the angular half width are consistent with the result of a multiple scattering model. In particular, the effects produced by the band gap of the material are analyzed in detail. Finally, as the recoil effect is negligible, there is an almost exact scaling, for a given velocity, between the proton and the muon results. (authors)

  14. Multiple systemic embolism in infective endocarditis underlying in Barlow's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Fan, Bing; Wu, Hongyi; Wang, Xiangfei; Li, Chenguang; Xu, Rende; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2016-08-11

    Systemic embolism, especially septic embolism, is a severe complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, concurrent embolism to the brain, coronary arteries, and spleen is very rare. Because of the risk of hemorrhage or visceral rupture, anticoagulants are recommended only if an indication is present, e.g. prosthetic valve. Antiplatelet therapy in IE is controversial, but theoretically, this therapy has the potential to prevent and treat thrombosis and embolism in IE. Unfortunately, clinical trial results have been inconclusive. We describe a previously healthy 50-year-old man who presented with dysarthria secondary to bacterial endocarditis with multiple cerebral, coronary, splenic, and peripheral emboli; antibiotic therapy contributed to the multiple emboli. Emergency splenectomy was performed, with subsequent mitral valve repair. Pathological examination confirmed mucoid degeneration and mitral valve prolapse (Barlow's disease) as the underlying etiology of the endocardial lesion. Continuous antibiotics were prescribed, postoperatively. Transthoracic echocardiography at 1.5, 3, and 6 months after the onset of his illness showed no severe regurgitation, and there was no respiratory distress, fever, or lethargy during follow-up. Although antibiotic use in IE carries a risk of septic embolism, these drugs have bactericidal and antithrombotic benefits. It is important to consider that negative blood culture and symptom resolution do not confirm complete elimination of bacteria. However, vegetation size and Staphylococcus aureus infection accurately predict embolization. It is also important to consider that bacteria can be segregated from the microbicide when embedded in platelets and fibrin. Therefore, antimicrobial therapy with concurrent antiplatelet therapy should be considered carefully.

  15. Electronic structure of single- and multiple-shell carbon fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Nori, F.

    1994-01-01

    We study the electronic states of giant single-shell and the recently discovered nested multiple-shell carbon fullerenes within the tight-binding approximation. We use two different approaches, one based on iterations and the other on symmetry, to obtain the π-state energy spectra of large fullerene cages: C 240 , C 540 , C 960 , C 1500 , C 2160 , and C 2940 . Our iteration technique reduces the size of the problem by more than one order of magnitude (factors of ∼12 and 20), while the symmetry-based approach reduces it by a factor of 10. We also find formulas for the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of C 60n 2 fullerenes as a function of n, demonstrating a tendency towards a metallic regime for increasing n. For multiple-shell fullerenes, we analytically obtain the eigenvalues of the intershell interaction

  16. Single and multiple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the cross sections for single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact are presented for collision energies from threshold to 500 eV. The cross sections for single ionization of sulfur are measured relative to those of several elements whose absolute cross sections for single ionization are known. Cross sections for each multiple ionization process are then measured relative to those for single ionization. The configuration and operation of the apparatus for these measurements are described. The possible effects of excited sulfur reactants are examined, and the reported cross sections are felt to be characteristic of ground state sulfur atoms

  17. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Mara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV. These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.

  18. Lyssavirus infection: 'low dose, multiple exposure' in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Healy, Derek M; Brookes, Sharon M; Voller, Katja; Hicks, Daniel J; Núñez, Alejandro; Fooks, Anthony R

    2014-03-06

    The European bat lyssaviruses (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are zoonotic pathogens present within bat populations across Europe. The maintenance and transmission of lyssaviruses within bat colonies is poorly understood. Cases of repeated isolation of lyssaviruses from bat roosts have raised questions regarding the maintenance and intraspecies transmissibility of these viruses within colonies. Furthermore, the significance of seropositive bats in colonies remains unclear. Due to the protected nature of European bat species, and hence restrictions to working with the natural host for lyssaviruses, this study analysed the outcome following repeat inoculation of low doses of lyssaviruses in a murine model. A standardized dose of virus, EBLV-1, EBLV-2 or a 'street strain' of rabies (RABV), was administered via a peripheral route to attempt to mimic what is hypothesized as natural infection. Each mouse (n=10/virus/group/dilution) received four inoculations, two doses in each footpad over a period of four months, alternating footpad with each inoculation. Mice were tail bled between inoculations to evaluate antibody responses to infection. Mice succumbed to infection after each inoculation with 26.6% of mice developing clinical disease following the initial exposure across all dilutions (RABV, 32.5% (n=13/40); EBLV-1, 35% (n=13/40); EBLV-2, 12.5% (n=5/40)). Interestingly, the lowest dose caused clinical disease in some mice upon first exposure ((RABV, 20% (n=2/10) after first inoculation; RABV, 12.5% (n=1/8) after second inoculation; EBLV-2, 10% (n=1/10) after primary inoculation). Furthermore, five mice developed clinical disease following the second exposure to live virus (RABV, n=1; EBLV-1, n=1; EBLV-2, n=3) although histopathological examination indicated that the primary inoculation was the most probably cause of death due to levels of inflammation and virus antigen distribution observed. All the remaining mice (RABV, n=26; EBLV-1, n=26; EBLV-2, n=29) survived the tertiary and

  19. Multiple infections of rodents with zoonotic pathogens in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-07-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host-pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans.

  20. Electronics cooling of Phenix multiplicity and vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Gregory, W.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Multiplicity and Vertex Detector (MVD) uses silicon strip sensors arranged in two concentric barrels around the beam pipe of the PHENIX detector that will be installed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Each silicon sensor is connected by a flexible kapton cable to its own front-end electronics printed circuit board that is a multi-chip module or MCM. The MCMs are the main heat source in the system. To maintain the MVD at optimized operational status, the maximum temperature of the multi-chip modules must be below 40 C. Using COSMOS/M HSTAR for the Heat Transfer analysis, a finite element model of a typical MCM plate was created to simulate a 9m/s airflow and 9m/s mixed flow composed of 50% helium and 50% air respectively, with convective heat transfer on both sides of the plate. The results using a mixed flow of helium and air show that the average maximum temperature reached by the MCMs is 37.5 C. The maximum temperature which is represented by the hot spots on the MCM is 39.43 C for the helium and air mixture which meets the design temperature requirement 40 C. To maintain the Multiplicity and Vertex Detector at optimized operational status, the configuration of the plenum chamber, the power dissipated by the silicon chips, the fluid flow velocity and comparison on the MCM design parameters will be discussed

  1. Addition of doxycycline to ciprofloxacin for infection prophylaxis during autologous stem cell transplants for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivik, J M; Davidson, J; Hale, C M; Drabick, J J; Talamo, G

    2018-03-21

    The most commonly used antibacterial prophylaxis during autologous stem cell transplants (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) involves a fluoroquinolone, such as ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin. We assessed the impact of adding doxycycline to ciprofloxacin as routine antibacterial prophylaxis in these patients. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records and our ASCT database to analyze rates and types of bacterial infections in MM patients who underwent ASCT in our institution. Among 419 patients, 118 received ciprofloxacin alone (cipro group), and 301 ciprofloxacin and doxycycline (cipro-doxy group). Neutropenic fever (NF) developed in 63 (53%) and 108 (36%) patients of the cipro and cipro-doxy groups, respectively (p = 0.010). The number of documented bacteremic episodes was 13 (11%) and 14 (4.7%) in the two groups, respectively (p = 0.017). Antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile infections were uncommon. Transplant-related mortality was 1% in both groups. The addition of doxycycline to standard prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin seems to reduce the number of NF episodes and documented bacterial infections in patients with MM undergoing ASCT, without increasing rate of serious complications.

  2. epidemiology of single and multiple species of helminth infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... and the intensity of infection, which may have consequences for nutritional and educational status. INTRODUCTION. Helminth infections are a major public health problem and cause under-nutrition and cognitive impairment(1-4), with school children typically experiencing the heaviest burden of disease(5).

  3. Observations of multiple order parameters in 5f electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, E.

    2005-12-01

    In this thesis, multiple order parameters originating in the same electronic system are studied. The multi-k magnetic structures, where more than one propagation wavevector, k, is observed in the same volume, are considered as prototypical models. The effect of this structure on the elastic and inelastic response is studied. In cubic 3-k uranium rock-salts, unexpected elastic diffraction events were observed at positions in reciprocal space where the structure factor should have been zero. These diffraction peaks are identified with correlations between the (orthogonal) magnetic order parameters. The 3-k structure also affects the observed dynamics; the spin-wave fluctuations in uranium dioxide as observed by inelastic neutron polarization analysis can only be explained on the basis of a 3-k structure. In the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd 2 Al 3 the magnetic order and the super-conducting state coexist, and are apparently generated by the same heavy fermions. The effect of an external magnetic field on both the normal and superconducting states is examined. In the normal state, the compound displays Fermi-liquid-like behaviour. The inelastic neutron response is strongly renormalized on entering the superconducting state, and high-precision measurements of the low-energy transfer part of this response confirm that the superconducting energy gap has the same symmetry as the antiferromagnetic lattice. (author)

  4. Multiple Co-infections of Rodents with Hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Županc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found. PMID:22217170

  5. Periprosthetic joint infection: are patients with multiple prosthetic joints at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S Mehdi; Casper, David S; Restrepo, Camilo; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F

    2012-06-01

    Patients who present with a periprosthetic joint infection in a single joint may have multiple prosthetic joints. The risk of these patients developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint is unknown. Our purposes were (1) to identify the risk of developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint and (2) to describe the time span and organism profile to the second prosthetic infection. We retrospectively identified 55 patients with periprosthetic joint infection who had another prosthetic joint in place at the time of presentation. Of the 55 patients, 11 (20%) developed a periprosthetic joint infection in a second joint. The type of organism was the same as the first infection in 4 (36%) of 11 patients. The time to developing a second infection averaged 2.0 years (range, 0-6.9 years). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection following intermittent preventive treatment in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, Ulrike; Kobbe, Robin; Danquah, Ina; Zanger, Philipp; Reither, Klaus; Abruquah, Harry H.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Ziniel, Peter; May, Jürgen; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) reduces malaria morbidity by 20% to 33%. Potentially, however, this intervention may compromise the acquisition of immunity, including the tolerance towards multiple infections with Plasmodium falciparum.

  7. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection following intermittent preventive treatment in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, U.; Kobbe, R.; Danquah, I.; Zanger, P.; Reither, K.; Abruquah, H.H.; Grobusch, M.P.; Ziniel, P.; May, J.; Mockenhaupt, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) reduces malaria morbidity by 20% to 33%. Potentially, however, this intervention may compromise the acquisition of immunity, including the tolerance towards multiple infections with Plasmodium

  8. Concomitant HIV infection in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH ... To compare the presenting features of HIV-positive patients diagnosed with MM ..... Especially since recent publications are showing trends of .... 18. Agrawal S, Deshpande A. A unique presentation of multiple myeloma in an ...

  9. Multiple-clone activation of hypnozoites is the leading cause of relapse in Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina F de Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by a dormant hepatic stage, the hypnozoite that is activated at varying periods of time after clearance of the primary acute blood-stage, resulting in relapse. Differentiation between treatment failure and new infections requires characterization of initial infections, relapses, and clone multiplicity in vivax malaria infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasite DNA obtained from primary/relapse paired blood samples of 30 patients with P. vivax infection in Brazil was analyzed using 10 molecular markers (8 microsatellites and MSP-1 blocks 2 and 10. Cloning of PCR products and genotyping was used to identify low-frequency clones of parasites. We demonstrated a high frequency of multiple-clone infections in both primary and relapse infections. Few alleles were identified per locus, but the combination of these alleles produced many haplotypes. Consequently, the majority of parasites involved in relapse showed haplotypes that were distinct from those of primary infections. Plasmodium vivax relapse was characterized by temporal variations in the predominant parasite clones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high rate of low frequency alleles observed in both primary and relapse infections, along with temporal variation in the predominant alleles, might be the source of reported heterologous hypnozoite activation. Our findings complicate the concept of heterologous activation, suggesting the involvement of undetermined mechanisms based on host or environmental factors in the simultaneous activation of multiple clones of hypnozoites.

  10. Multiple sclerosis is linked to Epstein-Barr virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, S.; Höllsberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    that may explain why MS is unique to humans. Together these unique observations strongly suggest a linkage between MS and EBV infection. Infection by EBV offers numerable mechanisms to perturb the immune system, including mimicry and superantigen induction, which may potentially participate in the disease...... mechanisms. In contrast, studies demonstrating higher IgG titres and occurrence of viral DNA in serum/plasma are likely to reflect a consequence of the disease. An explanation for a potential role of respiratory diseases in MS is discussed. It is concluded that the ultimate test to the hypothesis of MS...... and EBV is the development and application of an EBV vaccine, which is predicted to eradicate the disease....

  11. Multiple Infections of Malaria and Typhoid Fever Among People ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average counts of other hematologic parameters were: 514+21 for CD4 cell count; 15.01 ± 4.1 for WBC; 84.56 ± 81 for lymphocyte count, and 69.18± 3.0 for red blood cell (PCV). On the gender level, out of the 546 triply infected persons observed, 232 were males, and 314, females, with preponderance of female to male ...

  12. Cloning and Characterization of Sf9 Cell Lamin and the Lamin Conformational Changes during Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, the details of lamina alterations after baculovirus infection remain elusive. In this study, a lamin gene in the Sf9 cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda was cloned. The open reading frame (orf of the Sf9 lamin was 1860 bp and encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 70 kDa. A transfection assay with a red fluorescence protein (rfp-lamin fusion protein indicated that Sf9 lamin was localized in the nuclear rim. Transmission electron microscopy observations indicated that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV nucleocapsids may pass through the nuclear envelope. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the lamina showed a ruffled staining pattern with the formation of invaginations in the Sf9 cells infected with AcMNPV, while it was evenly distributed at the nuclear periphery of mock-infected cells. Western blotting results indicated that the total amount of lamin in the baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells was significantly decreased compared with the mock-infected cells. These results imply that AcMNPV infection induces structural and biochemical rearrangements of lamina of Sf9 cells.

  13. Multiple electron capture in close ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Stearns, J.W.; Berkner, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Collisions in which a fast highly charged ion passes within the orbit of K electron of a target gas atom are selected by emission of a K x-ray from the projectile or target. Measurement of the projectile charge state after the collision, in coincidence with the K x-ray, allows measurement of the charge-transfer probability during these close collisions. When the projectile velocity is approximately the same as that of target electrons, a large number of electrons can be transferred to the projectile in a single collision. The electron-capture probability is found to be a linear function of the number of vacancies in the projectile L shell for 47-MeV calcium ions in an Ar target. 18 refs., 9 figs

  14. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  15. Covalent Immobilization of Enoxacin onto Titanium Implant Surfaces for Inhibiting Multiple Bacterial Species Infection and In Vivo Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bin'en; Long, Teng; Ao, Haiyong; Zhou, Jianliang; Tang, Tingting; Yue, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Infection is one of the most important causes of titanium implant failure in vivo A developing prophylactic method involves the immobilization of antibiotics, especially vancomycin, onto the surface of the titanium implant. However, these methods have a limited effect in curbing multiple bacterial infections due to antibiotic specificity. In the current study, enoxacin was covalently bound to an amine-functionalized Ti surface by use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, and the bactericidal effectiveness was investigated in vitro and in vivo The titanium surface was amine functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), through which PEG spacer molecules were covalently immobilized onto the titanium, and then the enoxacin was covalently bound to the PEG, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). A spread plate assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the antimicrobial activity. For the in vivo study, Ti implants were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and implanted into the femoral medullary cavity of rats. The degree of infection was assessed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, and determination of the counts of adherent bacteria 3 weeks after surgery. Our data demonstrate that the enoxacin-modified PEGylated Ti surface effectively prevented bacterial colonization without compromising cell viability, adhesion, or proliferation in vitro Furthermore, it prevented MRSA infection of the Ti implants in vivo Taken together, our results demonstrate that the use of enoxacin-modified Ti is a potential approach to the alleviation of infections of Ti implants by multiple bacterial species. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Multiple-clone infections of Plasmodium vivax: definition of a panel of markers for molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Aracele M; de Araújo, Flávia C F; Fontes, Cor J F; Carvalho, Luzia H; de Brito, Cristiana F A; de Sousa, Taís N

    2015-08-25

    Plasmodium vivax infections commonly contain multiple genetically distinct parasite clones. The detection of multiple-clone infections depends on several factors, such as the accuracy of the genotyping method, and the type and number of the molecular markers analysed. Characterizing the multiplicity of infection has broad implications that range from population genetic studies of the parasite to malaria treatment and control. This study compared and evaluated the efficiency of neutral and non-neutral markers that are widely used in studies of molecular epidemiology to detect the multiplicity of P. vivax infection. The performance of six markers was evaluated using 11 mixtures of DNA with well-defined proportions of two different parasite genotypes for each marker. These mixtures were generated by mixing cloned PCR products or patient-derived genomic DNA. In addition, 51 samples of natural infections from the Brazil were genotyped for all markers. The PCR-capillary electrophoresis-based method was used to permit direct comparisons among the markers. The criteria for differentiating minor peaks from artifacts were also evaluated. The analysis of DNA mixtures showed that the tandem repeat MN21 and the polymorphic blocks 2 (msp1B2) and 10 (msp1B10) of merozoite surface protein-1 allowed for the estimation of the expected ratio of both alleles in the majority of preparations. Nevertheless, msp1B2 was not able to detect the majority of multiple-clone infections in field samples; it identified only 6 % of these infections. The merozoite surface protein-3 alpha and microsatellites (PvMS6 and PvMS7) did not accurately estimate the relative clonal proportions in artificial mixtures, but the microsatellites performed well in detecting natural multiple-clone infections. Notably, the use of a less stringent criterion to score rare alleles significantly increased the sensitivity of the detection of multi-clonal infections. Depending on the type of marker used, a considerable

  17. Second-site prosthetic joint infection in patients with multiple prosthetic joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesham, Kevin; Hughes, Andrew J; O' hEireamhoin, Sven; Fleming, Catherine; Murphy, Colin G

    2018-04-10

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are among the most serious complications in arthroplasty. A second-site PJI in patients with multiple prosthetic joints increases morbidity, with many requiring further revision procedures. We aimed to establish why some patients with multiple joints develop second-site infections. Our institution's arthroplasty database was reviewed from 2004 to 2017. All PJIs were identified, and all patients with more than one prosthetic joint in situ were included. We recorded risk factors, causative organisms, number of procedures and length of stay. Forty-four patients meeting the criteria were identified. Four patients (9.1%) developed second-site infection. Eight patients (18.2%) developed re-infection of the primary PJI. Positive MRSA carrier status and PJI of a total knee replacement were associated with an increased risk of a second episode of infection. Patients who developed further infection had more frequent admission and longer lengths of stay than isolated PJIs. Higher morbidity and use of hospital resources are associated with this cohort of patients. PJIs in total knee replacements and positive MRSA status are associated with higher rates of second infection. Identifying this vulnerable cohort of patients at an early stage is critical to ensure measures are taken to reduce the risks of further infection.

  18. Infections in patients with multiple sclerosis: Implications for disease-modifying therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celius, E G

    2017-11-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis have an increased risk of infections compared to the general population. The increased risk has been described for decades and is not alone attributed to the use of disease-modifying drugs, but secondary to the disability. The introduction of more potent immunomodulatory drugs may cause an additional challenge, and depending on the mechanism of action, a treatment-induced increased risk of bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infections is observed. The choice of treatment in the individual patient with infections and multiple sclerosis must be guided by the drugs' specific mechanism of action, the drug-specific risk of infection and comorbidities. Increased monitoring and follow-up through treatment registries is warranted to increase our understanding and thereby improve management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Transmission of single and multiple viral variants in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Novitsky

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To address whether sequences of viral gag and env quasispecies collected during the early post-acute period can be utilized to determine multiplicity of transmitted HIV's, recently developed approaches for analysis of viral evolution in acute HIV-1 infection [1,2] were applied. Specifically, phylogenetic reconstruction, inter- and intra-patient distribution of maximum and mean genetic distances, analysis of Poisson fitness, shape of highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA were utilized for resolving multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission in a set of viral quasispecies collected within 50 days post-seroconversion (p/s in 25 HIV-infected individuals with estimated time of seroconversion. The decision on multiplicity of HIV infection was made based on the model's fit with, or failure to explain, the observed extent of viral sequence heterogeneity. The initial analysis was based on phylogeny, inter-patient distribution of maximum and mean distances, and Poisson fitness, and was able to resolve multiplicity of HIV transmission in 20 of 25 (80% cases. Additional analysis involved distribution of individual viral distances, highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of tMRCA, and resolved 4 of the 5 remaining cases. Overall, transmission of a single viral variant was identified in 16 of 25 (64% cases, and transmission of multiple variants was evident in 8 of 25 (32% cases. In one case multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission could not be determined. In primary HIV-1 subtype C infection, samples collected within 50 days p/s and analyzed by a single-genome amplification/sequencing technique can provide reliable identification of transmission multiplicity in 24 of 25 (96% cases. Observed transmission frequency of a single viral variant and multiple viral variants were within the ranges of 64% to 68%, and 32% to 36%, respectively.

  20. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Achjari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.

  1. Electronic Structure of Single- and Multiple-shell Carbon Fullerenes

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yeong-Lieh; Nori, Franco

    1993-01-01

    We study the electronic states of giant single-shell and the recently discovered nested multi-shell carbon fullerenes within the tight-binding approximation. We use two different approaches, one based on iterations and the other on symmetry, to obtain the $\\pi$-state energy spectra of large fullerene cages: $C_{240}$, $C_{540}$, $C_{960}$, $C_{1500}$, $C_{2160}$ and $C_{2940}$. Our iteration technique reduces the dimensionality of the problem by more than one order of magnitude (factors of $\\...

  2. Interlayer electron-hole pair multiplication by hot carriers in atomic layer semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Fatemeh; Grossnickle, Max; Su, Shanshan; Lake, Roger; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel

    Two-dimensional heterostructures composed of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides provide the opportunity to design novel devices for the study of electron-hole pair multiplication. We report on highly efficient multiplication of interlayer electron-hole pairs at the interface of a tungsten diselenide / molybdenum diselenide heterostructure. Electronic transport measurements of the interlayer current-voltage characteristics indicate that layer-indirect electron-hole pairs are generated by hot electron impact excitation. Our findings, which demonstrate an efficient energy relaxation pathway that competes with electron thermalization losses, make 2D semiconductor heterostructures viable for a new class of hot-carrier energy harvesting devices that exploit layer-indirect electron-hole excitations. SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  3. Photon-mediated electron multiplication in liquid xenon doped with trimethylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Toshio; Ashikaga, Kinya; Doke, Tadayoshi; Hitachi, Akira; Kikuchi, Jun; Masuda, Kimiaki; Okumura, Yasuaki

    1989-01-01

    Electron multiplication mediated by photons has been observed in liquid xenon doped with trimethylamine in concentrations of 0, 9.3, 43, 118 and 400 ppm. The effect was observed by irradiating a single wire counter with 1 MeV electrons and gamma rays from 207 Bi sources. The multiplication factor was observed to increase from a value of 23 at a concentration of 9.3 ppm to a value of 45 at a concentration of 118 ppm. Over the same range of concentrations, the threshold anode voltage for photon-mediated electron multiplication (PMEM) decreased from 2.5 to 1.4 kV and the PMEM results in a deterioration of energy resolution. At a concentration of 400 ppm, the resulting electron multiplication was neither stable nor reproducible. (orig.)

  4. Outbreak of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Subcutaneous Infections Related to Multiple Mesotherapy Injections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonne, Anne; Brossier, Florence; Arnaud, Isabelle; Bougmiza, Iheb; Caumes, Eric; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Dubrou, Sylvie; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Astagneau, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of severe subcutaneous infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria following mesotherapy. Epidemiological studies and molecular comparisons of Mycobacterium chelonae strains from different patients and the environment suggested that contamination may be associated with inappropriate cleaning of the multiple-injection device with tap water. PMID:19386853

  5. Outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacterial subcutaneous infections related to multiple mesotherapy injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonne, Anne; Brossier, Florence; Arnaud, Isabelle; Bougmiza, Iheb; Caumes, Eric; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Dubrou, Sylvie; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Astagneau, Pascal

    2009-06-01

    We describe an outbreak of severe subcutaneous infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria following mesotherapy. Epidemiological studies and molecular comparisons of Mycobacterium chelonae strains from different patients and the environment suggested that contamination may be associated with inappropriate cleaning of the multiple-injection device with tap water.

  6. Multiple-Breath Washout Outcomes Are Sensitive to Inflammation and Infection in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Foong, Rachel E; Grdosic, Jasmine; Harper, Alana; Skoric, Billy; Clem, Charles; Davis, Miriam; Turkovic, Lidija; Stick, Stephen M; Davis, Stephanie D; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Hall, Graham L

    2017-09-01

    The lung clearance index is a measure of ventilation distribution derived from the multiple-breath washout technique. The lung clearance index is increased in the presence of lower respiratory tract inflammation and infection in infants with cystic fibrosis; however, the associations during the preschool years are unknown. We assessed the ability of the lung clearance index to detect the presence and extent of lower respiratory tract inflammation and infection in preschool children with cystic fibrosis. Ventilation distribution outcomes were assessed at 82 visits with 58 children with cystic fibrosis and at 38 visits with 31 healthy children aged 3-6 years. Children with cystic fibrosis also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collection for detection of lower respiratory tract inflammation and infection. Associations between multiple-breath washout indices and the presence and extent of airway inflammation and infection were assessed using linear mixed effects models. Lung clearance index was elevated in children with cystic fibrosis (mean [SD], 8.00 [1.45]) compared with healthy control subjects (6.67 [0.56]). In cystic fibrosis, the lung clearance index was elevated in individuals with lower respiratory tract infections (difference compared with uninfected [95% confidence interval], 0.62 [0.06, 1.18]) and correlated with the extent of airway inflammation. These data suggest that the lung clearance index may be a useful surveillance tool for monitoring the presence and extent of lower airway inflammation and infection in preschool children with cystic fibrosis.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle imaging using multiple electron paramagnetic resonance activation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Crevecoeur, G.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in several biomedical applications such as hyperthermia, drug targeting, and disease detection. To realize an effective working of these applications, the spatial distribution of the particles needs to be accurately known, in a non-invasive way. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a promising and sensitive measurement technique for recovering these distributions. In the conventional approach, EPR is applied with a homogeneous magnetic field. In this paper, we employ different heterogeneous magnetic fields that allow to stabilize the solution of the associated inverse problem and to obtain localized spatial information. A comparison is made between the two approaches and our novel adaptation shows an average increase in reconstruction quality by 5% and is 12 times more robust towards noise. Furthermore, our approach allows to speed up the EPR measurements while still obtaining reconstructions with an improved accuracy and noise robustness compared to homogeneous EPR

  8. A new apparatus for electron-ion multiple coincidence momentum imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Pruemper, G.; Liu, X.-J.; Lischke, T.; Ueda, K.; Tamenori, Y.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Suzuki, I.H.; Saito, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new experimental apparatus for the electron-ion multiple coincidence momentum imaging spectroscopy in order to obtain the angular distributions of vibration-resolved photoelectrons from molecules fixed in space. The apparatus consists of a four-stage molecular supersonic jet and a spectrometer analyzing three-dimensional momenta of fragment ions and electrons in coincidence

  9. High-risk and multiple human papillomavirus infections among married women in Can Tho, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang

    2012-07-01

    The two currently licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are highly efficacious in preventing cervical pre-cancers related to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Before implementing a large-scale HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, information about the prevalence of infection with the HPV vaccine types is required. This study was done in Can Tho, the province with the highest prevalence of cervical cancer in the south of Viet Nam, to explore the distribution of other high-risk types of HPV among married women in this province. The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. A total of 1000 participants were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status and HPV genotyping test were completed for all participants. A broad spectrum of HPV types was reported in this study. The prevalence of cases infected with HPV 16 and/or 18 was 7%; the prevalence of cases infected with other high-risk HPV types was 6%. The highest prevalence for single and multiple infections, as well as for high-risk infections, was reported for the youngest age group (less than 30 years). While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam due to the high prevalence of infection with HPV 16 and/or 18, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protect against all types of high-risk HPV. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines.

  10. The effect of single and multiple infections on atopy and wheezing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Veiga, Rafael Valente; Dattoli, Vitor Camilo Cavalcante; Fiaccone, Rosimeire Leovigildo; Esquivel, Renata; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto; Cooper, Philip John; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2012-02-01

    The current epidemic of asthma and atopy has been explained by alterations in immune responses related to reduction in childhood infections. However, the findings of epidemiologic studies investigating the association between infection with atopy and asthma have been inconsistent. We sought to investigate the effect of single or multiple infections (pathogen burden) on atopy and wheeze in urban children from Latin America. Specific IgE against aeroallergens (sIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for the most common local allergens were measured in 1128 children aged 4 to 11 years. Data on wheezing and potential confounders were collected by questionnaire. Infections by 8 pathogens were assessed by using serology and stool examination. Associations of wheeze and atopic outcomes with single and multiple infections were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Negative results for Toxoplasma gondii were associated with a higher prevalence of sIgE (≥0.70 kU/L), whereas negative results for Ascaris lumbricoides, T gondii, herpes simplex virus, and EBV were associated with a higher prevalence of SPT reactivity. Children with 3 or fewer infection markers had a higher prevalence of sIgE and SPT reactivity compared with those with 4 or more infection markers. However, isolated infections or pathogen burden were not associated with the prevalence of atopic or nonatopic wheeze. The findings provide support for the idea that the hygiene hypothesis is operating in an urban Latin American context, but its expression is thus far restricted to the atopic status of patients and not the perceived asthma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple scattering approach to the vibrational excitation of molecules by slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukarev, G.

    1976-01-01

    Another approach to the problem of vibrational excitation of homonuclear two-atomic molecules by slow electrons possibly accompanied by rotational transitions is presented based on the picture of multiple scattering of an electron inside the molecule. The scattering of two fixed centers in the zero range potential model is considered. The results indicate that the multiple scattering determines the order of magnitude of the vibrational excitation cross sections in the energy region under consideration even if the zero range potential model is used. Also the connection between the multiple scattering approach and quasi-stationary molecular ion picture is established. 9 refs

  12. Multiplicity of Mathematical Modeling Strategies to Search for Molecular and Cellular Insights into Bacteria Lung Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Martina; Santos, Guido; Wentker, Pia; Lai, Xin; Vera, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Even today two bacterial lung infections, namely pneumonia and tuberculosis, are among the 10 most frequent causes of death worldwide. These infections still lack effective treatments in many developing countries and in immunocompromised populations like infants, elderly people and transplanted patients. The interaction between bacteria and the host is a complex system of interlinked intercellular and the intracellular processes, enriched in regulatory structures like positive and negative feedback loops. Severe pathological condition can emerge when the immune system of the host fails to neutralize the infection. This failure can result in systemic spreading of pathogens or overwhelming immune response followed by a systemic inflammatory response. Mathematical modeling is a promising tool to dissect the complexity underlying pathogenesis of bacterial lung infection at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, and also at the interfaces among levels. In this article, we introduce mathematical and computational modeling frameworks that can be used for investigating molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying bacterial lung infection. Then, we compile and discuss published results on the modeling of regulatory pathways and cell populations relevant for lung infection and inflammation. Finally, we discuss how to make use of this multiplicity of modeling approaches to open new avenues in the search of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying bacterial infection in the lung.

  13. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-α. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  14. Infective endocarditis and risk of death after cardiac implantable electronic device implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Raunsø, Jakob; Lamberts, Morten

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) following implantation of a first-time, permanent, cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide administrative registers (beginning in 1996), we identified all...

  15. Multiple quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-wakefield acceleration with spatially structured laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, J. G.; Tao, M. Z.; Han, Y. J.; Zhao, J. R.; Huang, K.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Li, Y. T. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen, L. M., E-mail: lmchen@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, D. Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-08-15

    By adjusting the focus geometry of a spatially structured laser pulse, single, double, and treble quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were generated, respectively, in laser-wakefield acceleration. Single electron beam was produced as focusing the laser pulse to a single spot. While focusing the laser pulse to two spots that are approximately equal in energy and size and intense enough to form their own filaments, two electron beams were produced. Moreover, with a proper distance between those two focal spots, three electron beams emerged with a certain probability owing to the superposition of the diffractions of those two spots. The energy spectra of the multiple electron beams are quasi-monoenergetic, which are different from that of the large energy spread beams produced due to the longitudinal multiple-injection in the single bubble.

  16. Attenuation of virus production at high multiplicities of infection in Aureococcus anophagefferens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher M.; Bidle, Kay D., E-mail: bidle@marine.rutgers.edu

    2014-10-15

    Infection dynamics (saturation kinetics, infection efficiency, adsorption and burst size) for the Aureococcus anophagefferens-Brown Tide virus (AaV) system were investigated using susceptible and resistant strains. Adsorption assays revealed that virus affinity to the cell surface is a key determinant of infectivity. Saturation of infection occurred at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 8 viruses per host and resulted in ∼90–95% of infected cells, with burst sizes ranging from 164 to 191. Insight from the AaV genome implicates recycling of host nucleotides rather than de novo synthesis as a constraint on viral replication. Viral yields and mean burst sizes were significantly diminished with increasing MOI. This phenomenon, which was reminiscent of phage-induced ‘lysis from without’, appeared to be caused by viral contact and was unrelated to bacteria, signaling/toxic compounds, or defective interfering viruses. We posit that high-MOI effects attenuate viral proliferation in natural systems providing a negative feedback on virus-induced bloom collapse.

  17. Perioperative management for the prevention of bacterial infection in cardiac implantable electronic device placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Imai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have become important in the treatment of cardiac disease and placement rates increased significantly in the last decade. However, despite the use of appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis, CIED infection rates are increasing disproportionately to the implantation rate. CIED infection often requires explantation of all hardware, and at times results in death. Surgical site infection (SSI is the most common cause of CIED infection as a pocket infection. The best method of combating CIED infection is prevention. Prevention of CIED infections comprises three phases: before, during, and after device implantation. The most critical factors in the prevention of SSIs are detailed operative techniques including the practice of proper technique by the surgeon and surgical team.

  18. Multiplicity and diversity of Plasmodium vivax infections in a highly endemic region in Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is highly endemic in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea and accounts for a large proportion of the malaria cases in children less than 5 years of age. We collected 2117 blood samples at 2-monthly intervals from a cohort of 268 children aged 1 to 4.5 years and estimated the diversity and multiplicity of P. vivax infection. All P. vivax clones were genotyped using the merozoite surface protein 1 F3 fragment (msp1F3 and the microsatellite MS16 as molecular markers. High diversity was observed with msp1F3 (H(E = 88.1% and MS16 (H(E = 97.8%. Of the 1162 P. vivax positive samples, 74% harbored multi-clone infections with a mean multiplicity of 2.7 (IQR = 1-3. The multiplicity of P. vivax infection increased slightly with age (P = 0.02, with the strongest increase in very young children. Intensified efforts to control malaria can benefit from knowledge of the diversity and MOI both for assessing the endemic situation and monitoring the effects of interventions.

  19. Multiple capture investigated by coincident electron spectroscopy in X7++Ar, at 70 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.

    1999-01-01

    The multiple electron capture in N 7+ + Ar and F 7+ (1s 2 ) + Ar systems is investigated at 70 keV with a new electron-recoil ion charge coincidence experiment. The whole electron energy range has been studied. Up to six electrons are found to be captured into autoionizing states. The recoil ion charge distribution associated with the emission of electrons is similar for both systems and found to be in good agreement with the prediction of Niehaus's model roughly adapted to take into account autoionizing cascades. New findings for the coincident double and triple captures are briefly discussed. A capture of an inner L-shell electron of Ar into the K-shell of the projectile is also observed in N 7+ + Ar collisions. (orig.)

  20. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinsky, Mark S; Kieffer, Collin; Olson, Gregory; Deruaz, Maud; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Tager, Andrew M; Kwon, Douglas S; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET) to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural understanding of

  1. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Ladinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural

  2. Continuum and bound electronic wavefunctions for anisotropic multiple-scattering potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.; Dill, D.; Dehmer, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Standard multiple-scattering treatments of bound and continuum one-electron states are restricted to a monopole potential in each of the various spherical regions. We have extended the treatment within these regions to a general potential. The corresponding multiple-scattering equations should facilitate accurate treatment of effects of the build-up of charge due to bonding, of the dipole character of polar molecules, and of external fields

  3. Harvesting multiple electron-hole pairs generated through plasmonic excitation of Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Smith, Jeremy G; Jain, Prashant K

    2018-05-07

    Multi-electron redox reactions, although central to artificial photosynthesis, are kinetically sluggish. Amidst the search for synthetic catalysts for such processes, plasmonic nanoparticles have been found to catalyse multi-electron reduction of CO 2 under visible light. This example motivates the need for a general, insight-driven framework for plasmonic catalysis of such multi-electron chemistry. Here, we elucidate the principles underlying the extraction of multiple redox equivalents from a plasmonic photocatalyst. We measure the kinetics of electron harvesting from a gold nanoparticle photocatalyst as a function of photon flux. Our measurements, supported by theoretical modelling, reveal a regime where two-electron transfer from the excited gold nanoparticle becomes prevalent. Multiple electron harvesting becomes possible under continuous-wave, visible-light excitation of moderate intensity due to strong interband transitions in gold and electron-hole separation accomplished using a hole scavenger. These insights will help expand the utility of plasmonic photocatalysis beyond CO 2 reduction to other challenging multi-electron, multi-proton transformations such as N 2 fixation.

  4. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. Methods During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. Results Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. Conclusion The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  5. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. METHODS During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. RESULTS Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. CONCLUSION The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  6. Multiple Ceratocystis smalleyi infections associated with reduced stem water transport in bitternut hickory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-H; Juzwik, J; Cavender-Bares, J

    2013-06-01

    Hundreds of cankers caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are associated with hickory bark beetle-attacked bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline in the north-central and northeastern United States. Discolored sapwood colonized by the fungus commonly underlies the cankers. Field studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that C. smalleyi infections cause vascular system dysfunction in infected trees. Fifty C. smalleyi inoculations made at 1.8 to 3.8 m in height on stems of healthy bitternut hickory trees (13 to 28 cm in diameter at 1.4 m in height) resulted in extensive canker formation and sapwood discoloration 12 to 14 months after treatment compared with water-inoculated and noninoculated controls. Sap flow velocity (midday) was significantly lower in the infected trees compared with that in the controls. Sap flow velocity also was inversely correlated with the proportion of bark area with cankered tissues and with tylose abundance in the youngest two growth rings. Tylose formation in current-year vessels associated with C. smalleyi infections is likely responsible for much of the water transport disruption. It is hypothesized that multiple stem infections of C. smalleyi and the resulting xylem dysfunction contribute to crown wilt development in bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline.

  7. Multiple time scales in modeling the incidence of infections acquired in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolkewitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary over calendar time as a result of fluctuations in the prevalence of the pathogen on the ward. Hence risk of infection is expected to depend on two time scales (time in ICU and calendar time as well as competing events (discharge or death and their spatial location. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply appropriate statistical models for the risk of ICU-acquired infection accounting for multiple time scales, competing risks and the spatial clustering of the data. Methods A multi-center data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to study the occurrence of an infection due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The analysis included 84,843 patient admissions between January 2006 and December 2011 from 81 ICUs. Stratified Cox models were used to study multiple time scales while accounting for spatial clustering of the data (patients within ICUs and for death or discharge as competing events for MRSA infection. Results Both time scales, time in ICU and calendar time, are highly associated with the MRSA hazard rate and cumulative risk. When using only one basic time scale, the interpretation and magnitude of several patient-individual risk factors differed. Risk factors concerning the severity of illness were more pronounced when using only calendar time. These differences disappeared when using both time scales simultaneously. Conclusions The time-dependent dynamics of infections is complex and should be studied with models allowing for multiple time scales. For patient individual risk-factors we recommend stratified Cox regression models for competing events with ICU time as the basic time scale and calendar time as a covariate. The inclusion of calendar time and stratification by ICU

  8. Evaluation of genetically inactivated alpha toxin for protection in multiple mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Brady

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Development of a vaccine against this pathogen is an important goal. While S. aureus protective antigens have been identified in the literature, the majority have only been tested in a single animal model of disease. We wished to evaluate the ability of one S. aureus vaccine antigen to protect in multiple mouse models, thus assessing whether protection in one model translates to protection in other models encompassing the full breadth of infections the pathogen can cause. We chose to focus on genetically inactivated alpha toxin mutant HlaH35L. We evaluated the protection afforded by this antigen in three models of infection using the same vaccine dose, regimen, route of immunization, adjuvant, and challenge strain. When mice were immunized with HlaH35L and challenged via a skin and soft tissue infection model, HlaH35L immunization led to a less severe infection and decreased S. aureus levels at the challenge site when compared to controls. Challenge of HlaH35L-immunized mice using a systemic infection model resulted in a limited, but statistically significant decrease in bacterial colonization as compared to that observed with control mice. In contrast, in a prosthetic implant model of chronic biofilm infection, there was no significant difference in bacterial levels when compared to controls. These results demonstrate that vaccines may confer protection against one form of S. aureus disease without conferring protection against other disease presentations and thus underscore a significant challenge in S. aureus vaccine development.

  9. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Pal, Udit Narayan; Rahaman, Hasibur; Prakash, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ∼50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type.

  10. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Prakash, Ram [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CEERI Campus, Pilani (India); Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Rahaman, Hasibur [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)

    2016-03-15

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ∼50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type.

  11. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Prakash, Ram; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Rahaman, Hasibur

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ∼50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type.

  12. Dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules by extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars Bojer; Leth, Henriette Astrup

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics in dissociative multiple ionization processes of diatomic molecules exposed to extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses is studied theoretically using the Monte Carlo wave packet approach. By simulated detection of the emitted electrons, the model reduces a full propagation...... of the system to propagations of the nuclear wave packet in one specific electronic charge state at a time. Suggested ionization channels can be examined, and kinetic energy release spectra for the nuclei can be calculated and compared with experiments. Double ionization of O2 is studied as an example, and good...

  13. Dependence of Xmax and multiplicity of electron and muon on different high energy interaction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rastegarzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Different high energy interaction models are the applied in CORSIKA code to simulate Extensive Air Showers (EAS generated by Cosmic Rays (CR. In this work the effects of QGSJET01, QGSJETII, DPMJET, SIBYLL models on Xmax and multiplicity of secondary electrons and muons at observation level are studied.

  14. Observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon with a microstrip plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policarpo, A.P.L.; Geltenbort, P.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Araujo, H.; Fraga, F.; Alves, M.A.; Fonte, P.; Lima, E.P.; Fraga, M.M.; Salete Leite, M.; Silander, K.; Onofre, A.; Pinhao, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    We report here on the observation of electron multiplication in liquid xenon in a microstrip chamber with an amplification factor of the order of 10. The measurements were carried out at a temperature between 208 and 215 K (liquid density of about 2.7 g/cm 3 ). (orig.)

  15. Evidence for multiple polytypes of semiconducting boron carbide (C2B10) from electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunca-Popa, Petru; Brand, J I; Balaz, Snjezana; Rosa, Luis G; Boag, N M; Bai Mengjun; Robertson, B W; Dowben, P A

    2005-01-01

    Boron carbides fabricated via plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from different isomeric source compounds with the same C 2 B 10 H 12 closo-icosahedral structure result in materials with very different direct (optical) band gaps. This provides compelling evidence for the existence of multiple polytypes of C 2 B 10 boron carbide and is consistent with electron diffraction results

  16. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, C., E-mail: claude.deutsch@u-psud.fr [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI, 1Planck Str., 64291-Darmstadt (Germany); Barriga-Carrasco, M. [ETSII, UCastilla-la-Mancha, 13071 Ciudad-Real (Spain); Ceban, V. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Fromy, P. [CRI, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Gilles, D. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/IRFU/SAP, 91191-Gif-s-Yvette (France); Leger, D. [Laboratoire Monthouy, UValenciennes-Hainaut Cambresis (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tashev, B. [Department of Physics, KazNu, Tole Bi82, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Volpe, L. [Department of Physics, UMilano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton.

  17. Structure Determination of Anionic Metal Clusters via Infrared Resonance Enhanced Multiple Photon Electron Detachment Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haertelt, M.; Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Bakker, J. M.; Redlich, B.; Harding, D. J.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report vibrational spectra of anionic metal clusters, measured via electron detachment following resonant absorption of multiple infrared photons. To facilitate the sequential absorption of the required large number of photons, the cluster beam interacts with the infrared radiation inside the

  18. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, C.; Tahir, N.A.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Ceban, V.; Fromy, P.; Gilles, D.; Leger, D.; Maynard, G.; Tashev, B.; Volpe, L.

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton

  19. Continuum multiple-scattering approach to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multiple-scattering approach to the electronic continuum of molecules is described. The continuum multiple-scattering model (CMSM) was developed as a survey tool and, as such was required to satisfy two requirements. First, it had to have a very broad scope, which means (i) molecules of arbitrary geometry and complexity containing any atom in the periodic system, (ii) continuum electron energies from 0-1000 eV, and (iii) capability to treat a large range of processes involving both photoionization and electron scattering. Second, the structure of the theory was required to lend itself to transparent, physical interpretation of major spectral features such as shape resonances. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the continuum multiple scattering method is presented, as well as its applications to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization. Highlights of recent applications in these two areas are reviewed. The major impact of the resulting studies over the last few years has been to establish the importance of shape resonances in electron collisions and photoionization of practically all (non-hydride) molecules

  20. The Role of Electron Microscopy in Studying the Continuum of Changes in Membranous Structures during Poliovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Evan D.; Yang, Jie E.; Bullitt, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Replication of the poliovirus genome is localized to cytoplasmic replication factories that are fashioned out of a mixture of viral proteins, scavenged cellular components, and new components that are synthesized within the cell due to viral manipulation/up-regulation of protein and phospholipid synthesis. These membranous replication factories are quite complex, and include markers from multiple cytoplasmic cellular organelles. This review focuses on the role of electron microscopy in advancing our understanding of poliovirus RNA replication factories. Structural data from the literature provide the basis for interpreting a wide range of biochemical studies that have been published on virus-induced lipid biosynthesis. In combination, structural and biochemical experiments elucidate the dramatic membrane remodeling that is a hallmark of poliovirus infection. Temporal and spatial membrane modifications throughout the infection cycle are discussed. Early electron microscopy studies of morphological changes following viral infection are re-considered in light of more recent data on viral manipulation of lipid and protein biosynthesis. These data suggest the existence of distinct subcellular vesicle populations, each of which serves specialized roles in poliovirus replication processes. PMID:26473912

  1. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  2. Electron gun for a multiple beam klystron with magnetic compression of the electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Tran, Hien T; Bui, Thuc; Attarian, Adam; Tallis, William; David, John; Forstall, Virginia; Andujar, Cynthia; Blach, Noah T; Brown, David B; Gadson, Sean E; Kiley, Erin M; Read, Michael

    2013-10-01

    A multi-beam electron gun provides a plurality N of cathode assemblies comprising a cathode, anode, and focus electrode, each cathode assembly having a local cathode axis and also a central cathode point defined by the intersection of the local cathode axis with the emitting surface of the cathode. Each cathode is arranged with its central point positioned in a plane orthogonal to a device central axis, with each cathode central point an equal distance from the device axis and with an included angle of 360/N between each cathode central point. The local axis of each cathode has a cathode divergence angle with respect to the central axis which is set such that the diverging magnetic field from a solenoidal coil is less than 5 degrees with respect to the projection of the local cathode axis onto a cathode reference plane formed by the device axis and the central cathode point, and the local axis of each cathode is also set such that the angle formed between the cathode reference plane and the local cathode axis results in minimum spiraling in the path of the electron beams in a homogenous magnetic field region of the solenoidal field generator.

  3. Comparative proteomics analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda cells during Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Gao, Hang; Liu, Jianliang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Qin; Wen, Dongling

    2015-08-04

    Increasing evidence sugggest that in addition of balculovirus controling insect host, host cells also responds to balculovirus infection. However, compared to existing knowledge on virus gene, host cell responses are relatively poorly understood. In this study, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were infected with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The protein composition and protein changes of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells of different infection stages were analysed by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. A total of 4004 Sf9 proteins were identified by iTRAQ and 413 proteins were found as more than 1.5-fold changes in abundance. The 413 proteins were categorised according to GO classification for insects and were categorised into: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. The determination of the protein changes in infected Sf9 cells would help to better understanding of host cell responses and facilitate better design of this virus-host cell interaction in pest insect control and other related fields.

  4. Zika Virus infection of rhesus macaques leads to viral persistence in multiple tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec J Hirsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, an emerging flavivirus, has recently spread explosively through the Western hemisphere. In addition to symptoms including fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, ZIKV infection of pregnant women can cause microcephaly and other developmental abnormalities in the fetus. We report herein the results of ZIKV infection of adult rhesus macaques. Following subcutaneous infection, animals developed transient plasma viremia and viruria from 1-7 days post infection (dpi that was accompanied by the development of a rash, fever and conjunctivitis. Animals produced a robust adaptive immune response to ZIKV, although systemic cytokine response was minimal. At 7 dpi, virus was detected in peripheral nervous tissue, multiple lymphoid tissues, joints, and the uterus of the necropsied animals. Notably, viral RNA persisted in neuronal, lymphoid and joint/muscle tissues and the male and female reproductive tissues through 28 to 35 dpi. The tropism and persistence of ZIKV in the peripheral nerves and reproductive tract may provide a mechanism of subsequent neuropathogenesis and sexual transmission.

  5. Designing an Electronic Patient Management System for Multiple Sclerosis: Building a Next Generation Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Raimar; Haase, Rocco; Eisele, Judith Christina; Thomas, Katja; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2016-01-08

    Technologies like electronic health records or telemedicine devices support the rapid mediation of health information and clinical data independent of time and location between patients and their physicians as well as among health care professionals. Today, every part of the treatment process from diagnosis, treatment selection, and application to patient education and long-term care may be enhanced by a quality-assured implementation of health information technology (HIT) that also takes data security standards and concerns into account. In order to increase the level of effectively realized benefits of eHealth services, a user-driven needs assessment should ensure the inclusion of health care professional perspectives into the process of technology development as we did in the development process of the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System 3D. After analyzing the use of information technology by patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, we focused on the needs of neurological health care professionals and their handling of health information technology. Therefore, we researched the status quo of eHealth adoption in neurological practices and clinics as well as health care professional opinions about potential benefits and requirements of eHealth services in the field of multiple sclerosis. We conducted a paper-and-pencil-based mail survey in 2013 by sending our questionnaire to 600 randomly chosen neurological practices in Germany. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items covering characteristics of participating neurological practices (4 items), the current use of network technology and the Internet in such neurological practices (5 items), physicians' attitudes toward the general and MS-related usefulness of eHealth systems (8 items) and toward the clinical documentation via electronic health records (4 items), and physicians' knowledge about the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System (3 items). From 600 mailed surveys, 74 completed surveys were returned

  6. The expression and evolution of virulence in multiple infections: the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Frida; Routtu, Jarkko

    2013-05-03

    Multiple infections of the same host by different strains of the same microparasite species are believed to play a crucial role during the evolution of parasite virulence. We investigated the role of specificity, relative virulence and relative dose in determining the competitive outcome of multiple infections in the Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa host-parasite system. We found that infections by P. ramosa clones (single genotype) were less virulent and produced more spores than infections by P. ramosa isolates (possibly containing multiple genotypes). We also found that two similarly virulent isolates of P. ramosa differed considerably in their within-host competitiveness and their effects on host offspring production when faced with coinfecting P. ramosa isolates and clones. Although the relative virulence of a P. ramosa isolate/clone appears to be a good indicator of its competitiveness during multiple infections, the relative dose may alter the competitive outcome. Moreover, spore counts on day 20 post-infection indicate that the competitive outcome is largely decided early in the parasite's growth phase, possibly mediated by direct interference or apparent competition. Our results emphasize the importance of epidemiology as well as of various parasite traits in determining the outcome of within-host competition. Incorporating realistic epidemiological and ecological conditions when testing theoretical models of multiple infections, as well as using a wider range of host and parasite genotypes, will enable us to better understand the course of virulence evolution.

  7. The effects of multiple infections on the expression and evolution of virulence in a Daphnia-endoparasite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Frida; Mouton, Laurence; Ebert, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    Multiple infections of a host by different strains of the same microparasite are common in nature. Although numerous models have been developed in an attempt to predict the evolutionary effects of intrahost competition, tests of the assumptions of these models are rare and the outcome is diverse. In the present study we examined the outcome of mixed-isolate infections in individual hosts, using a single clone of the waterflea Daphnia magna and three isolates of its semelparous endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa. We exposed individual Daphnia to single- and mixed-isolate infection treatments, both simultaneously and sequentially. Virulence was assessed by monitoring host mortality and fecundity, and parasite spore production was used as a measure of parasite fitness. Consistent with most assumptions, in multiply infected hosts we found that the virulence of mixed infections resembled that of the more virulent competitor, both in simultaneous multiple infections and in sequential multiple infections in which the virulent isolate was first to infect. The more virulent competitor also produced the vast majority of transmission stages. Only when the less virulent isolate was first to infect, the intrahost contest resembled scramble competition, whereby both isolates suffered by producing fewer transmission stages. Surprisingly, mixed-isolate infections resulted in lower fecundity-costs for the hosts, suggesting that parasite competition comes with an advantage for the host relative to single infections. Finally, spore production correlated positively with time-to-host-death. Thus, early-killing of more competitive isolates produces less transmission stages than less virulent, inferior isolates. Our results are consistent with the idea that less virulent parasite lines may be replaced by more virulent strains under conditions with high rates of multiple infections.

  8. Multiple-strain Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) from a breeding farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, Sebastian; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Lagowski, Dominik; Troscianczyk, Aleksandra; Zieba, Przemyslaw

    2018-03-08

    Dermatophyte infections are extremely frequent worldwide, and their epidemiological features and distribution make them one of the most frequent infections all over the world. We identified and analysed multiform T. mentagrophytes strains isolated from a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) kept on a breeding farm. Identification of dermatophyte strains was carried out traditionally by correlating both the clinical manifestations of the infection with a micro- and macroscopic examination. To confirm the species affiliation fully, molecular differentiation methods were used. DNA was isolated from the dermatophytes with the phenol-chloroform method. The reaction of chitin synthase 1 (chs1) amplification was carried out to confirm the dermatophytes. The phylogenetic analysis was based on the ITS sequences. The polymerase chain reaction melting profile (PCR-MP) procedure was used for differentiation of dermatophyte genomes. Direct analysis of the material sampled from the clinical lesions revealed the presence of arthrospores in the samples collected from all animals with skin lesions. The macromorphology of the colonies obtained from material sampled from the same individual was not homogeneous. The PCR-MP electrophoregram indicated high variability of their genomes. Although the dermatophytes were isolated from one infected fox, no two identical genomic profiles were obtained. The PCR-MP result corresponds with the phenotypic diversity of the isolates. The findings about the multiple dermatophyte infection in one individual complicate any future epidemiology work and other clinical investigation. Previously, using only morphological characteristics, it had been assumed that one fungal isolate per patient could be diagnosed. The novel findings encourage application of the newly developed molecular typing methods in the diagnosis of dermatophytosis.

  9. Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soto-De Leon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%, while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%, or were of mestizo (-24.6% or black (-40.9% ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  10. Magnetospheric Response Associated With Multiple Atmospheric Reflections of Precipitated Electrons in Aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Merkin, V. G.; Zesta, E.; Sibeck, D. G.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Chu, M.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetosphere and ionosphere are strongly coupled by precipitating electrons during storm times. Therefore, first principle simulations of precipitating electron fluxes are required to understand storm time variations of ionospheric conductances and related electric fields. As has been discussed by Khazanov et al. [2015 - 2017], the first step in such simulations is initiation of electron precipitation from the Earth's plasma sheet via wave particle interaction processes into both magnetically conjugate points, and the step 2 is the follow up of multiple atmospheric reflections of electron fluxes formed at the boundary between the ionosphere and magnetosphere of two magnetically conjugate points. To demonstrate this effect on the global magnetospheric response the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere model coupled with the Rice Convection Model of the inner magnetosphere has been used and run for the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2013.

  11. Multiple-electron removal and molecular fragmentation of CO by fast F4+ impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Ginther, S.G.; Carnes, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple-electron removal from and molecular fragmentation of carbon monoxide molecules caused by collisions with 1-MeV/amu F 4+ ions were studied using the coincidence time-of-flight technique. In these collisions, multiple-electron removal of the target molecule is a dominant process. Cross sections for the different levels of ionization of the CO molecule during the collision were determined. The relative cross sections of ionization decrease with increasing number of electrons removed in a similar way as seen in atomic targets. This behavior is in agreement with a two-step mechanism, where first the molecule is ionized by a Franck-Condon ionization and then the molecular ion dissociates. Most of the highly charged intermediate states of the molecule dissociate rapidly. Only CO + and CO 2+ molecular ions have been seen to survive long enough to be detected as molecular ions. The relative cross sections for the different breakup channels were evaluated for collisions in which the molecule broke into two charged fragments as well as for collisions where only a single charged molecular ion or fragment were produced. The average charge state of each fragment resulting from CO Q+ →C i+ +O j+ breakup increases with the number of electrons removed from the molecule approximately following the relationship bar i=bar j=Q/2 as long as K-shell electrons are not removed. This does not mean that the charge-state distribution is exactly symmetric, as, in general, removing electrons from the carbon fragment is slightly more likely than removing electrons from the oxygen due to the difference in binding energy. The cross sections for molecular breakup into a charged fragment and a neutral fragment drop rapidly with an increasing number of electrons removed

  12. Infecção em Mieloma Múltiplo Infection in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Infecção é a principal causa de óbito em pacientes com mieloma múltiplo (MM. Na última década ocorreram mudanças substanciais no espectro de infecções em pacientes com MM, relacionadas com as mudanças no tratamento, ocorridas neste período. Embora as bactérias (particularmente encapsuladas e Gram-negativas continuem a ser os principais agentes etiológicos, infecções fúngicas invasivas causadas por fungos filamentosos (Aspergillus sp. e Fusarium sp. têm sido relatadas com freqüência crescente. Enquanto o aumento na intensidade do tratamento do MM resultou em melhora na sobrevida, novos problemas infecciosos emergiram. Assim, uma abordagem prática às infecções em pacientes com MM deve incluir o reconhecimento dos pat��genos prováveis, de acordo com vários fatores, como a história patológica pregressa, estado da doença de base, e tratamento atual e anterior para o MM. Estratégias específicas de diagnóstico, profilaxia e terapia empírica são direcionadas de acordo com esta abordagem.Infection is the leading cause of death in patients with multiple myeloma. Over the past decade, significant chances have occurred in the spectrum of infections in patients with multiple myeloma, paralleling the changes in the treatment of the disease. Although bacteria (particularly encapsulated and Gram-negative organisms remain the most frequent etiologic agents, invasive fungal infections caused by moulds (Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. have been increasingly reported. While the increase in the intensity of the treatment of multiple myeloma represents a major advance, with a positive impact on survival, new infectious problems have emerged. Therefore, a practical approach to infections in MM patients must include the recognition of the likely pathogens according to several factors, such as past medical history, status of the underlying disease, and past and current treatment for MM. Specific strategies of diagnosis, prophylaxis

  13. Few-Photon Multiple Ionization of Ne and Ar by Strong Free-Electron-Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, R.; Jiang, Y. H.; Rudenko, A.; Ergler, Th.; Schroeter, C. D.; Luedemann, S.; Zrost, K.; Dorn, A.; Ferger, T.; Kuehnel, K. U.; Ullrich, J.; Foucar, L.; Titze, J.; Jahnke, T.; Schoeffler, M.; Doerner, R.; Fischer, D.; Weber, T.; Zouros, T. J. M.; Duesterer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Few-photon multiple ionization of Ne and Ar atoms by strong vacuum ultraviolet laser pulses from the free-electron laser at Hamburg was investigated differentially with the Heidelberg reaction microscope. The light-intensity dependence of Ne 2+ production reveals the dominance of nonsequential two-photon double ionization at intensities of I 12 W/cm 2 and significant contributions of three-photon ionization as I increases. Ne 2+ recoil-ion-momentum distributions suggest that two electrons absorbing ''instantaneously'' two photons are ejected most likely into opposite hemispheres with similar energies

  14. Formation Process of Non-Neutral Plasmas by Multiple Electron Beams on BX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpei, Akio; Himura, Haruhiko; Masamune, Sadao

    An imaging diagnostic system, which is composed of a handmade phosphor screen and a high-speed camera, has been applied to identify the dynamics of multiple electron beams on BX-U. The relaxation process of those toward a non-neutral plasma is experimentally identified. Also, the radial density profile of the plasma is measured as a function of time. Assuming that the plasma is a spheroidal shape, the value of electron density ne is in the range between 2.2 × 106 and 4.4 × 108 cm-3 on BX-U.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acquires Limited Genetic Diversity in Prolonged Infections, Reactivations and Transmissions Involving Multiple Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Herranz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB has limited ability to acquire variability. Analysis of its microevolution might help us to evaluate the pathways followed to acquire greater infective success. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS in the analysis of the transmission of MTB has elucidated the magnitude of variability in MTB. Analysis of transmission currently depends on the identification of clusters, according to the threshold of variability (<5 SNPs between isolates.Objective: We evaluated whether the acquisition of variability in MTB, was more frequent in situations which could favor it, namely intrapatient, prolonged infections or reactivations and interpatient transmissions involving multiple sequential hosts.Methods: We used WGS to analyze the accumulation of variability in sequential isolates from prolonged infections or translations from latency to reactivation. We then measured microevolution in transmission clusters with prolonged transmission time, high number of involved cases, simultaneous involvement of latency and active transmission.Results: Intrapatient and interpatient acquisition of variability was limited, within the ranges expected according to the thresholds of variability proposed, even though bursts of variability were observed.Conclusions: The thresholds of variability proposed for MTB seem to be valid in most circumstances, including those theoretically favoring acquisition of variability. Our data point to multifactorial modulation of microevolution, although further studies are necessary to elucidate the factors underlying this modulation.

  16. Cardiac implantable electronic device and associated risk of infective endocarditis in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Bundgaard, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) are at increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) as are patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). However, few data exist on the IE risk after AVR surgery in patients with a CIED. Methods and results: Using the Danish...

  17. The effect of proteinases (keratinases) in the pathogenesis of Dermatophyte infection using scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samdani, A.J.; Al-Bitar, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the inter-relationship between the stratum corneum of host and the fungal micro-organisms using scanning electron microscopy for a complete understanding of the host parasite relationship. Material and Methods: Skin surface biopsies were obtained two patients suffering from tinea cruris infection. One patient was infected with trichophyton rubrum and the other with epidermophytom floccosum strains. Results: The scanning electron microphotographs obtained from two patients showed a large number of villi in the infected area. The fungal hyphae were seen to placed intercellularly as well seem to be traversing through the corneocytes in many places. Conclusion: From the results observed in this study it could be suggested that the secretion of proteinases from the fungal hyphae together with the mechanical force of the invading organisms in vivo might be playing part in the invasion of the organisms. (author)

  18. An optical study of multiple NEIAL events driven by low energy electron precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Sullivan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Optical data are compared with EISCAT radar observations of multiple Naturally Enhanced Ion-Acoustic Line (NEIAL events in the dayside cusp. This study uses narrow field of view cameras to observe small-scale, short-lived auroral features. Using multiple-wavelength optical observations, a direct link between NEIAL occurrences and low energy (about 100 eV optical emissions is shown. This is consistent with the Langmuir wave decay interpretation of NEIALs being driven by streams of low-energy electrons. Modelling work connected with this study shows that, for the measured ionospheric conditions and precipitation characteristics, growth of unstable Langmuir (electron plasma waves can occur, which decay into ion-acoustic wave modes. The link with low energy optical emissions shown here, will enable future studies of the shape, extent, lifetime, grouping and motions of NEIALs.

  19. Doubly differential single and multiple ionization of krypton by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucio, O. G. de; Gavin, J.; DuBois, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    Differential measurements for single and multiple ionization of Kr by 240 and 500 eV electron impact are presented. Using a pulsed extraction field, Kr + , Kr 2+ , and Kr 3+ ions were measured in coincidence with scattered electrons for energy losses up to 120 eV and scattering angles between 16 degree sign and 90 degree sign . Scaling properties of the doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) are investigated as a function of energy loss, scattering angle, and momentum transfer. It is shown that scaling the DDCS as outlined by Kim and Inokuti and plotting them versus a parameter consisting of the momentum transfer divided by the square root of the impact energy times 1-cos(θ), where θ is the scattering angle, yielded similar curves, but with different magnitudes, for single and multiple ionization. Normalizing these curves together produced two universal curves, one appropriate for single and multiple electron emission at larger scattering angles (θ≥30 degree sign ) and one appropriate for small scattering angles (θ<30 degree sign )

  20. Intravascular detection of Giardia trophozoites in naturally infected mice. An electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shewy, K A; Eid, R A

    2003-06-01

    During routine transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris, an intense infection with Giardia trophozoites was demonstrated within intestinal and renal tissues. Examination of randomly taken sections from these heavily infected tissues revealed marked deep affection with mixed pathology. Duodenal sections were found loaded with Giardia trophozoites in intimate contact with necrotic gut cells. Some of these trophozoites were detected within central lacteal of damaged villi and nearby blood vessels. Interestingly, and for the first time to be demonstrated, morphologically identical G. muris trophozoite was detected in a renal blood vessel. An intense cellular immune reaction was obviously demonstrated with remarkable interaction between giant macrophages and the trophozoites particulates. Involvement of deep tissues by Giardia trophozoites and their presence within vascular channels could open up questions about the possible invasive and disseminative behavior of G. muris, particularly in heavily and naturally infected hosts.

  1. Zernike phase-contrast electron cryotomography applied to marine cyanobacteria infected with cyanophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2014-11-01

    Advances in electron cryotomography have provided new opportunities to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase-contrast optics produces images with markedly increased contrast compared with images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods for obtaining 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three or four tomographic tilt series takes ∼12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. The time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume.

  2. Zernike Phase Contrast Electron Cryo-Tomography Applied to Marine Cyanobacteria Infected with Cyanophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electron cryo-tomography have provided a new opportunity to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase contrast optics produces images with dramatically increased contrast compared to images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods to obtain 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host, by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three to four tomographic tilt series takes approximately 12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. Time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume. PMID:25321408

  3. Theoretical analysis of moiré fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanjie; Xie, Huimin; Chen, Pengwan; Zhang, Qingming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, theoretical analysis and experimental verification of fringe multiplication under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are presented. Fringe multiplication can be realized by enhancing the magnification or the number of scanning lines under the SEM. A universal expression of the pitch of moiré fringes is deduced. To apply this method to deformation measurement, the calculation formulas of strain and displacement are derived. Compared to natural moiré, the displacement sensitivity is increased by fringe multiplication while the strain sensitivity may be retained or enhanced depending on the number of scanning lines used. The moiré patterns are formed by the interference of a 2000 lines mm −1 grating with the scanning lines of SEM, and the measured parameters of moiré fringes from experimental results agree well with theoretical analysis

  4. Design of a Flexible Hardware Interface for Multiple Remote Electronic practical Experiments of Virtual Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Said

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present a new design of a Flexible Hardware Interface (FHI based on PID control techniques to use in a virtual laboratory. This flexible hardware interface allows the easy implementation of different and multiple remote electronic practical experiments for undergraduate engineering classes. This interface can be viewed as opened hardware architecture to easily develop simple or complex remote experiments in the electronic domain. The philosophy of the use of this interface can also be expanded to many other domains as optic experiments for instance. It is also demonstrated that software can be developed to enable remote measurements of electronic circuits or systems using only Web site Interface. Using standard browsers (such as Internet explorer, Firefox, Chrome or Safari, different students can have a remote access to different practical experiments at a time.

  5. HIV Cell-to-Cell Spread Results in Earlier Onset of Viral Gene Expression by Multiple Infections per Cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Boullé

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell. The mean time to detectable onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was accelerated by 19% in the reporter cell line and by 35% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to cell-free HIV infection. Neither factors secreted by infected cells, nor contact with infected cells in the absence of transmission, detectably changed onset. We recapitulated the earlier onset by infecting with multiple cell-free viruses per cell. Surprisingly, the acceleration in onset of viral gene expression was not explained by cooperativity between infecting virions. Instead, more rapid onset was consistent with a model where the fastest expressing virus out of the infecting virus pool sets the time for infection independently of the other co-infecting viruses.

  6. Statistics of electron multiplication in a multiplier phototube; Iterative method; Estadistica de la multiplicacion de electrones en un fotomultiplicador: Metodos iterativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, J F; Grau, A

    1985-07-01

    In the present paper an iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situation are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (Author) 11 refs.

  7. The use of multiple imputation for the accurate measurements of individual feed intake by electronic feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Obtaining accurate individual feed intake records is the key first step in achieving genetic progress toward more efficient nutrient utilization in pigs. Feed intake records collected by electronic feeding systems contain errors (erroneous and abnormal values exceeding certain cutoff criteria), which are due to feeder malfunction or animal-feeder interaction. In this study, we examined the use of a novel data-editing strategy involving multiple imputation to minimize the impact of errors and missing values on the quality of feed intake data collected by an electronic feeding system. Accuracy of feed intake data adjustment obtained from the conventional linear mixed model (LMM) approach was compared with 2 alternative implementations of multiple imputation by chained equation, denoted as MI (multiple imputation) and MICE (multiple imputation by chained equation). The 3 methods were compared under 3 scenarios, where 5, 10, and 20% feed intake error rates were simulated. Each of the scenarios was replicated 5 times. Accuracy of the alternative error adjustment was measured as the correlation between the true daily feed intake (DFI; daily feed intake in the testing period) or true ADFI (the mean DFI across testing period) and the adjusted DFI or adjusted ADFI. In the editing process, error cutoff criteria are used to define if a feed intake visit contains errors. To investigate the possibility that the error cutoff criteria may affect any of the 3 methods, the simulation was repeated with 2 alternative error cutoff values. Multiple imputation methods outperformed the LMM approach in all scenarios with mean accuracies of 96.7, 93.5, and 90.2% obtained with MI and 96.8, 94.4, and 90.1% obtained with MICE compared with 91.0, 82.6, and 68.7% using LMM for DFI. Similar results were obtained for ADFI. Furthermore, multiple imputation methods consistently performed better than LMM regardless of the cutoff criteria applied to define errors. In conclusion, multiple imputation

  8. Evaluation of the infection process by Lecanicillium fungicola in Agaricus bisporus by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Nunes, Janaira; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cunha Zied, Diego; Aparecida das Graças Leite, Eloisa; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Alves, Eduardo

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms leading to significant economic losses in commercial production. To monitor the infection process of L. fungicola in Brazilian strains of A. bisporus. The interaction between the mycelium of L. fungicola (LF.1) and three strains of A. bisporus (ABI 7, ABI 11/14 and ABI 11/21) was studied. Electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of vegetative growth and basidiocarp infection were evaluated. Micrographs show that the vegetative mycelium of the Brazilian strains of A. bisporus is not infected by the parasite. The images show that the pathogen can interlace the hyphae of A. bisporus without causing damage, which contributes to the presence of L. fungicola during the substrate colonization, allowing their presence during primordial formation of A. bisporus. In the basidiocarp, germ tubes form within 16h of infection with L. fungicola and the beginning of penetration takes place within 18h, both without the formation of specialized structures. Scanning electron microscopy enabled the process of colonization and reproduction to be observed within the formation of phialides, conidiophores and verticils of L. fungicola. The formation of calcium oxalate crystals by the pathogen was also visible using the X-ray microanalysis, both at the hyphae in the Petri plate and at basidiocarp infection site. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of infections in the pathogenesis and course of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawate Siddharama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interplay between susceptibility genes and environmental factors is considered important player in the genesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. Among environmental factors, a role for an infectious pathogen has long been considered central to the disease process. This opinion has support both from epidemiological data and the findings of immunological abnormalities in spinal fluid that reflect an immune response to an as yet undetermined antigen, possibly a pathogen, in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our review will outline the current understanding of the role of infection in the causation and progression of MS. We will review the data that point to an infectious cause of MS and consider the specific agents Chlamydophila (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Human Herpes Virus 6, and Epstein-Barr Virus, that are implicated in either the development or progression of MS.

  10. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golda-Cepa, M., E-mail: golda@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Syrek, K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Brzychczy-Wloch, M. [Department of Bacteriology, Microbial Ecology and Parasitology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Czysta 18, 31-121 Krakow (Poland); Sulka, G.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kotarba, A., E-mail: kotarba@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function–bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces. - Highlights: • The correlation between work function and bacteria adhesion was discovered. • The discovered correlation is rationalized in terms of electrostatic bacteria–surface repulsion. • The results provide basis for the simple evaluation of implant surfaces against infection.

  11. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golda-Cepa, M.; Syrek, K.; Brzychczy-Wloch, M.; Sulka, G.D.; Kotarba, A.

    2016-01-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function–bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces. - Highlights: • The correlation between work function and bacteria adhesion was discovered. • The discovered correlation is rationalized in terms of electrostatic bacteria–surface repulsion. • The results provide basis for the simple evaluation of implant surfaces against infection.

  12. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, osteopetrosis, lymphedema, and immunodeficiency in an infant with multiple opportunistic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Valerie M; Lofgren, Sabra M; Mann, Julianne A; Austin, Jared P; Nolt, Dawn; Shereck, Evan B; Davila-Saldana, Blachy; Zonana, Jonathan; Krol, Alfons L

    2014-01-01

    Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-HED-ID) is a rare X-linked disorder with only three reported prior cases in the English-language literature. We describe a case of OL-HED-ID in a male infant who initially presented with congenital lymphedema, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology at 7 days of age. He subsequently developed gram-negative sepsis and multiple opportunistic infections including high-level cytomegalovirus viremia and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The infant was noted to have mildly xerotic skin, fine sparse hair, and periorbital wrinkling, all features suggestive of ectodermal dysplasia. Skeletal imaging showed findings consistent with osteopetrosis, and immunologic investigation revealed hypogammaglobulinemia and mixed T- and B-cell dysfunction. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-KB) essential modulator (NEMO) gene, confirming the diagnosis of OL-HED-ID. Mutations in the NEMO gene have been reported in association with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (HED-ID), OL-HED-ID, and incontinentia pigmenti. In this case, we report a novel mutation in the NEMO gene associated with OL-HED-ID. This article highlights the dermatologic manifestations of a rare disorder, OL-HED-ID, and underscores the importance of early recognition and prompt intervention to prevent life-threatening infections. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis complicating dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking multiple sclerosis: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Botross, N; Rusli, B N; Riad, A

    2016-11-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first. MRI brain showed changes of perpendicular subcortical palisading white matter, callosal and brainstem disease mimicking multiple sclerosis (MS) in both patients though in the former case there was a lag between the onset of clinical symptoms and MRI changes which was only clarified on reimaging. The temporal evolution and duration of the clinical symptoms, CSF changes and neuroimaging were more suggestive of Dengue ADEM rather than an encephalitis though initially the first case began as dengue encephalitis. Furthermore in dengue encephalitis neuroimaging is usually normal or rarely edema, haemorrhage, brainstem, thalamic or focal lesions are seen. Therefore, early recognition of ADEM as a sequelae of dengue infection with neuroimaging mimicking MS and repeat imaging helped in identifying these two cases. Treatment with intravenous steroids followed by maintenance oral steroids produced good outcome in both patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The catholic taste of broad tapeworms - multiple routes to human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeschenbach, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Kuchta, Roman

    2017-11-01

    Broad tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) are the principal agents of widespread food-borne cestodosis. Diphyllobothriosis and diplogonoporosis, caused by members of the genera Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus and Adenocephalus, are the most common fish cestodoses with an estimated 20million people infected worldwide, and has seen recent (re)emergences in Europe due to the increasing popularity of eating raw or undercooked fish. Sparganosis is a debilitating and potentially lethal disease caused by the larvae of the genus Spirometra, which occurs throughout much of the (sub)tropics and is caused by the consumption of raw snakes and frogs, and drinking water contaminated by infected copepods. Both diseases are caused by several species, but the frequency by which the transition to humans has occurred has never been studied. Using a phylogenetic framework of 30 species based on large and small nuclear ribosomal RNA subunits (ssrDNA, lsrDNA), large subunit mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnL) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), we hypothesize that humans have been acquired asaccidental hosts four times across the tree of life of diphyllobothriideans. However, polytomies prevent an unambiguous reconstruction of the evolution of intermediate and definitive host use. The broad host spectrum and the frequency with which switching between major host groups appears to have occurred, may hold the answer as to why accidental human infection occurred multiple times across the phylogeny of diphyllobothriideans. In this study Diplogonoporus is determined to be the junior synonym of Diphyllobothrium. Furthermore, we divide the latter polyphyletic genus into (i) the resurrected genus Dibothriocephalus to include freshwater and terrestrial species including Dibothriocephalus dendriticus, Dibothriocephalus latus and Dibothriocephalus nihonkaiensis as the most common parasites of humans, and (ii) the genus Diphyllobothrium to accommodate parasites from cetaceans including

  15. Origin of Hund's multiplicity rule in quasi-two-dimensional two-electron quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Tokuei; Paldus, Josef; Diercksen, Geerd H. F.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of Hund's multiplicity rules has been studied for a system of two electrons confined by a quasi-two-dimensional harmonic-oscillator potential by relying on a full configuration interaction wave function and Cartesian anisotropic Gaussian basis sets. In terms of appropriate normal-mode coordinates the wave function factors into a product of the center-of-mass and the internal components. The 1 Π u singlet state and the 3 Π u triplet state represent the energetically lowest pair of states to which Hund's multiplicity rule applies. They are shown to involve excitations into different degrees of freedom, namely, into the center-of-mass angular mode and the internal angular mode for the singlet and triplet states, respectively. The presence of an angular nodal line in the internal space allows then the triplet state to avoid the singularity in the electron-electron interaction potential, leading to the energy lowering of the triplet state relative to its counterpart singlet state.

  16. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  17. Observations of multiple order parameters in 5f electron systems; Observations de parametres d'ordre multiples dans les systemes d'electrons 5f

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, E

    2005-12-15

    In this thesis, multiple order parameters originating in the same electronic system are studied. The multi-k magnetic structures, where more than one propagation wavevector, k, is observed in the same volume, are considered as prototypical models. The effect of this structure on the elastic and inelastic response is studied. In cubic 3-k uranium rock-salts, unexpected elastic diffraction events were observed at positions in reciprocal space where the structure factor should have been zero. These diffraction peaks are identified with correlations between the (orthogonal) magnetic order parameters. The 3-k structure also affects the observed dynamics; the spin-wave fluctuations in uranium dioxide as observed by inelastic neutron polarization analysis can only be explained on the basis of a 3-k structure. In the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} the magnetic order and the super-conducting state coexist, and are apparently generated by the same heavy fermions. The effect of an external magnetic field on both the normal and superconducting states is examined. In the normal state, the compound displays Fermi-liquid-like behaviour. The inelastic neutron response is strongly renormalized on entering the superconducting state, and high-precision measurements of the low-energy transfer part of this response confirm that the superconducting energy gap has the same symmetry as the antiferromagnetic lattice. (author)

  18. On the representation of electron multiple elastic-scattering distributions for Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawrakow, I.; Bielajew, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    A new representation of elastic electron-nucleus (Coulomb) multiple-scattering distributions is developed. Using the screened Rutherford cross section with the Moliere screening parameter as an example, a simple analytic angular transformation of the Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple-scattering distribution accounts for most of the structure of the angular distribution leaving a residual 3-parameter (path-length, transformed angle and screening parameter) function that is reasonably slowly varying and suitable for rapid, accurate interpolation in a computer-intensive algorithm. The residual function is calculated numerically for a wide range of Moliere screening parameters and path-lengths suitable for use in a general-purpose condensed-history Monte Carlo code. Additionally, techniques are developed that allow the distributions to be scaled to account for energy loss. This new representation allows ''''on-the-fly'''' sampling of Goudsmit-Saunderson angular distributions in a screened Rutherford approximation suitable for class II condensed-history Monte Carlo codes. (orig.)

  19. Multiplicity-Vertex Detector Electronics Development for Heavy-Ion Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, C.L., Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S. [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the electronics work performed to date for the Multiplicity-Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. The detector consists of approximately 34,000 channels of both silicon strips and silicon pads. The per-channel signal processing chain consists of a pre-amplifier gain stage, a current mode summed multiplicity discriminator, a 64 deep analog memory (simultaneous read/write), an analog correlator, and a 10-bit microsecs ADC. The system controller or Heap Manager, supplies all timing control, data buffering, and data formatting for a single 256-channel multi-chip module (MCM). Each chip set is partitioned into 32-channel sets. Prototype performance for the various blocks will be presented as well as the ionizing radiation damage performance of the 1.2 mu nwell CMOS process used for fabrication.

  20. Identifying risk factors for healthcare-associated infections from electronic medical record home address data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenman Marc B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential address is a common element in patient electronic medical records. Guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specify that residence in a nursing home, skilled nursing facility, or hospice within a year prior to a positive culture date is among the criteria for differentiating healthcare-acquired from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Residential addresses may be useful for identifying patients residing in healthcare-associated settings, but methods for categorizing residence type based on electronic medical records have not been widely documented. The aim of this study was to develop a process to assist in differentiating healthcare-associated from community-associated MRSA infections by analyzing patient addresses to determine if residence reported at the time of positive culture was associated with a healthcare facility or other institutional location. Results We identified 1,232 of the patients (8.24% of the sample with positive cultures as probable cases of healthcare-associated MRSA based on residential addresses contained in electronic medical records. Combining manual review with linking to institutional address databases improved geocoding rates from 11,870 records (79.37% to 12,549 records (83.91%. Standardization of patient home address through geocoding increased the number of matches to institutional facilities from 545 (3.64% to 1,379 (9.22%. Conclusions Linking patient home address data from electronic medical records to institutional residential databases provides useful information for epidemiologic researchers, infection control practitioners, and clinicians. This information, coupled with other clinical and laboratory data, can be used to inform differentiation of healthcare-acquired from community-acquired infections. The process presented should be extensible with little or no added data costs.

  1. Laser-Induced Graphene by Multiple Lasing: Toward Electronics on Cloth, Paper, and Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyan, Yieu; Ye, Ruquan; Li, Yilun; Singh, Swatantra Pratap; Arnusch, Christopher J; Tour, James M

    2018-03-27

    A simple and facile method for obtaining patterned graphene under ambient conditions on the surface of diverse materials ranging from renewable precursors such as food, cloth, paper, and cardboard to high-performance polymers like Kevlar or even on natural coal would be highly desirable. Here, we report a method of using multiple pulsed-laser scribing to convert a wide range of substrates into laser-induced graphene (LIG). With the increased versatility of the multiple lase process, highly conductive patterns can be achieved on the surface of a diverse number of substrates in ambient atmosphere. The use of a defocus method results in multiple lases in a single pass of the laser, further simplifying the procedure. This method can be implemented without increasing processing times when compared with laser induction of graphene on polyimide (Kapton) substrates as previously reported. In fact, any carbon precursor that can be converted into amorphous carbon can be converted into graphene using this multiple lase method. This may be a generally applicable technique for forming graphene on diverse substrates in applications such as flexible or even biodegradable and edible electronics.

  2. Stepwise approach to establishing multiple outreach laboratory information system-electronic medical record interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Labranche, Wayne; Lareau, William

    2010-05-26

    Clinical laboratory outreach business is changing as more physician practices adopt an electronic medical record (EMR). Physician connectivity with the laboratory information system (LIS) is consequently becoming more important. However, there are no reports available to assist the informatician with establishing and maintaining outreach LIS-EMR connectivity. A four-stage scheme is presented that was successfully employed to establish unidirectional and bidirectional interfaces with multiple physician EMRs. This approach involves planning (step 1), followed by interface building (step 2) with subsequent testing (step 3), and finally ongoing maintenance (step 4). The role of organized project management, software as a service (SAAS), and alternate solutions for outreach connectivity are discussed.

  3. Proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.; Pawlowski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The work describes the construction of a proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons. It has been shown that in this counter filled with Penning's mixtures Ne+Ar+CO 2 , Ne+CH 4 and Ar+C 2 H 2 , much higher resolutions are obtained than in typical cylindrical counters. In the counter described filled with a mixture of Ne+1%CH 4 , a resolution of fwhm=10.5% has been obtained for E=5.9 keV. (orig.)

  4. Proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J.; Pawlowski, Z. (Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Inst. Radioelektroniki)

    1982-09-15

    The work describes the construction of a proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons. It has been shown that in this counter filled with Penning's mixtures Ne+Ar+CO/sub 2/, Ne+CH/sub 4/ and Ar+C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, much higher resolutions are obtained than in typical cylindrical counters. In the counter described filled with a mixture of Ne+1%CH/sub 4/, a resolution of fwhm=10.5% has been obtained for E=5.9 keV.

  5. Analysis of multiple scattering contributions in electron-impact ionization of molecular hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueguang; Hossen, Khokon; Wang, Enliang; Pindzola, M. S.; Dorn, Alexander; Colgan, James

    2017-10-01

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the low-energy (E 0 = 31.5 eV) electron-impact ionization of molecular hydrogen (H2). Triple differential cross sections are measured for a range of fixed emission angles of one outgoing electron between {θ }1=-70^\\circ and -130° covering the full 4π solid angle of the second electron. The energy sharing of the outgoing electrons varies from symmetric ({E}1={E}2=8 eV) to highly asymmetric (E 1 = 1 eV and E 2 = 15 eV). In addition to the binary and recoil lobes, a structure is observed perpendicular to the incoming beam direction which is due to multiple scattering of the projectile inside the molecular potential. The absolutely normalized experimental cross sections are compared with results from the time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) calculations. Molecular alignment dependent TDCC results demonstrate that these structures are only present if the molecule axis is lying in the scattering plane.

  6. Contributions to the theory of electron spectroscopy. Applications of the relativistic multiple-scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy provides access to fundamental properties of solids, such as the geometric, electronic, and the magnetic structure. The latter are necessary for the understanding of a variety of basic but nevertheless important effects. The present work outlines recently developed theoretical approaches to electron spectroscopies. Most of the collected results rely on first-principles calculations, as formulated in multiple-scattering theory, and are contrasted with experimental findings. One topic involves spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy which is addressed for magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films. Exemplary results comprise magnetic dichroism in both valence-band and core-level photoemission as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic properties of ultrathin films. Another topic is spin-dependent ballistic transport through planar tunnel junctions, focusing here on the zero-bias anomaly. In most of the cases, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is an essential ingredient and, hence, favors a relativistic description. Prominent effects of SOC are illustrated by means of the electronic structure of rare gases adsorbed on a substrate and by the splitting of surface states on Au(111). Concerning magnetism, the magnetic anisotropy of Ni films on Cu(001) is discussed, focusing in particular on the spin reorientation transition induced by lattice distortions in ultrathin films. (orig.)

  7. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae.

  8. Community-acquired respiratory infections are common in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Noa; Avivi, Irit; Kra-Oz, Zipora; Oren, Ilana; Hardak, Emilia

    2018-07-01

    Available data suggest that respiratory infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalized due to acute leukemia and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, the precise incidence, risk factors, and severity of respiratory infection, mainly community-acquired, in patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma (MM) are not fully determined. The current study aimed to investigate risk factors for respiratory infections and their clinical significance in patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) in the first year of diagnosis. Data of consecutive patients diagnosed with NHL or MM and treated at the Rambam Hematology Inpatient and Outpatient Units between 01/2011 and 03/2012 were evaluated. Information regarding anticancer treatment, incidence and course of respiratory infections, and infection-related outcomes was analyzed. One hundred and sixty episodes of respiratory infections were recorded in 103 (49%) of 211 (73-MM, 138-NHL) patients; 126 (79%) episodes were community-acquired, 47 (29%) of them required hospitalization. In univariate analysis, age respiratory infection risk (P = 0.058, 0.038, and 0.001, respectively). Ninety episodes (56% of all respiratory episodes) were examined for viral pathogens. Viral infections were documented in 25/90 (28%) episodes, 21 (84%) of them were community-acquired, requiring hospitalization in 5 (24%) cases. Anti-flu vaccination was performed in 119 (56%) patients. Two of the six patients diagnosed with influenza were vaccinated. Respiratory infections, including viral ones, are common in NHL and MM. Most infections are community-acquired and have a favorable outcome. Rapid identification of viral pathogens allows avoiding antibiotic overuse in this patient population.

  9. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G; Stone, Patricia W; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2010-09-01

    The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs.

  10. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: Organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G.; Stone, Patricia W.; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. Methods A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Results Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Conclusion Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs. PMID:20176411

  11. Tunable valley polarization by a gate voltage when an electron tunnels through multiple line defects in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2015-02-04

    By means of an appropriate wave function connection condition, we study the electronic structure of a line defect superlattice of graphene with the Dirac equation method. We obtain the analytical dispersion relation, which can simulate well the tight-binding numerical result about the band structure of the superlattice. Then, we generalize this theoretical method to study the electronic transmission through a potential barrier where multiple line defects are periodically patterned. We find that there exists a critical incident angle which restricts the electronic transmission through multiple line defects within a specific incident angle range. The critical angle depends sensitively on the potential barrier height, which can be modulated by a gate voltage. As a result, non-trivial transmissions of K and K' valley electrons are restricted, respectively, in two distinct ranges of the incident angle. Our theoretical result demonstrates that a gate voltage can act as a feasible measure to tune the valley polarization when electrons tunnel through multiple line defects.

  12. High Multiplicity Infection by HIV-1 in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating virus-host interactions responsible for HIV-1 transmission is important for advancing HIV-1 prevention strategies. To this end, single genome amplification (SGA and sequencing of HIV-1 within the context of a model of random virus evolution has made possible for the first time an unambiguous identification of transmitted/founder viruses and a precise estimation of their numbers. Here, we applied this approach to HIV-1 env analyses in a cohort of acutely infected men who have sex with men (MSM and found that a high proportion (10 of 28; 36% had been productively infected by more than one virus. In subjects with multivariant transmission, the minimum number of transmitted viruses ranged from 2 to 10 with viral recombination leading to rapid and extensive genetic shuffling among virus lineages. A combined analysis of these results, together with recently published findings based on identical SGA methods in largely heterosexual (HSX cohorts, revealed a significantly higher frequency of multivariant transmission in MSM than in HSX [19 of 50 subjects (38% versus 34 of 175 subjects (19%; Fisher's exact p = 0.008]. To further evaluate the SGA strategy for identifying transmitted/founder viruses, we analyzed 239 overlapping 5' and 3' half genome or env-only sequences from plasma viral RNA (vRNA and blood mononuclear cell DNA in an MSM subject who had a particularly well-documented virus exposure history 3-6 days before symptom onset and 14-17 days before peak plasma viremia (47,600,000 vRNA molecules/ml. All 239 sequences coalesced to a single transmitted/founder virus genome in a time frame consistent with the clinical history, and a molecular clone of this genome encoded replication competent virus in accord with model predictions. Higher multiplicity of HIV-1 infection in MSM compared with HSX is consistent with the demonstrably higher epidemiological risk of virus acquisition in MSM and could indicate a greater challenge for HIV-1

  13. Probable transmission chains of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the multiple generations of secondary infection in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui Shan Lee

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Publicly available data from multiple sources, including the media, are useful to describe the epidemic history of an outbreak. The effective control of MERS-CoV hinges on the upholding of infection control standards and an understanding of health-seeking behaviours in the community.

  14. Coulomb Blockade and Multiple Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Single-Electron Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Thomas; Sprenger, Susanne; Scheer, Elke

    2018-06-01

    In superconducting quantum point contacts, multiple Andreev reflection (MAR), which describes the coherent transport of m quasiparticles each carrying an electron charge with m≥3, sets in at voltage thresholds eV = 2Δ /m. In single-electron transistors, Coulomb blockade, however, suppresses the current at low voltage. The required voltage for charge transport increases with the square of the effective charge eV∝ ( me) ^2. Thus, studying the charge transport in all-superconducting single-electron transistors (SSETs) sets these two phenomena into competition. In this article, we present the fabrication as well as a measurement scheme and transport data for a SSET with one junction in which the transmission and thereby the MAR contributions can be continuously tuned. All regimes from weak to strong coupling are addressed. We extend the Orthodox theory by incorporating MAR processes to describe the observed data qualitatively. We detect a new transport process the nature of which is unclear at present. Furthermore, we observe a renormalization of the charging energy when approaching the strong coupling regime.

  15. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled......, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup...

  16. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  17. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio Reis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever.

  18. Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

    2014-10-01

    Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2) copies μL(-1)), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1), suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Study of microbial perchlorate reduction: Considering of multiple pH, electron acceptors and donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xing [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Baoyu, E-mail: bygao@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jin, Bo [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005,Australia (Australia); Zhen, Hu [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Xiaoyi [CSIRO Land and Water, Gate 5, Waite Road, Urrbrae, SA 5064 (Australia); Dai, Ming [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005,Australia (Australia)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: Schemes of perchlorate reduction in ClO{sub 4}{sup −}/ClO{sub 3}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −} e{sup −}acceptor systems. - Highlights: • We created a multiple electron acceptor/donor system for ClO{sub 4}{sup −} reduction. • Nitrate reduction was inhibited when using perchlorate-grown Azospira sp. KJ. • Reduction proceeded as an order of ClO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}and NO{sub 3}{sup −}. • Oxidation of acetate was inhibited by succinate in acetate–succinate series. - Abstract: Bioremediation of perchlorate-cotaminated water by a heterotrophic perchlorate reducing bacterium creates a multiple electron acceptor-donor system. We experimentally determined the perchlorate reduction by Azospira sp. KJ at multiple pH, electron acceptors and donors systems; this was the aim of this study. Perchlorate reduction was drastically inhibited at the pH 6.0, and the maximum reduction of perchlorate by Azospira sp. KJ was observed at pH value of 8.0. Perchlorate reduction was retarded in ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–ClO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–ClO{sub 3}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −},and ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −} acceptor systems, while being completely inhibited by the additional O{sub 2} in the ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–O{sub 2} acceptor system. The reduction proceeded as an order of ClO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} in the ClO{sub 4}{sup −}–ClO{sub 3}{sup −}–NO{sub 3}{sup −} system. K{sub S,}v{sub max}, and q{sub max} obtained at different e{sup −} acceptor and donor conditions are calculated as 140.5–190.6 mg/L, 8.7–13.2 mg-perchlorate/L-h, and 0.094–0.16 mg-perchlorate/mg-DW-h, respectively.

  20. Use and acceptance of electronic communication by patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicenter questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Rocco; Schultheiss, Thorsten; Kempcke, Raimar; Thomas, Katja; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2012-10-15

    The number of multiple sclerosis (MS) information websites, online communities, and Web-based health education programs has been increasing. However, MS patients' willingness to use new ways of communication, such as websites, mobile phone application, short message service, or email with their physician, remains unknown. We designed a questionnaire to evaluate the a priori use of electronic communication methods by MS patients and to assess their acceptance of such tools for communication with their health care providers. We received complete data from 586 MS patients aged between 17 and 73 years. Respondents were surveyed in outpatient clinics across Germany using a novel paper-and-pencil questionnaire. In addition to demographics, the survey items queried frequency of use of, familiarity with, and comfort with using computers, websites, email, and mobile phones. About 90% of all MS patients used a personal computer (534/586) and the Internet (527/586) at least once a week, 87.0% (510/586) communicated by email, and 85.6% (488/570) communicated by mobile phone. When asked about their comfort with using electronic communication methods for communication with health care providers, 20.5% (120/586) accepted communication by mobile Internet application or short message service via mobile phone, 41.0% (240/586) by websites, 54.3% (318/586) by email service, and 67.8% (397/586) by at least one type of electronic communication. The level of a priori use was the best predictor for the acceptance of electronic communication with health care providers. Patients who reported already searching online for health information (odds ratio 2.4, P higher acceptance for Web-based communication. Patients who already scheduled appointments with their mobile phones (odds ratio 2.1, P = .002) were more likely to accept the use of mobile phone applications or short message service for communicating with their physician. The majority of MS patients seen at specialist centers already use

  1. Preparation of herpes simplex virus-infected primary neurons for transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Boadle, Ross; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides the resolution necessary to identify both viruses and subcellular components of cells infected with many types of viruses, including herpes simplex virus. Recognized as a powerful tool in both diagnostic and research-based virology laboratories, TEM has made possible the identification of new viruses and has contributed to the elucidation of virus life cycle and virus-host cell interaction. Whilst there are many sample preparation techniques for TEM, conventional processing using chemical fixation and resin embedding remains a useful technique, available in virtually all EM laboratories, for studying virus/cell ultrastructure. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of herpes simplex virus-infected primary neurons, grown on plastic cover slips, to allow sectioning of neurons and axons in their growth plane. This technique allows TEM examination of cell bodies, axons, growth cones, and varicosities, providing powerful insights into virus-cell interaction.

  2. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    By the use of data from the annihilation process of electron-positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, charged particles multiplicity distribution is obtained and fitted with the KNO scaling. Then, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution with respect to the jet axis are obtained, and the results are compared to the different models of QCD; also, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations are studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jets are stronger than the quark ones. One of the reasons for such case is that splitting function of quarks is larger than splitting function of gluon.

  3. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  4. Stepwise approach to establishing multiple outreach laboratory information system-electronic medical record interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Pantanowitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical laboratory outreach business is changing as more physician practices adopt an electronic medical record (EMR. Physician connectivity with the laboratory information system (LIS is consequently becoming more important. However, there are no reports available to assist the informatician with establishing and maintaining outreach LIS-EMR connectivity. A four-stage scheme is presented that was successfully employed to establish unidirectional and bidirectional interfaces with multiple physician EMRs. This approach involves planning (step 1, followed by interface building (step 2 with subsequent testing (step 3, and finally ongoing maintenance (step 4. The role of organized project management, software as a service (SAAS, and alternate solutions for outreach connectivity are discussed.

  5. Etiology and Clinical Characteristics of Single and Multiple Respiratory Virus Infections Diagnosed in Croatian Children in Two Respiratory Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the causative agent of acute respiratory infection (ARI in hospitalized children, as well as investigate the characteristics of ARIs with single and multiple virus detection in two respiratory seasons. In 2010 and 2015, nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from a total of 134 children, admitted to the hospital due to ARI, were tested using multiplex PCR. Viral etiology was established in 81.3% of the patients. Coinfection with two viruses was diagnosed in 27.6% of the patients, and concurrent detection of three or more viruses was diagnosed in 12.8% of the patients. The most commonly diagnosed virus in both seasons combined was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (28.6%, followed by parainfluenza viruses (PIVs types 1–3 (18.4%, rhinovirus (HRV (14.3%, human metapneumovirus (10.1%, adenovirus (AdV (7.1%, influenza viruses types A and B (4.8%, and coronaviruses (4.2%. In 2015, additional pathogens were investigated with the following detection rate: enterovirus (13.2%, bocavirus (HBoV (10.5%, PIV-4 (2.6%, and parechovirus (1.3%. There were no statistical differences between single and multiple virus infection regarding patients age, localization of infection, and severity of disease (P>0.05. AdV, HRV, HBoV, and PIVs were significantly more often detected in multiple virus infections compared to the other respiratory viruses (P<0.001.

  6. Portrait of a viral infection: The infection cycle of Vibrio vulnificus phage VvAW1 visualized through plaque assay, electron microscopy, and proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clah, K. E. Y.; Nigro, O. D.; Miranda, J.; Schvarcz, C.; Culley, A.; Saito, M. A.; Steward, G.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterium Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen that thrives in warm brackish waters. Viral infection is one of several mechanisms influencing the population dynamics of this bacterium in the natural environment. V. vulnificus-specific viruses have been isolated; however, the details of their infection cycle have not been reported. As a result, our current understanding of the interaction between the bacterium and its viruses in the environment is limited. To better understand the infection process, a strain of V. vulnificus (V93D1V) and its bacteriophage, Vibrio phage VvAW1, were isolated from the estuarine waters of the Ala Wai Canal, HI. A time-series infection experiment was conducted with the virus-host pair in which samples were collected every ten minutes for eighty minutes post-infection for analysis by plaque assay, electron microscopy, and proteomics. Using electron microscopy, visibly infected bacteria were observed forty minutes after the introduction of the virus, signaling the end of the eclipse period. The peak of infection occurred at seventy minutes with an average viral load of 78 viruses per bacterium. The percentage of visibly infected bacteria reached a maximum just prior to a rise in free viruses in the culture, indicating the end of the latent period. The percentage of infected cells that lysed was low and there was little effect on the bacterial population growth rate. Analysis of the proteome revealed that protein expression patterns, in particular capsid and other structural proteins, closely follow the timing of the observed infection cycle. Together, these analyses provided the first detailed view of a viral infection in a highly lethal aquatic bacterium. The apparent temperate nature of this virus suggests that it can be a source of mortality to V. vulnificus, but has evolved to avoid total destruction of its host by complete lysis, a characteristic that helps ensure its replication in subsequent generations.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Novel Entry Mechanisms and a Central Role of SRC in Host Defense during High Multiplicity Mycobacterial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zhang

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infects an estimated one-third of the global population and is one of the main causes of mortality from an infectious agent. The characteristics of macrophages challenged by MTB with a high multiplicity of infection (MOI, which mimics both clinical disseminated infection and granuloma formation, are distinct from macrophages challenged with a low MOI. To better understand the cross talk between macrophage host cells and mycobacteria, we compared the transcription patterns of mouse macrophages infected with bacille Calmette-Guérin, H37Ra and M. smegmatis. Attention was focused on the changes in the abundance of transcripts related to immune system function. From the results of a transcriptome profiling study with a high mycobacterial MOI, we defined a pathogen-specific host gene expression pattern. The present study suggests that two integrins, ITGA5 and ITGAV, are novel cell surface receptors mediating mycobacterium entry into macrophages challenged with high MOI. Our results indicate that SRC likely plays a central role in regulating multiple unique signaling pathways activated by MTB infection. The integrated results increase our understanding of the molecular networks behind the host innate immune response and identify important targets that might be useful for the development of tuberculosis therapy.

  8. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Mueller, Claudius [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Roberts, Brian [Leidos Health Life Sciences, 5202 Presidents Court, Suite 110, Frederick, MD (United States); Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Petricoin, Emanuel [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Narayanan, Aarthi, E-mail: anaraya1@gmu.edu [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.

  9. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi; Mueller, Claudius; Roberts, Brian; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells

  10. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring as a tool for reducing health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; McAtee, Wendy; Steed, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Electronic monitoring of hand hygiene compliance using the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene is a new innovation that has not yet been shown to reduce hospital infections. We analyzed existing data from 23 inpatient units over a 33-month period and found a significant correlation between unit-specific improvements in electronic monitoring compliance and reductions in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection rates (r = -0.37, P < .001). Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electron pumping of the ground state of 21Ne. Transfers and multiple diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, F.; Lombardi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The electron-pumping process of the ground state of 21 Ne has been studied. It is demonstrated how in a neon cell at a pressure of 10 -4 to 10 -2 torr, a high frequency discharge can create a nuclear spin alignment in the fundamental level (I=3/2) when the excited levels are themselves aligned. The nuclear alignment is observed by monitoring the change of the linear polarization of several optical transitions during the magnetic resonance of the fundamental level. Various transfers of the alignments are investigated and a detailed study of the influence of the multiple diffusion is carried out. The multiple diffusion produces a depolarization and a relaxation of the nuclear spin. A theoretical calculation has been made for a two-level system with a J=1 radiative level and a J=0 ground state. Experimentally a relaxation time of the nuclear alignment varying from 37 ms to 240 ms is observed when the neon pressure decreases from 10 -2 to 10 -4 torr [fr

  12. Using the Electronic Nose to Identify Airway Infection during COPD Exacerbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Shafiek

    Full Text Available The electronic nose (e-nose detects volatile organic compounds (VOCs in exhaled air. We hypothesized that the exhaled VOCs print is different in stable vs. exacerbated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, particularly if the latter is associated with airway bacterial infection, and that the e-nose can distinguish them.Smell-prints of the bacteria most commonly involved in exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD were identified in vitro. Subsequently, we tested our hypothesis in 93 patients with ECOPD, 19 of them with pneumonia, 50 with stable COPD and 30 healthy controls in a cross-sectional case-controlled study. Secondly, ECOPD patients were re-studied after 2 months if clinically stable. Exhaled air was collected within a Tedlar bag and processed by a Cynarose 320 e-nose. Breath-prints were analyzed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA with "One Out" technique and Sensor logic Relations (SLR. Sputum samples were collected for culture.ECOPD with evidence of infection were significantly distinguishable from non-infected ECOPD (p = 0.018, with better accuracy when ECOPD was associated to pneumonia. The same patients with ECOPD were significantly distinguishable from stable COPD during follow-up (p = 0.018, unless the patient was colonized. Additionally, breath-prints from COPD patients were significantly distinguished from healthy controls. Various bacteria species were identified in culture but the e-nose was unable to identify accurately the bacteria smell-print in infected patients.E-nose can identify ECOPD, especially if associated with airway bacterial infection or pneumonia.

  13. Jumping magneto-electric states of electrons in semiconductor multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, Pawel; Zawadzki, Wlodek

    2011-01-01

    Orbital and spin electron states in semiconductor multiple quantum wells in the presence of an external magnetic field transverse to the growth direction are considered. Rectangular wells of GaAs/GaAlAs and InAs/AlSb are taken as examples. It is shown that, in addition to magneto-electric states known from one-well systems, there appear magneto-electric states having a much stronger dependence of energies on a magnetic field and exhibiting an interesting anti-crossing behavior. The origin of these states is investigated and it is shown that the strong field dependence of the energies is related to an unusual 'jumping' behavior of their wavefunctions between quantum wells as the field increases. The ways of investigating the jumping states by means of interband magneto-luminescence transitions or intraband cyclotron-like transitions are considered and it is demonstrated that the jumping states can be observed. The spin g factors of electrons in the jumping states are calculated using the real values of the spin–orbit interaction and bands' nonparabolicity for the semiconductors in question. It is demonstrated that the jumping states offer a wide variety of the spin g factors

  14. Non-uniform shrinkage of multiple-walled carbon nanotubes under in situ electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lunxiong [South China Normal University, Brain Science Institute, Guangzhou (China); Xiamen University, China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Functional Nanomaterials and Physics Department, Xiamen (China); Su, Jiangbin [Xiamen University, China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Functional Nanomaterials and Physics Department, Xiamen (China); Chang Zhou University, School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou (China); Zhu, Xianfang [Xiamen University, China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Functional Nanomaterials and Physics Department, Xiamen (China)

    2016-10-15

    Instability of multiple-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy at room temperature. Specially, the non-uniform shrinkage of tubes was found: The pristine MWCNT shrank preferentially in its axial direction from the most curved free cap end of the tube, but the shrinkage of the tube diameter was offset by the axial shrinkage: For the complex MWCNT, the two inner MWCNTs also preferentially axially shrank from their most curved cap ends and separated from each other. However, for the effect of the radial pressure from the out walls which enveloped the two inner tubes and the tube amorphization, the two inner tubes were extruded to come close to each other and finally touched again. The new ''evaporation'' and ''diffusion'' mechanisms of carbon atoms as driven by the nano-curvature of CNT and the electron beam-induced athermal activation were suggested to explain the above phenomena. (orig.)

  15. Multiple helminth infection of the skin causes lymphocyte hypo-responsiveness mediated by Th2 conditioning of dermal myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Cook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the mammalian host by schistosome larvae occurs via the skin, although nothing is known about the development of immune responses to multiple exposures of schistosome larvae, and/or their excretory/secretory (E/S products. Here, we show that multiple (4x exposures, prior to the onset of egg laying by adult worms, modulate the skin immune response and induce CD4(+ cell hypo-responsiveness in the draining lymph node, and even modulate the formation of hepatic egg-induced granulomas. Compared to mice exposed to a single infection (1x, dermal cells from multiply infected mice (4x, were less able to support lymph node cell proliferation. Analysis of dermal cells showed that the most abundant in 4x mice were eosinophils (F4/80(+MHC-II(-, but they did not impact the ability of antigen presenting cells (APC to support lymphocyte proliferation to parasite antigen in vitro. However, two other cell populations from the dermal site of infection appear to have a critical role. The first comprises arginase-1(+, Ym-1(+ alternatively activated macrophage-like cells, and the second are functionally compromised MHC-II(hi cells. Through the administration of exogenous IL-12 to multiply infected mice, we show that these suppressive myeloid cell phenotypes form as a consequence of events in the skin, most notably an enrichment of IL-4 and IL-13, likely resulting from an influx of RELMα-expressing eosinophils. We further illustrate that the development of these suppressive dermal cells is dependent upon IL-4Rα signalling. The development of immune hypo-responsiveness to schistosome larvae and their effect on the subsequent response to the immunopathogenic egg is important in appreciating how immune responses to helminth infections are modulated by repeated exposure to the infective early stages of development.

  16. The fitness of drug-resistant malaria parasites in a rodent model: multiplicity of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G.; Nelson, William, A.; Read, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria infections normally consist of more than one clonally-replicating lineage. Within-host interactions between sensitive and resistant parasites can have profound effects on the evolution of drug resistance. Here, using the Plasmodium chabaudi mouse malaria model, we ask whether the costs and benefits of resistance are affected by the number of co-infecting strains competing with a resistant clone. We found strong competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated infections and...

  17. Dose rate effect on micronuclei induction in human blood lymphocytes exposed to single pulse and multiple pulses of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Santhosh; Bhat, N N; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Sreedevi, B; Narayana, Y

    2011-05-01

    The effects of single pulses and multiple pulses of 7 MV electrons on micronuclei (MN) induction in cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were investigated over a wide range of dose rates per pulse (instantaneous dose rate). PBLs were exposed to graded doses of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy of single electron pulses of varying pulse widths at different dose rates per pulse, ranging from 1 × 10(6) Gy s(-1) to 3.2 × 10(8) Gy s(-1). Different dose rates per pulse were achieved by changing the dose per electron pulse by adjusting the beam current and pulse width. MN yields per unit absorbed dose after irradiation with single electron pulses were compared with those of multiple pulses of electrons. A significant decrease in the MN yield with increasing dose rates per pulse was observed, when dose was delivered by a single electron pulse. However, no reduction in the MN yield was observed when dose was delivered by multiple pulses of electrons. The decrease in the yield at high dose rates per pulse suggests possible radical recombination, which leads to decreased biological damage. Cellular response to the presence of very large numbers of chromosomal breaks may also alter the damage.

  18. Comparative proteomics analysis of apoptotic Spodoptera frugiperda cells during p35 knockout Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Liu, Jianliang; Wang, Qin; Qiu, Yuanxin; Wen, Dongling

    2016-06-01

    Infection with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) mutants lacking a functional p35 gene can induce host cell apoptosis, which provides the possibility to use the potential of these viruses in the biological control of pest insects. Nonetheless, the proteomics or the protein changes of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells infected with p35 knockout AcMNPV have not yet been studied. To further improve the use of AcMNPV, we set out to analyze the protein composition and protein changes of Sf9 cells of different infection stages by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. A total of 4004 sf9 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. After comparation of the significantly expressed 483 proteins from p35koAcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells and the significantly expressed 413 proteins from wtAcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells, we found that 226 proteins were specific to p35koAcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells. The 226 proteins were categorized according to GO classification for insects and were categorized into: biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components. Of interest, the most up-regulated proteins related to Epstein-Barr virus infection, RNA transport, Calcium signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation and N-Glycan biosynthesis. Determination of the protein changes in p35 knockout AcMNPV-infected Sf9 cells would facilitate the better use of this virus-host cell interaction in pest insect control and other related fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple viral infections in Agaricus bisporus - Characterisation of 18 unique RNA viruses and 8 ORFans identified by deep sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Gregory; Dobbs, Edward; Bennett, Julie M.; Jones, Ian M.; Grogan, Helen M.; Burton, Kerry S.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty unique non-host RNAs were sequenced in the cultivated fungus, Agaricus bisporus, comprising 18 viruses each encoding an RdRp domain with an additional 8 ORFans (non-host RNAs with no similarity to known sequences). Two viruses were multipartite with component RNAs showing correlative abundances and common 3′ motifs. The viruses, all positive sense single-stranded, were classified into diverse orders/families. Multiple infections of Agaricus may represent a diverse, dynamic and interact...

  20. Multiple surface antigen mutations in five blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An

  1. Physiological Correlates of Multiple Parasitic Infections in Side-Blotched Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Austin R; Durso, Andrew M; Smith, Geoffrey D; Skinner, Heather M; French, Susannah S

    We investigated the presence of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) across a large part of their range and measured how parasitic infection related to several key physiological indicators of health. Blood samples were collected from 132 lizards from central Arizona, southern Utah, and eastern Oregon. Hemoparasites were found in 22 individuals (3.2% prevalence in Arizona, 19.1% in Utah, and 6.3% in Oregon), and ectoparasites were found on 51 individuals (56.3% prevalence in Arizona, 56.1% in Utah, and 6.7% in Oregon), with 11 individuals infected with both. Hemoparasites and ectoparasites were found in all three states. Immunocompetence was higher in individuals infected with both hemoparasites and ectoparasites. Body condition, glucocorticoid levels, and reproductive investment were not related to infection status. Our study provides evidence that parasitic infection is associated with an active immune system in wild reptiles but may not impose other costs usually associated with parasites.

  2. Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Jiang, Di; Minor, Maisha; Chu, Hong Wei

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV) infection. We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6) production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1) in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.

  3. Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wu

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV infection.We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6 production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1 in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.

  4. Multiple capture investigated by coincident electron spectroscopy in X{sup 7+}+Ar, at 70 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. Collisions-Agregats-Reactivite

    1999-11-01

    The multiple electron capture in N{sup 7+} + Ar and F{sup 7+}(1s{sup 2}) + Ar systems is investigated at 70 keV with a new electron-recoil ion charge coincidence experiment. The whole electron energy range has been studied. Up to six electrons are found to be captured into autoionizing states. The recoil ion charge distribution associated with the emission of electrons is similar for both systems and found to be in good agreement with the prediction of Niehaus`s model roughly adapted to take into account autoionizing cascades. New findings for the coincident double and triple captures are briefly discussed. A capture of an inner L-shell electron of Ar into the K-shell of the projectile is also observed in N{sup 7+} + Ar collisions. (orig.) 10 refs.

  5. Electronic transport in single-helical protein molecules: Effects of multiple charge conduction pathways and helical symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.kunduphy@gmail.com; Karmakar, S.N.

    2016-07-15

    We propose a tight-binding model to investigate electronic transport properties of single helical protein molecules incorporating both the helical symmetry and the possibility of multiple charge transfer pathways. Our study reveals that due to existence of both the multiple charge transfer pathways and helical symmetry, the transport properties are quite rigid under influence of environmental fluctuations which indicates that these biomolecules can serve as better alternatives in nanoelectronic devices than its other biological counterparts e.g., single-stranded DNA.

  6. Photon multiplicity in the hard radiation of 150 GeV electrons in an aligned germanium crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacem, A.; Chevallier, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Kirsch, R.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Bologna, G.; Peigneux, J.P.; Sillou, D.; Spighel, M.; Cue, N.; Kimball, J.C.; Marsh, B.B.; Sun, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mean values m of photon multiplicity in the radiation of 150 GeV electrons directed at and near the axis of a 0.185 mm thick Ge crystal cooled to 100 K have been deduced from the measurements of pair conversion probabilities. Depending on the distribution of multiplicity assumed, values of m ranging from 3.8 to 4.3 are obtained for the previously reported anomalous radiation peak. (orig.)

  7. Using Electronic Health Record Data to Measure Care Quality for Individuals with Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A; McQuillan, Deanna B; Ellis, Jennifer L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Zeng, Chan; Barton, Mary B; Boyd, Cynthia M; Fortin, Martin; Ling, Shari M; Tai-Seale, Ming; Ralston, James D; Ritchie, Christine S; Zulman, Donna M

    2016-09-01

    To inform the development of a data-driven measure of quality care for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) derived from an electronic health record (EHR). Qualitative study using focus groups, interactive webinars, and a modified Delphi process. Research department within an integrated delivery system. The webinars and Delphi process included 17 experts in clinical geriatrics and primary care, health policy, quality assessment, health technology, and health system operations. The focus group included 10 individuals aged 70-87 with three to six chronic conditions selected from a random sample of individuals aged 65 and older with three or more chronic medical conditions. Through webinars and the focus group, input was solicited on constructs representing high-quality care for individuals with MCCs. A working list was created of potential measures representing these constructs. Using a modified Delphi process, experts rated the importance of each possible measure and the feasibility of implementing each measure using EHR data. High-priority constructs reflected processes rather than outcomes of care. High-priority constructs that were potentially feasible to measure included assessing physical function, depression screening, medication reconciliation, annual influenza vaccination, outreach after hospital admission, and documented advance directives. High-priority constructs that were less feasible to measure included goal setting and shared decision-making, identifying drug-drug interactions, assessing social support, timely communication with patients, and other aspects of good customer service. Lower-priority domains included pain assessment, continuity of care, and overuse of screening or laboratory testing. High-quality MCC care should be measured using meaningful process measures rather than outcomes. Although some care processes are currently extractable from electronic data, capturing others will require adapting and applying technology to

  8. Cystic fibrosis-niche adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa reduces virulence in multiple infection hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ivan Lorè

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to thrive in diverse ecological niches and to cause serious human infection. P. aeruginosa environmental strains are producing various virulence factors that are required for establishing acute infections in several host organisms; however, the P. aeruginosa phenotypic variants favour long-term persistence in the cystic fibrosis (CF airways. Whether P. aeruginosa strains, which have adapted to the CF-niche, have lost their competitive fitness in the other environment remains to be investigated. In this paper, three P. aeruginosa clonal lineages, including early strains isolated at the onset of infection, and late strains, isolated after several years of chronic lung infection from patients with CF, were analysed in multi-host model systems of acute infection. P. aeruginosa early isolates caused lethality in the three non-mammalian hosts, namely Caenorhabditis elegans, Galleria mellonella, and Drosophila melanogaster, while late adapted clonal isolates were attenuated in acute virulence. When two different mouse genetic background strains, namely C57Bl/6NCrl and Balb/cAnNCrl, were used as acute infection models, early P. aeruginosa CF isolates were lethal, while late isolates exhibited reduced or abolished acute virulence. Severe histopathological lesions, including high leukocytes recruitment and bacterial load, were detected in the lungs of mice infected with P. aeruginosa CF early isolates, while late isolates were progressively cleared. In addition, systemic bacterial spread and invasion of epithelial cells, which were detected for P. aeruginosa CF early strains, were not observed with late strains. Our findings indicate that niche-specific selection in P. aeruginosa reduced its ability to cause acute infections across a broad range of hosts while maintaining the capacity for chronic infection in the CF host.

  9. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-06-16

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice.

  10. Knowledge retrieval from PubMed abstracts and electronic medical records with the Multiple Sclerosis Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Rajput, Abdul Mateen; Mevissen, Heinz-Theodor; Saiz, Albert; Pastor, Xavier; Lozano-Rubi, Raimundo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Martinez-Lapsicina, Elena H; Zubizarreta, Irati; Mueller, Bernd; Kotelnikova, Ekaterina; Toldo, Luca; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Villoslada, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In order to retrieve useful information from scientific literature and electronic medical records (EMR) we developed an ontology specific for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The MS Ontology was created using scientific literature and expert review under the Protégé OWL environment. We developed a dictionary with semantic synonyms and translations to different languages for mining EMR. The MS Ontology was integrated with other ontologies and dictionaries (diseases/comorbidities, gene/protein, pathways, drug) into the text-mining tool SCAIView. We analyzed the EMRs from 624 patients with MS using the MS ontology dictionary in order to identify drug usage and comorbidities in MS. Testing competency questions and functional evaluation using F statistics further validated the usefulness of MS ontology. Validation of the lexicalized ontology by means of named entity recognition-based methods showed an adequate performance (F score = 0.73). The MS Ontology retrieved 80% of the genes associated with MS from scientific abstracts and identified additional pathways targeted by approved disease-modifying drugs (e.g. apoptosis pathways associated with mitoxantrone, rituximab and fingolimod). The analysis of the EMR from patients with MS identified current usage of disease modifying drugs and symptomatic therapy as well as comorbidities, which are in agreement with recent reports. The MS Ontology provides a semantic framework that is able to automatically extract information from both scientific literature and EMR from patients with MS, revealing new pathogenesis insights as well as new clinical information.

  11. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  12. Oral Antibiotic Treatment of Mice Exacerbates the Disease Severity of Multiple Flavivirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Thackray

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although the outcome of flavivirus infection can vary from asymptomatic to lethal, environmental factors modulating disease severity are poorly defined. Here, we observed increased susceptibility of mice to severe West Nile (WNV, Dengue, and Zika virus infections after treatment with oral antibiotics (Abx that depleted the gut microbiota. Abx treatment impaired the development of optimal T cell responses, with decreased levels of WNV-specific CD8+ T cells associated with increased infection and immunopathology. Abx treatments that resulted in enhanced WNV susceptibility generated changes in the overall structure of the gut bacterial community and in the abundance of specific bacterial taxa. As little as 3 days of treatment with ampicillin was sufficient to alter host immunity and WNV outcome. Our results identify oral Abx therapy as a potential environmental determinant of systemic viral disease, and they raise the possibility that perturbation of the gut microbiota may have deleterious consequences for subsequent flavivirus infections. : Thackray et al. observed increased susceptibility to West Nile, Zika, and Dengue virus infections following oral antibiotic treatment in mice. Antibiotics altered the bacterial abundance and community structure and the development of optimal T cell immunity. These data suggest that antibiotics may have deleterious consequences for subsequent flavivirus infections. Keywords: West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Zika virus, flavivirus, oral antibiotics, gut microbiota, risk factors, pathogenesis determinants, immunity

  13. TIM-family proteins promote infection of multiple enveloped viruses through virion-associated phosphatidylserine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jemielity

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4 specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS. TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.

  14. Design and commissioning of an aberration-corrected ultrafast spin-polarized low energy electron microscope with multiple electron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weishi; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Wei, Zheng; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Feng, Jun; Kunze, Kai; Schaff, Oliver; Tromp, Ruud; Tang, Wen-Xin

    2017-03-01

    We describe the design and commissioning of a novel aberration-corrected low energy electron microscope (AC-LEEM). A third magnetic prism array (MPA) is added to the standard AC-LEEM with two prism arrays, allowing the incorporation of an ultrafast spin-polarized electron source alongside the standard cold field emission electron source, without degrading spatial resolution. The high degree of symmetries of the AC-LEEM are utilized while we design the electron optics of the ultrafast spin-polarized electron source, so as to minimize the deleterious effect of time broadening, while maintaining full control of electron spin. A spatial resolution of 2nm and temporal resolution of 10ps (ps) are expected in the future time resolved aberration-corrected spin-polarized LEEM (TR-AC-SPLEEM). The commissioning of the three-prism AC-LEEM has been successfully finished with the cold field emission source, with a spatial resolution below 2nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple stable states of a periodically driven electron spin in a quantum dot using circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2011-06-01

    The periodical modulation of circularly polarized light with a frequency close to the electron spin resonance frequency induces a sharp change of the single electron spin orientation. Hyperfine interaction provides a feedback, thus fixing the precession frequency of the electron spin in the external and the Overhauser field near the modulation frequency. The nuclear polarization is bidirectional and the electron-nuclear spin system (ENSS) possesses a few stable states. The same physics underlie the frequency-locking effect for two-color and mode-locked excitations. However, the pulsed excitation with mode-locked laser brings about the multitudes of stable states in ENSS in a quantum dot. The resulting precession frequencies of the electron spin differ in these states by the multiple of the modulation frequency. Under such conditions ENSS represents a digital frequency converter with more than 100 stable channels.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy and histopathological observations of Beauveria bassiana infection of Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yulin; Wu, Hui; Ma, Zhiyan; Yang, Liu; Ma, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis. After 48 h, the conidia invaded the larvae with germ tubes and began to enter the haemocoel. By 72 h, hyphae had covered the host surface and had colonized the body cavity. The dermal layer was dissolved, muscle tissues were ruptured and adipose tissue was removed. The mycelium had damaged the intestinal wall muscles, and invaded into intestinal wall and midfield cells resulting in cell separation and tracheal deformation. After 96 h of inoculation, the internal structure of the larvae was destroyed. The research shows that B. bassiana NDBJJ-BFG surface inoculation resulted in a series of histopathological changes to the potato beetle larvae that proved lethal within 72 h. This indicated that this fungus has a high pathogenicity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  18. Tattoo-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections--multiple states, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Permanent tattoos have become increasingly common, with 21% of adults in the United States reporting having at least one tattoo. On rare occasions, outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) skin infections have been reported after tattooing. In January 2012, public health officials in New York received reports of Mycobacterium chelonae skin infections in 14 New York residents who received tattoos during September-December 2011. All infections were associated with use of the same nationally distributed, prediluted gray ink manufactured by company A. CDC disseminated an Epi-X public health alert to identify additional tattoo-associated NTM skin infections; previously identified cases were reported from three states (Washington, Iowa, and Colorado). Public health investigations by CDC, state and local health departments, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found NTM contamination in tattoo inks used in two of five identified clusters. All infected persons were exposed to one of four different brands of ink. NTM contamination of inks can occur during the manufacturing process as a result of using contaminated ingredients or poor manufacturing practices, or when inks are diluted with nonsterile water by tattoo artists. No specific FDA regulatory requirement explicitly provides that tattoo inks must be sterile. However, CDC recommends that ink manufacturers ensure ink is sterile and that tattoo artists avoid contamination of ink through dilution with nonsterile water. Consumers also should be aware of the health risks associated with getting an intradermal tattoo.

  19. Heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus infections in mallards may explain existence of multiple virus subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Latorre-Margalef

    Full Text Available Wild birds, particularly duck species, are the main reservoir of influenza A virus (IAV in nature. However, knowledge of IAV infection dynamics in the wild bird reservoir, and the development of immune responses, are essentially absent. Importantly, a detailed understanding of how subtype diversity is generated and maintained is lacking. To address this, 18,679 samples from 7728 Mallard ducks captured between 2002 and 2009 at a single stopover site in Sweden were screened for IAV infections, and the resulting 1081 virus isolates were analyzed for patterns of immunity. We found support for development of homosubtypic hemagglutinin (HA immunity during the peak of IAV infections in the fall. Moreover, re-infections with the same HA subtype and related prevalent HA subtypes were uncommon, suggesting the development of natural homosubtypic and heterosubtypic immunity (p-value = 0.02. Heterosubtypic immunity followed phylogenetic relatedness of HA subtypes, both at the level of HA clades (p-value = 0.04 and the level of HA groups (p-value = 0.05. In contrast, infection patterns did not support specific immunity for neuraminidase (NA subtypes. For the H1 and H3 Clades, heterosubtypic immunity showed a clear temporal pattern and we estimated within-clade immunity to last at least 30 days. The strength and duration of heterosubtypic immunity has important implications for transmission dynamics of IAV in the natural reservoir, where immune escape and disruptive selection may increase HA antigenic variation and explain IAV subtype diversity.

  20. Skin lesions over the pocket area that may mimic cardiac implantable electronic device infection: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Plakoutsi, Sofia; Florou, Elizabeth; Bechlioulis, Aris

    2018-05-21

    The early and correct diagnosis of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is critical given that early aggressive treatment with complete removal of the system along with antimicrobial therapy dramatically improves outcomes. Pocket infection manifested by local signs of inflammation is the most common form of CIED infections. Conditions mimicking pocket infection have been described in the literature. These include various types of malignancy and rarely allergic reactions/contact dermatitis to pacemaker compounds. We aimed to describe skin lesions and disorders over the pocket area that mimic CIED infection. We present a series of 5 cases with skin lesions that mimic pocket infection. We document these cases with corresponding photographs. Most of them have not been described in this setting. We report the following cases of conditions that proved not to be CIED infection: One case of superficial cellulitis, one case of herpes zoster over the pocket area, one case of spontaneous bruising over the pocket a long time after implantation in a patient taking oral anticoagulation, and 2 cases of contact dermatitis due to prolonged postoperative application of povidone iodine. All cases had favorable outcome after conservative treatment and no CIED infection was developed during follow-up. Clinicians should be aware of rare conditions that mimic CIED infection. Incorrect diagnosis of these disorders may falsely lead to CIED extraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Blois

    Full Text Available Torque teno viruses (TTVs are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a and 1b (TTSuV1b are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b, has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721, being 62.3% (449/721, 60.6% (437/721, and 11.5% (83/721 the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%. Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  2. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sylvain; Mallus, Francesca; Liciardi, Manuele; Pilo, Cristian; Camboni, Tania; Macera, Lisa; Maggi, Fabrizio; Manzin, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a) and 1b (TTSuV1b) are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b), has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a) into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721), being 62.3% (449/721), 60.6% (437/721), and 11.5% (83/721) the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%). Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  3. Multiple parasitic and viral infections in a patient living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Deepika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are more prone for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhoea, particularly with parasites. Parasitic infections have been regularly reported in such patients. A female patient confirmed positive for HIV 1 on antiretroviral therapy came with complaints of chronic diarrhoea for the past 7 months. Her initial CD4 count was 89 cells/μl of blood, and antibodies to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 virus were found to be positive in the patient's serum, but there was no HIV-associated retinopathy. Her stool examination showed decorticated fertilised eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, cysts of Blastocystis sp. and Entamoeba species in the unconcentrated sample and oocysts of Cystoisospora species, egg of Schistosoma haematobium and eggs of Trichuris trichiura in the concentrated. The patient responded well to cotrimoxazole and albendazole, and repeat samples were negative for all these parasites.

  4. Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Edward; Altes, Talissa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms, the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory symptoms, and the masses seen previously had evolved into a diffuse bronchiolitis. Diagnostic testing identified Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the likely etiology. We briefly review chest CT findings of infection by Mycoplasma and compare them to this unusual presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia with subclinical imaging findings. (orig.)

  5. Early Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection presenting as multiple pulmonary masses: an unusual presentation in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Edward; Altes, Talissa; Anupindi, Sudha A.

    2008-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Because most children are not imaged prior to onset of clinical symptoms, the appearance of early Mycoplasma infection has not been extensively studied. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy with large pulmonary masses incidentally detected during spine MRI evaluation for scoliosis. Eight days later, the patient developed acute respiratory symptoms, and the masses seen previously had evolved into a diffuse bronchiolitis. Diagnostic testing identified Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the likely etiology. We briefly review chest CT findings of infection by Mycoplasma and compare them to this unusual presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia with subclinical imaging findings. (orig.)

  6. A case of multiple recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection with severe hematochezia in an immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewu; Chen, Yunbo; Gu, Silan; Zheng, Beiwen; Lv, Tao; Lou, Yinjun; Jin, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in incidence and severity. Clinically, diarrhea frequently occurs, but severe hematochezia is rarely seen with CDI. We describe here a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipient who experienced life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding due to severe CDI. Subsequent stool surveillance and molecular typing observed the patient who had two episodes of recurrence with a new strain of C. difficile distinct from the initial infection. We analyze C. difficile strains obtained from the patient, and also discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.

    2015-01-01

    By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2 MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*≥5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement. The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α < 30° or >150°), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of the spatial location variations of the two satellites. However, the relativistic electrons in the pitch angle range of 30°–150° increase (decrease) with the decreasing (increasing) geocentric distance (|ΔL|<0.25) of the RBSP-B (RBSP-A) location, and the electron fluxes in the quasi-perpendicular direction display energy-dispersive oscillations in the Pc5 period range (2–10 min). The relativistic electron loss is confirmed by the decrease of electron phase space density at high-L shell after the magnetospheric compressions, and their loss is associated with the intense plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, relativistic electron precipitation (observed by POES/NOAA satellites at 850 km), and magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc5 band. Finally, the intense EMIC waves and whistler mode hiss jointly cause the rapidly pitch angle scattering loss of the relativistic electrons within 10 h. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves also lead to the slowly outward radial diffusion of the relativistic electrons in the high-L region with a negative electron phase space density gradient.

  8. Fluorescence excitation involving multiple electron transition states of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.Y.R.; Chen, F.Z.; Hung, T.; Judge, D.L. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The electronic states and electronic structures of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in the 8-50 eV energy region have been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically. In the energy region higher than 25 eV there exists many electronic states including multiple electron transition (MET) states which are responsible for producing most of the dissociative photoionization products. The electronic states at energies higher than 50 eV have been mainly determined by Auger spectroscopy, double charge transfer, photofragment spectroscopy and ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy. The absorption and ionization spectra of these molecules at energies higher than 50 eV mainly show a monotonic decrease in cross section values and exhibit structureless features. The decay channels of MET and Rydberg (or superexcited) states include autoionization, ionization, dissociative ionization, predissociation, and dissociation while those of single ion and multiple ion states may involve predissociation. and dissociation processes. The study of fluorescence specifically probes electronically excited species resulting from the above-mentioned decay channels and provides information for understanding the competition among these channels.

  9. Urinary tract infection as a single presenting sign of multiple vaginal foreign bodies: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neulander, Endre Z; Tiktinsky, Alex; Romanowsky, Igor; Kaneti, Jacob

    2010-02-01

    Vaginal foreign bodies in children usually present with foul-smelling discharge and/or vaginal bleeding. Rarely, these basic clinical diagnostic signs are not present. We report on a 5(1/2)-year-old girl with recurrent lower urinary tract infection as the sole presentation of multiple vaginal foreign bodies. Ultrasound of the lower urinary tract was inconclusive, and cystography indicated for recurrent urinary tract infections was declined by the patient in an outpatient setting. Cystography under general anesthesia raised the suspicion of foreign vaginal objects, and the definitive diagnosis was made by vaginoscopy. The relevant literature covering this subject is reviewed. High level of suspicion and strict basic diagnostic protocol are the most important steps for a timely diagnosis of this condition. Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Interaction of Stress Granules, DDX3X, and IKK-α Mediates Multiple Functions in Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Véronique; Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Liang, T Jake

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X is involved in many cellular functions, including innate immunity, and is a pivotal host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X specifically recognizes the HCV 3' untranslated region (UTR), leading to the activation of IKK-α and a cascade of lipogenic signaling to facilitate lipid droplet biogenesis and viral assembly (Q. Li, V. Pene, S. Krishnamurthy, H. Cha, and T. J. Liang, Nat Med 19:722-729, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3190). The interaction of DDX3X with HCV core protein seems to be dispensable for its proviral role. In this study, through systematic imaging and biochemical and virologic approaches, we identified a dynamic association between DDX3X and various cellular compartments and viral elements mediating multiple functions of DDX3X in productive HCV infection. Upon HCV infection, the HCV 3'UTR interacts with DDX3X and IKK-α, which redistribute to speckle-like cytoplasmic structures shown to be stress granules (SGs). As viral proteins accumulate in infected cells, DDX3X granules together with SG-associated proteins redistribute and colocalize with HCV core protein around lipid droplets (LDs). IKK-α, however, does not relocate to the LD but translocates to the nucleus. In HCV-infected cells, various HCV nonstructural proteins also interact or colocalize with DDX3X in close proximity to SGs and LDs, consistent with the tight juxtaposition of the replication complex and the assembly site at the surface of LDs. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of DDX3X and multiple SG components markedly inhibits HCV infection. Our data suggest that DDX3X initiates a multifaceted cellular program involving dynamic associations with HCV RNA and proteins, IKK-α, SG, and LD surfaces for its crucial role in the HCV life cycle. IMPORTANCE DDX3X is a proviral host factor for HCV infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X binds to the HCV 3'UTR, activating IKK-α and

  11. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  12. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W. M.; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J.

    2013-01-01

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most

  13. Multiple roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBCF10839 PilY1 in motility, transport and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Yu-Sing Tammy; Brandes, Gudrun; Rakhimova, Elza

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the most important mammalian host defence cells against infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Screening of a signature tagged mutagenesis library of the non-piliated P. aeruginosa strain TBCF10839 uncovered that transposon inactivation of its pilY1 gene rendere...

  14. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    of the experiment (day 49 p.i.). A few larvae were found in the muscles and brain until day 42 p.i., and 2 larvae were found in the eyes of 2 pigs on day 35 p.i. There was little evidence of protective immurory to a challenge infection in this experiment. The eosinophil levels tended not to increase in pigs...

  15. Incidence of multiple Herpesvirus infection in HIV seropositive patients, a big concern for Eastern Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha Shubhasish K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for human herpes viruses (HHVs and their related diseases and they frequently cause disease deterioration and therapeutic failures. Methods for limiting the transmission of HHVs require a better understanding of the incidence and infectivity of oral HHVs in HIV-infected patients. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of human herpes viruses (CMV, HSV 2, EBV-1, VZV antibodies and to evaluate their association with age, sex as well as other demographic and behavioral factors. Results A study of 200 HIV positive patients from Eastern India attending the Calcutta Medical College Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, Apex Clinic, Calcutta Medical College Hospital and ART Center, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal was done. Serum samples were screened for antibodies to the respective viruses using the indirect ELISA in triplicates. CytoMegalo virus (CMV, Herpes Simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, Varicella Zoster virus (VZV, and Epstein Barr virus (EBV-1 were detected in 49%, 47%, 32.5%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion This study has contributed baseline data and provided insights in viral OI and HIV co-infection in Eastern India. This would undoubtedly serve as a basis for further studies on this topic.

  16. Electronic monitoring and voice prompts improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infections in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sandra M; Earsing, Karen; Strauss, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Lipsett, Pamela A

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether electronic monitoring of hand hygiene and voice prompts can improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infection rates in a surgical intermediate care unit. Three-phase quasi-experimental design. Phase I was electronic monitoring and direct observation; phase II was electronic monitoring and computerized voice prompts for failure to perform hand hygiene on room exit; and phase III was electronic monitoring only. Nine-room, 14-bed intermediate care unit in a university, tertiary-care institution. All patient rooms, utility room, and staff lavatory were monitored electronically. All healthcare personnel including physicians, nurses, nursing support personnel, ancillary staff, all visitors and family members, and any other personnel interacting with patients on the intermediate care unit. All patients with an intermediate care unit length of stay >48 hrs were followed for nosocomial infection. Electronic monitoring during all phases, computerized voice prompts during phase II only. We evaluated a total of 283,488 electronically monitored entries into a patient room with 251,526 exits for 420 days (10,080 hrs and 3,549 patient days). Compared with phase I, hand hygiene compliance in patient rooms improved 37% during phase II (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.83) and 41% in phase III (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.84). When adjusting for patient admissions during each phase, point estimates of nosocomial infections decreased by 22% during phase II and 48% during phase III; when adjusting for patient days, the number of infections decreased by 10% during phase II and 40% during phase III. Although the overall rate of nosocomial infections significantly decreased when combining phases II and III, the association between nosocomial infection and individual phase was not significant. Electronic monitoring provided effective ongoing feedback about hand hygiene compliance. During both the voice prompt phase and post

  17. Cure of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in an HIV-coinfected patient with multiple comorbidities and drug interaction challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Hortensia; Mariño, Ana; Valcarce, Nieves; Khoo, Saye; Bhagani, Sanjay; Schapiro, Jonathan; Llibre, Josep M

    2018-01-01

    Curing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients harbouring multiple severe comorbidities is a medical challenge. Evidence-based data are lacking regarding HCV treatment with direct-acting antiviral regimens in particular populations of HCV/HIV-coinfected patients with cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis. Here, we present the HCV treatment challenges facing a patient with HIV coinfection, prior failure of both HIV-1 and HCV therapy, cirrhosis, end-stage renal failure on haemodialysis, as well as management of drug-drug interactions, especially given the need to receive long-term amiodarone therapy.

  18. Case Report of Urethritis in a Male Patient Infected with Two Different Isolates of Multiple Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Al-Madboly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a brief description of a case suffering from bacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, caused by two different isolates of multiple drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Initial diagnosis was dependent on the patient history, clinical findings, symptoms, and the bacteriological data. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the identification of the pathogens. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed two different patterns. Susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined. It revealed multiple drug resistance associated with β-lactamase production. Only gentamicin, rifampicin, and azithromycin were active against the test pathogens. A dual therapy was initiated using gentamicin as well as azithromycin to treat the possible co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Complete recovery of the patient achieved with resolved symptoms a week later.

  19. Case Report of Urethritis in a Male Patient Infected with Two Different Isolates of Multiple Drug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Madboly, Lamiaa; Gheida, Shereen

    2017-01-01

    We report a brief description of a case suffering from bacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, caused by two different isolates of multiple drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae . Initial diagnosis was dependent on the patient history, clinical findings, symptoms, and the bacteriological data. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the identification of the pathogens. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed two different patterns. Susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined. It revealed multiple drug resistance associated with β-lactamase production. Only gentamicin, rifampicin, and azithromycin were active against the test pathogens. A dual therapy was initiated using gentamicin as well as azithromycin to treat the possible co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis . Complete recovery of the patient achieved with resolved symptoms a week later.

  20. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose

  1. Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn O; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2014-05-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular. Researchers need to understand multiple tobacco product use to assess the effects of these products on population health. We estimate national prevalence and examine risk factors for multiple product use. We calculated prevalence estimates of current use patterns involving cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus using data from the 2012 RTI National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=3627), a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 and over. Associations between use patterns (exclusive single product and multiple products) and demographic characteristics were examined using Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. 32.1% of adults currently use 1 or more tobacco products; 14.9% use cigarettes exclusively, and 6.6% use one noncigarette product exclusively, 6.9% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), 1.3% use two noncigarette products, and 2.4% use three or more products (polytobacco use). Smokers who are young adult, male, never married, reside in the West, and made prior quit attempts were at risk for multiple product use. Over 10% of U.S. adults use multiple tobacco products. A better understanding of multiple product use involving combustible products, like cigars and hookah, is needed. Multiple product use may be associated with past quit attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Myricetin protects Galleria mellonella against Staphylococcus aureus infection and inhibits multiple virulence factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira-Silva, L; Da Hora, G. C.A.; Soares, Goncalo Teofilo Afonso Pinheiro

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen related to a variety of life-threatening infections but for which antimicrobial resistance is liming the treatment options. We report here that myricetin, but not its glycosylated form, can remarkably decrease the production of several S. aureus ...... in the Galleria mellonella model. The present findings reveal the potential of Myr as an alternative multi-target antivirulence candidate to control S. aureus pathogenicity....

  3. Humin as an electron donor for enhancement of multiple microbial reduction reactions with different redox potentials in a consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Zhang, Chunfang; Xiao, Zhixing; Suzuki, Daisuke; Katayama, Arata

    2015-02-01

    A solid-phase humin, acting as an electron donor, was able to enhance multiple reductive biotransformations, including dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP), dissimilatory reduction of amorphous Fe (III) oxide (FeOOH), and reduction of nitrate, in a consortium. Humin that was chemically reduced by NaBH4 served as an electron donor for these microbial reducing reactions, with electron donating capacities of 0.013 mmol e(-)/g for PCP dechlorination, 0.15 mmol e(-)/g for iron reduction, and 0.30 mmol e(-)/g for nitrate reduction. Two pairs of oxidation and reduction peaks within the humin were detected by cyclic voltammetry analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based microbial community analysis of the consortium incubated with different terminal electron acceptors, suggested that Dehalobacter sp., Bacteroides sp., and Sulfurospirillum sp. were involved in the PCP dechlorination, dissimilatory iron reduction, and nitrate reduction, respectively. These findings suggested that humin functioned as a versatile redox mediator, donating electrons for multiple respiration reactions with different redox potentials. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The multiplicity of dehydrogenases in the electron transport chain of plant mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan G; Geisler, Daniela A; Møller, Ian Max

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport chain in mitochondria of different organisms contains a mixture of common and specialised components. The specialised enzymes form branches to the universal electron path, especially at the level of ubiquinone, and allow the chain to adjust to different cellular and metabolic...... and their consequences for the understanding of electron transport and redundancy of electron paths...... requirements. In plants, specialised components have been known for a long time. However, recently, the known number of plant respiratory chain dehydrogenases has increased, including both components specific to plants and those with mammalian counterparts. This review will highlight the novel branches...

  5. Sunward-propagating Solar Energetic Electrons inside Multiple Interplanetary Flux Ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Hidalgo, Miguel A.; Carcaboso, Fernando; Blanco, Juan J. [Dpto. de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad de Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Dresing, Nina; Klassen, Andreas; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, D-24118, Kiel (Germany); Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid [Institute of Physics/Kanzelhöhe Observatory, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Bučík, Radoslav [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Lario, David, E-mail: raul.gomezh@uah.es [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    On 2013 December 2 and 3, the SEPT and STE instruments on board STEREO-A observed two solar energetic electron events with unusual sunward-directed fluxes. Both events occurred during a time interval showing typical signatures of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). The electron timing and anisotropies, combined with extreme-ultraviolet solar imaging and radio wave spectral observations, are used to confirm the solar origin and the injection times of the energetic electrons. The solar source of the ICME is investigated using remote-sensing observations and a three-dimensional reconstruction technique. In situ plasma and magnetic field data combined with energetic electron observations and a flux-rope model are used to determine the ICME magnetic topology and the interplanetary electron propagation path from the Sun to 1 au. Two consecutive flux ropes crossed the STEREO-A location and each electron event occurred inside a different flux rope. In both cases, the electrons traveled from the solar source to 1 au along the longest legs of the flux ropes still connected to the Sun. During the December 2 event, energetic electrons propagated along the magnetic field, while during the December 3 event they were propagating against the field. As found by previous studies, the energetic electron propagation times are consistent with a low number of field line rotations N < 5 of the flux rope between the Sun and 1 au. The flux rope model used in this work suggests an even lower number of rotations.

  6. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, lily mottle virus (LMoV, lily symptomless virus (LSV. Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.

  7. Method to map one-dimensional electronic wave function by using multiple Brillouin zone angle resolved photoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES is a powerful tool to investigate electronic structures in solids and has been widely used in studying various materials. The electronic structure information by ARPES is obtained in the momentum space. However, in the case of one-dimensional system, we here show that we extract the real space information from ARPES data taken over multiple Brillouin zones (BZs. Intensities in the multiple BZs are proportional to the photoemission matrix element which contains information on the coefficient of the Bloch wave function. It is shown that the Bloch wave function coefficients can be extracted from ARPES data, which allows us to construct the real space wave function. As a test, we use ARPES data from proto-typical one-dimensional system SrCuO2 and construct the real space wave function.

  8. Effective source of bremsstrahlung with multiple crossing of a thin target by an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.K.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Shvedunov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    A basically new scheme of electron beam discharge to the target for x ray and gamma radiation generation is proposed. In this case an accelerated electron beam crosses a thin braking target many times, which substantially increases the integral radiation yield. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  9. [The Impact of Electronic Monitoring on Healthcare Associated Infections: The Role of the HViTAL Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rita Fontes; Castro, Lídia; Almeida, José Pedro; Alves, Carlos; Ferreira, António

    2016-11-01

    In Portugal, 9.8% of patients admitted were inflicted with healthcare associated infections, corresponding to a prevalence of 11.7%. The Hospital de São João has developed a business intelligence platform able to supervise (the patients), monitor (the clinical condition) and notify (the healthcare personnel): HViTAL. This study aims to assess the impact of electronic monitoring on healthcare associated infections since the year of HViTAL implementation. We evaluated data since January 2008 (moment from which computerized records exist) until December 2011, comparing them with subsequent data, those corresponding to January 2012 (implementation date of HViTAL) until 19 October 2015. There was an upward trend of infection parameters in the 2008 - 2011 period. Since January 2012 and October 2015, all parameters of the infection indicator showed a negative linear trend. The results are very suggestive that the HVITAL may have had an impact on improving parameters associated to healthcare associated infections. Basic measures of infection control were highlighted since 2005, with an increasing number of health professional awareness campaigns, a fact which, although not analyzed in this report, may also have contributed to the observed improvement. Our study did not include other variables such as investment in human capital. There was a clear improvement in all areas characterizing the healthcare associated infections, with obvious positive impact with the introduction of HViTAL.

  10. Novel multiplex PCR reveals multiple trypanosomatid species infecting North American bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Amber D; Szalanski, Allen L; Strange, James P

    2018-03-01

    Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki (Trypanosomatidae) are common parasites of bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Crithidia bombi was described in the 1980s, and C. expoeki was recently discovered using molecular tools. Both species have cosmopolitan distributions among their bumble bee hosts, but there have been few bumble bee studies that have identified infections to species since the original description of C. expoeki in 2010. Morphological identification of species is difficult due to variability within each stage of their complex lifecycles, although they can be easily differentiated through DNA sequencing. However, DNA sequencing can be expensive, particularly with many samples to diagnose. In order to reliably and inexpensively distinguish Crithidia species for a large-scale survey, we developed a multiplex PCR protocol using species-specific primers with a universal trypanosomatid primer set to detect unexpected relatives. We applied this method to 356 trypanosomatid-positive bumble bees from North America as a first-look at the distribution and host range of each parasite in the region. Crithidia bombi was more common (90.2%) than C. expoeki (21.3%), with most C. expoeki-positive samples existing as co-infections with C. bombi (13.8%). This two-step detection method also revealed that 2.2% samples were positive for trypanosmatids that were neither C. bombi nor C. expoeki. Sequencing revealed that two individuals were positive for C. mellificae, one for Lotmaria passim, and three for two unclassified trypanosomatids. This two-step method is effective in diagnosing known bumble bee infecting Crithidia species, and allowing for the discovery of unknown potential symbionts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Multiple intestinal perforations as a primary manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis in a HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Sarrami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal tuberculosis (TB is the sixth commonest extra-pulmonary TB form after lymphatic, genitourinary, bone and joint, miliary and meningeal tuberculosis. Perforation is a serious and uncommon complication of abdominal tuberculosis which can occur even during the treatment. A 30-year-old man was admitted with a three-day history of abdominal pain who had emergency surgery for multiple perforations of the distal ileum.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9 Inhibits Multiple Steps of HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lijuan; Hu, Siqi; Mei, Shan; Sun, Hong; Xu, Fengwen; Li, Jian; Zhu, Weijun; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Di; Cen, Shan; Liang, Chen; Guo, Fei

    2018-05-09

    CRISPR/Cas9 is an adaptive immune system where bacteria and archaea have evolved to resist the invading viruses and plasmid DNA by creating site-specific double-strand breaks in DNA. This study tested this gene editing system in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by targeting the viral long terminal repeat and the gene coding sequences. Strong inhibition of HIV-1 infection by Cas9/gRNA was observed, which resulted not only from insertions and deletions (indels) that were introduced into viral DNA due to Cas9 cleavage, but also from the marked decrease in the levels of the late viral DNA products and the integrated viral DNA. This latter defect might have reflected the degradation of viral DNA that has not been immediately repaired after Cas9 cleavage. It was further observed that Cas9, when solely located in the cytoplasm, inhibits HIV-1 as strongly as the nuclear Cas9, except that the cytoplasmic Cas9 does not act on the integrated HIV-1 DNA and thus cannot be used to excise the latent provirus. Together, the results suggest that Cas9/gRNA is able to target and edit HIV-1 DNA both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The inhibitory effect of Cas9 on HIV-1 is attributed to both the indels in viral DNA and the reduction in the levels of viral DNA.

  13. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  14. A Comparative Study of Spectral Auroral Intensity Predictions From Multiple Electron Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Guy; Michell, Robert; Samara, Marilia; Hampton, Donald; Hecht, James; Solomon, Stanley; Jahn, Jorg-Micha

    2018-01-01

    It is important to routinely examine and update models used to predict auroral emissions resulting from precipitating electrons in Earth's magnetotail. These models are commonly used to invert spectral auroral ground-based images to infer characteristics about incident electron populations when in situ measurements are unavailable. In this work, we examine and compare auroral emission intensities predicted by three commonly used electron transport models using varying electron population characteristics. We then compare model predictions to same-volume in situ electron measurements and ground-based imaging to qualitatively examine modeling prediction error. Initial comparisons showed differences in predictions by the GLobal airglOW (GLOW) model and the other transport models examined. Chemical reaction rates and radiative rates in GLOW were updated using recent publications, and predictions showed better agreement with the other models and the same-volume data, stressing that these rates are important to consider when modeling auroral processes. Predictions by each model exhibit similar behavior for varying atmospheric constants, energies, and energy fluxes. Same-volume electron data and images are highly correlated with predictions by each model, showing that these models can be used to accurately derive electron characteristics and ionospheric parameters based solely on multispectral optical imaging data.

  15. Ionization of liquid water by fast electron impact: multiple differential cross sections for the 1B1 orbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojon, O A; De Sanctis, M L; Stia, C R; Vuilleumier, R; Politis, M-F

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of single ionization of water molecules in liquid phase by impact of fast electrons in a coplanar geometry. Multiple differential cross sections are obtained through a first order model obtained within the framework of an independent electron approximation in which relaxation of the target is not taken into account. The wavefunctions for a single water molecule in the liquid phase are obtained through a Wannier orbital formalism and the ejected electron is described by means of Coulomb functions. We also present averaged calculations over all molecular orientations. A comparison with previous theoretical and experimental results, the latter corresponding to water in gaz phase, shows a good agreement. The main physical features of the reaction (such as binary and recoil peaks) present in measurements for vapor are also observed in the present theoretical predictions.

  16. New sampling electronics using CCD for DIOGENE: a high multiplicity, 4 π detector for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    DIOGENE is a small time projection chamber which has been developed to study central collisions of relativistic heavy ions. The maximum multiplicity (up to 40 charged particles) that can be accepted by this detector is limited by the present electronics. In view of the heavier mass ions that should become readily available at the Saturne national facility (France), a new sampling electronics has been tested. In the first part of this talk they will present a brief description of the actual detector, insisting on the performances that have been effectively obtained with α-particles and Neon beams. The motivation for and characteristics of a renewed electronic set-up should thus appear more clearly. The second part of the talk is devoted to results of the tests that have been performed using charged couple devices. They will finally conclude on the future perspectives that have been opened by these developments

  17. Does Pre-Operative Multiple Immunosuppressive Therapy Associate with Surgical Site Infection in Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Bando, Toshihiro; Hirose, Kei; Hirata, Akihiro; Chohno, Teruhiro; Sasaki, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Hida, Nobuyuki; Hori, Kazutoshi; Nakamura, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Almost all surgeries for ulcerative colitis (UC) are performed under immunosuppressive conditions. Immunomodulators or biologics, with the exception of corticosteroids, do not appear to be risk factors for post-operative infectious complications. However, many patients are on multiagent immunosuppressive therapy at the time of surgery. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of pre-operative multiple immunosuppressives on the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI) in UC. We reviewed surveillance data from 181 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy between January 2012 and March 2014. The incidences of SSI and the possible risk factors among patients receiving different immunosuppressive therapies were compared and analyzed. The incidence of incisional (INC) SSI was 13.3% and that of organ/space (O/S) SSI was 7.2%. The number of immunosuppressives did not significantly correlate with each incidence. Total prednisolone administration ≥12,000 mg (OR 2.6) and an American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (OR 2.8) were shown to be independent risk factors for overall SSI, whereas corticosteroid use in INC SSI (OR 17.4) and severe disease (OR 5.2) and a large amount of blood loss (OR 3.9) in O/S SSI were identified as risk factors. Although a correlation between multiple immunosuppressive therapy and SSIs was not found, it is not recommended that all patients be treated with multiple immunosuppressive therapy. Treatment strategy should be applied based on the patient's condition. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Intrinsic electronic defects and multiple-atom processes in the oxidic semiconductor Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeißer, Dieter; Henkel, Karsten

    2018-04-01

    We report on the electronic structure of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) single crystals as studied by resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (resPES). We identify intrinsic electronic defects that are formed by mixed-atomic valence states. We differentiate three coexisting defect states that differ in their electronic correlation energy and their spatial localization lengths. Their relative abundance is described by a fractional ionicity with covalent and ionic bonding contributions. For Ga2O3, our analyses of the resPES data enable us to derive two main aspects: first, experimental access is given to determine the ionicity based on the original concepts of Pauling and Phillips. Second, we report on multi-atomic energy loss processes in the Ga2p core level and X-ray absorption data. The two experimental findings can be explained consistently in the same context of mixed-atomic valence states and intrinsic electronic defects.

  19. Single-molecule electron tunnelling through multiple redox levels with environmental relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    represent the substrate and tip in electrochemical in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. An equivalent three-electrode configuration represents a molecular single-electron transistor in which the enclosing electrodes constitute source and drain, and the reference electrode the gate. Current-bias voltage...... relations at fixed electrochemical overpotential or gate voltage, and current-overpotential or current-gate voltage relations at fixed bias voltage are equivalent in the two systems. Due to the activation-less nature of the processes, electron flow between the electrodes through the molecular redox levels...... level(s) subsequent to electron transfer. Several physical mechanisms can be distinguished and distinctive current-overpotential/gate voltage or current-bias voltage relations obtained. These reflect electronic level separation, environmental nuclear reorganisation, and coherent or incoherent multi...

  20. Mass-mortality in green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) associated with multiple viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behncke, H; Stöhr, A C; Heckers, K O; Ball, I; Marschang, R E

    2013-09-14

    In spring 2011, high mortality in association with skin lesions, systemic haemorrhages and necrosis occurred in a group of green striped tree dragons (Japalura splendida) which were imported from southwestern China via Florida to Germany. Infections with various endoparasites were diagnosed in coprological examinations. Different antiparasitic and antibiotic treatments over a period of three months did not reduce the mortality rate. The remaining animals were therefore euthanased and submitted for additional testing. Predominant findings in pathological examination were granulomatous and necrotising inflammation of the skin, vacuolar tubulonephrosis of the distal renal tubules, hyperaemia and liver necrosis. Eosinophilic intranuclear and basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were detected in the liver. Virological testing (PCR and virus isolation methods) demonstrated the presence of ranavirus, adenovirus and invertebrate iridovirus.

  1. Effective spreading from multiple leaders identified by percolation in the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shenggong; Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho; Hu, Yanqing

    2017-07-01

    Social networks constitute a new platform for information propagation, but its success is crucially dependent on the choice of spreaders who initiate the spreading of information. In this paper, we remove edges in a network at random and the network segments into isolated clusters. The most important nodes in each cluster then form a set of influential spreaders, such that news propagating from them would lead to extensive coverage and minimal redundancy. The method utilizes the similarities between the segmented networks before percolation and the coverage of information propagation in each social cluster to obtain a set of distributed and coordinated spreaders. Our tests of implementing the susceptible-infected-recovered model on Facebook and Enron email networks show that this method outperforms conventional centrality-based methods in terms of spreadability and coverage redundancy. The suggested way of identifying influential spreaders thus sheds light on a new paradigm of information propagation in social networks.

  2. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-03-03

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57–96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0–2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  3. Ectopic ACTH syndrome complicated by multiple opportunistic infections treated with percutaneous ablation of the adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chrystal; Roberts, James Mark

    2017-11-14

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-related Cushing's syndrome can lead to multiple complications including severe immunosuppression. If the ACTH-secreting tumour cannot be found, definitive treatment is surgical adrenalectomy, typically followed by glucocorticoid replacement. Here, we present a case of fulminant respiratory failure secondary to coinfection with Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus in a patient with ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome with occult primary. Due to significant deconditioning, she was unable to undergo definitive adrenalectomy and instead underwent percutaneous microwave ablation of the adrenal glands. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Nonimmune immunoglobulin binding and multiple adhesion characterize Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes of placental origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, Niloofar; Namusoke, Fatuma; Chêne, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    The harmful effects of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) are engendered by the heavy sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs in the placenta. It is well documented that this process is mediated by interactions of parasite-encoded variant surface antigens and placental receptors...... and adhesion to multiple receptors (IgG/IgM/HA/CSA) rather than the exclusive binding to CSA is a characteristic of fresh Ugandan placental isolates. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the pathogenesis of placental malaria and have implications for the ongoing efforts to develop a global...

  5. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  6. Complexities in Isolation and Purification of Multiple Viruses from Mixed Viral Infections: Viral Interference, Persistence and Exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    Full Text Available Successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV mixed infection in goats. Rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus was observed in cocultured Vero/BHK-21 cells at 6th blind passage (BP. PPRV, but not FMDV could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. Viral RNA (mixture transfection in BHK-21 cells produced FMDV but not PPRV virions, a strategy which we have successfully employed for the first time to eliminate the negative-stranded RNA virus from the virus mixture. FMDV phenotypes, such as replication competent but noncytolytic, cytolytic but defective in plaque formation and, cytolytic but defective in both plaque formation and standard FMDV genome were observed respectively, at passage level BP8, BP15 and BP19 and hence complicated virus isolation in the cell culture system. Mixed infection was not found to induce any significant antigenic and genetic diversity in both PPRV and FMDV. Further, we for the first time demonstrated the viral interference between PPRV and FMDV. Prior transfection of PPRV RNA, but not Newcastle disease virus (NDV and rotavirus RNA resulted in reduced FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells suggesting that the PPRV RNA-induced interference was specifically directed against FMDV. On long-term coinfection of some acute pathogenic viruses (all possible combinations of PPRV, FMDV, NDV and buffalopox virus in Vero cells, in most cases, one of the coinfecting viruses was excluded at passage level 5 suggesting that the long-term coinfection may modify viral persistence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented evidence describing a natural mixed infection of FMDV and PPRV. The study not only provides simple and reliable methodologies for isolation and purification of two epidemiologically and economically important groups of

  7. Double ionization of the hydrogen sulfide molecule by electron impact: Influence of the target orientation on multiple differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imadouchene, N. [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Aouchiche, H., E-mail: h_aouchiche@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique Université Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Champion, C. [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, Boîte Postale 120, Gradignan 33175 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The double ionization of the H{sub 2}S molecule is here theoretically studied. • The orientation dependence of the differential cross sections is scrutinized. • The specific double ionizing mechanisms are clearly identified. - Abstract: Multiple differential cross sections of double ionization of hydrogen sulfide molecule impacted by electrons are here investigated within the first Born approximation. In the initial state, the incident electron is represented by a plane wave function whereas the target is described by means of a single-center molecular wave function. In the final state, the two ejected electrons are described by Coulomb wave functions coupled by the Gamow factor, whereas the scattered electron is described by a plane wave. In this work, we analyze the role played by the molecular target orientation in the double ionization of the four outermost orbitals, namely 2b{sub 1}, 5a{sub 1}, 2b{sub 2} and 4a{sub 1} in considering the particular case of two electrons ejected from the same orbital. The contribution of each final state to the double ionization process is studied in terms of shape and magnitude for specific molecular orientations and for each molecular orbital we identified the mechanisms involved in the double ionization process, namely, the Shake-Off and the Two-Step 1.

  8. Cytoplasmic free Ca2+ is essential for multiple steps in malaria parasite egress from infected erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushakova Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Egress of Plasmodium falciparum, from erythrocytes at the end of its asexual cycle and subsequent parasite invasion into new host cells, is responsible for parasite dissemination in the human body. The egress pathway is emerging as a coordinated multistep programme that extends in time for tens of minutes, ending with rapid parasite extrusion from erythrocytes. While the Ca2+ regulation of the invasion of P. falciparum in erythrocytes is well established, the role of Ca2+ in parasite egress is poorly understood. This study analysed the involvement of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ in infected erythrocytes during the multistep egress programme of malaria parasites. Methods Live-cell fluorescence microscopy was used to image parasite egress from infected erythrocytes, assessing the effect of drugs modulating Ca2+ homeostasis on the egress programme. Results A steady increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ is found to precede parasite egress. This increase is independent of extracellular Ca2+ for at least the last two hours of the cycle, but is dependent upon Ca2+ release from internal stores. Intracellular BAPTA chelation of Ca2+ within the last 45 minutes of the cycle inhibits egress prior to parasitophorous vacuole swelling and erythrocyte membrane poration, two characteristic morphological transformations preceding parasite egress. Inhibitors of the parasite endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-ATPase accelerate parasite egress, indicating that Ca2+ stores within the ER are sufficient in supporting egress. Markedly accelerated egress of apparently viable parasites was achieved in mature schizonts using Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Ionophore treatment overcomes the BAPTA-induced block of parasite egress, confirming that free Ca2+ is essential in egress initiation. Ionophore treatment of immature schizonts had an adverse effect inducing parasitophorous vacuole swelling and killing the parasites within the host cell. Conclusions The parasite egress

  9. Patient with rheumatoid arthritis on methotrexate with multiple infecting organisms causing gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husney, Robert; Privman, Vladamir; Sepkowitz, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a medical history of rheumatoid arthritis on methotrexate 2.5 mg every other day was being followed for cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, who was also found to have adrenal masses bilaterally. A CT showed a 1 cm left adrenal nodule along with a 2.5 cm right adrenal mass suspicious for malignancy. A positron emission tomography showed metabolic activity in his adrenals that was non-specific (could be seen in benign as well as malignant lesions). The patient was started on valganciclovir 900 mg daily for 30 days. Following treatment the patient showed marked clinical improvement with a weight gain of 9 lbs and a complete resolution of his epigastric pain. A repeat oesophagogastroduodenoscopy performed with biopsy returned negative for CMV. A repeat CT abdomen to assess the adrenals was performed 2 weeks after completion of valganciclovir. His adrenal nodules had decreased significantly in size, with his left adrenal gland nodules measuring 1 cm and now his right adrenal gland nodule measuring 1 cm. PMID:23904414

  10. Electron microscopic study on macrogametogenesis of Eimeria labbeana infecting the Egyptian wild doves and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtar, A R; Abdel-Ghaffar, F A; Ahmed, A K

    1991-04-01

    The development of macrogametes of Eimeria labbeana was studied by electron microscopy in the epithelial cells of the villi at 96 hrs. post-infection. Appearance of young macrogamonts was characterized by the loss of the architecture of the apicomplexa (polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid, subpellicular microtubules), while the pellicle became only one unit membrane. This was associated by the formation of wall forming bodies II then I. Moreover, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi were increased in the cytoplasm. Amylopectin granules as well as lipid globules were greatly increased in mature macrogametes. Host cell reaction due to infection included enlargement and deformation of infected cells, hypertrophy of their nuclei, swollen and degeneration of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolation of ground cytoplasm. These changes occur in both cells with and without parasite.

  11. Differential effects of multiplicity of infection on Helicobacter pylori-induced signaling pathways and interleukin-8 gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Birgit; Kilian, Petra; Reboll, Marc Rene; Resch, Klaus; DiStefano, Johanna Kay; Frank, Ronald; Beil, Winfried; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. We used four different H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease to examine their differential effects on signaling pathways and IL-8 gene response in gastric epithelial cells. IL-8 mRNA level is elevated in response to high (100) multiplicity of infection (MOI) independent of cagA, vacA, and dupA gene characteristics. By lower MOIs (1 or 10), only cagA ( + ) strains significantly induce IL-8 gene expression. This is based on differential regulation of IL-8 promoter activity. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways indicates that H. pylori clinical isolates induce IL-8 gene transcription through NF-κB p65, but by a MOI-dependent differential activation of MAPK pathways. Thus, the major virulence factors of H. pylori CagA, VacA, and DupA might play a minor role in the level of IL-8 gene response to a high bacterial load.

  12. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 multiple banded antigen size variation after chronic intra-amniotic infection/colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James W; Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John; Polglase, Graeme R; Kallapur, Suhas G; Pillow, J Jane; Kramer, Boris W; Jobe, Alan H; Payton, Diane; Knox, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the microorganisms most frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multiple banded antigen (MBA), a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a key virulence factor of ureaplasmas. The MBA demonstrates size variation, which we have shown previously to be correlated with the severity of chorioamnion inflammation. We aimed to investigate U. parvum serovar 3 pathogenesis in vivo, using a sheep model, by investigating: MBA variation after long term (chronic) and short term (acute) durations of in utero ureaplasma infections, and the severity of chorioamnionitis and inflammation in other fetal tissues. Inocula of 2 × 10(7) colony-forming-units (CFU) of U. parvum serovar 3 (Up) or media controls (C) were injected intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at one of three time points: day 55 (69d Up, n = 8; C69, n = 4); day 117 (7d Up, n = 8; C7, n = 2); and day 121 (3d Up, n = 8; C3, n = 2) of gestation (term = 145-150d). At day 124, preterm fetuses were delivered surgically. Samples of chorioamnion, fetal lung, and umbilical cord were: (i) snap frozen for subsequent ureaplasma culture, and (ii) fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological analysis. Selected fetal lung clinical ureaplasma isolates were cloned and filtered to obtain cultures from a single CFU. Passage 1 and clone 2 ureaplasma cultures were tested by western blot to demonstrate MBA variation. In acute durations of ureaplasma infection no MBA variants (3d Up) or very few MBA variants (7d Up) were present when compared to the original inoculum. However, numerous MBA size variants were generated in vivo (alike within contiguous tissues, amniotic fluid and fetal lung, but different variants were present within chorioamnion), during chronic, 69d exposure to ureaplasma infection. For the first time we have shown that the degree of ureaplasma MBA variation in vivo increased with the duration of gestation.

  13. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 multiple banded antigen size variation after chronic intra-amniotic infection/colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Robinson

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma species are the microorganisms most frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multiple banded antigen (MBA, a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a key virulence factor of ureaplasmas. The MBA demonstrates size variation, which we have shown previously to be correlated with the severity of chorioamnion inflammation. We aimed to investigate U. parvum serovar 3 pathogenesis in vivo, using a sheep model, by investigating: MBA variation after long term (chronic and short term (acute durations of in utero ureaplasma infections, and the severity of chorioamnionitis and inflammation in other fetal tissues. Inocula of 2 × 10(7 colony-forming-units (CFU of U. parvum serovar 3 (Up or media controls (C were injected intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at one of three time points: day 55 (69d Up, n = 8; C69, n = 4; day 117 (7d Up, n = 8; C7, n = 2; and day 121 (3d Up, n = 8; C3, n = 2 of gestation (term = 145-150d. At day 124, preterm fetuses were delivered surgically. Samples of chorioamnion, fetal lung, and umbilical cord were: (i snap frozen for subsequent ureaplasma culture, and (ii fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological analysis. Selected fetal lung clinical ureaplasma isolates were cloned and filtered to obtain cultures from a single CFU. Passage 1 and clone 2 ureaplasma cultures were tested by western blot to demonstrate MBA variation. In acute durations of ureaplasma infection no MBA variants (3d Up or very few MBA variants (7d Up were present when compared to the original inoculum. However, numerous MBA size variants were generated in vivo (alike within contiguous tissues, amniotic fluid and fetal lung, but different variants were present within chorioamnion, during chronic, 69d exposure to ureaplasma infection. For the first time we have shown that the degree of ureaplasma MBA variation in vivo increased with the duration of gestation.

  14. Novel method of simultaneous multiple immunogold localization on resin sections in high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nebesářová, Jana; Wandrol, P.; Vancová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2016), s. 105-517 ISSN 1549-9634 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : multiple immunolabeling * gold nanoparticles * high resolution SEM * STEM imaging * BSE imaging Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.720, year: 2016

  15. High-harmonic electron bunching in the field of a signal wave and the use of this effect in cyclotron masers with frequency multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bandurkin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of organizing electron-wave interaction at the multiplied frequency of the signal wave is proposed. This type of electron-wave interaction provides multiplied-frequency electron bunching, which leads to formation of an intense harmonic of the electron current at a selected multiplied frequency of the signal wave. This effect is attractive for the use in klystron-type cyclotron masers with frequency multiplication as a way to increase the output frequency and improve the selectivity.

  16. Multiple beam envelope equations for electron injectors using a bunch segmentation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mizuno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new semianalytical method of investigating the beam dynamics for electron injectors was developed. In this method, a short bunched electron beam is assumed to be an ensemble of several segmentation pieces in both the longitudinal and the transverse directions. The trajectory of each electron in the segmentation pieces is solved by the beam envelope equations while taking into account the space charge fields produced by all the pieces, the electromagnetic fields of an rf cavity, and the image charge fields at a cathode surface. The shape of the entire bunch is consequently calculated, and thus the emittances can be obtained from weighted mean values of the solutions for the obtained electron trajectories. The advantage of this method is its unique assumption for the beam parameters. We assume that each segmentation slice is not warped in the calculations. Although if the beam energy is low and the charge density is large, this condition is not satisfied, in practice, this condition is usually satisfied. We have performed beam dynamics calculations to obtain traces in free space and in the BNL-type rf gun cavity by comparing the analytical solutions with those obtained by simulation. In most cases, the emittances obtained by the simulation become closer to those obtained analytically with increasing the number of particles used in the simulation. Therefore, the analytically obtained emittances are expected to coincide with converged values obtained by the simulation. The applicable range of the analytical method for the BNL-type rf gun cavity is under 0.5 nC per bunch. This range is often used in recently built x-ray free electron laser facilities.

  17. A Comparison of Infectivity between Polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Before and After Passage Through the Gut of the Stink Bug, Eocanthecona furcellata

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, R. K.; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P.; Srivastava, K.; Kaul, V.

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, afte...

  18. Design and performance of beam test electronics for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The system architecture and test results of the custom circuits and beam test system for the Multiplicity-Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are presented in this paper. The final detector per-channel signal processing chain will consist of a preamplifier-gain stage, a current-mode summed multiplicity discriminator, a 64-deep analog memory (simultaneous read-write), a post-memory analog correlator, and a 10-bit 5 μs ADC. The Heap Manager provides all timing control, data buffering, and data formatting for a single 256-channel multi-chip module (MCM). Each chip set is partitioned into 32-channel sets. Beam test (16-cell deep memory) performance for the various blocks will be presented as well as the ionizing radiation damage performance of the 1.2 μ n-well CMOS process used for preamplifier fabrication

  19. Multiple Measures Reveal Antiretroviral Adherence Successes and Challenges in HIV-Infected Ugandan Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Kiwanuka, Julius; Nansera, Denis; Ragland, Kathleen; Mellins, Claude; Bangsberg, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children in developing settings is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2–10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS). Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = −0.25, p = 0.04). Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0–2.0; p = 0.04), and caregiver’s alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8–5.2; passets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6–0.9; p = 0.0007) were protective against these interruptions. Conclusions/Significance Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for the child to adhere. Further research is needed to better understand and build on these key influential factors for adherence intervention development. PMID:22590600

  20. Electronic and optical properties of GaAs/AlGaAs Fibonacci ordered multiple quantum well systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, M.; Soleimani, M.; Ehsani, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigated the optical rectification coefficients (ORCs), transmission coefficient, energy levels and corresponding eigen-functions of GaAs/AlGaAs Fibonacci ordered multiple quantum well systems (FO-MQWs) in the presence of an external electric field. In our calculations, two different methods, including transfer matrix and finite-difference have been used. It has been illustrated that with three types of the FO-MQWs, presented here, localization of the wave-function in any position of the structure is possible. Therefore, managing the electron distribution within the system is easier now. Finally, using the presented structures we could tune the position and amplitude of the ORCs.

  1. The Role of the Multiple Banded Antigen of Ureaplasma parvum in Intra-Amniotic Infection: Major Virulence Factor or Decoy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J.; Nitsos, Ilias; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Newnham, John P.; Polglase, Graeme R.; Pillow, J. Jane; Jobe, Alan H.; Timms, Peter; Knox, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple banded antigen (MBA) is a predicted virulence factor of Ureaplasma species. Antigenic variation of the MBA is a potential mechanism by which ureaplasmas avoid immune recognition and cause chronic infections of the upper genital tract of pregnant women. We tested whether the MBA is involved in the pathogenesis of intra-amniotic infection and chorioamnionitis by injecting virulent or avirulent-derived ureaplasma clones (expressing single MBA variants) into the amniotic fluid of pregnant sheep. At 55 days of gestation pregnant ewes (n = 20) received intra-amniotic injections of virulent-derived or avirulent-derived U. parvum serovar 6 strains (2×104 CFU), or 10B medium (n = 5). Amniotic fluid was collected every two weeks post-infection and fetal tissues were collected at the time of surgical delivery of the fetus (140 days of gestation). Whilst chronic colonisation was established in the amniotic fluid of animals infected with avirulent-derived and virulent-derived ureaplasmas, the severity of chorioamnionitis and fetal inflammation was not different between these groups (p>0.05). MBA size variants (32–170 kDa) were generated in vivo in amniotic fluid samples from both the avirulent and virulent groups, whereas in vitro antibody selection experiments led to the emergence of MBA-negative escape variants in both strains. Anti-ureaplasma IgG antibodies were detected in the maternal serum of animals from the avirulent (40%) and virulent (55%) groups, and these antibodies correlated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in chorioamnion tissue (pureaplasmas are capable of MBA phase variation in vitro; however, ureaplasmas undergo MBA size variation in vivo, to potentially prevent eradication by the immune response. Size variation of the MBA did not correlate with the severity of chorioamnionitis. Nonetheless, the correlation between a maternal humoral response and the expression of chorioamnion cytokines is a novel finding. This host

  2. Ultra-thin alumina and silicon nitride MEMS fabricated membranes for the electron multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, V.; Chan, H. W.; Graaf, H. V. D.; Sarro, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of large arrays of ultrathin freestanding membranes (tynodes) for application in a timed photon counter (TiPC), a novel photomultiplier for single electron detection. Low pressure chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride (Si x N y ) and atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) with thicknesses down to only 5 nm are employed for the membrane fabrication. Detailed characterization of structural, mechanical and chemical properties of the utilized films is carried out for different process conditions and thicknesses. Furthermore, the performance of the tynodes is investigated in terms of secondary electron emission, a fundamental attribute that determines their applicability in TiPC. Studied features and presented fabrication methods may be of interest for other MEMS application of alumina and silicon nitride as well, in particular where strong ultra-thin membranes are required.

  3. Effect of the multiple scattering of electrons in Monte Carlo simulation of LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilches, Manuel; Garcia-Pareja, Salvador; Guerrero, Rafael; Anguiano, Marta; Lallena, Antonio M.

    2008-01-01

    Results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of electrons in thin slabs of dense material media and air slabs with different widths are analyzed. Various general purpose Monte Carlo codes have been used: PENELOPE, GEANT3, GEANT4, EGSnrc, MCNPX. Non-negligible differences between the angular and radial distributions after the slabs have been found. The effects of these differences on the depth doses measured in water are also discussed

  4. On Multiple Hall-Like Electron Currents and Tripolar Guide Magnetic Field Perturbations During Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Stefan; Nakamura, Takuma; Gershman, Daniel J.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick D.; Giles, Barbara; Pollock, Craig; Paterson, William R.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Burch, James L.

    2018-02-01

    Two magnetopause current sheet crossings with tripolar guide magnetic field signatures were observed by multiple Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave activity. The two out-of-plane magnetic field depressions of the tripolar guide magnetic field are largely supported by the observed in-plane electron currents, which are reminiscent of two clockwise Hall current loop systems. A comparison with a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and vortex-induced reconnection suggests that MMS likely encountered the two Hall magnetic field depressions on either side of a magnetic reconnection X-line. Moreover, MMS observed an out-of-plane current reversal and a corresponding in-plane magnetic field rotation at the center of one of the current sheets, suggesting the presence of two adjacent flux ropes. The region inside one of the ion-scale flux ropes was characterized by an observed decrease of the total magnetic field, a strong axial current, and significant enhancements of electron density and parallel electron temperature. The flux rope boundary was characterized by currents opposite this axial current, strong in-plane and converging electric fields, parallel electric fields, and weak electron-frame Joule dissipation. These return current region observations may reflect a need to support the axial current rather than representing local reconnection signatures in the absence of any exhausts.

  5. Rocket measurements of electrons in a system of multiple auroral arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J. S.; Davis, T. N.

    1977-01-01

    A Nike-Tomahawk rocket was launched into a system of auroral arcs northward of Poker Flat Research Range, Fairbanks, Alaska. The pitch-angle distribution of electrons was measured at 2.5, 5, and 10 keV and also at 10 keV on a separating forward section of the payload. The auroral activity appeared to be the extension of substorm activity centered to the east. The rocket crossed a westward-propagating fold in the brightest band. The electron spectrum was relatively hard through most of the flight, showing a peak in the range from 2.5 to 10 keV in the weaker aurora and below 5 keV in the brightest arc. The detailed structure of the pitch-angle distribution suggested that, at times, a very selective process was accelerating some electrons in the magnetic field direction, so that a narrow field-aligned component appeared superimposed on a more isotropic distribution. It is concluded that this process could not be a near-ionosphere field-aligned potential drop, although the more isotropic component may have been produced by a parallel electric field extending several thousand kilometers along the field line above the ionosphere.

  6. Rocket measurements of electrons in a system of multiple auroral arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.S.; Davis, T.N.

    1977-01-01

    A Nike-Tomahawk rocket was launched into a system of auroral arcs northward of Poker Flat Research Range, Fairbanks, Alaska, at 0815 UT on March 20, 1971. The pitch angle distribution of electrons was measured at 2.5, 5, and 10 keV and also at 10 keV on a separating forward section of the payload. The auroral activity appeared to be the extension of substorm activity centered to the east. The rocket crossed a westward propagating fold in the brightest band. The electron spectrum was relatively hard through most of the flight, showing a peak in the range 2.5 5 keV in the brightest arc. The detailed structure of the pitch angle distribution suggested that, at times, a very selective process was accelerating some electrons in the direction of B, so that a narrow field-aligned component appeared superimposed on a more isotropic distribution. It is concluded that this process could not be a near-ionosphere field-aligned potential drop, although the more isotropic component may have been produced by a parallel electric field extending several thousand kilometers along the field line above the ionsophere

  7. Multiple measures reveal antiretroviral adherence successes and challenges in HIV-infected Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Haberer

    Full Text Available Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART among children in developing settings is poorly understood.To understand the level, distribution, and correlates of ART adherence behavior, we prospectively determined monthly ART adherence through multiple measures and six-monthly HIV RNA levels among 121 Ugandan children aged 2-10 years for one year. Median adherence levels were 100% by three-day recall, 97.4% by 30-day visual analog scale, 97.3% by unannounced pill count/liquid formulation weights, and 96.3% by medication event monitors (MEMS. Interruptions in MEMS adherence of ≥ 48 hours were seen in 57.0% of children; 36.3% had detectable HIV RNA at one year. Only MEMS correlated significantly with HIV RNA levels (r = -0.25, p = 0.04. Multivariable regression found the following to be associated with <90% MEMS adherence: hospitalization of child (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-5.5; p = 0.001, liquid formulation use (AOR 1.4, 95%CI 1.0-2.0; p = 0.04, and caregiver's alcohol use (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.8-5.2; p<0.0001. Child's use of co-trimoxazole (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; p = 0.009, caregiver's use of ART (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; p = 0.03, possible caregiver depression (AOR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; p = 0.001, and caregiver feeling ashamed of child's HIV status (AOR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.6; p<0.0001 were protective against <90% MEMS adherence. Change in drug manufacturer (AOR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5-11.5; p = 0.009 and caregiver's alcohol use (AOR 5.5, 95%CI 2.8-10.7; p<0.0001 were associated with ≥ 48-hour interruptions by MEMS, while second-line ART (AOR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1-0.99; p = 0.049 and increasing assets (AOR 0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.9; p = 0.0007 were protective against these interruptions.Adherence success depends on a well-established medication taking routine, including caregiver support and adequate education on medication changes. Caregiver-reported depression and shame may reflect fear of poor outcomes, functioning as motivation for

  8. Multiple trapping on a comb structure as a model of electron transport in disordered nanostructured semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibatov, R. T.; Morozova, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    A model of dispersive transport in disordered nanostructured semiconductors has been proposed taking into account the percolation structure of a sample and joint action of several mechanisms. Topological and energy disorders have been simultaneously taken into account within the multiple trapping model on a comb structure modeling the percolation character of trajectories. The joint action of several mechanisms has been described within random walks with a mixture of waiting time distributions. Integral transport equations with fractional derivatives have been obtained for an arbitrary density of localized states. The kinetics of the transient current has been calculated within the proposed new model in order to analyze time-of-flight experiments for nanostructured semiconductors

  9. Multi-physics modeling of single/multiple-track defect mechanisms in electron beam selective melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wentao; Ge, Wenjun; Qian, Ya; Lin, Stephen; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Wing Kam; Lin, Feng; Wagner, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies have many promising attributes. The single track acts as one fundamental building unit, which largely influences the final product quality such as the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy. A high-fidelity powder-scale model is developed to predict the detailed formation processes of single/multiple-track defects, including the balling effect, single track nonuniformity and inter-track voids. These processes are difficult to observe in experiments; previous studies have proposed different or even conflicting explanations. Our study clarifies the underlying formation mechanisms, reveals the influence of key factors, and guides the improvement of fabrication quality of single tracks. Additionally, the manufacturing processes of multiple tracks along S/Z-shaped scan paths with various hatching distance are simulated to further understand the defects in complex structures. The simulations demonstrate that the hatching distance should be no larger than the width of the remelted region within the substrate rather than the width of the melted region within the powder layer. Thus, single track simulations can provide valuable insight for complex structures.

  10. Multiple double cross-section transmission electron microscope sample preparation of specific sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Lynne M; Mittal, Surbhi; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Cohen, Guy M; Sleight, Jeffrey W

    2011-12-01

    The ability to prepare multiple cross-section transmission electron microscope (XTEM) samples from one XTEM sample of specific sub-10 nm features was demonstrated. Sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire (NW) devices were initially cross-sectioned using a dual-beam focused ion beam system in a direction running parallel to the device channel. From this XTEM sample, both low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from six separate, specific site Si NW devices. The XTEM sample was then re-sectioned in four separate locations in a direction perpendicular to the device channel: 90° from the original XTEM sample direction. Three of the four XTEM samples were successfully sectioned in the gate region of the device. From these three samples, low- and high-resolution TEM images of the Si NW were taken and measurements of the NW diameters were obtained. This technique demonstrated the ability to obtain high-resolution TEM images in directions 90° from one another of multiple, specific sub-10 nm features that were spaced 1.1 μm apart.

  11. Structural dynamics of surfaces by ultrafast electron crystallography: experimental and multiple scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sascha; Liang, Wenxi; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2011-12-07

    Recent studies in ultrafast electron crystallography (UEC) using a reflection diffraction geometry have enabled the investigation of a wide range of phenomena on the femtosecond and picosecond time scales. In all these studies, the analysis of the diffraction patterns and their temporal change after excitation was performed within the kinematical scattering theory. In this contribution, we address the question, to what extent dynamical scattering effects have to be included in order to obtain quantitative information about structural dynamics. We discuss different scattering regimes and provide diffraction maps that describe all essential features of scatterings and observables. The effects are quantified by dynamical scattering simulations and examined by direct comparison to the results of ultrafast electron diffraction experiments on an in situ prepared Ni(100) surface, for which structural dynamics can be well described by a two-temperature model. We also report calculations for graphite surfaces. The theoretical framework provided here allows for further UEC studies of surfaces especially at larger penetration depths and for those of heavy-atom materials. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Multiple cationic amphiphiles induce a Niemann-Pick C phenotype and inhibit Ebola virus entry and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Shoemaker

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is an enveloped RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Infection requires internalization from the cell surface and trafficking to a late endocytic compartment, where viral fusion occurs, providing a conduit for the viral genome to enter the cytoplasm and initiate replication. In a concurrent study, we identified clomiphene as a potent inhibitor of EBOV entry. Here, we screened eleven inhibitors that target the same biosynthetic pathway as clomiphene. From this screen we identified six compounds, including U18666A, that block EBOV infection (IC(50 1.6 to 8.0 µM at a late stage of entry. Intriguingly, all six are cationic amphiphiles that share additional chemical features. U18666A induces phenotypes, including cholesterol accumulation in endosomes, associated with defects in Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1, a late endosomal and lysosomal protein required for EBOV entry. We tested and found that all six EBOV entry inhibitors from our screen induced cholesterol accumulation. We further showed that higher concentrations of cationic amphiphiles are required to inhibit EBOV entry into cells that overexpress NPC1 than parental cells, supporting the contention that they inhibit EBOV entry in an NPC1-dependent manner. A previously reported inhibitor, compound 3.47, inhibits EBOV entry by blocking binding of the EBOV glycoprotein to NPC1. None of the cationic amphiphiles tested had this effect. Hence, multiple cationic amphiphiles (including several FDA approved agents inhibit EBOV entry in an NPC1-dependent fashion, but by a mechanism distinct from that of compound 3.47. Our findings suggest that there are minimally two ways of perturbing NPC1-dependent pathways that can block EBOV entry, increasing the attractiveness of NPC1 as an anti-filoviral therapeutic target.

  13. Investigating the Consequences of Interference between Multiple CD8+ T Cell Escape Mutations in Early HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection multiple CD8+ T cell responses are elicited almost simultaneously. These responses exert strong selective pressures on different parts of HIV's genome, and select for mutations that escape recognition and are thus beneficial to the virus. Some studies reveal that the later these escape mutations emerge, the more slowly they go to fixation. This pattern of escape rate decrease(ERD can arise by distinct mechanisms. In particular, in large populations with high beneficial mutation rates interference among different escape strains--an effect that can emerge in evolution with asexual reproduction and results in delayed fixation times of beneficial mutations compared to sexual reproduction--could significantly impact the escape rates of mutations. In this paper, we investigated how interference between these concurrent escape mutations affects their escape rates in systems with multiple epitopes, and whether it could be a source of the ERD pattern. To address these issues, we developed a multilocus Wright-Fisher model of HIV dynamics with selection, mutation and recombination, serving as a null-model for interference. We also derived an interference-free null model assuming initial neutral evolution before immune response elicitation. We found that interference between several equally selectively advantageous mutations can generate the observed ERD pattern. We also found that the number of loci, as well as recombination rates substantially affect ERD. These effects can be explained by the underexponential decline of escape rates over time. Lastly, we found that the observed ERD pattern in HIV infected individuals is consistent with both independent, interference-free mutations as well as interference effects. Our results confirm that interference effects should be considered when analyzing HIV escape mutations. The challenge in estimating escape rates and mutation-associated selective

  14. Low power multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Use of double shell targets with a separate low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, reduces the focusing and power requirements while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. A high Z, high density pusher shell is placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. Ion beams appear to be a promising power source and breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles appears feasible. Predicted performance of targets with various energy sources is shown and comparison is made with single shell targets

  15. Fractal multiplication of electron avalanches and streamers: new mechanism of electrical breakdown?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficker, T

    2007-01-01

    Long-lasting problems concerning peculiar statistical behaviour of high populated electron avalanches have been analysed. These avalanches are precursors of streamer breakdown in gases. The present streamer theory fails in explaining severe systematic deviations from the Furry statistics that is believed to be a governing statistical law. Such a deviated behaviour of high populated avalanches seems to be a consequence of a special pre-breakdown mechanism that is rather different from that known so far in discharge physics. This analysis tends towards formulating a modified theoretical concept supplementing the streamer theory by a new statistical view of pre-streamer states. The correctness of the concept is corroborated by a series of experiments

  16. Large area strain analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy across multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Raju, S. V.; Saxena, S.; Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.; Rajan, K.; Kumar, A.; Sinnott, S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we apply revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy to measure lattice strain across a sample using a single reference area. To do so, we remove image distortion introduced by sample drift, which usually restricts strain analysis to a single image. Overcoming this challenge, we show that it is possible to use strain reference areas elsewhere in the sample, thereby enabling reliable strain mapping across large areas. As a prototypical example, we determine the strain present within the microstructure of a Ni-based superalloy directly from atom column positions as well as geometric phase analysis. While maintaining atomic resolution, we quantify strain within nanoscale regions and demonstrate that large, unit-cell level strain fluctuations are present within the intermetallic phase

  17. Multiple electromagnetic electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alscher, A.; Hencken, K.; Trautmann, D.; Baur, G.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate the cross sections for the production of one and more electron-positron pairs due to the strong electromagnetic fields in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We derive the N-pair amplitude using the generating functional of fermions in an external field and the path-integral formalism. The N-pair production probability is found to be an approximate Poisson distribution. We calculate total cross sections for the production of one pair in lowest order, including corrections from the Poisson distribution up to third order. Furthermore, we calculate cross sections for the production of up to five pairs including corrections from the Poisson distribution. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Nicotinic Receptor Transduction Zone: Invariant Arginine Couples to Multiple Electron-Rich Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtasimova, Nuriya; Sine, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Gating of the muscle-type acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel depends on communication between the ACh-binding site and the remote ion channel. A key region for this communication is located within the structural transition zone between the ligand-binding and pore domains. Here, stemming from β-strand 10 of the binding domain, the invariant αArg209 lodges within the hydrophobic interior of the subunit and is essential for rapid and efficient channel gating. Previous charge-reversal experiments showed that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends strongly on αGlu45, also within this region. Here we determine whether the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional anionic or electron-rich residues in this region. Also, to reconcile diverging findings in the literature, we compare the dependence of αArg209 on αGlu45 in AChRs from different species, and compare the full agonist ACh with the weak agonist choline. Our findings reveal that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional nearby electron-rich residues, consistent with both electrostatic and steric contributions. Furthermore, αArg209 and αGlu45 show a strong interdependence in both human and mouse AChRs, whereas the functional consequences of the mutation αE45R depend on the agonist. The emerging picture shows a multifaceted network of interdependent residues that are required for communication between the ligand-binding and pore domains. PMID:23442857

  19. Nicotinic receptor transduction zone: invariant arginine couples to multiple electron-rich residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtasimova, Nuriya; Sine, Steven M

    2013-01-22

    Gating of the muscle-type acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel depends on communication between the ACh-binding site and the remote ion channel. A key region for this communication is located within the structural transition zone between the ligand-binding and pore domains. Here, stemming from β-strand 10 of the binding domain, the invariant αArg209 lodges within the hydrophobic interior of the subunit and is essential for rapid and efficient channel gating. Previous charge-reversal experiments showed that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends strongly on αGlu45, also within this region. Here we determine whether the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional anionic or electron-rich residues in this region. Also, to reconcile diverging findings in the literature, we compare the dependence of αArg209 on αGlu45 in AChRs from different species, and compare the full agonist ACh with the weak agonist choline. Our findings reveal that the contribution of αArg209 to channel gating depends on additional nearby electron-rich residues, consistent with both electrostatic and steric contributions. Furthermore, αArg209 and αGlu45 show a strong interdependence in both human and mouse AChRs, whereas the functional consequences of the mutation αE45R depend on the agonist. The emerging picture shows a multifaceted network of interdependent residues that are required for communication between the ligand-binding and pore domains. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) typing to characterize Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 broiler breeder infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litrup, E.; Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen

    2010-01-01

    To characterize isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 obtained from infected flocks of broiler breeders by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) and compare results with a diverse strain collection from Germany and United Kingdom and isolates from Danish patients. A total...

  1. Total hip prosthesis complication, periprosthetic infection with external fistulizing due to Enterobacter cloacae complex multiple drugs resistance: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Amorese

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The patient was hospitalized in our facility and 2 months later she underwent another operation to remove the antibiotic spacer and to place a new total hip arthroprosthesis. Multiple swabs showed the complete healing from the infection, which was confirmed a couple of months later.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Boye, Mette

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1X10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH......; however, only two pigs developed transient watery diarrhea. S. intermedia was reisolated from four of the inoculated pigs, but clinical signs were not observed. Gross examination of the B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed dilated large intestines with a hyperemic mucosa, whereas the large intestines...... of the S. intermedia-inoculated pigs and the control pigs appeared normal. SEM examination of B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed degenerated epithelial cells and spirochetal colonization of the colonic mucosa in four pigs. By FISH, B. pilosicoli cells were found colonizing and invading the surface...

  3. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Multiple-electron excitation, ionization, and transfer in high-velocity atomic and molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the many-body and many-electron problem is common in various areas of physics as well as in chemistry and biology. Basic understanding of phenomena ranging from the nature of matter at the creation of time to the properties of useful materials in the human environment is limited by the boundaries of our knowledge of the many-body problem. There is an advantage in studying the many-body problem in atomic physics since the two-body and parts of the three-body problem are understood. Furthermore, both the mystery of the meanings of quantum mechanics and the mystery of the transition from microscopic time-reversible atomic processes to the dynamics of macroscopic time-irreversible aggregates of atomic particles is inherent in the many-body problems of atomic interactions. Thus, by studying the many-body problem in atomic physics we are able to develop effective tools to discover insights that provide both meaning and utility in our lives

  5. Multiple-wavelength analysis of energy release during a solar flare - Thermal and nonthermal electron populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Robert F.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Kerdraon, Alain; Trottet, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    Collaborative solar investigations by Tufts University and the Observatoire de Paris have resulted in simultaneous radio observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Nancay Radioheliograph (NR), comparisons of this radio data with X-ray observations, and theoretical interpretations of the dominant radiation mechanisms during a weak impulsive solar flare observed on May 28, 1988. The VLA has mapped the flaring structures at time intervals of 3.3 s, showing that the preflash and flash-phase components of the impulsive emission originate in spatially separated sources. The 20.7 cm preflash source is ascribed to thermal gyroresonance emission from coronal loops with typical magnetic field strengths of up to 270 G; this emission is associated with heating and exhibits no detectable hard X-ray radiation above 30 keV. The flash-phase 20.7 cm source and the hard X-ray emission are attributed to nonthermal electrons in the coronal and chromospheric portions of a magnetic loop. The combination of imaging observations at 20.7 and 91.6 cm excludes emission from a confined hot plasma during the flash phase.

  6. Infection Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 5 - Handwashing - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 5 - Handwashing - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  7. Meningococcal Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pohnpeian (Mahsen en Pohnpei) Polish (polski) Portuguese (português) Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) Russian (Русский) Samoan (Gagana Samoa) Somali ( ... Portuguese) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) Expand Section Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- ...

  8. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  9. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  10. Multiple ion species fluid modeling of sprite halos and the role of electron detachment from O- in their dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sprite halos are brief descending glows appearing at the lower ionosphere boundary, which follow impulsive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges [e.g., Barrington-Leigh et al., JGR, 106, 1741, 2001, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 10467, 2001; Pasko, JGR, 115, A00E35, 2010]. They last for a few milliseconds, with horizontal extension of tens of kilometers and vertical thickness of several kilometers. According to global survey of the occurrence of transient luminous events by the ISUAL instruments on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, on average sprite halos occur once every minute on Earth [Chen et al., JGR, 113, A08306, 2008]. It has been established that sprite halos are caused by electron heating, and molecule excitation and ionization in the lower ionosphere due to lightning quasi-electrostatic field [e.g., Pasko et al., JGR, 102, 4529, 1997; Barrington-Leigh et al., 2001; Pasko, 2010]. Past modeling work on sprite halos was conducted using either a two dimensional (2D) model of at most three charged species or a zero dimensional model of multiple ion species. In this talk, we report a modeling study of sprite halos using a recently developed 2D fluid model of multiple charged species. The model charged species include the ion species set used in [Lehtinen and Inan, GRL, 34, L08804, 2007] to study the dynamics of ionization perturbations produced by gigantic jets in the middle and upper atmosphere. In addition, another charged species, O-, is added to this set, because electron detachment of O- can proceed very fast under moderate electric field [Rayment and Moruzzi, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 26, 321, 1978], requiring a separate treatment from the other light negative ions. The modeling results of a sprite halo driven by positive cloud-to-ground lightning indicate that the halo can descend to lower altitude with much higher electron density behind its front when the O- detachment process is included. Electron density ahead of the halo front is not significantly reduced from the

  11. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  12. Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.; Kachorovskiǐ, Valentin Yu; Stillman, William J.; Veksler, Dmitry B.; Salama, Khaled N.; Zhang, Xicheng; Shur, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    We report on enhanced room-temperature detection of terahertz radiation by several connected field-effect transistors. For this enhanced nonresonant detection, we have designed, fabricated, and tested plasmonic structures consisting of multiple InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors connected in series. Results show a 1.63-THz response that is directly proportional to the number of detecting transistors biased by a direct drain current at the same gate-to-source bias voltages. The responsivity in the saturation regime was found to be 170 V/W with the noise equivalent power in the range of 10-7 W/Hz0.5. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by terahertz radiation in the transistor channel. © 2010 IEEE.

  13. 2 D electron transport in selectively doped Ga As/Inx Ga1-x As multiple quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulbachinskii, V.A.; Kytin, V.G.; Babushkina, T.S.; Malkina, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Photoluminescence, temperature dependence of conductivity (0.4 x Ga 1-x As multiple quantum well (MQW) structures were investigated. The dependence of electron mobility on the width of the quantum wells and temperature were measured. It was shown that in narrow MQW structures the value of mobility is restricted by interface roughness scattering. In wider MQW structures neither interface roughness scattering nor change impurity scattering can describe the values and temperature dependence of mobility. Negative magnetoresistance was observed. From detailed comparison between theory of weak localization and experiment the relaxation time of the wave function phase τ ψ and temperature dependence of τ ψ were evaluated. Quantum Hall effect was investigated in all samples at T=0.4-4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 40 T. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.

    2010-02-01

    We report on enhanced room-temperature detection of terahertz radiation by several connected field-effect transistors. For this enhanced nonresonant detection, we have designed, fabricated, and tested plasmonic structures consisting of multiple InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors connected in series. Results show a 1.63-THz response that is directly proportional to the number of detecting transistors biased by a direct drain current at the same gate-to-source bias voltages. The responsivity in the saturation regime was found to be 170 V/W with the noise equivalent power in the range of 10-7 W/Hz0.5. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by terahertz radiation in the transistor channel. © 2010 IEEE.

  15. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible

  16. Factors Associated With Healthcare-Acquired Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Analysis Using Multiple Data Sources and Data Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung In; Bliss, Donna Z; Chi, Chih-Lin; Delaney, Connie W; Westra, Bonnie L

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with healthcare-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections (HA-CAUTIs) using multiple data sources and data mining techniques. Three data sets were integrated for analysis: electronic health record data from a university hospital in the Midwestern United States was combined with staffing and environmental data from the hospital's National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators and a list of patients with HA-CAUTIs. Three data mining techniques were used for identification of factors associated with HA-CAUTI: decision trees, logistic regression, and support vector machines. Fewer total nursing hours per patient-day, lower percentage of direct care RNs with specialty nursing certification, higher percentage of direct care RNs with associate's degree in nursing, and higher percentage of direct care RNs with BSN, MSN, or doctoral degree are associated with HA-CAUTI occurrence. The results also support the association of the following factors with HA-CAUTI identified by previous studies: female gender; older age (>50 years); longer length of stay; severe underlying disease; glucose lab results (>200 mg/dL); longer use of the catheter; and RN staffing. Additional findings from this study demonstrated that the presence of more nurses with specialty nursing certifications can reduce HA-CAUTI occurrence. While there may be valid reasons for leaving in a urinary catheter, findings show that having a catheter in for more than 48 hours contributes to HA-CAUTI occurrence. Finally, the findings suggest that more nursing hours per patient-day are related to better patient outcomes.

  17. Patterns, Perception and Behavior of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Use and Multiple Product Use Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; Bowersock, Amy; Wheldon, Christopher W

    2018-03-27

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are battery-operated devices used to inhale vaporized or aerosolized nicotine. There is increasing research uncovering negative health effects of these devices. Less is known about the social and behavioral aspects among college students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a mid-sized private university in Florida. The survey was sent via e-mail to the student body of undergraduates. A final sample size of 989 students was analyzed to understand demographic differences between users and nonusers, initiation factors, and influencers, as well as multiple product behaviors. Approximately 51.4% ( n = 508) of participants reported ever using an ENDS and other tobacco consumption. Males were significantly more likely to be users of ENDS. Polytobacco use, or the use of multiple tobacco products, was also more common among participants who have tried ENDS ( P influencer for initial use. A 4-class latent variable model differentiated between usage patterns characterized as abstainers (70%), hookah users only (14%), ENDS only (11%), and polytobacco users (4%). ENDS are not commonly used as a quit tool among college students, but rather as a secondary source of nicotine, most commonly in current smokers. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Positive Selection of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites With Multiple var2csa-Type PfEMP1 Genes During the Course of Infection in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Leke, Rose G. F.; Lo, Yeung Y.; Bobbili, Naveen; Arnot, David E.; Taylor, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    Placental malaria infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum–infected red blood cells sequestering in the placenta by binding to chondroitin sulfate A, mediated by VAR2CSA, a variant of the PfEMP1 family of adhesion antigens. Recent studies have shown that many P. falciparum genomes have multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes enables P. falciparum parasites to persist for a longer period of time during placental infections, probably because of their greater capacity for antigenic variation and evasion of variant-specific immune responses. PMID:21592998

  19. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-01-01

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  20. Proteomic analysis reveals the enhancement of human serum apolipoprotein A-1(APO A-1) in individuals infected with multiple dengue virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchala, Nageswar Reddy; Dungdung, Ranjeet; Pilankatta, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    Human serum protein profiling of the individual infected with multiple dengue virus serotypes for identifying the potential biomarkers and to investigate the cause for the severity of dengue virus infection. Dengue virus NS1-positive serum samples were pooled into two groups (S2 and S3) based on the molecular serotyping and number of heterotypic infections. The pooled serum samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) to identify the differentially expressed proteins. The peptide masses of upregulated protein were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analysed by MASCOT search engine. The results were compared with the control group (S1). The commonly upregulated protein was validated by quantitative ELISA and compared with control as well as single serotypic infected samples. Based on 2DGE, total thirteen proteins were differentially upregulated in S2 and S3 groups as compared to control. Some of the upregulated proteins were involved in mediating the complement activation of immune response. The apolipoprotein A-1 (APO A-1) was upregulated in S2 and S3 groups. Upon validation, APO A-1 levels were increased in line with the number of heterotypic infection of dengue viruses. Heterotypic infection of dengue viruses upregulate the serum proteins involved in the complement pathway in the early phase of infection. There was a significant increase in the level of APO A-1 in three different serotypic infections of dengue virus as compared to control. Further, the role of APO-A1 can be explored in elucidating the mechanism of dengue pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Multiplicative synergistic risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among hepatitis B and C co-infected subjects in HBV endemic area: a community-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lim, Min Kyung; Cho, Heeyoun; Kim, Dong-Il; Jee, Youngmee; Yun, Haesun; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited study on the effect of infection with different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic regions of Asia. Hazard ratios of HCC development were estimated for HBV and HCV co-infected subjects among a community-based prospective cohort. HCV genotype was determined in HCV RNA-positive samples. Incident HCC cases were identified through linkage to the cancer registry. HCC incidence was 79 per 100,000 person-years in the study population (50 incident cases among 6,694 individuals within 63,170 person-years with an average of 9.4 years of follow-up); seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV was 5.2% and 5.6%. Adjusted hazard ratios of HCC by HBsAg positivity and anti-HCV positivity were 13.3 (CI: 7.3-24.4) and 6.7 (CI: 3.6-12.6). HRs of HBV and HCV monoinfection, and HBV/HCV coinfection were 17.1 (CI: 8.4-34.8), 10.4 (CI: 4.9-22.1) and 115.0 (CI: 32.5-407.3). Multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk was also observed (synergy index: 4.5, CI: 1.3-15.5). Infection with HCV genotype 1 (HR: 29.7, CI: 13.6-46.8) and mixed infection with genotype 1 and 2 (HR: 68.7, CI: 16.4-288.4) significantly elevated HCC risk, much higher than HBV infection. The effect of differences in HCV genotype and the multiplicative synergistic effect of HBV/HCV coinfection on HCC risk shown in the present study underline the need for comprehensive identification of hepatitis infection status in order to prevent and control HCC in this HBV endemic area

  2. An ultrafast spectroscopic and quantum mechanical investigation of multiple emissions in push-pull pyridinium derivatives bearing different electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, B; Benassi, E; Cesaretti, A; Fortuna, C G; Spalletti, A; Barone, V; Elisei, F

    2015-08-28

    A joint experimental and theoretical approach, involving state-of-the-art femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion measurements and quantum mechanical computations including vibronic effects, was employed to get a deep insight into the excited state dynamics of two cationic dipolar chromophores (Donor-π-Acceptor(+)) where the electron deficient portion is a N-methyl pyridinium and the electron donor a trimethoxyphenyl or a pyrene, respectively. The ultrafast spectroscopic investigation, and the time resolved area normalised emission spectra in particular, revealed a peculiar multiple emissive behaviour and allowed the distinct emitting states to be remarkably distinguished from solvation dynamics, occurring in water in a similar timescale. The two and three emissions experimentally detected for the trimethoxyphenyl and pyrene derivatives, respectively, were associated with specific local emissive minima in the potential energy surface of S1 on the ground of quantum-mechanical calculations. A low polar and planar Locally Excited (LE) state together with a highly polar and Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) state is identified to be responsible for the dual emission of the trimethoxyphenyl compound. Interestingly, the more complex photobehaviour of the pyrenyl derivative was explained considering the contribution to the fluorescence coming not only from the LE and TICT states but also from a nearly Planar Intramolecular Charge Transfer (PICT) state, with both the TICT and the PICT generated from LE by progressive torsion around the quasi-single bond between the methylpyridinium and the ethene bridge. These findings point to an interconversion between rotamers for the pyrene compound taking place in its excited state against the Non-equilibrated Excited Rotamers (NEER) principle.

  3. Real-space multiple-scattering theory and the electronic structure of systems with full or reduced symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Gonis, A.; MacLaren, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We present a new real-space multiple-scattering-theory method for the solution of the Schroedinger equation and the calculation of the electronic structure of solid materials with full or reduced symmetry. The method is based on the concept of semi-infinite periodicity (SIP), rather than translational invariance, and on the property of removal invariance of the scattering matrix of systems with SIP. This latter property allows one to replace the usual Brillouin-zone integrals in reciprocal space by a self-consistency equation for the t matrix, which is sufficient for the determination of the Green function and related properties. Because it is developed entirely in direct space, the method provides a unified treatment of the electronic structure of bulk materials, surfaces, interfaces and grain boundaries (coherent or incoherent), impurities of interstitial or substitutional kinds, and can be easily extended to treat concentrated, substitutionally disordered alloys. One of its advantages over methods based on Bloch's theorem and reciprocal space is the great simplicity of setting up and running the associated computer codes even for complex structures, and structures with reduced or no symmetry that lie outside the realm of applicability of conventional methods. We present the results of model calculations for one-dimensional and three-dimensional model systems as well as for three-dimensional realistic materials. Where appropriate, these results are compared with those obtained through conventional techniques, and give an indication of the method's flexibility and reliability. Our applications of this method to this point are discussed, and our plans for future development are presented

  4. A practical theoretical formalism for atomic multielectron processes: direct multiple ionization by a single auger decay or by impact of a single electron or photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-04-01

    Multiple electron processes occur widely in atoms, molecules, clusters, and condensed matters when they are interacting with energetic particles or intense laser fields. Direct multielectron processes (DMEP) are the most complicated among the general multiple electron processes and are the most difficult to describe theoretically. In this work, a unified and accurate theoretical formalism is proposed on the DMEP of atoms including the multiple auger decay and multiple ionization by an impact of a single electron or a single photon based on the atomic collision theory described by a correlated many-body Green's function. Such a practical treatment is made possible by taking consideration of the different coherence features of the atoms (matter waves) in the initial and final states. We first explain how the coherence characteristics of the ejected continuum electrons is largely destructed, by taking the electron impact direct double ionization process as an example. The direct double ionization process is completely different from the single ionization where the complete interference can be maintained. The detailed expressions are obtained for the energy correlations among the continuum electrons and energy resolved differential and integral cross sections according to the separation of knock-out (KO) and shake-off (SO) mechanisms for the electron impact direct double ionization, direct double and triple auger decay, and double and triple photoionization (TPI) processes. Extension to higher order DMEP than triple ionization is straight forward by adding contributions of the following KO and SO processes. The approach is applied to investigate the electron impact double ionization processes of C+, N+, and O+, the direct double and triple auger decay of the K-shell excited states of C+ 1s2{s}22{p}2{}2D and {}2P, and the double and TPI of lithium. Comparisons with the experimental and other theoretical investigations wherever available in the literature show that our

  5. Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Kyratsis, Yiannis; Iwami, Michiyo; Rawson, Timothy M; Holmes, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC) has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as 'serious games' have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a) to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers' behaviour change and best practice learning; and b) to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC. A scoping study was conducted using the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley. We interrogated electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar) in December 2015. Evidence from these studies was assessed against an analytic framework of intervention formulation and evaluation. Nine hundred sixty five unique papers were initially identified, 23 included for full-text review, and four finally selected. Studies focused on intervention inception and development rather than implementation. Expert involvement in game design was reported in 2/4 studies. Potential game users were not included in needs assessment and game development. Outcome variables such as fidelity or sustainability were scarcely reported. The growing interest in serious games for health has not been coupled with adequate evaluation of processes, outcomes and contexts involved. Explanations about the mechanisms by which game components may facilitate behaviour change are lacking, further hindering adoption.

  6. Lack of magnetic resonance imaging lesion activity as a treatment target in multiple sclerosis: An evaluation using electronically collected outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Devon S; Thompson, Nicolas R; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2016-09-01

    The appropriate treatment target in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. Lack of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion activity, a component of the no evidence of disease activity concept, has been proposed as a treatment target in MS. We used our MS database to investigate whether aggressively pursuing MRI stability by changing disease modifying therapy (DMT) when MRI activity is observed leads to better clinical and imaging outcomes. The Knowledge Program (KP) is a database linked to our electronic medical record allowing capture of patient and clinician reported outcomes. Through KP query and chart review, we identified all relapsing-remitting MS patients visiting between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2014 with active MRIs despite DMT. Propensity modeling based on demographic and disease characteristics was used to match DMT switchers to non-switchers. KP and MRI outcomes were compared 18 months after the active MRI using mixed-effects linear regression models. We identified 417 patients who met criteria for our analysis. After propensity matching, 78 switchers and 91 non-switchers were analyzed. There was no difference in clinical or radiologic outcomes between these groups at 18 months. We did not find a short-term benefit of changing DMT to pursue MRI stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of Multiple Exciton Generation and Electron-Phonon Coupling by Interior Nanospace in Hyperstructured Quantum Dot Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Ya; Kim, DaeGwi; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim

    2017-09-20

    The possibility of precisely manipulating interior nanospace, which can be adjusted by ligand-attaching down to the subnanometer regime, in a hyperstructured quantum dot (QD) superlattice (QDSL) induces a new kind of collective resonant coupling among QDs and opens up new opportunities for developing advanced optoelectric and photovoltaic devices. Here, we report the first real-time dynamics simulations of the multiple exciton generation (MEG) in one-, two-, and three-dimensional (1D, 2D, and 3D) hyperstructured H-passivated Si QDSLs, accounting for thermally fluctuating band energies and phonon dynamics obtained by finite-temperature ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We computationally demonstrated that the MEG was significantly accelerated, especially in the 3D QDSL compared to the 1D and 2D QDSLs. The MEG acceleration in the 3D QDSL was almost 1.9 times the isolated QD case. The dimension-dependent MEG acceleration was attributed not only to the static density of states but also to the dynamical electron-phonon couplings depending on the dimensionality of the hyperstructured QDSL, which is effectively controlled by the interior nanospace. Such dimension-dependent modifications originated from the short-range quantum resonance among component QDs and were intrinsic to the hyperstructured QDSL. We propose that photoexcited dynamics including the MEG process can be effectively controlled by only manipulating the interior nanospace of the hyperstructured QDSL without changing component QD size, shape, compositions, ligand, etc.

  8. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  9. Persistent extraradicular infection in root-filled asymptomatic human tooth: scanning electron microscopic analysis and microbial investigation after apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretti, Fernanda G C; Endo, Marcos S; Gomes, Brenda P F A; Montagner, Francisco; Tosello, Fernanda B; Jacinto, Rogério C

    2011-12-01

    Procedural accidents have a negative effect on healing and might contribute to the persistence of infections in inaccessible apical areas, requiring surgical intervention. This report describes a case of persistent apical periodontitis of a lower left first molar associated with the sinus tract and a periapical lesion that required nonsurgical endodontic retreatment and apical surgery for resolution. The tooth had received endodontic treatment 3 years ago and had to be retreated using the crown-down technique with chemical auxiliary substance (2% chlorhexidine gel), foramen patency, and enlargement and was filled in a single appointment. The occlusal access cavity was immediately restored with composite resin. After 1 month, it could be observed that the sinus tract persisted and, radiographically, the lesion remained unaltered. Therefore, endodontic microsurgery was indicated. Apical microsurgery was performed under magnification with the use of a dental operating microscope including apicectomy, root end with ultrasound, and sealing with mineral trioxide aggregate. A microbiological sample was collected from the apical lesion. The resected distal root apex was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The following species were detected: Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces meyeri, Propionibacterium propionicum, Clostridium botullinum, Parvimonas micra, and Bacteroides ureolyticus; scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed bacterial biofilm surrounding the apical foramen and external radicular surface. Gutta-percha overfilling at the apex because of a zip caused during initial endodontic treatment could be observed. A 6-month follow-up showed apparent radiographic periapical healing, which progressed after 24 months. Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and extraradicular biofilm seem to participate in the maintenance of persistent periapical pathology, and endodontic retreatment followed by periapical microsurgery proved to be a successful alternative in the

  10. Impact of an electronic sepsis initiative on antibiotic use and health care facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiensch, Robert; Poeran, Jashvant; Saunders-Hao, Patricia; Adams, Victoria; Powell, Charles A; Glasser, Allison; Mazumdar, Madhu; Patel, Gopi

    2017-10-01

    Although integrated, electronic sepsis screening and treatment protocols are thought to improve patient outcomes, less is known about their unintended consequences. We aimed to determine if the introduction of a sepsis initiative coincided with increases in broad-spectrum antibiotic use and health care facility-onset (HCFO) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates. We used interrupted time series data from a large, tertiary, urban academic medical center including all adult inpatients on 4 medicine wards (June 2011-July 2014). The main exposure was implementation of the sepsis screening program; the main outcomes were the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (including 3 that were part of an order set designed for the sepsis initiative) and HCFO CDI rates. Segmented regression analyses compared outcomes in 3 time segments: before (11 months), during (14 months), and after (12 months) implementation of a sepsis initiative. Antibiotic use and HFCO CDI rates increased during the period of implementation and the period after implementation compared with baseline; these increases were highest in the period after implementation (level change, 50.4 days of therapy per 1,000 patient days for overall antibiotic use and 10.8 HCFO CDIs per 10,000 patient days; P antibiotic use were not those included in the sepsis order set. The implementation of an electronic sepsis screening and treatment protocol coincided with increased broad-spectrum antibiotic use and HCFO CDIs. Because these protocols are increasingly used, further study of their unintended consequences is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Immunoglobulin Therapy on the Rate of Infections in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and or Treated with Immunomodulatory Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are few data available regarding the prevalence of infection in multiple myeloma (MM patients in conjunction with newer generations of immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide or post autologous stem cell transplantation.  We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with MM from March 2006 to June 2009 at our institution. All patients received thalidomide and steroid therapy for at least 6 months. Nine patients received bortezomib and 11 lenalidomide subsequently to thalidomide, because of disease progression and 22 patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation.   The median age was 64 years (range 37-86, with a female–to-male ratio of 18:29. The median residual-serum IgG-level at time of infection was 3.2 g/L, IgA 0.3 g/L and IgM 0.2 g/L. Most patients suffered from recurrent moderate to severe infections. All patients except 3 received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy with a significant decline of the rate of infection thereafter. Our analysis shows that IVIG appears to be an effective strategy to prevent infection in MM patients. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE OF HIV INFECTED CHILDREN BY TRANSMISSION AND SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Araujo Chaves LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To describe HIV children's small intestinal ultrastructural findings. Methods Descriptive, observational study of small intestine biopsies performed between August 1994 and May 1995 at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This material pertained to 11 HIV infected children and was stored in a laboratory in paraffin blocks. Scanning and transmission electronic microscopy were used to view those intestine samples and ultrastructural findings were described by analyzing digitalized photos of this material. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Results In most samples scanning microscopy showed various degrees of shortening and decreasing number of microvilli and also completes effacements in some areas. Derangement of the enterocytes was seen frequently and sometimes cells well defined borders limits seemed to be loosened. In some areas a mucous-fibrin like membrane with variable thickness and extension appeared to partially or totally coat the epithelial surface. Fat drops were present in the intestinal lumen in various samples and a bacterium morphologically resembling bacilli was seen in two occasions. Scanning microscopy confirmed transmission microscopy microvilli findings and also showed little “tufts” of those structures. In addition, it showed an increased number of vacuoles and multivesicular bodies inside various enterocytes, an increased presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes, mitochondrial vacuolization and basement membrane enlargement in the majority of samples analyzed. However, some samples exhibited normal aspect. Conclusions Our study showed the common occurrence of various important intestinal ultrastructural alterations with variable degrees among HIV infected children, some of them in our knowledge not described before.

  13. Taking multiple infections of cells and recombination into account leads to small within-host effective-population-size estimates of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Balagam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether HIV-1 evolution in infected individuals is dominated by deterministic or stochastic effects remains unclear because current estimates of the effective population size of HIV-1 in vivo, N(e, are widely varying. Models assuming HIV-1 evolution to be neutral estimate N(e~10²-10⁴, smaller than the inverse mutation rate of HIV-1 (~10⁵, implying the predominance of stochastic forces. In contrast, a model that includes selection estimates N(e>10⁵, suggesting that deterministic forces would hold sway. The consequent uncertainty in the nature of HIV-1 evolution compromises our ability to describe disease progression and outcomes of therapy. We perform detailed bit-string simulations of viral evolution that consider large genome lengths and incorporate the key evolutionary processes underlying the genomic diversification of HIV-1 in infected individuals, namely, mutation, multiple infections of cells, recombination, selection, and epistatic interactions between multiple loci. Our simulations describe quantitatively the evolution of HIV-1 diversity and divergence in patients. From comparisons of our simulations with patient data, we estimate N(e~10³-10⁴, implying predominantly stochastic evolution. Interestingly, we find that N(e and the viral generation time are correlated with the disease progression time, presenting a route to a priori prediction of disease progression in patients. Further, we show that the previous estimate of N(e>10⁵ reduces as the frequencies of multiple infections of cells and recombination assumed increase. Our simulations with N(e~10³-10⁴ may be employed to estimate markers of disease progression and outcomes of therapy that depend on the evolution of viral diversity and divergence.

  14. Novel Electron Spin Resonance-Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Occult Hepatitis B Infection in HCV Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Badawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus infection in patients who lack detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is called occult hepatitis B infection (OHB. The very low level of HBV genome may hamper its detection by molecular techniques. Recently, a highly sensitive EIA utilizing a novel modified electron spin resonance (ESR technique (modified ESR-EIA was developed to detect HBsAg by measuring stabilized nitroxide radicals. Aim: to detect occult HBV infection, using ESR-EIA among HCV-related chronic liver disease (CLD Egyptian patients who were seronegative for HBsAg by standard EIA. Methods: The study was conducted on two periods of time; in 1st period, 72 inpatients in Tropical Medicine Department of TBRI, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups; 44 seropositive anti-HCV patients (Group I, 28 seronegative anti-HCV patients (Group II. Sera were subjected to virological assays for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HCV RNA. We also examined serum HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique and real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR. In the 2nd period; modified ESR-EIA was applied on 32 TBRI inpatients, 23 in Tropical Medicine Department (Group I and 9 from hemodialysis unit (Group II with HCV-related CLD. Results: OHB was detected in 18.1% and 86.9% of our patients in 2002 and 2006 respectively. In phase 1, there was a higher detection rate among HCV patients in Group I (25% than Group II (7%, with higher prevalence (52.4% in patients with positive HCV RNA in Group I versus those with negative HCV viremia (8% in Group II. HBV DNA by either PCR or RTD-PCR was negative in all patients of both groups as the HBV viral load of the samples were below detectable level of the methods used; less than 100 copies/ml. None of 9 hemodialysis patients were positive for OHB. Conclusion: The newly developed quantitative ESR-EIA technique represents a great evolution for screening and

  15. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  16. Measurement of Effective Drift Velocities of Electrons and Holes in Shallow Multiple Quantum Well P-I Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Mei

    1995-01-01

    P-i-n diodes containing multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in the i-region are the building blocks for photonic devices. When we apply electric field across these devices and illuminate it with light, photo-carriers are created in the i-region. These carriers escape from the wells and drift toward the electrodes; thus photo-voltage is created. The rise- and decay-times of photo-voltages are related to the transport of carriers. In this dissertation, we present theoretical and experimental studies on carrier transport mechanisms of three shallow MQW GaAs/Al _{x}Ga_{1-x}As p-i-n diodes (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.08) at various bias voltages. We start with the description of the sample structures and their package. We then present the characteristics of these samples including their transmission spectra and responsivity. We will demonstrate that the over-all high quality of these samples, including a strong exciton resonant absorption, ~100% internal quantum efficiencies and completely depleted i-region at bias between +0.75 V to -5 V bias. In our theoretical studies, we first discuss the possible carrier sweep-out mechanisms and estimate the response times associated with these mechanisms. Based on our theoretical model, we conclude that only the drift times of carriers and enhanced diffusion times are important for shallow MQW p-i-n diodes: at high bias, the fast drift times of electrons and holes control the rise-times; at low bias, the slow drift times of holes and the enhanced diffusion times control the decay-times. We have performed picosecond time-resolved pump/probe electro-absorption measurements on these samples. We then obtained the drift times, effective drift velocities and effective mobilities of electrons and holes for these devices. We find that the carrier effective drift velocities (especially for holes) seemed insensitive to the Al concentration in the barriers (in the range of x = 2% to 8%), even though the x = 2% sample does show an overall faster response

  17. Infrared microspectroscopy: a multiple-screening platform for investigating single-cell biochemical perturbations upon prion infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonna, Alessandro; Vaccari, Lisa; Bek, Alpan; Legname, Giuseppe

    2011-03-16

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of prions in the central nervous system. The pathogenic prion (PrP(Sc)) possesses the capability to convert the host-encoded cellular isoform of the prion protein, PrP(C), into nascent PrP(Sc). The present work aims at providing novel insight into cellular response upon prion infection evidenced by synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IRMS). This non-invasive, label-free analytical technique was employed to investigate the biochemical perturbations undergone by prion infected mouse hypothalamic GT1-1 cells at the cellular and subcellular level. A decrement in total cellular protein content upon prion infection was identified by infrared (IR) whole-cell spectra and validated by bicinchoninic acid assay and single-cell volume analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of IR data discriminated between infected and uninfected cells and allowed to deduce an increment of lysosomal bodies within the cytoplasm of infected GT1-1 cells, a hypothesis further confirmed by SR-IRMS at subcellular spatial resolution and fluorescent microscopy. The purpose of this work, therefore, consists of proposing IRMS as a powerful multiscreening platform, drawing on the synergy with conventional biological assays and microscopy techniques in order to increase the accuracy of investigations performed at the single-cell level.

  18. Infrared Microspectroscopy: A Multiple-Screening Platform for Investigating Single-Cell Biochemical Perturbations upon Prion Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of prions in the central nervous system. The pathogenic prion (PrPSc) possesses the capability to convert the host-encoded cellular isoform of the prion protein, PrPC, into nascent PrPSc. The present work aims at providing novel insight into cellular response upon prion infection evidenced by synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IRMS). This non-invasive, label-free analytical technique was employed to investigate the biochemical perturbations undergone by prion infected mouse hypothalamic GT1-1 cells at the cellular and subcellular level. A decrement in total cellular protein content upon prion infection was identified by infrared (IR) whole-cell spectra and validated by bicinchoninic acid assay and single-cell volume analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of IR data discriminated between infected and uninfected cells and allowed to deduce an increment of lysosomal bodies within the cytoplasm of infected GT1-1 cells, a hypothesis further confirmed by SR-IRMS at subcellular spatial resolution and fluorescent microscopy. The purpose of this work, therefore, consists of proposing IRMS as a powerful multiscreening platform, drawing on the synergy with conventional biological assays and microscopy techniques in order to increase the accuracy of investigations performed at the single-cell level. PMID:22778865

  19. Multiplication of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout following immersion infection: whole-body assay and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Batts, W.N.; Arakawa, C.K.; Winton, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The sites of replication of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in infected tissues were detected in fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by in situ histologic techniques following immersion infection. Virus antigens in tissues were detected by a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody and a one-step anti-mouse biotin-streptavidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. The efficiency of infection and virulence of the virus determined by mortality rates showed high virulence of the selected IHNV isolates, and viral replication in individual fish showed that virus content of the fish increased rapidly from the second day to the seventh day postinfection. The earliest viral lesions following infection were detected in the epidermis of the pectoral fins, opercula, and ventral surface of the body. Virus lesions became evident in kidneys on the third day. By the fifth day, when there was a significant increase in virus titer, foci of viral replication were detected in gill tissue and in the anterior internal tissues below the epidermis. Subsequently, extensive virus replication and tissue destruction were observed in the spleen, dorsal adipose tissues, ventricle, and pseudobranch. Replication in the liver, the muscularis layers of the digestive tract, and the general body musculature followed later. These infection experiments indicated that the epidermis and gills of fish constitute important sites of early IHNV replication.

  20. Expanded HIV Testing Strategy Leveraging the Electronic Medical Record Uncovers Undiagnosed Infection Among Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsen, Uriel R; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Heo, Moonseong; Futterman, Donna C; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Zingman, Barry S

    2017-05-01

    Routine HIV testing of hospitalized patients is recommended, but few strategies to expand testing in the hospital setting have been described. We assessed the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR) prompt on HIV testing for hospitalized patients. We performed a pre-post study at 3 hospitals in the Bronx, NY. We compared the proportion of admissions of patients 21-64 years old with an HIV test performed, characteristics of patients tested, and rate of new HIV diagnoses made by screening while an EMR prompt recommending HIV testing was inactive vs. active. The prompt appeared for patients with no previous HIV test or a high-risk diagnosis after their last HIV test. Among 36,610 admissions while the prompt was inactive, 9.5% had an HIV test performed. Among 18,943 admissions while the prompt was active, 21.8% had an HIV test performed. Admission while the prompt was active was associated with increased HIV testing among total admissions [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62 to 2.96], those without a previous HIV test (aOR 4.03, 95% CI: 3.70 to 4.40), and those with a previous negative test (aOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.37 to 1.68) (P diversification of patients tested, and an increase in diagnoses made by screening.

  1. A Serological Protein Microarray for Detection of Multiple Cross-Reactive Flavivirus Infections in Horses for Veterinary and Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleton, N B; van Maanen, K; Bergervoet, S A; Bon, N; Beck, C; Godeke, G-J; Lecollinet, S; Bowen, R; Lelli, D; Nowotny, N; Koopmans, M P G; Reusken, C B E M

    2017-12-01

    The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae includes some of the most important examples of emerging zoonotic arboviruses that are rapidly spreading across the globe. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne members of the JEV serological group. Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic or present with mild flu-like symptoms, clinical manifestations of JEV, WNV, SLEV, USUV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can include severe neurological disease and death. In horses, infection with WNV and JEV can lead to severe neurological disease and death, while USUV, SLEV and TBEV infections are mainly asymptomatic, however, and induce antibody responses. Horses often serve as sentinels to monitor active virus circulation in serological surveillance programmes specifically for WNV, USUV and JEV. Here, we developed and validated a NS1-antigen protein microarray for the serological differential diagnosis of flavivirus infections in horses using sera of experimentally and naturally infected symptomatic as well as asymptomatic horses. Using samples from experimentally infected horses, an IgG and IgM specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 95% for WNV and 100% for JEV was achieved with a cut-off titre of 1 : 20 based on ROC calculation. In field settings, the microarray identified 93-100% of IgG-positive horses with recent WNV infections and 87% of TBEV IgG-positive horses. WNV IgM sensitivity was 80%. Differentiation between closely related flaviviruses by the NS1-antigen protein microarray is possible, even though we identified some instances of cross-reactivity among antibodies. However, the assay is not able to differentiate between naturally infected horses and animals vaccinated with an inactivated WNV whole-virus vaccine. We showed that the NS1-microarray can potentially be used for diagnosing and distinguishing flavivirus infections in horses and for public

  2. Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcare-associated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as ‘serious games’ have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers’ behaviour change and best practice learning; and b to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC. Methods A scoping study was conducted using the methodological framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. We interrogated electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar in December 2015. Evidence from these studies was assessed against an analytic framework of intervention formulation and evaluation. Results Nine hundred sixty five unique papers were initially identified, 23 included for full-text review, and four finally selected. Studies focused on intervention inception and development rather than implementation. Expert involvement in game design was reported in 2/4 studies. Potential game users were not included in needs assessment and game development. Outcome variables such as fidelity or sustainability were scarcely reported. Conclusions The growing interest in serious games for health has not been coupled with adequate evaluation of processes, outcomes and contexts involved. Explanations about the mechanisms by which game components may facilitate behaviour change are lacking, further hindering adoption.

  3. Occurrence of concurrent infections with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses during 2013–2015 in northern Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchala Nageswar Reddy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue is a global human public health threat, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of sequential infection by more than one serotype of dengue virus (DENV is a major contributing factor for the induction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS, two major medical conditions caused by DENV infection. However, there is no specific drug or vaccine available against dengue infection. There are reports indicating the increased incidence of concurrent infection of dengue in several tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, increasing number of DHF and DSS cases were reported in India indicating potential enhancement of concurrent DENV infections. Therefore, accurate determination of the occurrence of DENV serotype co-infections needs to be conducted in various DENV prone parts of India. In this context, the present study was conducted to analyse the magnitude of concurrent infection in northern Kerala, a southwest state of India, during three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. Methods A total of 120 serum samples were collected from the suspected dengue patients. The serum samples were diagnosed for the presence of dengue NS1 antigen followed by the isolation of dengue genome from NS1 positive samples. The isolated dengue genome was further subjected to RTPCR based molecular serotyping. The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the sequence of PCR amplified products. Results Out of the total number of samples collected, 100 samples were positive for dengue specific antigen (NS1 and 26 of them contained the dengue genome. The RTPCR based molecular serotyping of the dengue genome revealed the presence of all four serotypes with different combinations. However, serotypes 1 and 3 were predominant combinations of concurrent infection. Interestingly, there were two samples with all four serotypes concurrently infected in 2013. Discussion All samples containing dengue genome showed the presence of

  4. Detection of Multiple Parallel Transmission Outbreak of Streptococcus suis Human Infection by Use of Genome Epidemiology, China, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pengcheng; Zheng, Han; Zhou, Jieping; Lan, Ruiting; Ye, Changyun; Jing, Huaiqi; Jin, Dong; Cui, Zhigang; Bai, Xuemei; Liang, Jianming; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Chen; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus suis sequence type 7 emerged and caused 2 of the largest human infection outbreaks in China in 1998 and 2005. To determine the major risk factors and source of the infections, we analyzed whole genomes of 95 outbreak-associated isolates, identified 160 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and classified them into 6 clades. Molecular clock analysis revealed that clade 1 (responsible for the 1998 outbreak) emerged in October 1997. Clades 2-6 (responsible for the 2005 outbreak) emerged separately during February 2002-August 2004. A total of 41 lineages of S. suis emerged by the end of 2004 and rapidly expanded to 68 genome types through single base mutations when the outbreak occurred in June 2005. We identified 32 identical isolates and classified them into 8 groups, which were distributed in a large geographic area with no transmission link. These findings suggest that persons were infected in parallel in respective geographic sites.

  5. Enhanced Algorithms for EO/IR Electronic Stabilization, Clutter Suppression, and Track-Before-Detect for Multiple Low Observable Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, J.

    The paper describes the development and evaluation of a suite of advanced algorithms which provide significantly-improved capabilities for finding, fixing, and tracking multiple ballistic and flying low observable objects in highly stressing cluttered environments. The algorithms have been developed for use in satellite-based staring and scanning optical surveillance suites for applications including theatre and intercontinental ballistic missile early warning, trajectory prediction, and multi-sensor track handoff for midcourse discrimination and intercept. The functions performed by the algorithms include electronic sensor motion compensation providing sub-pixel stabilization (to 1/100 of a pixel), as well as advanced temporal-spatial clutter estimation and suppression to below sensor noise levels, followed by statistical background modeling and Bayesian multiple-target track-before-detect filtering. The multiple-target tracking is performed in physical world coordinates to allow for multi-sensor fusion, trajectory prediction, and intercept. Output of detected object cues and data visualization are also provided. The algorithms are designed to handle a wide variety of real-world challenges. Imaged scenes may be highly complex and infinitely varied -- the scene background may contain significant celestial, earth limb, or terrestrial clutter. For example, when viewing combined earth limb and terrestrial scenes, a combination of stationary and non-stationary clutter may be present, including cloud formations, varying atmospheric transmittance and reflectance of sunlight and other celestial light sources, aurora, glint off sea surfaces, and varied natural and man-made terrain features. The targets of interest may also appear to be dim, relative to the scene background, rendering much of the existing deployed software useless for optical target detection and tracking. Additionally, it may be necessary to detect and track a large number of objects in the threat cloud

  6. Unexplained occurrence of multiple de novo pseudoaneurysms in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing angioembolization for bleeding following percutaneous renal intervention: Are we dealing with infection or vasculitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debansu Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are more prone for bleeding following percutaneous renal intervention, as compared to those with normal renal function. Causes are multi-factorial. Finding multiple aneurysms away from the site of renal intervention following initial angioembolization for hemorrhage is very unusual in these patients. Materials and Methods: Clinical and radiological findings of all the patients who underwent renal angiography for post-intervention bleed for a period of 5 years were reviewed and analyzed. Results: A total of 29 patients required angiography for post-intervention hemorrhage. Six patients had recurrence of hemorrhage for which they underwent repeat angiography. Four of these patients had appearance of multiple new aneurysms away from the site of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN/percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL puncture and the site of previous bleeding. All the patients had CKD (creatinine >2.5 mg/dl. They were on prolonged preoperative urinary diversion and had polymicrobial urinary infection. Three patients had candiduria. None of these patients had re-bleeding after repeat embolization and treatment with antibacterial and antifungal agents. Conclusions: Development of multiple aneurysms away from the sites of punctures in patients with CKD following percutaneous intervention is very unusual. Its causation including infection with bacteria and fungus, reaction of embolizing material, and angiopathy needs to be explored.

  7. Multiple Electron Charge Transfer Chemistries for Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: The Metal Boride and Metal Air Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jessica F.

    The primary focus of this work has been to develop high-energy capacity batteries capable of undergoing multiple electron charge transfer redox reactions to address the growing demand for improved electrical energy storage systems that can be applied to a range of applications. As the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the Earth's atmosphere, the effects on climate change become increasingly apparent. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the U.S. electric power sector is responsible for the release of 2,039 million metric tons of CO2 annually, equating to 39% of total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions. Both nationally and abroad, there are numerous issues associated with the generation and use of electricity aside from the overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels and the subsequent carbon emissions, including reliability of the grid and the utilization of renewable energies. Renewable energy makes up a relatively small portion of total energy contributions worldwide, accounting for only 13% of the 3,955 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity produced each year, as reported by the EIA. As the demand to reduce our dependence on fossils fuels and transition to renewable energy sources increases, cost effective large-scale electrical energy storage must be established for renewable energy to become a sustainable option for the future. A high capacity energy storage system capable of leveling the intermittent nature of energy sources such as solar, wind, and water into the electric grid and provide electricity at times of high demand will facilitate this transition. In 2008, the Licht Group presented the highest volumetric energy capacity battery, the vanadium diboride (VB2) air battery, exceedingly proficient in transferring eleven electrons per molecule. This body of work focuses on new developments to this early battery such as fundamentally understanding the net discharge mechanism of the system, evaluation of the properties and

  8. Using the Electronic Health Record Data in Real Time and Predictive Analytics to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Postoperative/Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falen, Thomas; Noblin, Alice M; Russell, O Lucia; Santiago, Nonica

    Of critical concern to hospitals today is the prevention of postoperative (surgical site) infections that often result in increased lengths of stays for patients, increased resource demands and costs, loss of public trust and lawsuits, and needless pain and suffering for patients and their families. While all surgical patients have the potential to develop a postoperative infection, the main challenge is to identify key risk factors (both patient centered and operational) through an electronic early-warning system to reduce the likelihood of a postoperative infection from occurring. Currently, most postoperative infection risk prevention practices encompass limited use of informatics technologies or do not maximize the potential benefits. In addition, from a research perspective, there has been more focus on extrapolating electronically housed data (eg, from progress notes, operative notes, laboratory, pharmacy, radiology) retrospectively to describe poor patient outcomes for benchmarking purposes (revealing poor results and opportunities for improvement) rather than using similar sources of real-time data to prevent poor patient outcomes from occurring. This article proposes that standardized indicators, both patient centered and operational, linked to the patient's electronic health record could allow for implementation of 24/7, "real-time" monitoring/surveillance to implement well-timed preventive interventions scaled to each patient and facility to assist caregivers in reducing the numbers of postoperative infections and improve the overall quality and costs of patient care.

  9. A comparison of infectivity between polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P; Srivastava, K; Kaul, V

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, after passage, and healthy (control) larvae 1 day prior to the trial. The predators were subsequently released on cabbage plants that were infested with 100 healthy S. litura larvae. The median lethal dose (LD50) and survival time (ST50) values before and after passage through the gut were not significantly different. Additional mortality due to virus infection increased 13- 17% before and after treatments but within these treatments the mortality did not vary significantly. It was concluded that E. furcellata disseminated the virus through their feces into the ecosystem and infectivity of the SpltMNPV was not altered after passage through the gut of the predator. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  10. The project of the technological line of the electronic-beam drains disinfection in the infected hospitals' divisions and tubercular centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapatska, V.V.; Volkonsky, V.G.; Sakhno, V.I.; Tomchaj, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to create the electrophysical facility for the environmental protection from contamination by drains of the infected hospitals' divisions and tubercular centres and prevention of open water reservoirs. Development of the economically approved methods of the radiative disinfection of contaminated drains; development of the inexpensive compact facility for the electron-beam disinfection of small volume drains

  11. From the "little brain" gastrointestinal infection to the "big brain" neuroinflammation: a proposed fast axonal transport pathway involved in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deretzi, Georgia; Kountouras, Jannis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Zavos, Christos; Chatzigeorgiou, Stavros; Koutlas, Evangelos; Tsiptsios, Iakovos

    2009-11-01

    The human central nervous system (CNS) is targeted by different pathogens which, apart from pathogens' intranasal inoculation or trafficking into the brain through infected blood cells, may use a distinct pathway to bypass the blood-brain barrier by using the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) retrograde axonal transport through sensory or motor fibres. The recent findings regarding the enteric nervous system (often called the "little brain") similarities with CNS and GIT axonal transport of infections resulting in CNS neuroinflammation are mainly reviewed in this article. We herein propose that the GIT is the vulnerable area through which pathogens (such as Helicobacter pylori) may influence the brain and induce multiple sclerosis pathologies, mainly via the fast axonal transport by the afferent neurones connecting the GIT to brain.

  12. Dynamics of anti-MSP3 and Pfs230 antibody responses and multiplicity of infection in asymptomatic children from southern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoah, Linda E; Acquah, Festus K; Ayanful-Torgby, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During a Plasmodium infection, exposure of human host immune cells to both the asexual and the sexual stages of the parasite elicit immune responses. These responses may be protective and prevent the development of high parasitaemia and its associated clinical symptoms, or block...... the transmission of malaria to an uninfected person. This study aimed at examining the dynamics of naturally acquired immune responses against the asexual and sexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum as well as assessing differences in the multiplicity of infection (MOI) in asymptomatic Ghanaian children living...... 2015. Filter paper blood blots (DBS) as well as thick and thin blood smears were made from finger-pricked blood at each visit. Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence was determined by microscopy and PCR. Serum eluted from the DBS were used to assess anti-Pfs230 (sexual stage) and anti-MSP3 (asexual...

  13. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  14. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Jung, Myunghee; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seung-il; Markkandan, Kesavan; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Ho-jin; Park, Jun-hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It’s therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG). A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection. PMID:27088873

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Changes of Multiple Genes Involved in Haliotis discus hannai Innate Immunity during Vibrio parahemolyticus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hye Nam

    Full Text Available Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai is one of the most valuable marine aquatic species in Korea, Japan and China. Tremendous exposure to bacterial infection is common in aquaculture environment, especially by Vibrio sp. infections. It's therefore necessary and urgent to understand the mechanism of H. discus hannai host defense against Vibrio parahemolyticus infection. However studies on its immune system are hindered by the lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of control and bacterial challenged H. discus hannai tissues. Totally, 138 MB of reference transcriptome were obtained from de novo assembly of 34 GB clean bases from ten different libraries and annotated with the biological terms (GO and KEGG. A total of 10,575 transcripts exhibiting the differentially expression at least one pair of comparison and the functional annotations highlight genes related to immune response, cell adhesion, immune regulators, redox molecules and mitochondrial coding genes. Mostly, these groups of genes were dominated in hemocytes compared to other tissues. This work is a prerequisite for the identification of those physiological traits controlling H. discus hannai ability to survive against Vibrio infection.

  17. Mortality associated with hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection: A nationwide study on multiple causes of death data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Grande, Enrico; Grippo, Francesco; Frova, Luisa

    2017-03-14

    To analyze mortality associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Italy. Death certificates mentioning either HBV or HCV infection were retrieved from the Italian National Cause of Death Register for the years 2011-2013. Mortality rates and proportional mortality (percentage of deaths with mention of HCV/HBV among all registered deaths) were computed by gender and age class. The geographical variability in HCV-related mortality rates was investigated by directly age-standardized rates (European standard population). Proportional mortality for HCV and HBV among subjects aged 20-59 years was assessed in the native population and in different immigrant groups. HCV infection was mentioned in 1.6% ( n = 27730) and HBV infection in 0.2% ( n = 3838) of all deaths among subjects aged ≥ 20 years. Mortality rates associated with HCV infection increased exponentially with age in both genders, with a male to female ratio close to unity among the elderly; a further peak was observed in the 50-54 year age group especially among male subjects. HCV-related mortality rates were higher in Southern Italy among elderly people (45/100000 in subjects aged 60-79 and 125/100000 in subjects aged ≥ 80 years), and in North-Western Italy among middle-aged subjects (9/100000 in the 40-59 year age group). Proportional mortality was higher among Italian citizens and North African immigrants for HCV, and among Sub-Saharan African and Asian immigrants for HBV. Population ageing, immigration, and new therapeutic approaches are shaping the epidemiology of virus-related chronic liver disease. In spite of limits due to the incomplete reporting and misclassification of the etiology of liver disease, mortality data represent an additional source of information for surveillance.

  18. Early infections in patients undergoing high-dose treatment with stem cell support: a comparison of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, A O; Arpi, M.; Gang, U.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Infections are life-threatening complications in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support (HDT). Knowledge of the infectious pathogens is essential to make a safe outpatient setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 208 patients treated with HDT...... related mortality was similar between the groups. Conclusion: The frequency of isolated pathogens, positive blood cultures, and the diversity of pathogens were higher in MM patients as compared to NHL patients. However, this did not translate into higher transplantation-related mortality, probably because....... The population included non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) patients. No patients received prophylactic antibacterial treatment. Results: Pathogens were isolated from 44% of all patients. MM patients more frequently had multiple pathogens in blood cultures (38% versus 25%). Transplantation...

  19. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Karlsson, Ingrid; Zanchetta, Marisa; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Giaquinto, Carlo; Fenyö, Eva Maria; De Rossi, Anita; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2008-09-29

    HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad) viruses), was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting) and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow) phenotype (n = 20), but R5(broad) and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad) and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3) or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad) phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad) virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad) viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad) phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. Our results show that R5(broad) viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow) phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  20. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad viruses, was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow phenotype (n = 20, but R5(broad and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3 or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that R5(broad viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  1. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Joseph, E-mail: jshinar@iastate.edu [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Ruth, E-mail: rshinar@iastate.edu [Microelectronics Research Center and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ{sub 0}/τ{sub 100} (PL decay time τ at 0% O{sub 2}/τ at 100% O{sub 2}) that is often used

  2. The impact of changing antiseptic skin preparation agent used for cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures on the risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qintar, Mohammed; Zardkoohi, Omeed; Hammadah, Muhammad; Hsu, Amy; Wazni, Oussama; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Tarakji, Khaldoun G

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection is a major complication that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggested a relationship between the antiseptic agent used for skin preparation at time of CIED procedure and risk for infection. On April 30, 2011, we changed the antiseptic agent used for skin preparation at our tertiary care facility from chlorhexidine-alcohol to povidone-iodine for all CIED procedures. We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who underwent CIED procedure 1 year before and after the change. CIED infection was defined as pocket or endovascular systemic infection that required removal within 1 year of the index procedure. We examined if the change affected the risk of CIED infection. A total of 2,792 patients underwent 2,840 CIED procedures; 1,748 (61.5%) had implantable cardioverter defibrillator procedures and 1,092 (38.4%) had permanent pacemaker procedures. Chlorhexidine-alcohol agent was used in 1,450 (51.1%) procedures, and povidone-iodine agent was used in 1,390 (48.9%). After 1 year of follow-up, 31 patients (1.09%) developed CIED infection that required system removal. The 1-year infection rate was 1.1% among both antiseptic agent groups and there were no significant differences in the infection presentations among both groups (P = 0.950). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that risk factors for infection within 1 year included age, diabetes, and African American race. In one large cohort of patients undergoing CIED procedures, the antiseptic agent used for skin preparation (chlorhexidine-alcohol vs povidone-iodine) was not associated with increased risk of developing CIED infection. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ 0 /τ 100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O 2 /τ at 100% O 2 ) that is often used to express S

  4. Multiple ionization of noble gases by 2.0 MeV proton impact: comparison with equi-velocity electron impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W.S.; Santos, A.C.F.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Absolute single- and multiple-ionization cross sections of rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) have been measured for collisions with 2.0 MeV p + . A comparison is made with equi-velocity electron impact ionization cross sections as well as with the available proton impact data. For the light rare gases the single-ionization cross sections are essentially the same for both proton and electron impacts, but increasing differences appear for the heavier targets. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  5. Impacts of a care process model and inpatient electrophysiology service on cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eugene M; Nagpal, Avish; DeSimone, Daniel C; Anderson, Brenda; Linderbaum, Jane; De Ziel, Thomas; Li, Zhuo; Sohail, Muhammad R; Cha, Yong-Mei; Loomis, Erica; Espinosa, Raul; Friedman, Paul A; Greason, Kevin; Schiller, Henry; Virk, Abinash; Wilson, Walter R; Steckelberg, James M; Baddour, Larry M

    2017-10-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device infection (CIEDI) rates are rising. To improve outcomes, our institution developed an online care process model (CPM) and a specialized inpatient heart rhythm service (HRS). This retrospective review compared hospital length of stay (LOS), mortality, and times to subspecialty consultation and procedures before and after CPM and HRS availability. CPM use was associated with shortened time to surgical consultation (median 2 days post-CPM vs. 3 days pre-CPM, p = 0.0152), pocket closure (median 4 vs. 5 days, p < 0.0001), and days to new CIED implant (median 7 vs. 8 days, p = 0.0126). Post-HRS patients were more likely to have a surgical consultation (OR 7.01, 95% CI 1.56-31.5, p = 0.011) and shortened time to pocket closure (coefficient - 2.21 days, 95% CI - 3.33 to - 1.09, p < 0.001), compared to pre-HRS. The CPM and HRS were associated with favorable outcomes, but further integration of CPM features into hospital workflow is needed.

  6. Deficiency of Double-Strand DNA Break Repair Does Not Impair Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence in Multiple Animal Models of Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Brook E.; Barkan, Daniel; Bongiorno, Paola; Karakousis, Petros C.; Glickman, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence within its human host requires mechanisms to resist the effector molecules of host immunity, which exert their bactericidal effects through damaging pathogen proteins, membranes, and DNA. Substantial evidence indicates that bacterial pathogens, including M. tuberculosis, require DNA repair systems to repair the DNA damage inflicted by the host during infection, but the role of double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair systems is unclear. Double-strand DNA bre...

  7. Deficiency of double-strand DNA break repair does not impair Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence in multiple animal models of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brook E; Barkan, Daniel; Bongiorno, Paola; Karakousis, Petros C; Glickman, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence within its human host requires mechanisms to resist the effector molecules of host immunity, which exert their bactericidal effects through damaging pathogen proteins, membranes, and DNA. Substantial evidence indicates that bacterial pathogens, including M. tuberculosis, require DNA repair systems to repair the DNA damage inflicted by the host during infection, but the role of double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair systems is unclear. Double-strand DNA breaks are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage and must be repaired for chromosome replication to proceed. M. tuberculosis elaborates three genetically distinct DSB repair systems: homologous recombination (HR), nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), and single-strand annealing (SSA). NHEJ, which repairs DSBs in quiescent cells, may be particularly relevant to M. tuberculosis latency. However, very little information is available about the phenotype of DSB repair-deficient M. tuberculosis in animal models of infection. Here we tested M. tuberculosis strains lacking NHEJ (a Δku ΔligD strain), HR (a ΔrecA strain), or both (a ΔrecA Δku strain) in C57BL/6J mice, C3HeB/FeJ mice, guinea pigs, and a mouse hollow-fiber model of infection. We found no difference in bacterial load, histopathology, or host mortality between wild-type and DSB repair mutant strains in any model of infection. These results suggest that the animal models tested do not inflict DSBs on the mycobacterial chromosome, that other repair pathways can compensate for the loss of NHEJ and HR, or that DSB repair is not required for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Tuning of the Lethal Response to Multiple Stressors with a Single-Site Mutation during Clinical Infection by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The agr system of Staphylococcus aureus promotes invasion of host tissues, and as expected, agents that block agr quorum sensing have anti-infective properties. Paradoxically, agr-defective mutants are frequently recovered from patients, especially those persistently infected with S. aureus. We found that an agr deficiency increased survival of cultured bacteria during severe stress, such as treatment with gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, heat, or low pH. With daptomycin, deletion of agr decreased survival. Therefore, agr activity can be either detrimental or protective, depending on the type of lethal stress. Deletion of agr had no effect on the ability of the antimicrobials to block bacterial growth, indicating that agr effects are limited to lethal action. Thus, the effect of an agr deletion is on bacterial tolerance, not resistance. For gentamicin and daptomycin, activity can be altered by agr-regulated secreted factors. For ciprofloxacin, a detrimental function was downregulation of glutathione peroxidase (bsaA, an enzyme responsible for defense against oxidative stress. Deficiencies in agr and bsaA were epistatic for survival, consistent with agr having a destructive role mediated by reactive oxygen species. Enhanced susceptibility to lethal stress by wild-type agr, particularly antimicrobial stress, helps explain why inactivating mutations in S. aureus agr commonly occur in hospitalized patients during infection. Moreover, the agr quorum-sensing system of S. aureus provides a clinically relevant example in which a single-step change in the response to severe stress alters the evolutionary path of a pathogen during infection.

  9. Multiple-strand displacement and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms as markers of genotypic variation of Pasteuria penetrans biotypes infecting root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Guang; Chow, Virginia; Schmidt, Liesbeth M; Dickson, Don W; Preston, James F

    2007-08-01

    Pasteuria species are endospore-forming obligate bacterial parasites of soil-inhabiting nematodes and water-inhabiting cladocerans, e.g. water fleas, and are closely related to Bacillus spp. by 16S rRNA gene sequence. As naturally occurring bacteria, biotypes of Pasteuria penetrans are attractive candidates for the biocontrol of various Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematodes). Failure to culture these bacteria outside their hosts has prevented isolation of genomic DNA in quantities sufficient for identification of genes associated with host recognition and virulence. We have applied multiple-strand displacement amplification (MDA) to generate DNA for comparative genomics of biotypes exhibiting different host preferences. Using the genome of Bacillus subtilis as a paradigm, MDA allowed quantitative detection and sequencing of 12 marker genes from 2000 cells. Meloidogyne spp. infected with P. penetrans P20 or B4 contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the spoIIAB gene that did not change the amino acid sequence, or that substituted amino acids with similar chemical properties. Individual nematodes infected with P. penetrans P20 or B4 contained SNPs in the spoIIAB gene sequenced in MDA-generated products. Detection of SNPs in the spoIIAB gene in a nematode indicates infection by more than one genotype, supporting the need to sequence genomes of Pasteuria spp. derived from single spore isolates.

  10. Impact on malaria parasite multiplication rates in infected volunteers of the protein-in-adjuvant vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J A Duncan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of parasite growth is a major objective of blood-stage malaria vaccines. The in vitro assay of parasite growth inhibitory activity (GIA is widely used as a surrogate marker for malaria vaccine efficacy in the down-selection of candidate blood-stage vaccines. Here we report the first study to examine the relationship between in vivo Plasmodium falciparum growth rates and in vitro GIA in humans experimentally infected with blood-stage malaria.In this phase I/IIa open-label clinical trial five healthy malaria-naive volunteers were immunised with AMA1/C1-Alhydrogel+CPG 7909, and together with three unvaccinated controls were challenged by intravenous inoculation of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes.A significant correlation was observed between parasite multiplication rate in 48 hours (PMR and both vaccine-induced growth-inhibitory activity (Pearson r = -0.93 [95% CI: -1.0, -0.27] P = 0.02 and AMA1 antibody titres in the vaccine group (Pearson r = -0.93 [95% CI: -0.99, -0.25] P = 0.02. However immunisation failed to reduce overall mean PMR in the vaccine group in comparison to the controls (vaccinee 16 fold [95% CI: 12, 22], control 17 fold [CI: 0, 65] P = 0.70. Therefore no impact on pre-patent period was observed (vaccine group median 8.5 days [range 7.5-9], control group median 9 days [range 7-9].Despite the first observation in human experimental malaria infection of a significant association between vaccine-induced in vitro growth inhibitory activity and in vivo parasite multiplication rate, this did not translate into any observable clinically relevant vaccine effect in this small group of volunteers.ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00984763].

  11. Application of a coproantigen ELISA as an indicator of efficacy against multiple life stages of Fasciola hepatica infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S D; Vanhoff, K; Baker, K; Lake, L; Rolfe, P F; Seewald, W; Emery, D L

    2017-11-15

    At present diagnosis of true resistance and determination of drug efficacy in Fasciola hepatica infection rely solely on terminal experiments. The coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) has been reported previously as a sensitive and specific tool appropriate to detect treatment failure, and potentially drug resistance. Two studies were conducted to determine whether the cELISA was appropriate for on-farm efficacy and resistance testing in Australian Merino sheep. In Study 1 sheep were infected orally with 50 F. hepatica metacercariae on three occasions, twelve, six and two weeks prior to a single flukicide treatment with triclabendazole, closantel or albendazole. Sheep were sampled weekly for a further seven weeks prior to necropsy. Following effective treatment, no faecal antigen was detected from 1 week. When immature stages (≤6 weeks) survived treatment, coproantigen reappeared from 6 weeks post-treatment. Therefore, cELISA conducted 1-4 weeks after treatment will demonstrate obvious treatment failure against adult F. hepatica, but is not sufficiently sensitive to detect survival of immature fluke until these reach maturity. In study 2, fluke burdens of sheep necropsied 13 weeks post single infection were compared to fecal worm egg counts (FWEC) and cELISA at necropsy. Regression analysis demonstrated that cELISA correlated strongly with fluke burden, whilst FWEC correlated weakly with cELISA. The correlation between FWEC and fluke burden was also weak, although stronger than that of FWEC with cELISA. The cELISA is an appropriate tool for monitoring effectiveness of treatments against Fasciola hepatica if an adult infection is present, however when immature stages of the parasite are present it is not as reliable. Where immature parasites are present it is recommended that initial cELISA be followed with a secondary cELISA at least 6 weeks after treatment to ensure resistance to immature stages is detected. Further testing is justified for monitoring the effectiveness

  12. Multiple Trypanosoma infections are common amongst Glossina species in the new farming areas of Rufiji district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malele Imna I

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis are among several factors that constrain livestock development in Tanzania. Over the years Rufiji District was excluded from livestock production owing to tsetse fly infestation, however, a few years ago there was an influx of livestock following evictions aimed at conserving the Usangu wetlands. Methods A study was conducted to determine the efficiency of available traps for catching tsetse flies, Glossina species infesting the area, their infection rates and Trypanosoma species circulating in the area. Trapping was conducted during the semi dry season for a total of 30 days (ten days each month during the onset of the dry season of May - July 2009. Harvested flies after every 24 hours were dissected and examined under a light microscope for trypanosome infections and whole fly DNA was extracted from 82 flies and analyzed for trypanosomes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using different sets of primers. Results The proportions of total tsetse catches per trap were in the following decreasing order S3 (33%, H-Trap (27%, Pyramidal (19%, sticky panel (11% and biconical trap (10%. Of the 1200 trapped flies, 75.6% were identified as Glossina pallidipes, 11.7% as G. brevipalpis, 9.6% as G. austeni and 3.0% G. morsitans morsitans. Dissections revealed the overall infection rate of 6.6% (13/197. Whole DNA was extracted from 82 tsetse flies and the prevalence of trypanosomes circulating in the area in descending order was 92.7% (76/82 for T. simiae; 70.7% (58/82 for T. brucei types; 48.8% (40/82 for the T. vivax types and 32.9% (27/82 for the T. congolense types as determined by PCR. All trypanosome types were found in all tsetse species analysed except for the T. congolense types, which were absent in G. m. morsitans. None of the T. brucei positive samples contained human infective trypanosomes by SRA - PCR test Conclusion All tsetse species found in Rufiji are biologically important in the

  13. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-03

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented.

  14. Comparison of single-dose and multiple-dose antibiotics for lower urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Taner A; Dogan, Ozgur; Ates, Ugur; Yucel, Burak; Onar, Zehra; Kaya, Erdal

    2011-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of fosfomycin trometamol, cefuroxime axetil, and amoxicillin clavulanate antibiotics, and to assess the difference in patient compliance, in the treatment of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Between September 2007 and May 2008, 90 out of 324 pregnant women with complaints of lower urinary tract infection, who were followed at the outpatient clinic or referred to the emergency department of Vakif Gureba Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled in a prospective study. Patients were randomized into 3 equal groups for treatment with single-dose fosfomycin trometamol, or 5-day courses of amoxicillin clavulanate or cefuroxime axetil. After follow-up, study data were obtained for 28, 27, and 29 patients, respectively. The treatment groups did not differ significantly in terms of demographics, clinical success rate, microbiological cure rate, or adverse effects. Significantly higher drug compliance was observed in the fosfomycin trometamol group than in the other 2 groups (PUTI as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin clavulanate or cefuroxime axetil. Fosfomycin trometamol may be a preferable treatment for UTI because of its simpler use and better rates of compliance. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From Parasite Encounter to Infection: Multiple-Scale Drivers of Parasite Richness in a Wild Social Primate Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides J. A.; Huchard, E.; Pettorelli, N.; King, A. J.; Brown, M. E.; Archer, C. E.; Appleton, C. C.; Raymond, M.; Cowlishaw, G.

    2011-01-01

    Host parasite diversity plays a fundamental role in ecological and evolutionary processes, yet the factors that drive it are still poorly understood. A variety of processes, operating across a range of spatial scales, are likely to influence both the probability of parasite encounter and subsequent infection. Here, we explored eight possible determinants of parasite richness, comprising rainfall and temperature at the population level, ranging behavior and home range productivity at the group level, and age, sex, body condition, and social rank at the individual level. We used a unique dataset describing gastrointestinal parasites in a terrestrial subtropical vertebrate (chacma baboons, Papio ursinus), comprising 662 faecal samples from 86 individuals representing all age-sex classes across two groups over two dry seasons in a desert population. Three mixed models were used to identify the most important factor at each of the three spatial scales (population, group, individual); these were then standardised and combined in a single, global, mixed model. Individual age had the strongest influence on parasite richness, in a convex relationship. Parasite richness was also higher in females and animals in poor condition, albeit at a lower order of magnitude than age. Finally, with a further halving of effect size, parasite richness was positively correlated to day range and temperature. These findings indicate that a range of factors influence host parasite richness through both encounter and infection probabilities, but that individual-level processes may be more important than those at the group or population level.

  16. Integration of health services improves multiple healthcare outcomes among HIV-infected people who inject drugs in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael C; Izenberg, Jacob M; Dvoryak, Sergey; Dumchev, Konstantin; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) experience poor outcomes and fuel HIV epidemics in middle-income countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. We assess integrated/co-located (ICL) healthcare for HIV-infected PWID, which despite international recommendations, is neither widely available nor empirically examined. A 2010 cross-sectional study randomly sampled 296 HIV-infected opioid-dependent PWID from two representative HIV-endemic regions in Ukraine where ICL, non-co-located (NCL) and harm reduction/outreach (HRO) settings are available. ICL settings provide onsite HIV, addiction, and tuberculosis services, NCLs only treat addiction, and HROs provide counseling, needles/syringes, and referrals, but no opioid substitution therapy (OST). The primary outcome was receipt of quality healthcare, measured using a quality healthcare indicator (QHI) composite score representing percentage of eight guidelines-based recommended indicators met for HIV, addiction and tuberculosis treatment. The secondary outcomes were individual QHIs and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). On average, ICL-participants had significantly higher QHI composite scores compared to NCL- and HRO-participants (71.9% versus 54.8% versus 37.0%, phealthcare quality indicators for PWID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda; Katuri, Krishna; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths

  18. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašínová, H.; Neděla, Vilém; Dordevic, B.; Havel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 4 (2017), s. 1487-1497 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * pinus uncinata subsp uliginosa * abnormalities * environmental scanning electron microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  19. Inclusive and exclusive cross sections for multiple ionization by fast, highly charged ions in the independent-electron approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Gray, T.J.; Legg, J.C.; McGuire, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Cross sections for the ionization of n of N electrons with equal single-electron ionization probability P are considered. When both N and the projectile charge q are large, the cross sections for single and double ionization are both found to be approximately linear in q at 1 MeVamu. The ratio of double-to-single-ionization cross sections is independent of q. Moreover, first-order perturbation theory for the single-electron ionization probability P, which varies as q 2 , is found to be applicable due to the damping of contributions with large P caused by factors of (1-P)/sup N/ - /sup n/. For large P there are differences between the inclusive probability P and the probability NP commonly used for a target with N electrons. Both of these probabilities differ significantly from the exclusive probability NP(1-P)/sup N/ -1 for the ionization of only one electron. For large N and large q, the exclusive ionization probabilities for removing exactly n of the N electrons tend to be concentrated in somewhat separate ranges of impact parameters b, defining impact-parameter ''windows.'' The windows which we obtain using the quantum-mechanical semiclassical-Coulomb-approximation (SCA) probabilities are similar to those using classical Monte Carlo calculations. Model calculations, based on analytic fits to the SCA probabilities, are used to obtain approximate analytic expressions for single- and double-ionization cross sections and for the impact-parameter windows

  20. Tolerability of central nervous system symptoms among HIV-1 infected efavirenz users: analysis of patient electronic medical record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Lisa; Broder, Michael S; Bentley, Tanya G K; Chang, Eunice; Reddy, Sheila R; Papoyan, Elya; Myers, Joel

    2017-08-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor indicated for treatment of HIV-1 infection. Despite concern over EFV tolerability in clinical trials and practice, particularly related to central nervous system (CNS) adverse events, some observational studies have shown high rates of EFV continuation at one year and low rates of CNS-related EFV substitution. The objective of this study was to further examine the real-world rate of CNS-related EFV discontinuation in antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-1 patients. This retrospective cohort study used a nationally representative electronic medical records database to identify HIV-1 patients ≥12 years old, treated with a 1st-line EFV-based regimen (single or combination antiretroviral tablet) from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2013. Patients without prior record of EFV use during 6-month baseline (i.e., antiretroviral therapy naïve) were followed 12 months post-medication initiation. CNS-related EFV discontinuation was defined as evidence of a switch to a replacement antiretroviral coupled with record of a CNS symptom within 30 days prior, absent lab evidence of virologic failure. We identified 1742 1st-line EFV patients. Mean age was 48 years, 22.7% were female, and 8.1% had a prior report of CNS symptoms. The first year, overall discontinuation rate among new users of EFV was 16.2%. Ten percent of patients (n = 174) reported a CNS symptom and 1.1% (n = 19) discontinued EFV due to CNS symptoms: insomnia (n = 12), headache (n = 5), impaired concentration (n = 1), and somnolence (n = 1). The frequency of CNS symptoms was similar for patients who discontinued EFV compared to those who did not (10.3 vs. 9.9%; P = .86). Our study found that EFV discontinuation due to CNS symptoms was low, consistent with prior reports.

  1. The first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in a woman in East-Central Europe and its multiple co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzlova, Katerina; Rob, Filip; Zakoucka, Hana; Kubatova, Andrea; Secnikova, Zuzana; Krasova, Martina; Bohac, Petr; Hercogova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    We are reporting the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in women in East-Central Europe. A 22-year-old heterosexual woman attended our department of venereology. She complained about a burning sensation in the urethra and vaginal discharge. Many tests were performed, and lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, genital herpes, genital warts, and hepatitis C were diagnosed. Lymphogranuloma venereum was originally endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but since 2003, outbreaks of this infection have been reported in North America, Europe, and Australia in men who have sex with men (MSM) community. To date, all cases of lymphogranuloma venereum in the Czech Republic appeared in men, predominantly in HIV-positive MSM. There are not many evidences about lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in women in developed countries. This report underlines the need for awareness of lymphogranuloma venereum in women among gynecologists, venereologists, and other physicians not only in Western Europe, but across all European countries.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance, RAPD- PCR Typing of Multiple Drug Resistant Strains of Escherichia Coli From Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marialouis, Xavier Alexander; Santhanam, Amutha

    2016-03-01

    Global spreading of multidrug resistant strains of Escherichia coli is responsible for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) which is a major health problem in of concern. Among the gram negative bacteria, the major contributors for UTI belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which includes E. coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Proteus. However, E. coli accounts for the major cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and accounts for 75% to 90% of UTI isolates. The main aim of this study is to analyse the phylogenetic grouping of clinical isolates of UTI E. coli. In this study nearly 58 E. coli strains were isolated and confirmed through microbiological, biochemical characterization. The urine samples were collected from outpatients having symptoms of UTI, irrespective of age and sex in Tamil Nadu, India. The isolates were subjected to analyse for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase production. To understand its genetic correlation, molecular typing was carried out using RAPD-PCR method. Here we noted phenotypically twenty seven isolates were positive for ESBL and seven for AmpC β-lactamase production. However, among the ESBL isolates higher sensitivity was noted for Nitrofurantoin and Cefoxitin. It is worth to note that the prevalence of UTIs was more common among female and elderly male. Phylogenetic grouping revealed the presence of 24 isolates belonged to B2 group followed by 19 isolates to group A, eight isolates to group B1 and Seven isolates to group D. Phenotypically most of the strains were positive for ESBL and showed high sensitivity for Nitrofurantoin and cefoxitin.

  3. Integration of Health Services Improves Multiple Healthcare Outcomes Among HIV-infected People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael C.; Izenberg, Jacob M.; Dvoryak, Sergey; Dumchev, Konstantin; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs (PWID) experience poor outcomes and fuel HIV epidemics in middle-income countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. We assess integrated/co-located (ICL) healthcare for HIV-infected PWID, which despite international recommendations, is neither widely available nor empirically examined. Methods A 2010 cross-sectional study randomly sampled 296 HIV-infected opioid-dependent PWID from two representative HIV-endemic regions in Ukraine where ICL, non-co-located (NCL) and harm reduction/outreach (HRO) settings are available. ICL settings provide onsite HIV, addiction, and tuberculosis services, NCLs only treat addiction, and HROs provide counseling, needles/syringes, and referrals, but no opioid substitution therapy (OST). The primary outcome was receipt of quality healthcare, measured using a quality healthcare indicator (QHI) composite score representing percentage of eight guidelines-based recommended indicators met for HIV, addiction and tuberculosis treatment. The secondary outcomes were individual QHIs and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Results On average, ICL-participants had significantly higher QHI composite scores compared to NCL- and HRO-participants (71.9% versus 54.8% versus 37.0%, p<0.001) even after controlling for potential confounders. Compared to NCL-participants, ICL-participants were significantly more likely to receive antiretroviral therapy (49.5% versus 19.2%, p<0.001), especially if CD4≤200 (93.8% versus 62.5% p<0.05); guideline-recommended OST dosage (57.3% versus 41.4%, p<0.05); and isoniazid preventive therapy (42.3% versus 11.2%, p<0.001). Subjects receiving OST had significantly higher HRQoL than those not receiving it (p<0.001); however, HRQoL did not differ significantly between ICL- and NCL-participants. Conclusions These findings suggest that OST alone improves quality-of-life, while receiving care in integrated settings collectively and individually improves healthcare quality for PWID

  4. Optimising case detection within UK electronic health records : use of multiple linked databases for detecting liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wing, Kevin; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Smeeth, Liam; van Staa, Tjeerd P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827762; Klungel, Olaf H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649; Reynolds, Robert F; Douglas, Ian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to create a 'multidatabase' algorithm for identification of cholestatic liver injury using multiple linked UK databases, before (1) assessing the improvement in case ascertainment compared to using a single database and (2) developing a new single-database case-definition

  5. Multiple resolution chirp reflectometry for fault localization and diagnosis in a high voltage cable in automotive electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung Jin; Lee, Chun Ku; Shin, Yong-June; Park, Jin Bae

    2016-12-01

    A multiple chirp reflectometry system with a fault estimation process is proposed to obtain multiple resolution and to measure the degree of fault in a target cable. A multiple resolution algorithm has the ability to localize faults, regardless of fault location. The time delay information, which is derived from the normalized cross-correlation between the incident signal and bandpass filtered reflected signals, is converted to a fault location and cable length. The in-phase and quadrature components are obtained by lowpass filtering of the mixed signal of the incident signal and the reflected signal. Based on in-phase and quadrature components, the reflection coefficient is estimated by the proposed fault estimation process including the mixing and filtering procedure. Also, the measurement uncertainty for this experiment is analyzed according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. To verify the performance of the proposed method, we conduct comparative experiments to detect and measure faults under different conditions. Considering the installation environment of the high voltage cable used in an actual vehicle, target cable length and fault position are designed. To simulate the degree of fault, the variety of termination impedance (10 Ω , 30 Ω , 50 Ω , and 1 \\text{k} Ω ) are used and estimated by the proposed method in this experiment. The proposed method demonstrates advantages in that it has multiple resolution to overcome the blind spot problem, and can assess the state of the fault.

  6. FELIX: an algorithm for indexing multiple crystallites in X-ray free-electron laser snapshot diffraction images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyerlein, Kenneth R.; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm for indexing multiple crystals in snapshot X-ray diffraction images, especially suited for serial crystallography data, is presented. The algorithm, FELIX, utilizes a generalized parametrization of the Rodrigues-Frank space, in which all crystal systems can be represented without...

  7. Growth Termination and Multiple Nucleation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Evidenced by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lili; He, Maoshuai; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2017-01-01

    and successive growth of additional SWCNTs on Co catalyst particles supported on MgO by means of environmental transmission electron microscopy. Such in situ observations reveal the plethora of solid carbon formations at the local scale while it is happening and thereby elucidate the multitude of configurations...

  8. Influence of multiple scattering of a relativistic electron in a periodic layered medium on coherent X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Kos’kova, T. V.; Noskov, A. V., E-mail: noskovbupk@mail.ru [Belgorod State National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    A dynamic theory of coherent X-ray radiation generated in a periodic layered medium by a relativistic electron multiply scattered by target atoms has been developed. The expressions describing the spectral–angular characteristics of parametric X-ray radiation and diffracted transition radiation are derived. Numerical calculations based on the derived expressions have been performed.

  9. Enhanced mutagenesis of UV-irradiated simian virus 40 occurs in mitomycin C-treated host cells only at a low multiplicity of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasin, A.; Benoit, A.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of monkey kidney cells with mitomycin C (MMC) 24 h prior to infection with UV-irradiated simian virus 40 (SV40) enhanced both virus survival and virus mutagenesis. The use of SV40 as a biological probe has been taken as an easy method to analyse SOS response of mammalian cells to the stress caused by DNA damage or inhibition of DNA replication. The mutation assay we used was based on the reversion from a temperature-sensitive phenotype (tsA58 mutant) to a wild-type phenotype. The optimal conditions for producing enhanced survival and mutagenesis in the virus progeny were determined with regard to the multiplicity of infection (MOI). Results showed that the level of enhanced mutagenesis observed for UV-irradiated virus grown in MMC-treated cells was an inverse function of the MOI, while enhanced survival was observed at nearly the same level regardless of the MOI. For the unirradiated virus, almost no increase in the mutation of virus progeny issued from MMC-treated cells was observed, while a small amount of enhanced virus survival was obtained. These results show that enhanced virus mutagenesis and enhanced virus survival can be dissociated under some experimental conditions. Enhanced virus mutagenesis, analogous to the error-prone replication of phages in SOS-induced bacteria, was observed, at least for SV40, only when DNA of both virus and host cells was damaged and when infection occurred with a small number of viral particles. We therefore hypothesize that an error-prone replication mode of UV-damaged templates is observed in induced monkey kidney cells

  10. Single-electron multiplication statistics as a combination of Poissonian pulse height distributions using constraint regression methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballini, J.-P.; Cazes, P.; Turpin, P.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    Analysing the histogram of anode pulse amplitudes allows a discussion of the hypothesis that has been proposed to account for the statistical processes of secondary multiplication in a photomultiplier. In an earlier work, good agreement was obtained between experimental and reconstructed spectra, assuming a first dynode distribution including two Poisson distributions of distinct mean values. This first approximation led to a search for a method which could give the weights of several Poisson distributions of distinct mean values. Three methods have been briefly exposed: classical linear regression, constraint regression (d'Esopo's method), and regression on variables subject to error. The use of these methods gives an approach of the frequency function which represents the dispersion of the punctual mean gain around the whole first dynode mean gain value. Comparison between this function and the one employed in Polya distribution allows the statement that the latter is inadequate to describe the statistical process of secondary multiplication. Numerous spectra obtained with two kinds of photomultiplier working under different physical conditions have been analysed. Then two points are discussed: - Does the frequency function represent the dynode structure and the interdynode collection process. - Is the model (the multiplication process of all dynodes but the first one, is Poissonian) valid whatever the photomultiplier and the utilization conditions. (Auth.)

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  12. Luminance mechanisms in green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Dong Chul; Seo, Su Yul; Kim, Tae Whan; Jin, You Young; Seo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Kwan

    2010-05-01

    The electrical and the optical properties in green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer (ETL) were investigated. The operating voltage of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL increased with increasing the number of the Alq3/BPhen heterostructures because more electrons were accumulated at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerfaces. The number of the leakage holes existing in the multiple heterostructure ETL of the OLEDs at a low voltage range slightly increased due to an increase of the internal electric field generated from the accumulated electrons at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerface. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL at a high voltage range became stabilized because the increase of the number of the heterointerface decreased the quantity of electrons accumulated at each heterointerface.

  13. Multiple brain abscesses due to Penicillium spp infection Abscessos cerebrais múltiplos causados por infecção por Penicillium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Teixeira Noritomi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of central nervous system (CNS infection by a member of the Penicillium genera in a HIV-negative man in Brazil. The patient was admitted complaining of loss of visual fields and speech disturbances. CT scan revealed multiple brain abscesses. Stereothacic biopsies revealed fungal infection and amphotericin B treatment begun with initial improvement. The patient died few days later as a consequence of massive gastrointestinal bleeding due to ruptured esophageal varices. The necropsy and final microbiologic analyses disclosed infection by Penicillium sp. There are thousands of fungal species of the Penicillium genera. Systemic penicilliosis is caused by the P. marneffei and was formerly a rare disease, but now is one of the most common opportunistic infection of AIDS patients in Southeast Asia. The clinical presentation usually involves the respiratory system and the skin, besides general symptoms like fever and weight loss. Penicillium spp infection caused by species other than P. marneffei normally cause only superficial or allergic disease but rare cases of invasive disease do occur. We report the fourth case of Penicillium spp CNS infection.Apresentamos um caso de infecção do sistema nervoso central (SNC por Penicillium spp em paciente do sexo masculino, HIV-negativo no Brasil. O paciente apresentou-se ao Serviço de Urgência do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo queixando-se de alteração visual e dificuldade na fala. Exames de neuroimagem mostraram lesões múltiplas, compatíveis com abscessos. A biópsia esterotáxica revelou infecção fúngica, iniciando-se o tratamento com anfotericina B com sucesso inicial. O paciente morreu poucos dias depois, vítima de uma hemorragia digestiva maciça devido a varizes de esôfago. A necropsia e a análise microbiológica final da biópsia cerebral revelaram infecção por Penicillium spp. Exixtem centenas de espécies de fungos do g

  14. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlašínová, Helena; Neděla, Vilem; Đorđević, Biljana; Havel, Ladislav

    2017-07-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media. The media on which the highest number of early-precotyledonary/cotyledonary somatic embryos was formed was supplemented with 121 μM abscisic acid (ABA) and with 6 % maltose. In the end of maturation experiments, different abnormalities in formation of somatic embryos were observed. For visualization and identification of abnormalities in meristem development during proliferation and maturation processes, the environmental scanning electron microscope was used. In comparison to the classical light microscope, the non-commercial environmental scanning electron microscope AQUASEM II has been found as a very useful tool for the quick recognition of apical meristem disruption and abnormal development. To our knowledge, this is the first report discussing somatic embryogenesis in bog pine. Based on this observation, the cultivation procedure could be enhanced and the method for SE of bog pine optimized.

  15. Electron transfer across multiple hydrogen bonds: the case of ureapyrimidinedione-substituted vinyl ruthenium and osmium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichlmaier, Markus; Winter, Rainer F; Zabel, Manfred; Zális, Stanislav

    2009-04-08

    Ruthenium and osmium complexes 2a,b and 3a,b featuring the N-4,6-dioxo-5,5-dibutyl- or the N-4,6-dioxo-5,5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl-N'(4-ethenylphenyl)-urea ligand dimerize by a self-complementary quadruply hydrogen-bonding donor/donor/acceptor/acceptor (DDAA) motif. We provide evidence that the dimeric structures are maintained in nonpolar solvents and in 0.1 M NBu(4)PF(6)/CH(2)Cl(2) supporting electrolyte solution. All complexes are reversibly oxidized in two consecutive two-electron oxidations (DeltaE(1/2) approximately = 500 mV) without any discernible potential splitting for the oxidation of the individual hydrogen-bridged redox active moieties. IR and UV/vis/NIR spectroelectrochemistry show a one-step conversion of the neutral to the dication without any discernible features of an intermediate monooxidized radical cation. Oxidation-induced IR changes of the NH and CO groups that are involved in hydrogen bonding are restricted to the styryl-bonded urea NH function. IR band assignments are aided by quantum chemical calculations. Our experimental findings clearly show that, at least in the present systems, the ureapyrimidinedione (Upy) DDAA hydrogen-bonding motif does not support electron transfer. The apparent reason is that neither of the hydrogen-bonding functionalities contributes to the occupied frontier levels. This results in nearly degenerate pairs of MOs representing the in-phase and out-of-phase combinations of the individual monomeric building blocks.

  16. Frequency bandwidth extension by use of multiple Zeeman field offsets for electron spin-echo EPR oxygen imaging of large objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Payam; Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Electron spin-echo (ESE) oxygen imaging is a new and evolving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging (EPRI) modality that is useful for physiological in vivo applications, such as EPR oxygen imaging (EPROI), with potential application to imaging of multicentimeter objects as large as human tumors. A present limitation on the size of the object to be imaged at a given resolution is the frequency bandwidth of the system, since the location is encoded as a frequency offset in ESE imaging. The authors’ aim in this study was to demonstrate the object size advantage of the multioffset bandwidth extension technique.Methods: The multiple-stepped Zeeman field offset (or simply multi-B) technique was used for imaging of an 8.5-cm-long phantom containing a narrow single line triaryl methyl compound (trityl) solution at the 250 MHz imaging frequency. The image is compared to a standard single-field ESE image of the same phantom.Results: For the phantom used in this study, transverse relaxation (T2e) electron spin-echo (ESE) images from multi-B acquisition are more uniform, contain less prominent artifacts, and have a better signal to noise ratio (SNR) compared to single-field T2e images.Conclusions: The multi-B method is suitable for imaging of samples whose physical size restricts the applicability of the conventional single-field ESE imaging technique. PMID:21815379

  17. High peak current operation of x-ray free-electron laser multiple beam lines by suppressing coherent synchrotron radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Kondo, Chikara; Inagaki, Takahiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Fukami, Kenji; Nakazawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Taichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Yoshioka, Masamichi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Otake, Yuji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The parallel operation of multiple beam lines is an important means to expand the opportunity of user experiments at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities. At SPring-8 Angstrom free-electron laser (SACLA), the multi-beam-line operation had been tested using two beam lines, but transverse coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects at a dogleg beam transport severely limited the laser performance. To suppress the CSR effects, a new beam optics based on two double bend achromat (DBA) structures was introduced for the dogleg. After the replacement of the beam optics, high peak current bunches of more than 10 kA are now stably transported through the dogleg and the laser pulse output is increased by a factor of 2-3. In the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA, the electron beam parameters, such as the beam energy and peak current, can be adjusted independently for each beam line. Thus the laser output can be optimized and wide spectral tunability is ensured for all beam lines.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Single- Versus Generic Multiple-Tablet Regimens for Treatment of HIV-1 Infection in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna E Sweet

    Full Text Available The possibility of incorporating generics into combination antiretroviral therapy and breaking apart once-daily single-tablet regimens (STRs, may result in less efficacious medications and/or more complex regimens with the expectation of marked monetary savings. A modeling approach that assesses the merits of such policies in terms of lifelong costs and health outcomes using adherence and effectiveness data from real-world U.S. settings.A comprehensive computer-based microsimulation model was developed to assess the lifetime health (life expectancy and quality adjusted life-years--QALYs and economic outcomes in HIV-1 infected patients initiating STRs compared with multiple-table regimens including generic medications where possible (gMTRs. The STRs considered included tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine or elvitegravir/cobicistat. gMTRs substitutions included each counterpart to STRs, including generic lamivudine for emtricitabine and generic versus branded efavirenz.Life expectancy is estimated to be 1.301 years higher (discounted 0.619 QALY gain in HIV-1 patients initiating a single-tablet regimen in comparison to a generic-based multiple-table regimen. STRs were associated with an average increment of $26,547.43 per patient in medication and $1,824.09 in other medical costs due to longer survival which were partially offset by higher inpatients costs ($12,035.61 with gMTRs treatment. Overall, STRs presented incremental lifetime costs of $16,335.91 compared with gMTRs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $26,383.82 per QALY gained.STRs continue to represent good value for money under contemporary cost-effectiveness thresholds despite substantial price reductions of generic medications in the U. S.

  19. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs' broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ~20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases ×1.9 to 20.7 relative to the lower molecular weight PS, where this ratio is 11.0. This increase reduces to ×1.7 when the PEG is added (τ0/τ100=18.2), but the latter results in an increase ×2.7 in the PL intensity. The sensor's response time is <10s in all cases. The microporous structure of these blended films, with PEG decorating PS pores, serves a dual purpose. It results in light scattering that reduces the EL that is waveguided in the substrate of the OLEDs and

  20. Susceptibility of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus to electron beam irradiation in oysters and quantifying the reduction in potential infection risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Chandni; Dancho, Brooke A; Kingsley, David H; Calci, Kevin R; Meade, Gloria K; Mena, Kristina D; Pillai, Suresh D

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of raw oysters is an exposure route for human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Therefore, efficient postharvest oyster treatment technology is needed to reduce public health risks. This study evaluated the inactivation of HAV and the NoV research surrogate, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) by electron beam (E-beam) irradiation. The reduction of potential infection risks was quantified for E-beam irradiation technology employed on raw oysters at various virus contamination levels. The E-beam dose required to reduce the MNV and HAV titer by 90% (D(10) value) in whole oysters was 4.05 (standard deviations [SD], ±0.63) and 4.83 (SD, ±0.08) kGy, respectively. Microbial risk assessment suggests that if a typical serving of 12 raw oysters was contaminated with 10(5) PFU, a 5-kGy treatment would achieve a 12% reduction (from 4.49 out of 10 persons to 3.95 out of 10 persons) in NoV infection and a 16% reduction (from 9.21 out of 10 persons to 7.76 out of 10 persons) in HAV infections. If the serving size contained only 10(2) PFU of viruses, a 5-kGy treatment would achieve a 26% reduction (2.74 out of 10 persons to 2.03 out of 10 persons) of NoV and 91% reduction (2.1 out of 10 persons to 1.93 out of 100 persons) of HAV infection risks. This study shows that although E-beam processing cannot completely eliminate the risk of viral illness, infection risks can be reduced.

  1. Reduction in antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in Swedish primary care- a retrospective study of electronic patient records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Tyrstrup

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swedish studies on antibiotic use in primary care have been based on one-week registrations of infections. In order to study adherence to guidelines, analyses based on large databases that provide information on diagnosis linked prescriptions, are needed. This study describes trends in management of infections in Swedish primary care particularly with regards to antibiotic prescribing and adherence to national guidelines. Methods A descriptive study of Sweden’s largest database regarding diagnosis linked antibiotic prescription data, the Primary care Record of Infections in Sweden (PRIS, for the years 2008, 2010 and 2013. Results Although the consultation rate for all infections remained around 30% each year, antibiotic prescribing rates decreased significantly over the years from 53.7% in 2008, to 45.5% in 2010, to 38.6% in 2013 (p = .032. The antibiotic prescribing rate for respiratory tract infections (RTIs decreased from 40.5% in 2008 to 24.9% in 2013 while those for urinary tract infections and skin and soft tissue infections were unchanged. For most RTI diagnoses there was a decrease in prescription rate from 2008 to 2013, particularly for the age group 0–6 years. Phenoxymethylpenicillin (PcV was the antibiotic most often prescribed, followed by tetracycline. Tonsillitis and acute otitis media were the two RTI diagnoses with the highest number of prescriptions per 1000 patient years (PY. For these diagnoses an increase in adherence to national guidelines was seen, with regards to treatment frequency, choice of antibiotics and use of rapid antigen detection test. The frequency in antibiotic prescribing varied greatly between different Primary Healthcare Centres (PHCCs. Conclusion Falling numbers of consultations and decreased antibiotic prescription rates for RTIs have reduced the antibiotic use in Swedish primary care substantially. Overprescribing of antibiotics could still be suspected due to large variability

  2. Multiple Sclerosis and Subsequent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case with the Rare Comorbidity, Focus on Novel Treatment Issues and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlis, Charalampos; Gontika, Maria; Katsavos, Serafeim; Velonakis, Giorgios; Toulas, Panagiotis; Anagnostouli, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The comorbidity between Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is particularly rare. Only a few cases of comorbidity of Clinically Definite(CD)-MS and HIV have been documented worldwide, while the potential beneficial role of antiretroviral therapy regarding MS activity has long been an area of debate. We present a 36-year old male, bearing a diagnosis of CD-MS for twelve years. He had been treated for ten years with interferon-beta-1b, when he voluntarily discontinued therapy, claiming clinical stability. One year later he was diagnosed positive for HIV and he started and continued only on efavirenz/emricitabine/tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (ATRIPLA®), remaining relapse-free until today. This fact, in combination with the unique pharmaceutical composition of the drug, which contains a component similar to a newly-approved agent for MS, dimethyl fumarate, prompted us to review the literature regarding this rare comorbidity and to suggest that the role of the antiretroviral therapy should be further explored in MS. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Patient assessment of an electronic device for subcutaneous self-injection of interferon ß-1a for multiple sclerosis: an observational study in the UK and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arcy C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caroline D’Arcy1, Del Thomas2, Dee Stoneman3, Laura Parkes31West London Neuroscience Centre, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Wye Valley NHS Trust, Hereford, UK; 3Merck Serono Ltd, Feltham, Middlesex, UKBackground: Injectable disease-modifying drugs (DMDs reduce the number of relapses and delay disability progression in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. Regular self-injection can be stressful and impeded by MS symptoms. Auto-injection devices can simplify self-injection, overcome injection-related issues, and increase treatment satisfaction. This study investigated patient responses to an electronic auto-injection device.Methods: Patients with RRMS (n = 63, aged 18–65 years, naïve to subcutaneous (sc interferon (IFN ß-1a therapy, were recruited to a Phase IV, observational, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01195870. Patients self-injected sc IFN ß-1a using the RebiSmart™ (Merck Serono S.A. – Geneva, Switzerland electronic auto-injector for 12 weeks, including an initial titration period if recommended by the prescribing physician. In week 12, patients completed a questionnaire comprising of a visual analog scale (VAS to rate how much they liked using the device, a four-point response question on ease of use (‘very difficult’, ‘difficult’, ‘easy’, or ‘very easy’, and a list of ten device functions to rank, based upon their experiences.Results: Six patients (9.5% discontinued the study: one switched to manual injection; two discontinued all treatment; three changed therapy. In total, 59 out of 63 patients (93.7% completed the VAS; 54 out of 59 (91.5%; 95% confidence interval: 81.3%–97.2% ‘liked’ using the electronic auto-injector (score ≥6, whereas 57 out of 59 (96.6% rated the device overall as ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to use. Device features rated as most useful were the hidden needle (mean [standard deviation] score: 3.3 [3.01]; n = 56, confirmation sound (3.9 [2.45], and

  4. Enhancement mode GaN-based multiple-submicron channel array gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Wang, Chun-Chi

    2018-04-01

    To study the function of channel width in multiple-submicron channel array, we fabricated the enhancement mode GaN-based gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with a channel width of 450 nm and 195 nm, respectively. In view of the enhanced gate controllability in a narrower fin-channel structure, the transconductance was improved from 115 mS/mm to 151 mS/mm, the unit gain cutoff frequency was improved from 6.2 GHz to 6.8 GHz, and the maximum oscillation frequency was improved from 12.1 GHz to 13.1 GHz of the devices with a channel width of 195 nm, compared with the devices with a channel width of 450 nm.

  5. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure and Electric Field on the Electron-Related Optical Properties in GaAs Multiple Quantum Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, D A; Mora-Ramos, M E; Duque, C A

    2017-02-01

    The properties of the electronic structure of a finite-barrier semiconductor multiple quantum well are investigated taking into account the effects of the application of a static electric field and hydrostatic pressure. With the information of the allowed quasi-stationary energy states, the coefficients of linear and nonlinear optical absorption and of the relative refractive index change associated to transitions between allowed subbands are calculated with the use of a two-level scheme for the density matrix equation of motion and the rotating wave approximation. It is noticed that the hydrostatic pressure enhances the amplitude of the nonlinear contribution to the optical response of the multiple quantum well, whilst the linear one becomes reduced. Besides, the calculated coefficients are blueshifted due to the increasing of the applied electric field, and shows systematically dependence upon the hydrostatic pressure. The comparison of these results with those related with the consideration of a stationary spectrum of states in the heterostructure-obtained by placing infinite confining barriers at a conveniently far distance-shows essential differences in the pressure-induced effects in the sense of resonant frequency shifting as well as in the variation of the amplitudes of the optical responses.

  6. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Multiple Drug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Mastitis-Infected Goats: An Alternative Approach for Antimicrobial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Guo Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been widely used in various applications as antimicrobial agents, anticancer, diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labels, and drug delivery systems for the treatment of various diseases. Microorganisms generally acquire resistance to antibiotics through the course of antibacterial therapy. Multi-drug resistance (MDR has become a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases, and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance by numerous human and animal bacterial pathogens. As a result, an increasing number of microorganisms are resistant to multiple antibiotics causing continuing economic losses in dairy farming. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative, cost-effective, and efficient antimicrobial agents that overcome antimicrobial resistance. Here, AgNPs synthesized using the bio-molecule quercetin were characterized using various analytical techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were highly spherical in shape and had an average size of 11 nm. We evaluated the efficacy of synthesized AgNPs against two MDR pathogenic bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from milk samples produced by mastitis-infected goats. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were found to be 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that AgNPs exert antibacterial effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results from the present study demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, and leakage of proteins and sugars in bacterial cells. Results of the present study showed that AgNP-treated bacteria had significantly lower lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and lower adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels compared to the control. Furthermore, Ag

  7. Improving resolution of public health surveillance for human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection: 3 years of prospective multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintchenko Vitali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA can assist in identifying clusters of STM cases that might otherwise have gone unrecognised, as well as sources of sporadic and outbreak cases. This paper describes the dynamics of human STM infection in a prospective study of STM MLVA typing for public health surveillance. Methods During a three-year period between August 2007 and September 2010 all confirmed STM isolates were fingerprinted using MLVA as part of the New South Wales (NSW state public health surveillance program. Results A total of 4,920 STM isolates were typed and a subset of 4,377 human isolates was included in the analysis. The STM spectrum was dominated by a small number of phage types, including DT170 (44.6% of all isolates, DT135 (13.9%, DT9 (10.8%, DT44 (4.5% and DT126 (4.5%. There was a difference in the discriminatory power of MLVA types within endemic phage types: Simpson's index of diversity ranged from 0.109 and 0.113 for DTs 9 and 135 to 0.172 and 0.269 for DTs 170 and 44, respectively. 66 distinct STM clusters were observed ranging in size from 5 to 180 cases and in duration from 4 weeks to 25 weeks. 43 clusters had novel MLVA types and 23 represented recurrences of previously recorded MLVA types. The diversity of the STM population remained relatively constant over time. The gradual increase in the number of STM cases during the study was not related to significant changes in the number of clusters or their size. 667 different MLVA types or patterns were observed. Conclusions Prospective MLVA typing of STM allows the detection of community outbreaks and demonstrates the sustained level of STM diversity that accompanies the increasing incidence of human STM infections. The monitoring of novel and persistent MLVA types offers a new benchmark for STM surveillance. A part of this study was presented at the MEEGID

  8. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, a Member of the Proposed Dichorhavirus Genus Infecting Multiple Citrus Species in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew L; Shao, Jonathan; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-04-01

    Citrus leprosis is one of the most destructive diseases of Citrus spp. and is associated with two unrelated virus groups that produce particles primarily in either the cytoplasm or nucleus of infected plant cells. Symptoms of leprosis, including chlorotic spots surrounded by yellow haloes on leaves and necrotic spots on twigs and fruit, were observed on leprosis-affected mandarin and navel sweet orange trees in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. Serological and molecular assays showed that the cytoplasmic types of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV-C) often associated with leprosis symptomatic tissues were absent. However, using transmission electron microscopy, bullet-shaped rhabdovirus-like virions were observed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the citrus leprosis-infected leaf tissues. An analysis of small RNA populations from symptomatic tissue was carried out to determine the genome sequence of the rhabdovirus-like particles observed in the citrus leprosis samples. The complete genome sequence showed that the nuclear type of CiLV (CiLV-N) present in the samples consisted of two negative-sense RNAs: 6,268-nucleotide (nt)-long RNA1 and 5,847-nt-long RNA2, excluding the poly(A) tails. CiLV-N had a genome organization identical to that of Orchid fleck virus (OFV), with the exception of shorter 5' untranslated regions in RNA1 (53 versus 205 nt) and RNA2 (34 versus 182 nt). Phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoproteins (G) and the RNA polymerase (L protein) showed that CiLV-N clusters with OFV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of N protein established CiLV-N as a member of the proposed genus Dichorhavirus. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction primers for the detection of CiLV-N were designed based on the sequence of the N gene and the assay was optimized and tested to detect the presence of CiLV-N in both diseased and symptom-free plants.

  9. Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Single Operator Technique with Use of Povidone-Iodine, Double Gloving, Meticulous Aseptic/Antiseptic Measures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Melita, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is complicated by infection still at a worrisome rate of 2-5%. Since early on during device implantation procedures, we have adopted an infection-preventive technique which has hitherto resulted in effective prevention of infections. Herein we present our results of applying this technique by a single operator in a prospective series of 762 consecutive patients undergoing device implantation. A meticulous search for and treatment of active, occult, or smoldering infection was undertaken preoperatively. An aseptic/antiseptic technique was used for implantation of each device. Skin preparation is thorough with initial cleansing performed with alcohol followed by povidone-iodine 10% solution, which is also used in the wound and inside the pocket. In addition, we routinely use double gloving, and IV antibiotic prophylaxis 1 hour before and for 48 hours afterwards followed by oral antibiotic for 2-3 days after discharge. The skin is closed with absorbable sutures. The study includes 382 patients having a new pacemaker (n = 333) or battery change, system upgrade or lead revision (n = 49), and 380 patients having a new implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (n = 296) or device replacement/upgrade/lead revision (n = 84). The pacemaker group, aged 70.2 ± 16.5 years, includes 18% VVI, 49% DDD, 29% VDD, and 4% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The ICD group, aged 61.3 ± 13.0 years, with a mean ejection fraction of 36 ± 13%, includes 325 ICD and 55 CRT implants. Over 26.6 ± 33.4 months for the pacemaker group and 36.6 ± 38.3 months for the ICD group, infection occurred in one patient in each group (0.26%) having a device replacement. A consistent and strict approach of aseptic/antiseptic technique with the use of double gloving and povidone-iodine solution within the pocket plus a 4-day regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis minimizes infections in CIED implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A pilot study to evaluate the magnitude of association of the use of electronic personal health records with patient activation and empowerment in HIV-infected veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Cédric B. Crouch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The HITECH Act signed into law in 2009 requires hospitals to provide patients with electronic access to their health information through an electronic personal health record (ePHR in order to receive Medicare/Medicaid incentive payments. Little is known about who uses these systems or the impact these systems will have on patient outcomes in HIV care. The health care empowerment model provides rationale for the hypothesis that knowledge from an electronic personal health record can lead to greater patient empowerment resulting in improved outcomes. The objective was to determine the patient characteristics and patient activation, empowerment, satisfaction, knowledge of their CD4, Viral Loads, and antiretroviral medication, and medication adherence outcomes associated with electronic personal health record use in Veterans living with HIV at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. The participants included HIV-Infected Veterans receiving care in a low volume HIV-clinic at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, divided into two groups of users and non-users of electronic personal health records. The research was conducted using in-person surveys either online or on paper and data abstraction from medical records for current anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CD4 count, and plasma HIV-1 viral load. The measures included the Patient Activation Measure, Health Care Empowerment Inventory, ART adherence, provider satisfaction, current CD4 count, current plasma viral load, knowledge of current ART, knowledge of CD4 counts, and knowledge of viral load. In all, 40 participants were recruited. The use of electronic personal health records was associated with significantly higher levels of patient activation and levels of patient satisfaction for getting timely appointments, care, and information. ePHR was also associated with greater proportions of undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral loads, of knowledge of current CD4 count, and of knowledge of current viral load. The

  11. Freeze-fracture of infected plant leaves in ethanol for scanning electron microscopic study of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jayma A; Payne, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Fungi often are found within plant tissues where they cannot be visualized with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). We present a simple way to reveal cell interiors while avoiding many common causes of artifact. Freeze-fracture of leaf tissue using liquid nitrogen during the 100% ethanol step of the dehydration process just before critical point drying is useful in exposing intracellular fungi to the SEM.

  12. The Arabidopsis thaliana RNA editing factor SLO2, which affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, participates in multiple stress and hormone responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Dugardeyn, Jasper; Zhang, Chunyi; Mühlenbock, Per; Eastmond, Peter J; Valcke, Roland; De Coninck, Barbara; Oden, Sevgi; Karampelias, Michael; Cammue, Bruno P A; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2014-02-01

    Recently, we reported that the novel mitochondrial RNA editing factor SLO2 is essential for mitochondrial electron transport, and vital for plant growth through regulation of carbon and energy metabolism. Here, we show that mutation in SLO2 causes hypersensitivity to ABA and insensitivity to ethylene, suggesting a link with stress responses. Indeed, slo2 mutants are hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stress during the germination stage, while adult plants show increased drought and salt tolerance. Moreover, slo2 mutants are more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea infection. An increased expression of nuclear-encoded stress-responsive genes, as well as mitochondrial-encoded NAD genes of complex I and genes of the alternative respiratory pathway, was observed in slo2 mutants, further enhanced by ABA treatment. In addition, H2O2 accumulation and altered amino acid levels were recorded in slo2 mutants. We conclude that SLO2 is required for plant sensitivity to ABA, ethylene, biotic, and abiotic stress. Although two stress-related RNA editing factors were reported very recently, this study demonstrates a unique role of SLO2, and further supports a link between mitochondrial RNA editing events and stress response.

  13. Auger electron emitter against multiple myeloma - targeted endo-radio-therapy with 125I-labeled thymidine analogue 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, Agnieszka; Dinger, Cornelia; Zlatopolskiy, Boris D.; Al-Momani, Ehab; Glatting, Gerhard; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Reske, Sven N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by accumulation of malignant, terminally differentiated B cells in the bone marrow. Despite advances in therapy, MM remains an incurable disease. Novel therapeutic approaches are, therefore, urgently needed. Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are attractive for targeted nano-irradiation therapy, given that DNA of malignant cells is selectively addressed. Here we evaluated the antimyeloma potential of the Auger electron-emitting thymidine analogue 125 I-labeled 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine ([ 125 I]ITdU). Methods: Cellular uptake and DNA incorporation of [ 125 I]ITdU were determined in fluorodeoxyuridine-pretreated KMS12BM, U266, dexamethasone-sensitive MM1.S and -resistant MM1.R cell lines. The effect of stimulation with interleukin 6 (IL6) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on the intracellular incorporation of [ 125 I]ITdU was investigated in cytokine-sensitive MM1.S and MM1.R cell lines. Apoptotic cells were identified using Annexin V. Cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP was visualized by Western blot. DNA fragmentation was investigated using laddering assay. Therapeutic efficiency of [ 125 I]ITdU was proven by clonogenic assay. Results: [ 125 I]ITdU was shown to be efficiently incorporated into DNA of malignant cells, providing a promising mechanism for delivering highly toxic Auger radiation emitters into tumor DNA. [ 125 I]ITdU had a potent antimyeloma effect in cell lines representing distinct disease stages and, importantly, in cell lines sensitive or resistant to the conventional therapeutic agent, but was not toxic for normal plasma and bone marrow stromal cells. Furthermore, [ 125 I]ITdU abrogated the protective actions of IL6 and IGF1 on MM cells. [ 125 I]ITdU induced massive damage in the DNA of malignant plasma cells, which resulted in efficient inhibition of clonogenic growth. Conclusion: These studies may provide a novel treatment strategy for overcoming

  14. Quantitative autoradiography at electronic microscopy level of tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L.) infected by pepper ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, G.

    1980-06-01

    RNA replication of the pepper ringspot virus, its translocation and its association with mitochondria are studied. Some basic aspects of the research are first examined: actinomycin D (AMD) effects on parts of the nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm of healthy - and infected cells; comparative study between the circle method and the planimetry method to determine the cell areas; determination of the proportion between the silver grain densities of nucleulus, nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells treated with AMD; determination of the HD (Half-Distance) for the working conditions. Use of the mathemathical model proposed by NADLER gives basic information with respect to the translocation and association of the virus with the mitochondria in the host cells: in the mitochondria associated system the silver grains covering the two components are predominantly constituted by the RNA of the radioactive virus (78%); the time necessary for the RNA synthesis, the virus maturity and its translocation to the mitochondria, (checked by U-5- 3 H treatment) can be shorter than 5 hours. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Real-Time Electronic Tracking of Diarrheal Episodes and Laxative Therapy Enables Verification of Clostridium difficile Clinical Testing Criteria and Reduction of Clostridium difficile Infection Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Cynthia Y; Gombar, Saurabh; Wilson, Richard; Sundararajan, Gopalakrishnan; Tekic, Natasa; Holubar, Marisa; Shepard, John; Madison, Alexandra; Tompkins, Lucy; Shah, Neil; Deresinski, Stan; Schroeder, Lee F; Banaei, Niaz

    2017-05-01

    Health care-onset health care facility-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) is overdiagnosed for several reasons, including the high prevalence of C. difficile colonization and the inability of hospitals to limit testing to patients with clinically significant diarrhea. We conducted a quasiexperimental study from 22 June 2015 to 30 June 2016 on consecutive inpatients with C. difficile test orders at an academic hospital. Real-time electronic patient data tracking was used by the laboratory to enforce testing criteria (defined as the presence of diarrhea [≥3 unformed stools in 24 h] and absence of laxative intake in the prior 48 h). Outcome measures included C. difficile test utilization, HO-CDI incidence, oral vancomycin utilization, and clinical complications. During the intervention, 7.1% (164) and 9.1% (211) of 2,321 C. difficile test orders were canceled due to absence of diarrhea and receipt of laxative therapy, respectively. C. difficile test utilization decreased upon implementation from an average of 208.8 tests to 143.0 tests per 10,000 patient-days ( P difficile results. Real-time electronic clinical data tracking is an effective tool for verification of C. difficile clinical testing criteria and safe reduction of inflated HO-CDI rates. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. A Comparison of Multiple Methods for Estimating Parasitemia of Hemogregarine Hemoparasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) and Its Application for Studying Infection in Natural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P.; Harris, D. James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in

  17. A comparison of multiple methods for estimating parasitemia of hemogregarine hemoparasites (apicomplexa: adeleorina and its application for studying infection in natural populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P Maia

    Full Text Available Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella, based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina. From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite

  18. A comparison of multiple methods for estimating parasitemia of hemogregarine hemoparasites (apicomplexa: adeleorina) and its application for studying infection in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P; Harris, D James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in

  19. Preliminary results on application of the multiple-scattering technique to electron--molecule scattering and molecular photoionization: the PI/sub g/ resonance in e-N2 scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1974-01-01

    A prototype calculation of the well-known 2.5-eV shape resonance in e-N 2 scattering was performed to test the usefulness of the multiple-scattering method for electronic continuum molecular wavefunctions. The results of this demanding test are very encouraging. (U.S.)

  20. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.-infected Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii): evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard M; Gregg, Jacob L; Hershberger, Paul K

    2010-04-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is "sandpaper" skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  1. Release of infectious cells from epidermal ulcers in Ichthyophonus sp.–infected Pacific Herring (Clupea pallasii): Evidence for multiple mechanisms of transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Kocan, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    A common clinical sign of ichthyophoniasis in herring and trout is “sandpaper” skin, a roughening of the epidermis characterized by the appearance of small papules, followed by ulceration and sloughing of the epithelium; early investigators hypothesized that these ulcers might be a means of transmitting the parasite, Ichthyophonus sp., without the necessity of ingesting an infected host. We examined the cells associated with the epidermal lesions and confirmed that they were viable Ichthyophonus sp. cells that were readily released from the skin into the mucous layer and ultimately into the aquatic environment. The released cells were infectious when injected into the body cavity of specific-pathogen-free herring. Our hypothesis is that different mechanisms of transmission occur in carnivorous and planktivorous hosts: Planktonic feeders become infected by ingestion of ulcer-derived cells, while carnivores become infected by ingestion of whole infected fish.

  2. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  3. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaobo; Jing, Yaqing; Wang, Jianhai; Li, Keqiu [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Yang, Qiaoyun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhao, Yuxia [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Li, Ran [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, Jie [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060 (China); Qiu, Xinghua, E-mail: xhqiu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory for Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Guang, E-mail: lig@tijmu.edu.cn [Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  4. Early infections in patients undergoing high-dose treatment with stem cell support: a comparison of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, A O; Arpi, M.; Gang, U.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    . The population included non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) patients. No patients received prophylactic antibacterial treatment. Results: Pathogens were isolated from 44% of all patients. MM patients more frequently had multiple pathogens in blood cultures (38% versus 25%). Transplantation...

  5. Does Categorization Method Matter in Exploring Volume-Outcome Relation? A Multiple Categorization Methods Comparison in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Tung, Yu-Chi; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2015-08-01

    Volume-infection relation studies have been published for high-risk surgical procedures, although the conclusions remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be caused by inconsistent categorization methods, the definitions of service volume, and different statistical approaches. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relation exists between provider volume and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgical site infection (SSI) using different categorization methods. A population-based cross-sectional multi-level study was conducted. A total of 10,405 patients who received CABG surgery between 2006 and 2008 in Taiwan were recruited. The outcome of interest was surgical site infection for CABG surgery. The associations among several patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics was examined. The definition of surgeons' and hospitals' service volume was the cumulative CABG service volumes in the previous year for each CABG operation and categorized by three types of approaches: Continuous, quartile, and k-means clustering. The results of multi-level mixed effects modeling showed that hospital volume had no association with SSI. Although the relation between surgeon volume and surgical site infection was negative, it was inconsistent among the different categorization methods. Categorization of service volume is an important issue in volume-infection study. The findings of the current study suggest that different categorization methods might influence the relation between volume and SSI. The selection of an optimal cutoff point should be taken into account for future research.

  6. Multiple viral/self immunological cross-reactivity in liver kidney microsomal antibody positive hepatitis C virus infected patients is associated with the possession of HLA B51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, D-P; Lenzi, M; Okamoto, M; Rigopoulou, E I; Muratori, P; Ma, Y; Muratori, L; Tsantoulas, D; Mieli- Vergani, G; Bianchi, F B; Vergani, D

    2004-01-01

    Liver Kidney Microsomal autoantibody type 1(LKM1) directed to cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) characterises autoimmune hepatitis type-2 (AIH-2), but is also found in a proportion of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients, CYP2D6252-271 being a major B- cell autoepitope. Molecular mimicry and immunological cross-reactivity between CYP2D6252-271, HCV polyprotein and the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have been suggested as triggers for the induction of LKM1, but reactivity and cross-reactivity to the relevant sequences have not been investigated experimentally. CYP2D6252-271 and its viral homologues were constructed and tested by ELISA in the sera of 46 chronically infected HCV patients, 23 of whom were LKM1 positive. Reactivity to the E1 HCV and ICP4 HSV1 mimics was frequently found in HCV infected patients irrespectively of their LKM1 status; viral/self cross-reactivity (as indicated by inhibition studies), however, was present in the only 2 of the 23 LKM1 seropositive HCV patients, who possessed the HLA allotype B51. Our results indicate that in HCV infected patients virus/self cross-reactivity is dependent on a specific immunogenetic background, a finding awaiting confirmation by studies in larger series of patients.

  7. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  8. Viral suppression of multiple escape mutants by de novo CD8+ T cell responses in a human immunodeficiency virus-1 Infected elite suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliciano Robert F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite suppressors or controllers (ES are HIV-1 infected patients who maintain undetectable viral loads without treatment. While HLA-B*57-positive ES are usually infected with virus that is unmutated at CTL epitopes, a single, dominant variant containing CTL escape mutations is typically seen in plasma during chronic infection. We describe an ES who developed seven distinct and rare escape variants at an HLA-B*57-restricted Gag epitope over a five year period. Interestingly, he developed proliferative, de novo CTL responses that suppressed replication of each of these variants. These responses, in combination with low viral fitness of each variant, may contribute to sustained elite control in this ES.

  9. Invasive Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese Girl with Disseminating Multiple Organ Infection: A Case Report and Review of Japanese Pediatric Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Yonezawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA infection is very serious and occasionally fatal. This infectious disease is still a relatively rare and unfamiliar infectious disease in Japan. We report a positive outcome in a 23-month-old Japanese girl with meningitis, osteomyelitis, fasciitis, necrotizing pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacteremia due to CA-MRSA treated with linezolid. PCR testing of the CA-MRSA strain was positive for PVL and staphylococcal enterotoxin b and negative for ACME. SCC mec was type IVa. This case underscores the selection of effective combinations of antimicrobial agents for its treatment. We need to be aware of invasive CA-MRSA infection, which rapidly progresses with a serious clinical course, because the incidence of the disease may be increasing in Japan.

  10. Environmental T4-Family Bacteriophages Evolve to Escape Abortive Infection via Multiple Routes in a Bacterial Host Employing "Altruistic Suicide" through Type III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihe; Akusobi, Chidiebere; Fang, Xinzhe; Salmond, George P C

    2017-01-01

    Abortive infection is an anti-phage mechanism employed by a bacterium to initiate its own death upon phage infection. This reduces, or eliminates, production of viral progeny and protects clonal siblings in the bacterial population by an act akin to an "altruistic suicide." Abortive infection can be mediated by a Type III toxin-antitoxin system called ToxIN Pa consisting of an endoribonuclease toxin and RNA antitoxin. ToxIN Pa is a heterohexameric quaternary complex in which pseudoknotted RNA inhibits the toxicity of the toxin until infection by certain phages causes destabilization of ToxIN Pa , leading to bacteriostasis and, eventually, lethality. However, it is still unknown why only certain phages are able to activate ToxIN Pa . To try to address this issue we first introduced ToxIN Pa into the Gram-negative enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 ( S 39006) and then isolated new environmental S 39006 phages that were scored for activation of ToxIN Pa and abortive infection capacity. We isolated three T4-like phages from a sewage treatment outflow point into the River Cam, each phage being isolated at least a year apart. These phages were susceptible to ToxIN Pa -mediated abortive infection but produced spontaneous "escape" mutants that were insensitive to ToxIN Pa . Analysis of these resistant mutants revealed three different routes of escaping ToxIN Pa , namely by mutating asiA (the product of which is a phage transcriptional co-activator); by mutating a conserved, yet functionally unknown, orf84 ; or by deleting a 6.5-10 kb region of the phage genome. Analysis of these evolved escape mutants may help uncover the nature of the corresponding phage product(s) involved in activation of ToxIN Pa .

  11. Multiple challenges of antibiotic use in a large hospital in Ethiopia - a ward-specific study showing high rates of hospital-acquired infections and ineffective prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutema, Girma; Håkonsen, Helle; Engidawork, Ephrem; Toverud, Else-Lydia

    2018-05-03

    This project aims to study the use of antibiotics in three clinical wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia for a period of 1 year. The specific aims were to assess the prevalence of patients on antibiotics, quantify the antibiotic consumption and identify the main indications of use. The material was all the medical charts (n = 2231) retrieved from three clinical wards (internal medicine, gynecology/obstetrics and surgery) in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa between September 2013 and September 2014. Data collection was performed manually by four pharmacists. Each medical chart represented one patient. About 60% of the patients were admitted to internal medicine, 20% to each of the other two wards. The number of bed days (BD) was on average 16.5. Antibiotics for systemic use were prescribed to 73.7% of the patients (on average: 2.1 antibiotics/patient) of whom 86.6% got a third or fourth generation cephalosporin (mainly ceftriaxone). The average consumption of antibiotics was 81.6 DDD/100BD, varying from 91.8 in internal medicine and 71.6 in surgery to 47.6 in gynecology/obstetrics. The five most frequently occurring infections were pneumonia (26.6%), surgical site infections (21.5%), neutropenic fever (6.9%), sepsis (6.4%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%). About one fourth of the prescriptions were for prophylactic purposes. Hospital acquired infections occurred in 23.5% of the patients (353 cases of surgical site infection). The prescribing was based on empirical treatment and sensitivity testing was reported in only 3.8% of the cases. In the present study from three wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia, three out of four patients were prescribed antibiotics, primarily empirically. The mean antibiotic consumption was 81.6 DDD/100BD. Surgical site infections constituted a large burden of the infections treated in the hospital, despite extensive prescribing of prophylaxis. The findings show

  12. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression inhibits cytochrome c release, activation of multiple caspases, and virus release following coxsackievirus B3 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carthy, Christopher M.; Yanagawa, Bobby; Luo Honglin; Granville, David J.; Yang, Decheng; Cheung, Paul; Cheung, Caroline; Esfandiarei, Mitra; Rudin, Charles M.; Thompson, Craig B.; Hunt, David W.C.; McManus, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3, a cytopathic virus in the family Picornaviridae, induces degenerative changes in host cell morphology. Here we demonstrate cytochrome c release and caspases-2, -3, -6, -7, -8, and -9 processing. Enforced Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression markedly reduced release of cytochrome c, presentation of the mitochondrial epitope 7A6, and depressed caspase activation following infection. In comparison, cell death using TRAIL ligand caused caspase-8 processing prior to cytochrome c release and executioner caspases and cell death was only partially rescued by Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression. Disruption of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential following CVB3 infection was not inhibited by zVAD.fmk treatment. Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL overexpression or zVAD.fmk treatment delayed the loss of host cell viability and decreased progeny virus release following infection. Our data suggest that mitochondrial release of cytochrome c may be an important early event in caspase activation in CVB3 infection, and, as such, may contribute to the loss of host-cell viability and progeny virus release

  13. Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic infective endocarditis and cardiac implantable electronic device infection: comparison of different interpretation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Ballve, Ana; Jesus Perez-Castejon, Maria; Carreras-Delgado, Jose L. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Delgado-Bolton, Roberto C. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); San Pedro Hospital and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), University of La Rioja, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine, La Rioja (Spain); Sanchez-Enrique, Cristina; Vilacosta, Isidre; Vivas, David; Olmos, Carmen [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Manuel E.F. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Research Unit, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    The diagnosis of prosthetic valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) and infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in these patients and analyse the interpretation criteria. We included 41 patients suspected of having IE by the Duke criteria who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The criteria applied for classifying the findings as positive/negative for IE were: (a) visual analysis of only PET images with attenuation-correction (AC PET images); (b) visual analysis of both AC PET images and PET images without AC (NAC PET images); (c) qualitative analysis of NAC PET images; and (d) semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was considered positive for IE independently of the intensity and distribution of FDG uptake. The gold standard was the Duke pathological criteria (if tissue was available) or the decision of an endocarditis expert team after a minimum 4 months follow-up. We studied 62 areas with suspicion of IE, 28 areas (45 %) showing definite IE and 34 (55 %) showing possible IE. Visual analysis of only AC PET images showed poor diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 20 %, specificity 57 %). Visual analysis of both AC PET and NAC PET images showed excellent sensitivity (100 %) and intermediate specificity (73 %), focal uptake being more frequently associated with IE. The accuracy of qualitative analysis of NAC PET images depended on the threshold: the maximum sensitivity, specificity and accuracy achieved were 88 %, 80 %, 84 %, respectively. In the semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images, SUVmax was higher in areas of confirmed IE than in those without IE (∇SUVmax 2.2, p < 0.001). When FDG uptake was twice that in the liver, IE was always confirmed, and SUVmax 5.5 was the optimal threshold for IE diagnosis using ROC curve analysis (area under the curve 0.71). The value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of suspected IE of PVs

  14. Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of "1"8F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic infective endocarditis and cardiac implantable electronic device infection: comparison of different interpretation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Ballve, Ana; Jesus Perez-Castejon, Maria; Carreras-Delgado, Jose L.; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto C.; Sanchez-Enrique, Cristina; Vilacosta, Isidre; Vivas, David; Olmos, Carmen; Ferrer, Manuel E.F.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of prosthetic valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) and infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of "1"8F-FDG PET/CT in these patients and analyse the interpretation criteria. We included 41 patients suspected of having IE by the Duke criteria who underwent "1"8F-FDG PET/CT. The criteria applied for classifying the findings as positive/negative for IE were: (a) visual analysis of only PET images with attenuation-correction (AC PET images); (b) visual analysis of both AC PET images and PET images without AC (NAC PET images); (c) qualitative analysis of NAC PET images; and (d) semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images. "1"8F-FDG PET/CT was considered positive for IE independently of the intensity and distribution of FDG uptake. The gold standard was the Duke pathological criteria (if tissue was available) or the decision of an endocarditis expert team after a minimum 4 months follow-up. We studied 62 areas with suspicion of IE, 28 areas (45 %) showing definite IE and 34 (55 %) showing possible IE. Visual analysis of only AC PET images showed poor diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 20 %, specificity 57 %). Visual analysis of both AC PET and NAC PET images showed excellent sensitivity (100 %) and intermediate specificity (73 %), focal uptake being more frequently associated with IE. The accuracy of qualitative analysis of NAC PET images depended on the threshold: the maximum sensitivity, specificity and accuracy achieved were 88 %, 80 %, 84 %, respectively. In the semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images, SUVmax was higher in areas of confirmed IE than in those without IE (∇SUVmax 2.2, p < 0.001). When FDG uptake was twice that in the liver, IE was always confirmed, and SUVmax 5.5 was the optimal threshold for IE diagnosis using ROC curve analysis (area under the curve 0.71). The value of "1"8F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of suspected IE of PVs and CIEDs is

  15. Multiple electronic permanent turbogenerator for turbine engines of the 90th. Final report; MED-Turbogeneratoren fuer Stroemungskraftmaschinen der 90er Jahre. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, G.

    1997-12-01

    Present state of research and technology: Usually generators are coupled over a reduction gear to high-speed gas turbines. Independent of the load requirements the number of revolutions of the gas turbine must remain constant and rigidly coupled to the frequency. In the partial load range the efficiency of the gas turbine sinks substantially. Reason/objective of the investigation: This project is supposed to prove the feasibility and the functionality of a turbogenerator (TG) in Multiple Electronic Permanent Magnet (MED) construction principle, which is directly coupled to the high-speed drive turbine. Further on the preconditions for the construction of prototypes in the size class 20 kW up to 100 kW as well as 100 kW to 1 MW should be created. Method: Preliminary investigation, dimensioning, calculation and construction of a 40 kW and a 400 kW (MED) turbogenerator. Production and commissioning of one operating model each. Production and/or procurement as well as construction of necessary testing facilities. Experimental proof of the target data. Results: 3 operating models including power electroncis and necessary periphery were manufactured, measured and tested at the test stand. The projected data: rated voltage and rated output power could be proven experimentally. Conclusion/application possibilities: The MED turbogenerator represents a compact construction principle (weight and volume advantages). Direct coupling on the shaft of the drive turbine is possible (high efficiency; reduction gear is void; noise minimisation). In connection with a static inverter a constant frequency independently of the number of revolutions of the drive turbine can be achieved. Althogether, compared with conventional technology, one can expect around 3-5% reduced fuel consumption. The TG can be applied both in stationary electrical power units and plants for decentralised cogeneration as well as mobilely for the electric drive of heavy trucks and buses. (orig.) [Deutsch

  16. A multiple dating approach (luminescence and electron spin resonance) to assess rates of crustal deformation using Quaternary fluvial terraces of the lower Moulouya River (NE Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Melanie; Rixhon, Gilles; Duval, Mathieu; King, Georgina; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    The Moulouya River, the largest catchment in Morocco, drains an area characterized by active crustal deformation during the Late Cenozoic due to the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. Our study focuses on the lowermost reach of the river in NE Morocco, where a thrust zone associated with N-S compressive shortening in this region was identified (Barcos et al., 2014; Rixhon et al., 2017). New geomorphological results demonstrate contrasting fluvial environments on each side of the thrust: long-lasting fluvial aggradation, materialized by >37 m-thick stacked fill terraces, and the development of a well-preserved terrace staircase, with three Pleistocene terrace levels, occurred in the footwall and the hanging wall, respectively (Rixhon et al., 2017). Here, we present a preliminary geochronological background for these contrasting terrace systems based on a multiple dating approach. Samples for (i) luminescence (pIRIR225 and pIRIR290 dating of coarse-grained K-feldspars) and (ii) electron spin resonance (ESR dating of coarse-grained quartz) from four different profiles were collected. (i) Due to the application of the athermal detrapping model by Huntley (2006) (modified after Kars et al., 2008), it appears that the feldspar signals are in sample specific field saturation. Our results yielded minimum ages of 0.9 Ma and 0.7 Ma for the footwall and hanging wall, respectively. (ii) Using the multiple centre approach with ESR dating (Duval et al., 2015), we measured both the aluminium (Al) and the titanium (Ti) centres in order to evaluate whether they would provide consistent results. Results indicate that De values of the Al centre are either slightly higher compared to those of the Ti centre or they agree within a 1σ-error range, which may simply be due to the slower bleaching kinetics of the Al centre. Thus, the ESR ages were inferred from the Ti centre. Ages between 1.35±0.10 and 1.17±0.10 Ma in the footwall show sediment aggradation between MIS

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Five Competing Strategies for the Management of Multiple Recurrent Community-Onset Clostridium difficile Infection in France

    OpenAIRE

    Baro, Emilie; Galperine, Tatiana; Denies, Fanette; Lannoy, Damien; Lenne, Xavier; Odou, Pascal; Guery, Benoit; Dervaux, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by high rates of recurrence, resulting in substantial health care costs. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatments for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI in France. Methods We developed a decision-analytic simulation model to compare 5 treatments for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI: pulsed-tapered vancomycin, fidaxomicin, fecal microbiota transpl...

  18. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...

  19. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Infective Endocarditis Menu Topics Topics FAQs Infective Endocarditis En español Infective endocarditis is an infection of ... time, congestive heart failure (CHF). What causes infective endocarditis? The infection that leads to endocarditis can be ...

  20. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  1. Multiplicity of secondary electrons emitted by carbon thin targets by impact of H0, H2+ and H3+ projectiles at MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, Zvonimir

    1997-01-01

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H 0 , H 2 + and H 3 + projectiles in the 0.25 - 2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. Phenomenological and theoretical descriptions as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subjects of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of the thin carbon foils crossed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter there are also presented the method and the algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H 0 atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H 2 + and H 3 + polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of the ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ions fragments, upon the amplitude of these collected effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. The experiments allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion interactions with solid surfaces. (author)

  2. Rapid differentiation of rocky mountain spotted fever from chickenpox, measles, and enterovirus infections and bacterial meningitis by frequency-pulsed electron capture gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J B; McDade, J E; Alley, C C

    1981-01-01

    Normal sera and sera from patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, chickenpox, enterovirus infections, measles, and Neisseria meningitidis infections were extracted with organic solvents under acidic and basic conditions and then derivatized with trichloroethanol or heptafluorobutyric anhydride-ethanol to form electron-capturing derivatives of organic acids, alcohols, and amines. The derivatives were analyzed by frequency-pulsed electron capture gas-liquid chromatography (FPEC-GLC). There were unique differences in the FPEC-GLC profiles of sera obtained from patients with these respective diseases. With Rocky Mountain spotted fever patients, typical profiles were detected as early as 1 day after onset of disease and before antibody could be detected in the serum. Rapid diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever by FPEC-GLC could permit early and effective therapy, thus preventing many deaths from this disease. PMID:7276147

  3. Multiple Introduction and Naturally Occuring Drug Resistance of HCV among HIV-Infected Intravenous Drug Users in Yunnan: An Origin of China's HIV/HCV Epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 epidemic in China historically stemmed from intravenous drug users (IDUs in Yunnan. Due to a shared transmission route, hepatitis C virus (HCV/HIV-1 co-infection is common. Here, we investigated HCV genetic characteristics and baseline drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan.Blood samples of 432 HIV-1/HCV co-infected IDUs were collected from January to June 2014 in six prefectures of Yunnan Province. Partial E1E2 and NS5B genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic, evolutionary and genotypic drug resistance analyses were performed.Among the 293 specimens successfully genotyped, seven subtypes were identified, including subtypes 3b (37.9%, 111/293, 3a (21.8%, 64/293, 6n (14.0%, 41/293, 1b (10.6%, 31/293, 1a (8.2%, 24/293, 6a (5.1%, 15/293 and 6u (2.4%, 7/293. The distribution of HCV subtypes was mostly related to geographic location. Subtypes 3b, 3a, and 6n were detected in all six prefectures, however, the other four subtypes were detected only in parts of the six prefectures. Phylogeographic analyses indicated that 6n, 1a and 6u originated in the western prefecture (Dehong and spread eastward and showed genetic relatedness with those detected in Burmese. However, 6a originated in the southeast prefectures (Honghe and Wenshan bordering Vietnam and was transmitted westward. These subtypes exhibited different evolutionary rates (between 4.35×10-4 and 2.38×10-3 substitutions site-1 year-1 and times of most recent common ancestor (tMRCA, between 1790.3 and 1994.6, suggesting that HCV was multiply introduced into Yunnan. Naturally occurring resistance-associated mutations (C316N, A421V, C445F, I482L, V494A, and V499A to NS5B polymerase inhibitors were detected in direct-acting antivirals (DAAs-naïve IDUs.This work reveals the temporal-spatial distribution of HCV subtypes and baseline HCV drug resistance among HIV-infected IDUs in Yunnan. The findings enhance our understanding of the characteristics and

  4. Multiple factors interact to produce responses resembling spectrum of human disease in Campylobacter jejuni infected C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf John E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni infection produces a spectrum of clinical presentations in humans – including asymptomatic carriage, watery diarrhea, and bloody diarrhea – and has been epidemiologically associated with subsequent autoimmune neuropathies. This microorganism is genetically variable and possesses genetic mechanisms that may contribute to variability in nature. However, relationships between genetic variation in the pathogen and variation in disease manifestation in the host are not understood. We took a comparative experimental approach to explore differences among different C. jejuni strains and studied the effect of diet on disease manifestation in an interleukin-10 deficient mouse model. Results In the comparative study, C57BL/6 interleukin-10-/- mice were infected with seven genetically distinct C. jejuni strains. Four strains colonized the mice and caused disease; one colonized with no disease; two did not colonize. A DNA:DNA microarray comparison of the strain that colonized mice without disease to C. jejuni 11168 that caused disease revealed that putative virulence determinants, including loci encoding surface structures known to be involved in C. jejuni pathogenesis, differed from or were absent in the strain that did not cause disease. In the experimental study, the five colonizing strains were passaged four times in mice. For three strains, serial passage produced increased incidence and degree of pathology and decreased time to develop pathology; disease shifted from watery to bloody diarrhea. Mice kept on an ~6% fat diet or switched from an ~12% fat diet to an ~6% fat diet just before infection with a non-adapted strain also exhibited increased incidence and severity of disease and decreased time to develop disease, although the effects of diet were only statistically significant in one experiment. Conclusion C. jejuni strain genetic background and adaptation of the strain to the host by serial passage

  5. Electron transport in unipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Browne, David A.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Speck, James S.

    2015-01-01

    on electron transport through quantum well active regions. These unipolar structures served as a test vehicle to test our 2D model of the effect of compositional fluctuations on polarization-induced barriers. Variables that were systematically studied included

  6. Assessment of Accrued Damage and Remaining Useful Life in Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Multiple Thermal Environments of Thermal Aging and Thermal Cycling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method has been developed for prognostication of accrued prior damage in electronics subjected to overlapping sequential environments of thermal aging and thermal...

  7. Successful treatment of multifocal pedal infection in a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat with multiple Bowenoid in situ carcinomas containing papillomaviral DNA sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Allan E Kessell; Derek McNair; John S Munday; Richard Savory; Catriona Halliday; Richard Malik

    2017-01-01

    Case summary A 16-year-old, castrated male, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive, domestic shorthair cat developed multiple skin lesions. Most of these were Bowenoid carcinoma in situ and contained DNA sequences consistent with Felis catus papillomavirus type 2. Two additional lesions that developed in the skin and subcutaneous tissues between the digital and carpal pads on the left forelimb and right hindlimb were shown by cytology, histology and culture to be caused by Prototheca wi...

  8. R5-SHIV induces multiple defects in T cell function during early infection of rhesus macaques including accumulation of T reg cells in lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santosuosso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV infection, immune dysregulation of antigen-specific T-effector cell and regulatory functions would be detectable and that these would be associated or correlated with measurable concentrations of HIV-1gp120 in lymphoid tissues.Rhesus macaques were intravaginally inoculated with a Clade C CCR5-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipd3N4. HIV-1gp120 levels, antigen-specificity, levels of apoptosis/anergy and frequency and function of Tregs were examined in lymph node and blood derived T cells at 5 and 12 weeks post inoculation.We observed reduced responses to Gag in CD4 and gp120 in CD8 lymph node-derived T cells compared to the peripheral blood at 5 weeks post-inoculation. Reduced antigen-specific responses were associated with higher levels of PD-1 on lymph node-derived CD4 T cells as compared to peripheral blood and uninfected lymph node-derived CD4 T cells. Lymph nodes contained increased numbers of Tregs as compared to peripheral blood, which positively correlated with gp120 levels; T regulatory cell depletion restored CD8 T cell responses to Gag but not to gp120. HIV gp120 was also able to induce T regulatory cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent, CCR5-mediated manner. These studies contribute to our broader understanding of the ways in which HIV-1 dysregulates T cell function and localization during early infection.

  9. Optimising and evaluating the characteristics of a multiple antigen ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a badger vaccine field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Aznar

    Full Text Available A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM. The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%, while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation.

  10. Successful treatment of multifocal pedal infection in a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat with multiple Bowenoid in situ carcinomas containing papillomaviral DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan E Kessell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 16-year-old, castrated male, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-positive, domestic shorthair cat developed multiple skin lesions. Most of these were Bowenoid carcinoma in situ and contained DNA sequences consistent with Felis catus papillomavirus type 2. Two additional lesions that developed in the skin and subcutaneous tissues between the digital and carpal pads on the left forelimb and right hindlimb were shown by cytology, histology and culture to be caused by Prototheca wickerhamii . These lesions failed to improve in response to systemic therapy treatment with itraconazole, but excision by sharp en bloc resection with follow-up oral itraconazole therapy proved curative for one lesion, although the other lesion recurred, necessitating a second surgery. Relevance and novel information This is only the second reported case of feline protothecosis from Australia and the first case that has been cultured and identified to the species level. Also of great interest was the presence of multiple papillomavirus-associated neoplastic lesions, which may have afforded a portal of entry for the algal pathogen and the cat’s positive FIV status; the latter might have impacted on both viral and algal pathogenesis by effects on immunocompetence.

  11. Successful treatment of multifocal pedal Prototheca wickerhamii infection in a feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat with multiple Bowenoid in situ carcinomas containing papillomaviral DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessell, Allan E; McNair, Derek; Munday, John S; Savory, Richard; Halliday, Catriona; Malik, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Case summary A 16-year-old, castrated male, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-positive, domestic shorthair cat developed multiple skin lesions. Most of these were Bowenoid carcinoma in situ and contained DNA sequences consistent with Felis catus papillomavirus type 2. Two additional lesions that developed in the skin and subcutaneous tissues between the digital and carpal pads on the left forelimb and right hindlimb were shown by cytology, histology and culture to be caused by Prototheca wickerhamii. These lesions failed to improve in response to systemic therapy treatment with itraconazole, but excision by sharp en bloc resection with follow-up oral itraconazole therapy proved curative for one lesion, although the other lesion recurred, necessitating a second surgery. Relevance and novel information This is only the second reported case of feline protothecosis from Australia and the first case that has been cultured and identified to the species level. Also of great interest was the presence of multiple papillomavirus-associated neoplastic lesions, which may have afforded a portal of entry for the algal pathogen and the cat’s positive FIV status; the latter might have impacted on both viral and algal pathogenesis by effects on immunocompetence. PMID:28491447

  12. CTL epitope distribution patterns in the Gag and Nef proteins of HIV-1 from subtype A infected subjects in Kenya: Use of multiple peptide sets increases the detectable breadth of the CTL response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birx Deborah L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtype A is a major strain in the HIV-1 pandemic in eastern Europe, central Asia and in certain regions of east Africa, notably in rural Kenya. While considerable effort has been focused upon mapping and defining immunodominant CTL epitopes in HIV-1 subtype B and subtype C infections, few epitope mapping studies have focused upon subtype A. Results We have used the IFN-γ ELIspot assay and overlapping peptide pools to show that the pattern of CTL recognition of the Gag and Nef proteins in subtype A infection is similar to that seen in subtypes B and C. The p17 and p24 proteins of Gag and the central conserved region of Nef were targeted by CTL from HIV-1-infected Kenyans. Several epitope/HLA associations commonly seen in subtype B and C infection were also observed in subtype A infections. Notably, an immunodominant HLA-C restricted epitope (Gag 296–304; YL9 was observed, with 8/9 HLA-CW0304 subjects responding to this epitope. Screening the cohort with peptide sets representing subtypes A, C and D (the three most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes in east Africa, revealed that peptide sets based upon an homologous subtype (either isolate or consensus only marginally improved the capacity to detect CTL responses. While the different peptide sets detected a similar number of responses (particularly in the Gag protein, each set was capable of detecting unique responses not identified with the other peptide sets. Conclusion Hence, screening with multiple peptide sets representing different sequences, and by extension different epitope variants, can increase the detectable breadth of the HIV-1-specific CTL response. Interpreting the true extent of cross-reactivity may be hampered by the use of 15-mer peptides at a single concentration and a lack of knowledge of the sequence that primed any given CTL response. Therefore, reagent choice and knowledge of the exact sequences that prime CTL responses will be important factors in

  13. Potential of berberine to enhance antimicrobial activity of commonly used antibiotics for dairy cow mastitis caused by multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Yang, C; Li, Y; Liu, X; Wang, Y

    2015-08-19

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of berberine against multi-drug resistant field isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated using berberine alone or in combination with a commonly used antibiotics in veterinary clinics, including penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin. The results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of berberine, penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin against field S. epidermidis isolates were 2-512, 0.8-213, 0.4-1024, and 0.4-256 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates were observed when the berberine was combined with penicillin, lincomycin, or amoxicillin; no antagonistic effect of the combination was detected in any of the clinical isolates. These observations were further confirmed using a time-killing assay, in which a combination of 2 agents yielded a greater than 2.03-2.44 log10 decrease in colony-forming unit/mL compared with each agent alone. These findings suggest that berberine is a promising compound for preventing and treating multi-drug resistant S. epidermidis infected mastitis in dairy cows either alone or in combination with other commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin.

  14. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  15. Molecular evidence of the multiple genotype infection of a wild Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis) by Babesia sp. UR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnai, Michio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakajima, Rui; Hirata, Haruyuki; Fujisawa, Kohei; Shiraki, Hiromi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Nasuno, Toyohiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2010-10-11

    A frozen-stored blood clot of a wild brown bear cub Ursus arctos yesoensis that had been captured in Hokkaido, Japan was examined for piroplasma infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two 18S ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequences were generated. One 1565-bp sequence showed the highest similarity with B. gibsoni (95.9% identity) but, phylogenetically, was found to belong to a distinct lineage. The other sequence (1709-bp) could not be definitively assigned to a described taxon, sharing only limited homology to the closest named species (90.1% identity with C. felis). In order to enhance information obtained from the SSU rDNA sequence, further detection and sequence analysis of the CCTeta gene sequence were done revealing the simultaneous presence of three closely related genotypes (all in a monophyletic lineage) within a single bear host. This finding suggested the possibility that a new Babesia species (Babesia sp. UR1) might have been maintained in nature in wild brown bears. While the parasite's biology is yet unknown, to our knowledge, this is, excepting the single case documentation in 1910 of a hemoparasite in a bear at Russian zoo, the first reported case of piroplasms inhabiting a bear species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous assessment of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against multiple viral infections by combined usage of optimal epitope matrices, anti- CD3 mAb T-cell expansion and "RecycleSpot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Johnson T

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assessment of cellular anti-viral immunity is often hampered by the limited availability of adequate samples, especially when attempting simultaneous, high-resolution determination of T cell responses against multiple viral infections. Thus, the development of assay systems, which optimize cell usage, while still allowing for the detailed determination of breadth and magnitude of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses, is urgently needed. This study provides an up-to-date listing of currently known, well-defined viral CTL epitopes for HIV, EBV, CMV, HCV and HBV and describes an approach that overcomes some of the above limitations through the use of peptide matrices of optimally defined viral CTL epitopes in combination with anti-CD3 in vitro T cell expansion and re-use of cells from negative ELISpot wells. The data show that, when compared to direct ex vivo cell preparations, antigen-unspecific in vitro T cell expansion maintains the breadth of detectable T cell responses and demonstrates that harvesting cells from negative ELISpot wells for re-use in subsequent ELISpot assays (RecycleSpot, further maximized the use of available cells. Furthermore when combining T cell expansion and RecycleSpot with the use of rationally designed peptide matrices, antiviral immunity against more than 400 different CTL epitopes from five different viruses can be reproducibly assessed from samples of less than 10 milliliters of blood without compromising information on the breadth and magnitude of these responses. Together, these data support an approach that facilitates the assessment of cellular immunity against multiple viral co-infections in settings where sample availability is severely limited.

  17. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Small Copper Wire Insulation due to Multiple-Sided Irradiations by 0.4 MeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg

    1979-01-01

    When scanned electron beams are used to crosslink polymeric insulation of wire and cable, an important goal is to achieve optimum uniformity of absorbed dose distributions. Accurate measurements of dose distributions in a plastic dosimeter simulating a typical insulating material (polyethylene......) surrounding a copper wire core show that equal irradiations from as few as four sides give approximately isotropy and satisfactorily uniform energy depositions around the wire circumference. Electron beams of 0.4 MeV maximum energy were used to irradiate wires having a copper core of 1.0 mm dia....... and insulation thicknesses between 0.4 and 0.8 mm. The plastic dosimeter simulating polyethylene insulations was a thin radiochromic polyvinyl butyral film wrapped several times around the copper wire, such that when unwrapped and analyzed optically on a scanning microspectrophotometer, high-resolution radial...

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Five Competing Strategies for the Management of Multiple Recurrent Community-Onset Clostridium difficile Infection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro, Emilie; Galperine, Tatiana; Denies, Fanette; Lannoy, Damien; Lenne, Xavier; Odou, Pascal; Guery, Benoit; Dervaux, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is characterized by high rates of recurrence, resulting in substantial health care costs. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatments for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI in France. We developed a decision-analytic simulation model to compare 5 treatments for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI: pulsed-tapered vancomycin, fidaxomicin, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) via colonoscopy, FMT via duodenal infusion, and FMT via enema. The model outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) among the 5 treatments. ICERs were interpreted using a willingness-to-pay threshold of €32,000/QALY. Uncertainty was evaluated through deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Three strategies were on the efficiency frontier: pulsed-tapered vancomycin, FMT via enema, and FMT via colonoscopy, in order of increasing effectiveness. FMT via duodenal infusion and fidaxomicin were dominated (i.e. less effective and costlier) by FMT via colonoscopy and FMT via enema. FMT via enema compared with pulsed-tapered vancomycin had an ICER of €18,092/QALY. The ICER for FMT via colonoscopy versus FMT via enema was €73,653/QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis with 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations showed that FMT via enema was the most cost-effective strategy in 58% of simulations and FMT via colonoscopy was favored in 19% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €32,000/QALY. FMT via enema is the most cost-effective initial strategy for the management of second recurrence of community-onset CDI at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €32,000/QALY.

  19. Determination of the Antimicrobial Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Nosocomial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sarmadyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science of identification and employment of medicinal plants dates back to the early days of man on earth. Cannabis (hashish is the most common illegal substance used in the United States and was subjected to extensive research as a powerful local disinfecting agent for mouth cavity and skin and an anti-tubercular agent in 1950. Methods: Clinical strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Arak. The hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis (5 g was prepared following liquid-liquid method and drying in 45˚C. The antimicrobial properties of the extract were determined through disk diffusion and determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. Results: First, the sensitivity of bacteria was detected based on disk diffusion method and the zone of inhibition was obtained for MRSA (12 mm, S.aureus 25923 (14 mm, E. coli ESBL+: (10 mm, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 mm. Disk diffusion for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter demonstrated no inhibitory zones. Through Broth dilution method, MIC of cannabis extract on the bacteria was determined: E.coli 25922: 50µg/ml, E.coli ESBL+:100 µg/ml, S.aureus 25923:25 µg/ml, MRSA: 50 µg/ml, Pseudomona aeroginosaESBL+> 100 µg/ml, Pseudomonas: 100 µg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 100 µg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii> 1000. Conclusion: The maximum anti-microbial effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of cannabis was seen for gram positive cocci, especially S. aureus, whereas non-fermentative gram negatives presented resistance to the extract. This extract had intermediate effect on Enterobacteriacae family. Cannabis components extracted through chemical analysis can perhaps be effective in treatment of nosocomial infections.

  20. Using the diffusion of innovations theory to assess socio-technical factors in planning the implementation of an electronic health record alert across multiple primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Pin; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle; Keppel, Gina A; Dobie, Sharon; Osborn, Justin; Cole, Allison M; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2016-04-15

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a leading cause of death in the United States. Patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at particular risk because many medications are cleared by the kidneys. Alerts in the electronic health record (EHR) about drug appropriateness and dosing at the time of prescription have been shown to reduce ADEs for patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD in inpatient settings, but more research is needed about the implementation and effectiveness of such alerts in outpatient settings.  To explore factors that might inform the implementation of an electronic drug-disease alert for patients with CKD in primary care clinics, using Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory as an analytic framework. Interviews were conducted with key informants in four diverse clinics using various EHR systems. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. results Although all clinics had a current method for calculating glomerular filtration rate (GFR), clinics were heterogeneous with regard to current electronic decision support practices, quality improvement resources, and organizational culture and structure. Understanding variation in organizational culture and infrastructure across primary care clinics is important in planning implementation of an intervention to reduce ADEs among patients with CKD.

  1. Glutathione may have implications in the design of 3-bromopyruvate treatment protocols for both fungal and algal infections as well as multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecka, Katarzyna; Dyląg, Mariusz; Augustyniak, Daria; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grażyna; Cal-Bąkowska, Magdalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Goffeau, Andre; Ułaszewski, Stanisław

    2016-10-04

    In different fungal and algal species, the intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) correlates closely with their susceptibility to killing by the small molecule alkylating agent 3-bromopyruvate (3BP). Additionally, in the case of Cryptococcus neoformans cells 3BP exhibits a synergistic effect with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a known GSH depletion agent. This effect was observed when 3BP and BSO were used together at concentrations respectively of 4-5 and almost 8 times lower than their Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Finally, at different concentrations of 3BP (equal to the half-MIC, MIC and double-MIC in a case of fungi, 1 mM and 2.5 mM for microalgae and 25, 50, 100 μM for human multiple myeloma (MM) cells), a significant decrease in GSH concentration is observed inside microorganisms as well as tumor cells. In contrast to the GSH concentration decrease, the presence of 3BP at concentrations corresponding to sub-MIC values or half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) clearly results in increasing the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of GSH in Cryptococcus neoformans and MM cells. Moreover, as shown for the first time in the MM cell model, the drastic decrease in the ATP level and GSH concentration and the increase in the amount of ROS caused by 3BP ultimately results in cell death.

  2. Antimicrobial multiple resistance index, minimum inhibitory concentrations, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Zappa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteus spp. are opportunistic multidrug resistant enterobacteria associated with diverse clinical diseases in domestic animals. However, Proteus infections in domestic animals are often misdiagnosed or considered contaminants in microbiological cultures rather than a primary agent of disease. Descriptions of Proteus infections in domestic animals are typically restricted to case reports, retrospective studies, or surveillance of other microorganisms. The present study investigated multiple antibiotic resistance indices, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and ESBL production in 73 strains of Proteus mirabilis (n = 69 and Proteus vulgaris (n = 4 isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations. In dogs, the pathogen was most commonly associated with cystitis (48.21, enteritis (21.42%, otitis (14.29%, and conjunctivitis (3.57%. In bovines, the microorganism was predominant in cases of enteritis (22.22%, abscess (11.11%, otitis (11.11%, omphalitis (11.11%, and peritonitis (11.11%, and in organ fragments (11.11%. In equines (50.0% and cats (100.0%, diarrhea was the main clinical sign. In vitro standard disk diffusion assay showed that the most effective antimicrobials against the isolates were imipenem (98.63, norfloxacin (95.89, amikacin (95.89, levofloxacin (90.41, ceftriaxone (87.64, and florfenicol (87.67. In contrast, the isolates commonly showed resistance to novobiocin (95.89, azithromycin (57.53, and trimethropim/sulfamethoxazole (39.73. Among the 73 isolates, the efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin according to MICs was 87.67%, 86.30%, 84.93%, and 82.19%, respectively. The MIC50 values of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were, respectively, 1.0, 0.004, 0.03, and 1.0 µg/mL. Thirty-three strains (45.21% showed a antimicrobial multiple resistance index of ? 0.3. Multidrug resistance profiles of isolates were observed most frequently

  3. Effects of multiple electronic shells on strong-field multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-dependent density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, S.-I

    2009-01-01

    We present a time-dependent density-functional theory approach with proper long-range potential for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules N 2 and F 2 in intense short laser pulse fields with arbitrary molecular orientation. We show that the contributions of inner molecular orbitals to the total MPI probability can be sufficiently large or even dominant over the highest-occupied molecular orbital, depending on detailed electronic structure and symmetry, laser field intensity, and orientation angle. The multielectron effects in HHG are also very important. They are responsible for enhanced HHG at some orientations of the molecular axis. Even strongly bound electrons may have a significant influence on the HHG process.

  4. Completely assembled virus particles detected by transmission electron microscopy in proximal and mid-axons of neurons infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jialing; Lazear, Helen M.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of alphaherpesviruses during anterograde axonal transport from the neuron cell body towards the axon terminus is controversial. Reports suggest that transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids and envelope proteins occurs in separate compartments and that complete virions form at varicosities or axon termini (subassembly transport model), while transport of a related alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV) occurs as enveloped capsids in vesicles (assembled transport model). Transmission electron microscopy of proximal and mid-axons of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was used to compare anterograde axonal transport of HSV-1, HSV-2 and PRV. SCG cell bodies were infected with HSV-1 NS and 17, HSV-2 2.12 and PRV Becker. Fully assembled virus particles were detected intracellularly within vesicles in proximal and mid-axons adjacent to microtubules after infection with each virus, indicating that assembled virions are transported anterograde within axons for all three alphaherpesviruses.

  5. An improved energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams based on multiple accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Andreo, P.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.; Bielajew, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretically based analytical energy-range relationship has been developed and calibrated against well established experimental and Monte Carlo calculated energy-range data. Only published experimental data with a clear statement of accuracy and method of evaluation have been used. Besides published experimental range data for different uniform media, new accurate experimental data on the practical range of high-energy electron beams in water for the energy range 10-50 MeV from accurately calibrated racetrack microtrons have been used. Largely due to the simultaneous pooling of accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data for different materials, the fit has resulted in an increased accuracy of the resultant energy-range relationship, particularly at high energies. Up to date Monte Carlo data from the latest versions of the codes ITS3 and EGS4 for absorbers of atomic numbers between four and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, PMMA, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U) and incident electron energies between 1 and 100 MeV have been used as a complement where experimental data are sparse or missing. The standard deviation of the experimental data relative to the new relation is slightly larger than that of the Monte Carlo data. This is partly due to the fact that theoretically based stopping and scattering cross-sections are used both to account for the material dependence of the analytical energy-range formula and to calculate ranges with the Monte Carlo programs. For water the deviation from the traditional energy-range relation of ICRU Report 35 is only 0.5% at 20 MeV but as high as - 2.2% at 50 MeV. An improved method for divergence and ionization correction in high-energy electron beams has also been developed to enable use of a wider range of experimental results. (Author)

  6. On the nature of the electronic effect of multiple hydroxyl groups in the 6-membered ring - the effects are additive but steric hindrance plays a role too

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Bols, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Research during the last two decades has shown a remarkable directional component of the substituent effects of hydroxy groups, which has a profound effect on the properties of hydroxylated compounds such as carbohydrates. While the epimerisation of a single hydroxyl function is well studied...... synthesized and their pKa and conformation were studied. The results show that the large difference in the electronic effect between the axial and equatorial hydroxyls is partially cancelled by counteracting steric hindrance from 1,3-diaxial interactions. Hydrogen bonding does not appear to play any role...

  7. Usage of shape of signal from liquid ionization chamber for rejection delta electrons and multiple measurement of dE/d x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinich, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of numerical simulation of separation of different kinds of charged particles with β 2 cm) ionization liquid medium chamber is proposed to be used for rejection of energetic delta electrons and for few measurements of dE/d x inside one gap. Possibility of separating π- and k-mesons at the level of 2 σ in a 4 cm L Kr medium chamber in the momentum range (0.5 N - 0.8) GeV/c is shown. 15 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs. (author)

  8. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  9. Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel ρR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinderknecht, H. G., E-mail: hgr@mit.edu; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lahmann, B.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Divol, L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Moran, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-08-15

    In deuterium-filled inertial confinement fusion implosions, the secondary fusion processes D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He and D(T,n){sup 4}He occur, as the primary fusion products {sup 3}He and T react in flight with thermal deuterons. In implosions with moderate fuel areal density (∼5–100 mg/cm{sup 2}), the secondary D-{sup 3}He reaction saturates, while the D-T reaction does not, and the combined information from these secondary products is used to constrain both the areal density and either the plasma electron temperature or changes in the composition due to mix of shell material into the fuel. The underlying theory of this technique is developed and applied to three classes of implosions on the National Ignition Facility: direct-drive exploding pushers, indirect-drive 1-shock and 2-shock implosions, and polar direct-drive implosions. In the 1- and 2-shock implosions, the electron temperature is inferred to be 0.65 times and 0.33 times the burn-averaged ion temperature, respectively. The inferred mixed mass in the polar direct-drive implosions is in agreement with measurements using alternative techniques.

  10. Theoretical analysis of the multiple resonances for many-level spin systems. The four-level spin system of s electron ions subjected to strong microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, F.F.; Marica, F.

    1994-01-01

    The analytic steady state solutions of master equation for the density matrix of a multilevel spin system in dilute paramagnetic crystals at high temperature, subjected to strong microwave fields, are discussed. These solutions enable to obtain the populations of the levels, and the microwave powers absorbed or emitted by the crystal, in the presence of one, two or more microwave fields. A detailed theoretical study of the maser effects for s electron ions with nuclear spin one-half is carried out. In the case of three frequency correlated strong fields, when 'the spectroscopic' bridge conditions are fulfilled, sensitive detections, or high efficient generations of microwaves of frequency higher than those of the pumping fields are predicted. (author) 16 figs., 16 refs

  11. DISCOVERY OF THREE NOVEL COCCIDIAN PARASITES INFECTING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS), WITH EVIDENCE OF SEXUAL REPLICATION AND INTERSPECIES PATHOGENICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Grigg, Michael E.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Miller, Robin H.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Barr, Bradd C.; Nordhausen, Robert; Melli, Ann C.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, which were morphologically similar to coccidians. By histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. Using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgametoc...

  12. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  13. Combining evidence from multiple electronic health care databases: performances of one-stage and two-stage meta-analysis in matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gamba, Fabiola; Corrao, Giovanni; Romio, Silvana; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca; Schink, Tania; de Ridder, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Clustering of patients in databases is usually ignored in one-stage meta-analysis of multi-database studies using matched case-control data. The aim of this study was to compare bias and efficiency of such a one-stage meta-analysis with a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we compared the approaches by generating matched case-control data under 5 simulated scenarios, built by varying: (1) the exposure-outcome association; (2) its variability among databases; (3) the confounding strength of one covariate on this association; (4) its variability; and (5) the (heterogeneous) confounding strength of two covariates. Second, we made the same comparison using empirical data from the ARITMO project, a multiple database study investigating the risk of ventricular arrhythmia following the use of medications with arrhythmogenic potential. In our study, we specifically investigated the effect of current use of promethazine. Bias increased for one-stage meta-analysis with increasing (1) between-database variance of exposure effect and (2) heterogeneous confounding generated by two covariates. The efficiency of one-stage meta-analysis was slightly lower than that of two-stage meta-analysis for the majority of investigated scenarios. Based on ARITMO data, there were no evident differences between one-stage (OR = 1.50, CI = [1.08; 2.08]) and two-stage (OR = 1.55, CI = [1.12; 2.16]) approaches. When the effect of interest is heterogeneous, a one-stage meta-analysis ignoring clustering gives biased estimates. Two-stage meta-analysis generates estimates at least as accurate and precise as one-stage meta-analysis. However, in a study using small databases and rare exposures and/or outcomes, a correct one-stage meta-analysis becomes essential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. MARBLE (Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation): Development of a Compact VLBI System for Calibrating GNSS and Electronic Distance Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, R.; Ishii, A.; Takiguchi, H.; Kimura, M.; Sekido, M.; Takefuji, K.; Ujihara, H.; Hanado, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Kawabata, R.; Nozawa, K.; Mukai, Y.; Kuroda, J.; Ishihara, M.; Matsuzaka, S.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a compact VLBI system with a 1.6-m diameter aperture dish in order to provide reference baseline lengths for calibration. The reference baselines are used to validate surveying instruments such as GPS and EDM and is maintained by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). The compact VLBI system will be installed at both ends of the reference baseline. Since the system is not sensitive enough to detect fringes between the two small dishes, we have designed a new observation concept including one large dish station. We can detect two group delays between each compact VLBI system and the large dish station based on conventional VLBI measurement. A group delay between the two compact dishes can be indirectly calculated using a simple equation. We named the idea "Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation", or MARBLE system. The compact VLBI system is easy transportable and consists of the compact dish, a new wide-band front-end system, azimuth and elevation drive units, an IF down-converter unit, an antenna control unit (ACU), a counterweight, and a monument pillar. Each drive unit is equipped with a zero-backlash harmonic drive gearing component. A monument pillar is designed to mount typical geodetic GNSS antennas easily and an offset between the GNSS antenna reference point. The location of the azimuth-elevation crossing point of the VLBI system is precisely determined with an uncertainty of less than 0.2 mm. We have carried out seven geodetic VLBI experiments on the Kashima-Tsukuba baseline (about 54 km) using the two prototypes of the compact VLBI system between December 2009 and December 2010. The average baseline length and repeatability of the experiments is 54184874.0 ± 2.4 mm. The results are well consistent with those obtained by GPS measurements. In addition, we are now planning to use the compact VLBI system for precise time and frequency comparison between separated locations.

  15. Electron transport in unipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Browne, David A.

    2015-05-14

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Unipolar-light emitting diode like structures were grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy on c plane (0001) GaN on sapphire templates. Studies were performed to experimentally examine the effect of random alloy fluctuations on electron transport through quantum well active regions. These unipolar structures served as a test vehicle to test our 2D model of the effect of compositional fluctuations on polarization-induced barriers. Variables that were systematically studied included varying quantum well number from 0 to 5, well thickness of 1.5 nm, 3 nm, and 4.5 nm, and well compositions of In0.14Ga0.86N and In0.19Ga0.81N. Diode-like current voltage behavior was clearly observed due to the polarization-induced conduction band barrier in the quantum well region. Increasing quantum well width and number were shown to have a significant impact on increasing the turn-on voltage of each device. Temperature dependent IV measurements clearly revealed the dominant effect of thermionic behavior for temperatures from room temperature and above. Atom probe tomography was used to directly analyze parameters of the alloy fluctuations in the quantum wells including amplitude and length scale of compositional variation. A drift diffusion Schrödinger Poisson method accounting for two dimensional indium fluctuations (both in the growth direction and within the wells) was used to correctly model the turn-on voltages of the devices as compared to traditional 1D simulation models.

  16. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  17. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  18. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at higher risk of developing the disease. Certain infections. A variety of viruses have been linked to MS, including Epstein-Barr, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis. Race. White ...

  20. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED......-up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....

  1. Gene Expression Patterns during Light and Dark Infection of Prochlorococcus by Cyanophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke R Thompson

    Full Text Available Cyanophage infecting the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus require light and host photosystem activity for optimal reproduction. Many cyanophages encode multiple photosynthetic electron transport (PET proteins, which are presumed to maintain electron flow and produce ATP and NADPH for nucleotide biosynthesis and phage genome replication. However, evidence suggests phage augment NADPH production via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, thus calling into question the need for NADPH production by PET. Genes implicated in cyclic PET have since been identified in cyanophage genomes. It remains an open question which mode of PET, cyclic or linear, predominates in infected cyanobacteria, and thus whether the balance is towards producing ATP or NADPH. We sequenced transcriptomes of a cyanophage (P-HM2 and its host (Prochlorococcus MED4 throughout infection in the light or in the dark, and analyzed these data in the context of phage replication and metabolite measurements. Infection was robust in the light, but phage were not produced in the dark. Host gene transcripts encoding high-light inducible proteins and two terminal oxidases (plastoquinol terminal oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase-implicated in protecting the photosynthetic membrane from light stress-were the most enriched in light but not dark infection. Among the most diminished transcripts in both light and dark infection was ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR, which uses the electron acceptor NADP+ to generate NADPH in linear photosynthesis. The phage gene for CP12, which putatively inhibits the Calvin cycle enzyme that receives NADPH from FNR, was highly expressed in light infection. Therefore, both PET production of NADPH and its consumption by carbon fixation are putatively repressed during phage infection in light. Transcriptomic evidence is thus consistent with cyclic photophosphorylation using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor as the dominant mode of PET under

  2. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  3. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Unionicola tetrafurcatus (Acari: Unionicolidae) infecting four freshwater bivalve species with referring to histopathological effect on its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Fol, Mona; Al Quraishy, Saleh

    2018-05-08

    Water mites of the genus Unionicola are the most common symbionts of freshwater bivalves. During the current investigation, a total of 120 live freshwater mussels [Corbicula fluminea (Veneroida), Coelatura aegyptiaca (Unionoidea) Mutela rostrata and Chambardia rubens (Mutelidae)], were collected from 2 localities in Tura (Helwan Governorate) and El Kanater (Qaluobiya Governorate), Egypt. Only 3 of the 4 bivalve species listed are considered freshwater bivalves (members of Unionoidea). While, C. fluminea belong to the family Cyrenidae within Veneroida. The collected mussels were dissected and examined for the presence of unionicolid mites. It was found that 30.83% (37/120) were infected with a single mite species Unionicola tetrafurcatus (Unionicolidae). The highest prevalence was observed during the summer with 83.33% (25/30), whereas the least was observed in autumn, i.e. 33.33% (10/30). Mites were recovered from the gills, gonads, and visceral mass of mussel hosts. gills of host mussels were the primary site of oviposition for unionicola mites. Smaller bivalves in size had significantly greater numbers of mites than larger ones in size. Numbers of mites per host species was variable and the highest prevalence level of 83.33% (25/30) was recorded in C. fluminea, while, the lowest one of 16.66% (5/30) was found in C. rubens. Morphological and morphometric characterizations of mites revealed some differences between the present species and other related Unionicola. Histopathological responses of host mussels to the eggs, larvae, and cuticular remnants of U. tetrafurcatus were also studied. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that freshwater bivalves have a new host and locality records for infection with U. tetrafurcatus. Future studies are recommended to include advanced molecular characteristics for these mites.

  4. Interaction of measles virus vectors with Auger electron emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingli, David; Peng, K.-W.; Harvey, Mary E.; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Bergert, Elizabeth R.; Kyle, Robert A.; Cattaneo, Roberto; Morris, John C.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant measles virus (MV) expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is being considered for therapy of advanced multiple myeloma. Auger electrons selectively damage cells in which the isotope decays. We hypothesized that the Auger electron emitting isotope 125 I can be used to control viral proliferation. MV was engineered to express both carcinoembryonic antigen and NIS (MV-NICE). Cells were infected with MV-NICE and exposed to 125 I with appropriate controls. MV-NICE replication in vitro is inhibited by the selective uptake of 125 I by cells expressing NIS. Auger electron damage is partly mediated by free radicals and abrogated by glutathione. In myeloma xenografts, control of MV-NICE with 125 I was not possible under the conditions of the experiment. MV-NICE does not replicate faster in the presence of radiation. Auger electron emitting isotopes effectively stop propagation of MV vectors expressing NIS in vitro. Additional work is necessary to translate these observations in vivo

  5. Tracking vaginal, anal and oral infection in a mouse papillomavirus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Balogh, Karla; Myers, Roland; Cooper, Timothy K; Christensen, Neil D

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive and practical techniques to longitudinally track viral infection are sought after in clinical practice. We report a proof-of-principle study to monitor the viral DNA copy number using a newly established mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) mucosal infection model. We hypothesized that viral presence could be identified and quantified by collecting lavage samples from cervicovaginal, anal and oral sites. Nude mice infected at these sites with infectious MmuPV1 were tracked for up to 23 weeks starting at 6 weeks post-infection. Viral DNA copy number was determined by SYBR Green Q-PCR analysis. In addition, we tracked viral DNA load through three complete oestrous cycles to pinpoint whether there was a correlation between the DNA load and the four stages of the oestrous cycle. Our results showed that high viral DNA copy number was reproducibly detected from both anal and cervicovaginal lavage samples. The infection and disease progression were further confirmed by histology, cytology, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the viral copy number fluctuated over the oestrous cycle, with the highest level at the oestrus stage, implying that multiple sampling might be necessary to provide a reliable diagnosis. Virus DNA was detected in oral lavage samples at a later time after infection. Lower viral DNA load was found in oral samples when compared with those in anal and vaginal tracts. To our knowledge, our study is the first in vivo study to sequentially monitor papillomavirus infection from mucosal anal, oral and vaginal tracts in a preclinical model.

  6. Multiplicities and parton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuteson, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The production of strongly interacting particles from the annihilation of electrons and positrons at high energies is studied, with emphasis on the multiplicity, or number, of particles produced. A probabilistic branching model based on the leading log approximation in QCD is formulated to predict the evolution of particle number with the energy of collision. Direct integration of a master equation for the probabilities allows a comparison to the experimentally observed particle distribution. The production of strongly interacting particles from proton-antiproton collisions is also considered. A model for the production of particles from parton-parton collisions is presented and the growth in multiplicity with energy demonstrated

  7. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  8. Light and scanning electron microscopy of Henneguya arapaima n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) and histology of infected sites in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas: Pisces: Arapaimidae) from the Araguaia River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, M M; Arana, S; Ceccarelli, P S; Adriano, E A

    2008-10-20

    In this report, we describe Henneguya arapaima n. sp., a parasite of the gill arch and gall bladder of Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) collected in the Araguaia River, in the municipality of Nova Crixás, Goiás State, central Brazil. The plasmodia were white, round or ellipsoidal and measured 200-600 microm. Parasite development was asynchronous and the mature spores were fusiform and had smooth wall. The spores measurements were (range, with means+/-S.D. in parentheses): total length-48.4-53.1 microm (51.6+/-3.4 microm), body length-13.5-15.2 microm (14.2+/-0.8 microm), body width-5.1-6.1 microm (5.7+/-0.5 microm), body thickness-4.7-5.3 microm (4.9+/-0.2 microm) and caudal process length-38.0-41.2 microm (38.3+/-2.9 microm). The polar capsules were elongated and of unequal size, with lengths of 6.3-6.8 microm (6.5+/-0.2) and 6.2-6.6 microm (6.3+/-0.1) for the longest and shortest axes, respectively. Capsule width was 1.4-1.6 microm (1.5+/-0.1). Histological analysis showed that the plasmodia occurred in the tunica adventitia of the gall bladder and were delimited by a thin capsule of connective tissue. In the gill arch, the plasmodia were also surrounded by connective tissue similar to the endomesium of striated skeletal muscle cells. Sixty-five juvenile specimens of A. gigas weighing 1.0-25.0 kg were examined, 17 (26.1%) of which were infected. Of these, 14 (82.3%) had cysts in the gall bladder, two (11.7%) had cysts in the gill arch and only one (5.9%) had cysts in both organs. When the fish were grouped by weight, the prevalence of infection in fish weighing up to 10.0 kg (20.7%) was significantly lower than in fish weighing 10.1-25.0 kg (50%) (G=3.93; d.f.=1; p<0.05).

  9. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  10. Auger electron emitter against multiple myeloma - targeted endo-radio-therapy with {sup 125}I-labeled thymidine analogue 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenroth, Agnieszka, E-mail: amorgenroth@ukaachen.de [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Aachen, RWTH, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Dinger, Cornelia; Zlatopolskiy, Boris D.; Al-Momani, Ehab; Glatting, Gerhard [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Aachen, RWTH, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Reske, Sven N. [Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by accumulation of malignant, terminally differentiated B cells in the bone marrow. Despite advances in therapy, MM remains an incurable disease. Novel therapeutic approaches are, therefore, urgently needed. Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are attractive for targeted nano-irradiation therapy, given that DNA of malignant cells is selectively addressed. Here we evaluated the antimyeloma potential of the Auger electron-emitting thymidine analogue {sup 125}I-labeled 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine ([{sup 125}I]ITdU). Methods: Cellular uptake and DNA incorporation of [{sup 125}I]ITdU were determined in fluorodeoxyuridine-pretreated KMS12BM, U266, dexamethasone-sensitive MM1.S and -resistant MM1.R cell lines. The effect of stimulation with interleukin 6 (IL6) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on the intracellular incorporation of [{sup 125}I]ITdU was investigated in cytokine-sensitive MM1.S and MM1.R cell lines. Apoptotic cells were identified using Annexin V. Cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP was visualized by Western blot. DNA fragmentation was investigated using laddering assay. Therapeutic efficiency of [{sup 125}I]ITdU was proven by clonogenic assay. Results: [{sup 125}I]ITdU was shown to be efficiently incorporated into DNA of malignant cells, providing a promising mechanism for delivering highly toxic Auger radiation emitters into tumor DNA. [{sup 125}I]ITdU had a potent antimyeloma effect in cell lines representing distinct disease stages and, importantly, in cell lines sensitive or resistant to the conventional therapeutic agent, but was not toxic for normal plasma and bone marrow stromal cells. Furthermore, [{sup 125}I]ITdU abrogated the protective actions of IL6 and IGF1 on MM cells. [{sup 125}I]ITdU induced massive damage in the DNA of malignant plasma cells, which resulted in efficient inhibition of clonogenic growth. Conclusion: These studies may provide a

  11. Applying ligands profiling using multiple extended electron distribution based field templates and feature trees similarity searching in the discovery of new generation of urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M Dokla

    Full Text Available This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98, Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86 and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI(50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series

  12. Pediatric mortality due to nosocomial infection: a critical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marcia Maluf Lopes

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection is a frequent event with potentially lethal consequences. We reviewed the literature on the predictive factors for mortality related to nosocomial infection in pediatric medicine. Electronic searches in English, Spanish and Portuguese of the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Collaboration Databases was performed, focusing on studies that had been published from 1996 to 2006. The key words were: nosocomial infection and mortality and pediatrics/neonate/ newborn/child/infant/adolescent. The risk factors found to be associated with mortality were: nosocomial infection itself, leukemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, corticosteroid therapy, multiple organ failure, previous antimicrobial therapy, catheter use duration, candidemia, cancer, bacteremia, age over 60, invasive procedures, mechanical ventilation, transport out of the pediatric intensive care unit, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia infections, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II scores over 15. Among these factors, the only one that can be minimized is inadequate antimicrobial treatment, which has proven to be an important contributor to hospital mortality in critically-ill patients. There is room for further prognosis research on this matter to determine local differences. Such research requires appropriate epidemiological design and statistical analysis so that pediatric death due to nosocomial infection can be reduced and health care quality improved in pediatric hospitals.

  13. Pedicle screw loosening is correlated to chronic subclinical deep implant infection: a retrospective database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Lukas; Malaj, Isabella; Sadoghi, Patrick; Amerstorfer, Florian; Glehr, Mathias; Vander, Klaus; Leithner, Andreas; Radl, Roman

    2018-04-13

    Spinal fusion is used for treatment of spinal deformities, degeneration, infection, malignancy, and trauma. Reduction of motion enables osseous fusion and permanent stabilization of segments, compromised by loosening of the pedicle screws (PS). Deep implant infection, biomechanical, and chemical mechanisms are suspected reasons for loosening of PS. Study objective was to investigate the frequency and impact of deep implant infection on PS loosening. Intraoperative infection screening from wound and explanted material sonication was performed during revision surgeries following dorsal stabilization. Case history events and factors, which might promote implant infections, were included in this retrospective survey. 110 cases of spinal metal explantation were included. In 29.1% of revision cases, infection screening identified a germ, most commonly Staphylococcus (53.1%) and Propionibacterium (40.6%) genus. Patients screened positive had a significant higher number of previous spinal operations and radiologic loosening of screws. Patients revised for adjacent segment failure had a significantly lower rate of positive infection screening than patients revised for directly implant associated reasons. Removal of implants that revealed positive screening effected significant pain relief. Chronic implant infection seems to play a role in PS loosening and ongoing pain, causing revision surgery after spinal fusion. Screw loosening and multiple prior spinal operations should be suspicious for implant infection after spinal fusion when it comes to revision surgery. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  14. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  15. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  16. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  17. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  18. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  19. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  20. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Infective Endocarditis Updated:Mar 29,2018 View an illustration of endocarditis Infective ... procedure. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the procedures used ...

  2. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to spread and sometimes become life-threatening. MRSA infections may affect your: Bloodstream Lungs Heart Bones Joints Prevention Preventing HA-MRSA In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA ...

  3. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  4. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... infection. People with skin problems like burns or eczema may be more likely to get staph skin ...

  5. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  6. Electron and positron contributions to the displacement per atom profile in bulk multi-walled carbon nanotube material irradiated with gamma rays; Aporte de electrones y positrones al perfil de desplazamientos atomicos en materiales masivos de nanotubos de carbono de paredes multiples irradiados con rayos gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Leyva Pernia, Diana, E-mail: aleyva@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana (Cuba); others, and

    2013-07-01

    The electron and positron contributions to the effective atom displacement cross-section in multi-walled carbon nanotube bulk materials exposed to gamma rays were calculated. The physical properties and the displacement threshold energy value reported in literature for this material were taken into account. Then, using the mathematical simulation of photon and particle transport in matter, the electron and positron energy flux distributions within the irradiated object were also calculated. Finally, considering both results, the atom displacement damage profiles inside the analyzed bulk carbon nanotube material were determined. The individual contribution from each type of secondary particles generated by the photon interactions was specified. An increasing behavior of the displacement cross-sections for all the studied particles energy range was observed. The particles minimum kinetic energy values that make probabilistically possible the single and multiple atom displacement processes were determined. The positrons contribution importance to the total number of point defects generated during the interaction of gamma rays with the studied materials was confirmed.

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  8. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shigella Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Shigella Infections What's in ... Doctor Print en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...

  9. Comparasion of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Pereira

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of rotavirus RNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proved to be a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic test. A comparison of this assay with immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA in 245 faeces from children with gastroenteritis revealed complete agreement between the three assays in 238 (97.14% samples. Among 75 samples positive in at least one of the three assays, negative results were observed in 5 (6.48% by PAGE, in 6 (6.76% by EIA and in none by IEM. Silver staining greatly increased the sensitivity of the PAGE assay. We conclude that although IEM remains the most sensitive and rapid rotavirus diagnostic assay, the PAGE technique has many advantages in its favour, including the non-requirement of expensive equipment, the use of only chemically defined reagents and the capacity to distinguish virus subgroup and variants and to detect non-crossreactive rotaviruses which are missed in serological assays.A evidenciação da presença de ácido ribonucleico (ARN viral por eletroforese em gel de policrilamida (EGPA foi comprovada como um método altamente sensível e rápido para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus. Uma comparação desta prova com a imunomicroscopia eletrônica (IEM e com o ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE no exame de 245 fezes de crianças com gastroenterite revelou completa concordancia entre os três ensaios em 238 (97.14% amostras. Entre 75 amostras positivas pelo menos em um dos três ensaios, resultados negativos foram observados em 5 (6.48% por EGPA, em 6 (6.76% por EIE e em nenhum por IEM. Coloração pela prata aumentou consideravelmente a sensibilidade do ensaio por EGPA. Concluímos que embora a IEM ainda seja a prova mais sensível e rápida para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus, o ensaio por EGPA tem muitas vantagens em seu favor, sendo as principais as de não necessitar equipamentos caros, de empregar exclusivamente reagentes quimicamente definidos, de

  10. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  12. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  13. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  14. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  15. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United State