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Sample records for multiple gtpase effector

  1. Recycling domains in plant cell morphogenesis: small GTPase effectors, plasma membrane signalling and the exocyst.

    Zárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The Rho/Rop small GTPase regulatory module is central for initiating exocytotically ACDs (active cortical domains) in plant cell cortex, and a growing array of Rop regulators and effectors are being discovered in plants. Structural membrane phospholipids are important constituents of cells as well as signals, and phospholipid-modifying enzymes are well known effectors of small GTPases. We have shown that PLDs (phospholipases D) and their product, PA (phosphatidic acid), belong to the regulators of the secretory pathway in plants. We have also shown that specific NOXs (NADPH oxidases) producing ROS (reactive oxygen species) are involved in cell growth as exemplified by pollen tubes and root hairs. Most plant cells exhibit several distinct plasma membrane domains (ACDs), established and maintained by endocytosis/exocytosis-driven membrane protein recycling. We proposed recently the concept of a 'recycling domain' (RD), uniting the ACD and the connected endosomal recycling compartment (endosome), as a dynamic spatiotemporal entity. We have described a putative GTPase-effector complex exocyst involved in exocytic vesicle tethering in plants. Owing to the multiplicity of its Exo70 subunits, this complex, along with many RabA GTPases (putative recycling endosome organizers), may belong to core regulators of RD organization in plants.

  2. Role of Rab family GTPases and their effectors in melanosomal logistics.

    Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2012-04-01

    Rab GTPases constitute a family of small GTPases that regulate a variety of membrane trafficking events in all eukaryotic cells by recruiting their specific effector molecules. Recent accumulating evidence indicates that members of the mammalian Rab small GTPase family are involved in certain physiological and pathological processes. In particular, functional impairments of specific Rab proteins, e.g. Rab38 and Rab27A, their regulators or their effectors cause pigmentation disorders in humans and coat colour variations in mice because such impairments cause defects in melanosomal logistics, i.e. defects in melanosome biogenesis and transport. Genetic and biochemical analyses of the gene products responsible for mammalian pigmentation disorders in the past decade have revealed that Rab-mediated endosomal transport systems and melanosome transport systems play crucial roles in the efficient darkening of mammalian hair and skin. In this article, we review current knowledge regarding melanosomal logistics, with particular focus on the roles of Rab small GTPases and their effectors.

  3. Activation of Ran GTPase by a Legionella effector promotes microtubule polymerization, pathogen vacuole motility and infection.

    Eva Rothmeier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, uses the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS to form in phagocytes a distinct "Legionella-containing vacuole" (LCV, which intercepts endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking. Proteomics revealed the presence of the small GTPase Ran and its effector RanBP1 on purified LCVs. Here we validate that Ran and RanBP1 localize to LCVs and promote intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Moreover, the L. pneumophila protein LegG1, which contains putative RCC1 Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF domains, accumulates on LCVs in an Icm/Dot-dependent manner. L. pneumophila wild-type bacteria, but not strains lacking LegG1 or a functional Icm/Dot T4SS, activate Ran on LCVs, while purified LegG1 produces active Ran(GTP in cell lysates. L. pneumophila lacking legG1 is compromised for intracellular growth in macrophages and amoebae, yet is as cytotoxic as the wild-type strain. A downstream effect of LegG1 is to stabilize microtubules, as revealed by conventional and stimulated emission depletion (STED fluorescence microscopy, subcellular fractionation and Western blot, or by microbial microinjection through the T3SS of a Yersinia strain lacking endogenous effectors. Real-time fluorescence imaging indicates that LCVs harboring wild-type L. pneumophila rapidly move along microtubules, while LCVs harboring ΔlegG1 mutant bacteria are stalled. Together, our results demonstrate that Ran activation and RanBP1 promote LCV formation, and the Icm/Dot substrate LegG1 functions as a bacterial Ran activator, which localizes to LCVs and promotes microtubule stabilization, LCV motility as well as intracellular replication of L. pneumophila.

  4. Activation of Ran GTPase by a Legionella Effector Promotes Microtubule Polymerization, Pathogen Vacuole Motility and Infection

    Rothmeier, Eva; Pfaffinger, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Christine; Harrison, Christopher F.; Grabmayr, Heinrich; Repnik, Urska; Hannemann, Mandy; Wölke, Stefan; Bausch, Andreas; Griffiths, Gareth; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette; Itzen, Aymelt; Hilbi, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, uses the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) to form in phagocytes a distinct “Legionella-containing vacuole” (LCV), which intercepts endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking. Proteomics revealed the presence of the small GTPase Ran and its effector RanBP1 on purified LCVs. Here we validate that Ran and RanBP1 localize to LCVs and promote intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Moreover, the L. pneumophila protein LegG1, which contains putative RCC1 Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains, accumulates on LCVs in an Icm/Dot-dependent manner. L. pneumophila wild-type bacteria, but not strains lacking LegG1 or a functional Icm/Dot T4SS, activate Ran on LCVs, while purified LegG1 produces active Ran(GTP) in cell lysates. L. pneumophila lacking legG1 is compromised for intracellular growth in macrophages and amoebae, yet is as cytotoxic as the wild-type strain. A downstream effect of LegG1 is to stabilize microtubules, as revealed by conventional and stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy, subcellular fractionation and Western blot, or by microbial microinjection through the T3SS of a Yersinia strain lacking endogenous effectors. Real-time fluorescence imaging indicates that LCVs harboring wild-type L. pneumophila rapidly move along microtubules, while LCVs harboring ΔlegG1 mutant bacteria are stalled. Together, our results demonstrate that Ran activation and RanBP1 promote LCV formation, and the Icm/Dot substrate LegG1 functions as a bacterial Ran activator, which localizes to LCVs and promotes microtubule stabilization, LCV motility as well as intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. PMID:24068924

  5. Identification and characterization of a lymphocytic Rho-GTPase effector: rhotekin-2

    Collier, F.M.; Gregorio-King, C.C.; Gough, T.J.; Talbot, C.D.; Walder, K.; Kirkland, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Rhotekin belongs to the group of proteins containing a Rho-binding domain that are target peptides (effectors) for the Rho-GTPases. We previously identified a novel cDNA with homology to human rhotekin and in this study we cloned and characterized the coding region of this novel 12-exon gene. The ORF encodes a 609 amino-acid protein comprising a Class I Rho-binding domain and pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Cellular cDNA expression of this new protein, designated Rhotekin-2 (RTKN2), was shown in the cytosol and nucleus of CHO cells. Using bioinformatics and RTPCR we identified three major splice variants, which vary in both the Rho-binding and PH domains. Real-time PCR studies showed exclusive RTKN2 expression in pooled lymphocytes and further purification indicated sole expression in CD4 pos T-cells and bone marrow-derived B-cells. Gene expression was increased in quiescent T-cells but negligible in activated proliferating cells. In malignant samples expression was absent in myeloid leukaemias, low in most B-cell malignancies and CD8 pos T-cell malignancies, but very high in CD4 pos /CD8 pos T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. As the Rho family is critical in lymphocyte development and function, RTKN2 may play an important role in lymphopoiesis

  6. Rho-GTPase effector ROCK phosphorylates cofilin in actin-meditated cytokinesis during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Duan, Xing; Liu, Jun; Dai, Xiao-Xin; Liu, Hong-Lin; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-02-01

    During oocyte meiosis, a spindle forms in the central cytoplasm and migrates to the cortex. Subsequently, the oocyte extrudes a small body and forms a highly polarized egg; this process is regulated primarily by actin. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector that is involved in various cellular functions, such as stress fiber formation, cell migration, tumor cell invasion, and cell motility. In this study, we investigated possible roles for ROCK in mouse oocyte meiosis. ROCK was localized around spindles after germinal vesicle breakdown and was colocalized with cytoplasmic actin and mitochondria. Disrupting ROCK activity by RNAi or an inhibitor resulted in cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion failure. Time-lapse microscopy showed that this may have been due to spindle migration and cytokinesis defects, as chromosomes segregated but failed to extrude a polar body and then realigned. Actin expression at oocyte membranes and in cytoplasm was significantly decreased after these treatments. Actin caps were also disrupted, which was confirmed by a failure to form cortical granule-free domains. The mitochondrial distribution was also disrupted, which indicated that mitochondria were involved in the ROCK-mediated actin assembly. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of Cofilin, a downstream molecule of ROCK, decreased after disrupting ROCK activity. Thus, our results indicated that a ROCK-Cofilin-actin pathway regulated meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during mouse oocyte maturation.

  7. NMR derived model of GTPase effector domain (GED self association: relevance to dynamin assembly.

    Swagata Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Self-association of dynamin to form spiral structures around lipidic vesicles during endocytosis is largely mediated by its 'coiled coil' GTPase Effector Domain (GED, which, in vitro, self-associates into huge helical assemblies. Residue-level structural characterizations of these assemblies and understanding the process of association have remained a challenge. It is also impossible to get folded monomers in the solution phase. In this context, we have developed here a strategy to probe the self-association of GED by first dissociating the assembly using Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO and then systematically monitoring the refolding into helix and concomitant re-association using NMR spectroscopy, as DMSO concentration is progressively reduced. The short segment, Arg109 - Met116, acts as the nucleation site for helix formation and self-association. Hydrophobic and complementary charge interactions on the surfaces drive self-association, as the helices elongate in both the directions resulting in an antiparallel stack. A small N-terminal segment remains floppy in the assembly. Following these and other published results on inter-domain interactions, we have proposed a plausible mode of dynamin self assembly.

  8. The Rho GTPase Effector ROCK Regulates Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 Levels by Distinct Mechanisms

    Croft, Daniel R.; Olson, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. H...

  9. Effectors from Wheat Rust Fungi Suppress Multiple Plant Defense Responses.

    Ramachandran, Sowmya R; Yin, Chuntao; Kud, Joanna; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Mahoney, Aaron K; Xiao, Fangming; Hulbert, Scot H

    2017-01-01

    Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR). Twenty small (wheat, confirming its activity in a homologous system. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for the presence of effectors in Puccinia species suppressing multiple plant defense responses.

  10. RhoGDI: multiple functions in the regulation of Rho family GTPase activities

    Dovas, Athanassios; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    necessary for the correct targeting and regulation of Rho activities by conferring cues for spatial restriction, guidance and availability to effectors. These potential functions are discussed in the context of RhoGDI-associated multimolecular complexes, the newly emerged shuttling capability...... insight as to how RhoGDI exerts its effects on nucleotide binding, the membrane association-dissociation cycling of the GTPase and how these activities are controlled. Despite the initial negative roles attributed to RhoGDI, recent evidence has come to suggest that it may also act as a positive regulator...... of activities....

  11. The Rho-GTPase effector ROCK regulates meiotic maturation of the bovine oocyte via myosin light chain phosphorylation and cofilin phosphorylation.

    Lee, So-Rim; Xu, Yong-Nan; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Oocyte meiosis involves a unique asymmetric division involving spindle movement from the central cytoplasm to the cortex, followed by polar body extrusion. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector involved in various cellular functions in somatic cells as well as oocyte meiosis. ROCK was previously shown to promote actin organization by phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIM domain kinase (LIMK), phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin), and myosin light chain (MLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ROCK and MLC during bovine oocyte meiosis. We found that ROCK was localized around the nucleus at the oocyte's germinal-vesicle (GV) stage, but spreads to the rest of the cytoplasm in later developmental stages. On the other hand, phosphorylated MLC (p-MLC) localized at the cortex, and its abundance decreased by the metaphase-II stage. Disrupting ROCK activity, via RNAi or the chemical inhibitor Y-27632, blocked both cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion. ROCK inhibition also resulted in decreased cortical actin, p-cofilin, and p-MLC levels. Similar to the phenotype associated with inhibition of ROCK activity, inhibition of MLC kinase by the chemical inhibitor ML-7 caused defects in polar body extrusion. Collectively, our results suggest that the ROCK/MLC/actomyosin as well as ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathways regulate meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during bovine oocyte maturation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rho GTPase function in tumorigenesis

    Karlsson, R; Pedersen, Esben Ditlev Kølle; Wang, Zhipeng

    2009-01-01

    , for that reason, Rho GTPases, their regulators, and their effectors have been suggested to control tumor formation and progression in humans. However, while the tumor-relevant functions of Rho GTPases are very well documented in vitro, we are only now beginning to assess their contribution to cancer in human...... patients and in animal models. This review will give a very brief overview of Rho GTPase function in general and then focus on in vivo evidence for a role of Rho GTPases in malignant tumors, both in human patients and in genetically modified mice....

  13. Yersinia outer protein YopE affects the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum through targeting of multiple Rho family GTPases

    Vlahou, Georgia

    2009-07-14

    Abstract Background All human pathogenic Yersinia species share a virulence-associated type III secretion system that translocates Yersinia effector proteins into host cells to counteract infection-induced signaling responses and prevent phagocytosis. Dictyostelium discoideum has been recently used to study the effects of bacterial virulence factors produced by internalized pathogens. In this study we explored the potential of Dictyostelium as model organism for analyzing the effects of ectopically expressed Yersinia outer proteins (Yops). Results The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis virulence factors YopE, YopH, YopM and YopJ were expressed de novo within Dictyostelium and their effects on growth in axenic medium and on bacterial lawns were analyzed. No severe effect was observed for YopH, YopJ and YopM, but expression of YopE, which is a GTPase activating protein for Rho GTPases, was found to be highly detrimental. GFP-tagged YopE expressing cells had less conspicuous cortical actin accumulation and decreased amounts of F-actin. The actin polymerization response upon cAMP stimulation was impaired, although chemotaxis was unaffected. YopE also caused reduced uptake of yeast particles. These alterations are probably due to impaired Rac1 activation. We also found that YopE predominantly associates with intracellular membranes including the Golgi apparatus and inhibits the function of moderately overexpressed RacH. Conclusion The phenotype elicited by YopE in Dictyostelium can be explained, at least in part, by inactivation of one or more Rho family GTPases. It further demonstrates that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be used as an efficient and easy-to-handle model organism in order to analyze the function of a translocated GAP protein of a human pathogen.

  14. Rab27 GTPases Distribute Extracellular Nanomaps for Invasive Growth and Metastasis: Implications for Prognosis and Treatment

    Olivier De Wever

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rab27 family of small GTPases regulates exocytosis of distinct vesicle types including multivesicular endosomes, which results in the release of exosomes. Exosomes are nanometer-sized membrane vesicles that enclose soluble factors such as proteins and nucleic acids within a lipid bilayer and can travel toward distant tissues to influence multiple aspects of cell behavior. In our view that tumors are endocrine organs producing exosomes, Rab27 GTPases and their effector proteins are critical determinants for invasive growth and metastasis. Rab27 proteins and their effectors may serve as prognostic biomarkers or as targets for patient-tailored therapy.

  15. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site*

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4BWT-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding. PMID:26453300

  16. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site.

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-11-27

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4B(WT)-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4B(WT)-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Loss of the interferon-γ-inducible regulatory immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, causes activation of effector IRG proteins on lysosomes, damaging lysosomal function and predicting the dramatic susceptibility of Irgm1-deficient mice to infection.

    Maric-Biresev, Jelena; Hunn, Julia P; Krut, Oleg; Helms, J Bernd; Martens, Sascha; Howard, Jonathan C

    2016-04-20

    The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, plays an essential role in restraining activation of the IRG pathogen resistance system. However, the loss of Irgm1 in mice also causes a dramatic but unexplained susceptibility phenotype upon infection with a variety of pathogens, including many not normally controlled by the IRG system. This phenotype is associated with lymphopenia, hemopoietic collapse, and death of the mouse. We show that the three regulatory IRG proteins (GMS sub-family), including Irgm1, each of which localizes to distinct sets of endocellular membranes, play an important role during the cellular response to IFN-γ, each protecting specific membranes from off-target activation of effector IRG proteins (GKS sub-family). In the absence of Irgm1, which is localized mainly at lysosomal and Golgi membranes, activated GKS proteins load onto lysosomes, and are associated with reduced lysosomal acidity and failure to process autophagosomes. Another GMS protein, Irgm3, is localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes; in the Irgm3-deficient mouse, activated GKS proteins are found at the ER. The Irgm3-deficient mouse does not show the drastic phenotype of the Irgm1 mouse. In the Irgm1/Irgm3 double knock-out mouse, activated GKS proteins associate with lipid droplets, but not with lysosomes, and the Irgm1/Irgm3(-/-) does not have the generalized immunodeficiency phenotype expected from its Irgm1 deficiency. The membrane targeting properties of the three GMS proteins to specific endocellular membranes prevent accumulation of activated GKS protein effectors on the corresponding membranes and thus enable GKS proteins to distinguish organellar cellular membranes from the membranes of pathogen vacuoles. Our data suggest that the generalized lymphomyeloid collapse that occurs in Irgm1(-/-) mice upon infection with a variety of pathogens may be due to lysosomal damage caused by off-target activation of GKS proteins on lysosomal

  18. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  19. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  20. Multiple candidate effectors from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis suppress host plant immunity.

    Georgina Fabro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (~70% of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (ΔCEL showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether

  1. Effector stage CC chemokine receptor-1 selective antagonism reduces multiple sclerosis-like rat disease.

    Eltayeb, Sana; Sunnemark, Dan; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nordvall, Gunnar; Malmberg, Asa; Lassmann, Hans; Wallström, Erik; Olsson, Tomas; Ericsson-Dahlstrand, Anders

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the role of the chemokine receptor CCR1 during the effector stage of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed local production of the CCR1 ligands CCL3 (MIP-1 alpha) and CCL5 (RANTES), as well as large numbers of CCR1 and CCR5 expressing cells within inflammatory brain lesions. A low-molecular weight CCR1 selective antagonist potently abrogated both clinical and histopathological disease signs during a 5-day treatment period, without signs of peripheral immune compromise. Thus, we demonstrate therapeutic targeting of CCR1-dependent leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in a multiple sclerosis (MS)-like rat model.

  2. Rho GTPases in ameloblast differentiation

    Keishi Otsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During tooth development, ameloblasts differentiate from inner enamel epithelial cells to enamel-forming cells by modulating the signal pathways mediating epithelial–mesenchymal interaction and a cell-autonomous gene network. The differentiation process of epithelial cells is characterized by marked changes in their morphology and polarity, accompanied by dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization and changes in cell–cell and cell–matrix adhesion over time. Functional ameloblasts are tall, columnar, polarized cells that synthesize and secrete enamel-specific proteins. After deposition of the full thickness of enamel matrix, ameloblasts become smaller and regulate enamel maturation. Recent significant advances in the fields of molecular biology and genetics have improved our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the ameloblast cell life cycle, mediated by the Rho family of small GTPases. They act as intracellular molecular switch that transduce signals from extracellular stimuli to the actin cytoskeleton and the nucleus. In our review, we summarize studies that provide current evidence for Rho GTPases and their involvement in ameloblast differentiation. In addition to the Rho GTPases themselves, their downstream effectors and upstream regulators have also been implicated in ameloblast differentiation.

  3. Rho GTPases and cancer

    Li, Hui; Peyrollier, Karine; Kilic, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    Rho GTPases are a family of small GTPases, which play an important role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Not surprisingly, Rho GTPases are crucial for cell migration and therefore highly important for cancer cell invasion and the formation of metastases. In addition, Rho GTPases...... are involved in growth and survival of tumor cells, in the interaction of tumor cells with their environment, and they are vital for the cancer supporting functions of the tumor stroma. Recent research has significantly improved our understanding of the regulation of Rho GTPase activity, the specificity of Rho...

  4. Modeling the effector - regulatory T cell cross-regulation reveals the intrinsic character of relapses in Multiple Sclerosis

    Torrealdea Javier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relapsing-remitting dynamics is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Although current understanding of both cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is significant, how their activity generates this prototypical dynamics is not understood yet. In order to gain insight about the mechanisms that drive these relapsing-remitting dynamics, we developed a computational model using such biological knowledge. We hypothesized that the relapsing dynamics in autoimmunity can arise through the failure in the mechanisms controlling cross-regulation between regulatory and effector T cells with the interplay of stochastic events (e.g. failure in central tolerance, activation by pathogens that are able to trigger the immune system. Results The model represents five concepts: central tolerance (T-cell generation by the thymus, T-cell activation, T-cell memory, cross-regulation (negative feedback between regulatory and effector T-cells and tissue damage. We enriched the model with reversible and irreversible tissue damage, which aims to provide a comprehensible link between autoimmune activity and clinical relapses and active lesions in the magnetic resonances studies in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Our analysis shows that the weakness in this negative feedback between effector and regulatory T-cells, allows the immune system to generate the characteristic relapsing-remitting dynamics of autoimmune diseases, without the need of additional environmental triggers. The simulations show that the timing at which relapses appear is highly unpredictable. We also introduced targeted perturbations into the model that mimicked immunotherapies that modulate effector and regulatory populations. The effects of such therapies happened to be highly dependent on the timing and/or dose, and on the underlying dynamic of the immune system. Conclusion The relapsing dynamic in MS

  5. A Pan-GTPase Inhibitor as a Molecular Probe.

    Lin Hong

    Full Text Available Overactive GTPases have often been linked to human diseases. The available inhibitors are limited and have not progressed far in clinical trials. We report here a first-in-class small molecule pan-GTPase inhibitor discovered from a high throughput screening campaign. The compound CID1067700 inhibits multiple GTPases in biochemical, cellular protein and protein interaction, as well as cellular functional assays. In the biochemical and protein interaction assays, representative GTPases from Rho, Ras, and Rab, the three most generic subfamilies of the GTPases, were probed, while in the functional assays, physiological processes regulated by each of the three subfamilies of the GTPases were examined. The chemical functionalities essential for the activity of the compound were identified through structural derivatization. The compound is validated as a useful molecular probe upon which GTPase-targeting inhibitors with drug potentials might be developed.

  6. Topological and functional properties of the small GTPases protein interaction network.

    Anna Delprato

    Full Text Available Small GTP binding proteins of the Ras superfamily (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran regulate key cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cell motility, and vesicle transport. A great deal of experimental evidence supports the existence of signaling cascades and feedback loops within and among the small GTPase subfamilies suggesting that these proteins function in a coordinated and cooperative manner. The interplay occurs largely through association with bi-partite regulatory and effector proteins but can also occur through the active form of the small GTPases themselves. In order to understand the connectivity of the small GTPases signaling routes, a systems-level approach that analyzes data describing direct and indirect interactions was used to construct the small GTPases protein interaction network. The data were curated from the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING database and include only experimentally validated interactions. The network method enables the conceptualization of the overall structure as well as the underlying organization of the protein-protein interactions. The interaction network described here is comprised of 778 nodes and 1943 edges and has a scale-free topology. Rac1, Cdc42, RhoA, and HRas are identified as the hubs. Ten sub-network motifs are also identified in this study with themes in apoptosis, cell growth/proliferation, vesicle traffic, cell adhesion/junction dynamics, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase response, transcription regulation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, gene silencing, and growth factor signaling. Bottleneck proteins that bridge signaling paths and proteins that overlap in multiple small GTPase networks are described along with the functional annotation of all proteins in the network.

  7. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-02

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  8. DLC1 tumor suppressor gene inhibits migration and invasion of multiple myeloma cells through RhoA GTPase pathway

    Ullmannová-Benson, Veronika; Guan, M.; Zhou, X. G.; Tripathi, V.; Yang, V.; Zimonjic, D. B.; Popescu, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2009), s. 383-390 ISSN 0887-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : multiple myeloma * tumor suppressor gene * promoter methylation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 8.296, year: 2009

  9. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor PCI-32765 ameliorates autoimmune arthritis by inhibition of multiple effector cells

    2011-01-01

    , which are important Btk-expressing effector cells in arthritis. PMID:21752263

  10. Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing

    Jonge, de R.; Esse, van H.P.; Maruthachalam, K.; Bolton, M.D.; Santhanam, P.; Keykha Saber, M.; Zhang, Z.; Usami, T.; Lievens, B.; Subbarao, K.V.; Thomma, B.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and

  11. ATPase and GTPase Tangos Drive Intracellular Protein Transport.

    Shan, Shu-Ou

    2016-12-01

    The GTPase superfamily of proteins provides molecular switches to regulate numerous cellular processes. The 'GTPase switch' paradigm, in which external regulatory factors control the switch of a GTPase between 'on' and 'off' states, has been used to interpret the regulatory mechanism of many GTPases. However, recent work unveiled a class of nucleotide hydrolases that do not adhere to this classical paradigm. Instead, they use nucleotide-dependent dimerization cycles to regulate key cellular processes. In this review article, recent studies of dimeric GTPases and ATPases involved in intracellular protein targeting are summarized. It is suggested that these proteins can use the conformational plasticity at their dimer interface to generate multiple points of regulation, thereby providing the driving force and spatiotemporal coordination of complex cellular pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Overlapping effector interfaces define the multiple functions of the HIV-1 Nef polyproline helix

    Kuo Lillian S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 Nef is a multifunctional protein required for full pathogenicity of the virus. As Nef has no known enzymatic activity, it necessarily functions through protein-protein interaction interfaces. A critical Nef protein interaction interface is centered on its polyproline segment (P69VRPQVPLRP78 which contains the helical SH3 domain binding protein motif, PXXPXR. We hypothesized that any Nef-SH3 domain interactions would be lost upon mutation of the prolines or arginine of PXXPXR. Further, mutation of the non-motif “X” residues, (Q73, V74, and L75 would give altered patterns of inhibition for different Nef/SH3 domain protein interactions. Results We found that mutations of either of the prolines or the arginine of PXXPXR are defective for Nef-Hck binding, Nef/activated PAK2 complex formation and enhancement of virion infectivity (EVI. Mutation of the non-motif “X” residues (Q, V and L gave similar patterns of inhibition for Nef/activated PAK2 complex formation and EVI which were distinct from the pattern for Hck binding. These results implicate an SH3 domain containing protein other than Hck for Nef/activated PAK2 complex formation and EVI. We have also mutated Nef residues at the N-and C-terminal ends of the polyproline segment to explore interactions outside of PXXPXR. We discovered a new locus GFP/F (G67, F68, P69 and F90 that is required for Nef/activated PAK2 complex formation and EVI. MHC Class I (MHCI downregulation was only partially inhibited by mutating the PXXPXR motif residues, but was fully inhibited by mutating the C-terminal P78. Further, we observed that MHCI downregulation strictly requires G67 and F68. Our mutational analysis confirms the recently reported structure of the complex between Nef, AP-1 μ1 and the cytoplasmic tail of MHCI, but does not support involvement of an SH3 domain protein in MHCI downregulation. Conclusion Nef has evolved to be dependent on interactions with multiple SH3 domain

  13. Temporal effects of Notch signaling and potential cooperation with multiple downstream effectors on adenohypophysis cell specification in zebrafish.

    Nakahara, Yoshinari; Muto, Akihiko; Hirabayashi, Ryo; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kume, Shoen; Kikuchi, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    The adenohypophysis (AH) consists of six distinct types of hormone-secreting cells. In zebrafish, although proper differentiation of all AH cell types has been shown to require Notch signaling within a period of 14-16 h postfertilization (hpf), the mechanisms underlying this process remain to be elucidated. Herein, we observed using the Notch inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ) that Notch signaling also contributed to AH cell specification beyond 16 hpf. Specification of distinct cell types was perturbed by DBZ treatment for different time frames, suggesting that AH cells are specified by Notch-dependent and cell-type-specific mechanisms. We also found that two hes-family genes, her4.1 and hey1, were expressed in the developing AH under the influence of Notch signaling. her4.1 knockdown reduced expression of proopiomelanocortin a (pomca), growth hormone (gh), and prolactin, whereas hey1 was responsible only for gh expression. Simultaneous loss of both Her4.1 and Hey1 produced milder phenotypes than that of DBZ-treated embryos. Moreover, DBZ treatment from 18 hpf led to a significant down-regulation of both gh and pomca genes only when combined with injection of a subthreshold level of her4.1-morpholino. These observations suggest that multiple downstream effectors, including Her4.1 and Hey1, mediate Notch signaling during AH cell specification. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Plant Rho-type (Rop) GTPase-dependent activation of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases in vitro.

    Dorjgotov, Dulguun; Jurca, Manuela E; Fodor-Dunai, Csilla; Szucs, Attila; Otvös, Krisztina; Klement, Eva; Bíró, Judit; Fehér, Attila

    2009-04-02

    Plants have evolved distinct mechanisms to link Rho-type (Rop) GTPases to downstream signaling pathways as compared to other eukaryotes. Here, experimental data are provided that members of the Medicago, as well as Arabidopsis, receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase family (RLCK Class VI) were strongly and specifically activated by GTP-bound Rop GTPases in vitro. Deletion analysis indicated that the residues implicated in the interaction might be distributed on various parts of the kinases. Using a chimaeric Rop GTPase protein, the importance of the Rho-insert region in kinase activation could also be verified. These data strengthen the possibility that RLCKs may serve as Rop GTPase effectors in planta.

  15. Rho GTPases, their post-translational modifications, disease-associated mutations and pharmacological inhibitors.

    Olson, Michael F

    2018-05-04

    The 20 members of the Rho GTPase family are key regulators of a wide-variety of biological activities. In response to activation, they signal via downstream effector proteins to induce dynamic alterations in the organization of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. In this review, post-translational modifications, mechanisms of dysregulation identified in human pathological conditions, and the ways that Rho GTPases might be targeted for chemotherapy will be discussed.

  16. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    Zhao, Huayan

    2015-08-13

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  17. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    Zhao, Huayan; Lü , Shiyou; Li, Ruixi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Liu, Pei; Wang, Guangchao; Xia, Yiji; Running, Mark P.; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  18. Nucleophosmin1 is a negative regulator of the small GTPase Rac1

    Zoughlami, Younes; van Stalborgh, Anne M.; van Hennik, Paula B.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The Rac1 GTPase is a critical regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and controls many biological processes, such as cell migration, cell-cell contacts, cellular growth and cell division. These complex processes are controlled by Rac1 signaling through effector proteins. We have previously identified

  19. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgMO237, interacts with multiple host defence-related proteins to manipulate plant basal immunity and promote parasitism.

    Chen, Jiansong; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Lin, Borong; Huang, Kun; Zhuo, Kan; Liao, Jinling

    2018-02-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we report a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which is exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third-/fourth-stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 showed an increased susceptibility to M. graminicola. In contrast, rice plants expressing RNA interference vectors targeting MgMO237 showed an increased resistance to M. graminicola. In addition, yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that MgMO237 interacted specifically with three rice endogenous proteins, i.e. 1,3-β-glucan synthase component (OsGSC), cysteine-rich repeat secretory protein 55 (OsCRRSP55) and pathogenesis-related BetvI family protein (OsBetvI), which are all related to host defences. Moreover, MgMO237 can suppress host defence responses, including the expression of host defence-related genes, cell wall callose deposition and the burst of reactive oxygen species. These results demonstrate that the effector MgMO237 probably promotes the parasitism of M. graminicola by interacting with multiple host defence-related proteins and suppressing plant basal immunity in the later parasitic stages of nematodes. © 2018 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. GTP- and GDP-Dependent Rab27a Effectors in Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and intracellular transport. Conventionally, only the guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-bound small GTPase interacts with effector proteins, and the resulting downstream signals control specific cellular functions. Therefore, the GTP-bound form is regarded as active, and the focus has been on searching for proteins that bind the GTP form to look for their effectors. The Rab family small GTPase Rab27a is highly expressed in some secretory cells and is involved in the control of membrane traffic. The present study reviews recent progress in our understanding of the roles of Rab27a and its effectors in pancreatic beta-cells. In the basal state, GTP-bound Rab27a controls insulin secretion at pre-exocytic stages via its GTP-dependent effectors. We previously identified novel guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab27-interacting proteins. Interestingly, GDP-bound Rab27a controls endocytosis of the secretory membrane via its interaction with these proteins. We also demonstrated that the insulin secretagogue glucose converts Rab27a from its GTP- to GDP-bound forms. Thus, GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate pre-exocytic and endocytic stages in membrane traffic, respectively. Since the physiological importance of GDP-bound GTPases has been largely overlooked, we consider that the investigation of GDP-dependent effectors for other GTPases is necessary for further understanding of cellular function.

  1. Implications of Rho GTPase signaling in glioma cell invasion and tumor progression

    Shannon Patricia Fortin Ensign

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GB is the most malignant of primary adult brain tumors, characterized by a highly locally-invasive cell population, as well as abundant proliferative cells, neoangiogenesis, and necrosis. Clinical intervention with chemotherapy or radiation may either promote or establish an environment for manifestation of invasive behavior. Understanding the molecular drivers of invasion in the context of glioma progression may be insightful in directing new treatments for patients with GB. Here, we review current knowledge on Rho family GTPases, their aberrant regulation in GB, and their effect on GB cell invasion and tumor progression. Rho GTPases are modulators of cell migration through effects on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement; in non-neoplastic tissue, expression and activation of Rho GTPases are normally under tight regulation. In GB, Rho GTPases are deregulated, often via hyperactivity or overexpression of their activators, Rho GEFs. Downstream effectors of Rho GTPases have been shown to promote invasiveness and, importantly, glioma cell survival. The study of aberrant Rho GTPase signaling in GB is thus an important investigation of cell invasion as well as treatment resistance and disease progression.

  2. Nitrergic neuromuscular transmission in the mouse internal anal sphincter is accomplished by multiple pathways and postjunctional effector cells

    Sotherton, A. G.; Peri, L. E.; Sanders, K. M.; Ward, S. M.; Keef, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    The effector cells and second messengers participating in nitrergic neuromuscular transmission (NMT) were investigated in the mouse internal anal sphincter (IAS). Protein expression of guanylate cyclase (GCα, GCβ) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) were examined in cryostat sections with dual-labeling immunohistochemical techniques in PDGFRα+ cells, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells (SMC). Gene expression levels were determined with quantitative PCR of dispersed cells from Pdgfrαegfp/+, KitcopGFP/+, and smMHCCre-egfp mice sorted with FACS. The relative gene and protein expression levels of GCα and GCβ were PDGFRα+ cells > ICC ≫ SMC. In contrast, cGKI gene expression sequence was SMC = ICC > PDGFRα+ cells whereas cGKI protein expression sequence was neurons > SMC ≫ ICC = PDGFRα+ cells. The functional role of cGKI was investigated in cGKI−/− mice. Relaxation with 8-bromo (8-Br)-cGMP was greatly reduced in cGKI−/− mice whereas responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were partially reduced and forskolin responses were unchanged. A nitrergic relaxation occurred with nerve stimulation (NS, 5 Hz, 60 s) in cGKI+/+ and cGKI−/− mice although there was a small reduction in the cGKI−/− mouse. Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) abolished responses during the first 20–30 s of NS in both animals. The GC inhibitor ODQ greatly reduced or abolished SNP and nitrergic NS responses in both animals. These data confirm an essential role for GC in NO-induced relaxation in the IAS. However, the expression of GC and cGKI by all three cell types suggests that each may participate in coordinating muscular responses to NO. The persistence of nitrergic NMT in the cGKI−/− mouse suggests the presence of a significant GC-dependent, cGKI-independent pathway. PMID:25301187

  3. Manipulation of host membranes by bacterial effectors.

    Ham, Hyeilin; Sreelatha, Anju; Orth, Kim

    2011-07-18

    Bacterial pathogens interact with host membranes to trigger a wide range of cellular processes during the course of infection. These processes include alterations to the dynamics between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, and subversion of the membrane-associated pathways involved in vesicle trafficking. Such changes facilitate the entry and replication of the pathogen, and prevent its phagocytosis and degradation. In this Review, we describe the manipulation of host membranes by numerous bacterial effectors that target phosphoinositide metabolism, GTPase signalling and autophagy.

  4. Insights into the classification of small GTPases

    Dominik Heider

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dominik Heider1, Sascha Hauke3, Martin Pyka4, Daniel Kessler21Department of Bioinformatics, Center for Medical Biotechnology, 2Institute of Cell Biology (Cancer Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 3Institute of Computer Science, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 4Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital of Münster, Münster, GermanyAbstract: In this study we used a Random Forest-based approach for an assignment of small guanosine triphosphate proteins (GTPases to specific subgroups. Small GTPases represent an important functional group of proteins that serve as molecular switches in a wide range of fundamental cellular processes, including intracellular transport, movement and signaling events. These proteins have further gained a special emphasis in cancer research, because within the last decades a huge variety of small GTPases from different subgroups could be related to the development of all types of tumors. Using a random forest approach, we were able to identify the most important amino acid positions for the classification process within the small GTPases superfamily and its subgroups. These positions are in line with the results of earlier studies and have been shown to be the essential elements for the different functionalities of the GTPase families. Furthermore, we provide an accurate and reliable software tool (GTPasePred to identify potential novel GTPases and demonstrate its application to genome sequences.Keywords: cancer, machine learning, classification, Random Forests, proteins

  5. Rab GTPases in Immunity and Inflammation

    Akriti Prashar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Strict spatiotemporal control of trafficking events between organelles is critical for maintaining homeostasis and directing cellular responses. This regulation is particularly important in immune cells for mounting specialized immune defenses. By controlling the formation, transport and fusion of intracellular organelles, Rab GTPases serve as master regulators of membrane trafficking. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Rab GTPases regulate immunity and inflammation.

  6. Rab GTPases in Immunity and Inflammation.

    Prashar, Akriti; Schnettger, Laura; Bernard, Elliott M; Gutierrez, Maximiliano G

    2017-01-01

    Strict spatiotemporal control of trafficking events between organelles is critical for maintaining homeostasis and directing cellular responses. This regulation is particularly important in immune cells for mounting specialized immune defenses. By controlling the formation, transport and fusion of intracellular organelles, Rab GTPases serve as master regulators of membrane trafficking. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Rab GTPases regulate immunity and inflammation.

  7. Extensive in silico analysis of Mimivirus coded Rab GTPase homolog suggests a possible role in virion membrane biogenesis

    Amrutraj eZade

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases are the key regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Many viruses and intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved to hijack the host Rab GTPase functions, mainly through activators and effector proteins, for their benefit. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV is one of the largest viruses and belongs to the monophyletic clade of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV. The inner membrane lining is integral to the APMV virion structure. APMV assembly involves extensive host membrane modifications, like vesicle budding and fusion, leading to the formation of a membrane sheet that is incorporated into the virion. Intriguingly, APMV and all group I members of the Mimiviridae family code for a putative Rab GTPase protein. APMV is the first reported virus to code for a Rab GTPase (encoded by R214 gene. Our thorough in silico analysis of the subfamily specific (SF region of Mimiviridae Rab GTPase sequences suggests that they are related to Rab5, a member of the group II Rab GTPases, of lower eukaryotes. Because of their high divergence from the existing three isoforms, A, B and C of the Rab5-family, we suggest that Mimiviridae Rabs constitute a new isoform, Rab5D. Phylogenetic analysis indicated probable horizontal acquisition from a lower eukaryotic ancestor followed by selection and divergence. Furthermore, interaction network analysis suggests that vps34 (a Class III P13K homolog, coded by APMV L615, Atg-8 and dynamin (host proteins are recruited by APMV Rab GTPase during capsid assembly. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that APMV Rab plays a role in the acquisition of inner membrane during virion assembly.

  8. Development and application of a quantitative multiplexed small GTPase activity assay using targeted proteomics.

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Li, Ru; Jiang, Honghui; Lin, Shujun; Rogalski, Jason C; Liu, Kate; Kast, Juergen

    2015-02-06

    Small GTPases are a family of key signaling molecules that are ubiquitously expressed in various types of cells. Their activity is often analyzed by western blot, which is limited by its multiplexing capability, the quality of isoform-specific antibodies, and the accuracy of quantification. To overcome these issues, a quantitative multiplexed small GTPase activity assay has been developed. Using four different binding domains, this assay allows the binding of up to 12 active small GTPase isoforms simultaneously in a single experiment. To accurately quantify the closely related small GTPase isoforms, a targeted proteomic approach, i.e., selected/multiple reaction monitoring, was developed, and its functionality and reproducibility were validated. This assay was successfully applied to human platelets and revealed time-resolved coactivation of multiple small GTPase isoforms in response to agonists and differential activation of these isoforms in response to inhibitor treatment. This widely applicable approach can be used for signaling pathway studies and inhibitor screening in many cellular systems.

  9. GTPases and the origin of the ribosome

    Smith Temple F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome to the membrane. The GTPases involved in translation in Bacteria/Archaea are the elongation factors EFTu/EF1, the initiation factors IF2/aeIF5b + aeIF2, and the elongation factors EFG/EF2. All of these GTPases also contain the OB fold also found in the non GTPase IF1 involved in initiation. The GTPase involved in the signal recognition particle in most Bacteria and Archaea is SRP54. Results 1 The Elongation Factors of the Archaea based on structural considerations of the domains have the following evolutionary path: EF1→ aeIF2 → EF2. The evolution of the aeIF5b was a later event; 2 the Elongation Factors of the Bacteria based on the topological considerations of the GTPase domain have a similar evolutionary path: EFTu→ IF→2→EFG. These evolutionary sequences reflect the evolution of the LSU followed by the SSU to form the ribosome; 3 the OB-fold IF1 is a mimic of an ancient tRNA minihelix. Conclusion The evolution of translational GTPases of both the Archaea and Bacteria point to the evolution of the ribosome. The elongation factors, EFTu/EF1, began as a Ras-like GTPase bringing the activated minihelix tRNA to the Large Subunit Unit. The initiation factors and elongation factor would then have evolved from the EFTu/EF1 as the small subunit was added to the evolving ribosome. The SRP has an SRP54 GTPase and a specific RNA fold in its RNA component similar to the PTC. We consider the SRP to be a remnant of an ancient form of an LSU bound to a membrane. Reviewers This article was reviewed by George Fox, Leonid Mirny and Chris Sander.

  10. Rho GTPase expression in human myeloid cells.

    Suzanne F G van Helden

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are critical for innate immunity and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Strict regulation of the adhesive and migratory behavior is essential for proper functioning of these cells. Rho GTPases are important regulators of adhesion and migration; however, it is unknown which Rho GTPases are expressed in different myeloid cells. Here, we use a qPCR-based approach to investigate Rho GTPase expression in myeloid cells.We found that the mRNAs encoding Cdc42, RhoQ, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA and RhoC are the most abundant. In addition, RhoG, RhoB, RhoF and RhoV are expressed at low levels or only in specific cell types. More differentiated cells along the monocyte-lineage display lower levels of Cdc42 and RhoV, while RhoC mRNA is more abundant. In addition, the Rho GTPase expression profile changes during dendritic cell maturation with Rac1 being upregulated and Rac2 downregulated. Finally, GM-CSF stimulation, during macrophage and osteoclast differentiation, leads to high expression of Rac2, while M-CSF induces high levels of RhoA, showing that these cytokines induce a distinct pattern. Our data uncover cell type specific modulation of the Rho GTPase expression profile in hematopoietic stem cells and in more differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage.

  11. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  12. C9orf72’s interaction with Rab GTPases - modulation of membrane traffic and autophagy

    Bor Luen Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in an intron of Chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD. While functional haploinsufficiency of C9orf72 resulting from the mutation may play a role in ALS/FTD, the actual cellular role of the protein has been unclear. Recent findings have now shown that C9orf72 physically and functionally interacts with multiple members of the Rab small GTPases family, consequently exerting important influences on cellular membrane traffic and the process of autophagy. Loss of C9orf72 impairs endocytosis in neuronal cell lines, and attenuated autophagosome formation. Interestingly, C9orf72 could influence autophagy both as part of a Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF complex, or as a Rab effector that facilitates transport of the Unc-51-like Autophagy Activating Kinase 1 (Ulk1 autophagy initiation complex. The cellular function of C9orf72 is discussed in the light of these recent findings

  13. The GTPase Rab37 Participates in the Control of Insulin Exocytosis.

    Sanda Ljubicic

    Full Text Available Rab37 belongs to a subclass of Rab GTPases regulating exocytosis, including also Rab3a and Rab27a. Proteomic studies indicate that Rab37 is associated with insulin-containing large dense core granules of pancreatic β-cells. In agreement with these observations, we detected Rab37 in extracts of β-cell lines and human pancreatic islets and confirmed by confocal microscopy the localization of the GTPase on insulin-containing secretory granules. We found that, as is the case for Rab3a and Rab27a, reduction of Rab37 levels by RNA interference leads to impairment in glucose-induced insulin secretion and to a decrease in the number of granules in close apposition to the plasma membrane. Pull-down experiments revealed that, despite similar functional effects, Rab37 does not interact with known Rab3a or Rab27a effectors and is likely to operate through a different mechanism. Exposure of insulin-secreting cells to proinflammatory cytokines, fatty acids or oxidized low-density lipoproteins, mimicking physiopathological conditions that favor the development of diabetes, resulted in a decrease in Rab37 expression. Our data identify Rab37 as an additional component of the machinery governing exocytosis of β-cells and suggest that impaired expression of this GTPase may contribute to defective insulin release in pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions.

  14. Targeting and localized signalling by small GTPases

    ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    Polarized cellular responses, for example, cell migration, require the co-ordinated assembly of signalling complexes at a particular subcellular location, such as the leading edge of cells. Small GTPases of the Ras superfamily play central roles in many (polarized) responses to growth factors,

  15. HPV18 Persistence Impairs Basal and DNA Ligand-Mediated IFN-β and IFN-λ1 Production through Transcriptional Repression of Multiple Downstream Effectors of Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling.

    Albertini, Silvia; Lo Cigno, Irene; Calati, Federica; De Andrea, Marco; Borgogna, Cinzia; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2018-03-15

    Although it is clear that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can selectively infect keratinocytes and persist in the host, it still remains to be unequivocally determined whether they can escape antiviral innate immunity by interfering with pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling. In this study, we have assessed the innate immune response in monolayer and organotypic raft cultures of NIKS cells harboring multiple copies of episomal HPV18 (NIKSmcHPV18), which fully recapitulates the persistent state of infection. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that NIKSmcHPV18, as well as HeLa cells (a cervical carcinoma-derived cell line harboring integrated HPV18 DNA), display marked downregulation of several PRRs, as well as other PRR downstream effectors, such as the adaptor protein stimulator of IFN genes and the transcription factors IRF1 and 7. Importantly, we provide evidence that downregulation of stimulator of IFN genes, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, and retinoic acid-inducible gene I mRNA levels occurs at the transcriptional level through a novel epigenetic silencing mechanism, as documented by the accumulation of repressive heterochromatin markers seen at the promoter region of these genes. Furthermore, stimulation of NIKSmcHPV18 cells with salmon sperm DNA or poly(deoxyadenylic-deoxythymidylic) acid, two potent inducers of PRR signaling, only partially restored PRR protein expression. Accordingly, the production of IFN-β and IFN-λ 1 was significantly reduced in comparison with the parental NIKS cells, indicating that HPV18 exerts its immunosuppressive activity through downregulation of PRR signaling. Altogether, our findings indicate that high-risk human papillomaviruses have evolved broad-spectrum mechanisms that allow simultaneous depletion of multiple effectors of the innate immunity network, thereby creating an unreactive cellular milieu suitable for viral persistence. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Targeting GTPases in Parkinson’s disease: comparison to the historic path of kinase drug discovery and perspectives

    LIN eHONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases have placed heavy social and financial burdens on modern society. As the life expectancy of humans is extended, neurological diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, have become increasingly common among senior populations. Although the enigmas of Parkinson’s diseases await resolution, more vivid pictures on the cause, progression and control of the illness are emerging after years of research. On the molecular level, GTPases are implicated in the etiology of Parkinson’s disease and are rational pharmaceutical targets for their control. However, targeting individual GTPases, which belong to a superfamily of proteins containing multiple members with a conserved guanine nucleotide binding domain, has proven to be challenging. In contrast, pharmaceutical pursuit of inhibition of kinases, which constitute another superfamily of proteins with more than 500 members, has been fairly successful. We reviewed the breakthroughs in the history of kinase drug discovery to provide guidance for the GTPase field. We summarize recent progress made in the regulation of GTPase activity. We also present an efficient and cost effective approach to drug screening, which uses multiplex flow cytometry and mixture-based positional scanning libraries. These methods allow simultaneous measurements of both the activity and the selectivity of the screened library. Several GTPase activator clusters were identified which showed selectivity against different GTPase subfamilies. While the clusters need to be further deconvoluted to identify individual active compounds, the method described here and the structure information gathered create a foundation for further developments to build upon.

  17. TAL effectors and the executor R genes.

    Zhang, Junli; Yin, Zhongchao; White, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R) genes have been characterized-recessive, dominant non-transcriptional, and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  18. TAL effectors and the executor R genes

    Junli eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcription activation-like (TAL effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R genes have been characterized - recessive, dominant non-transcriptional and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  19. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  20. Mechanism of IRSp53 inhibition and combinatorial activation by Cdc42 and downstream effectors.

    Kast, David J; Yang, Changsong; Disanza, Andrea; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Madasu, Yadaiah; Scita, Giorgio; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The Rho family GTPase effector IRSp53 has essential roles in filopodia formation and neuronal development, but its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. IRSp53 contains a membrane-binding BAR domain followed by an unconventional CRIB motif that overlaps with a proline-rich region (CRIB-PR) and an SH3 domain that recruits actin cytoskeleton effectors. Using a fluorescence reporter assay, we show that human IRSp53 adopts a closed inactive conformation that opens synergistically with the binding of human Cdc42 to the CRIB-PR and effector proteins, such as the tumor-promoting factor Eps8, to the SH3 domain. The crystal structure of Cdc42 bound to the CRIB-PR reveals a new mode of effector binding to Rho family GTPases. Structure-inspired mutations disrupt autoinhibition and Cdc42 binding in vitro and decouple Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent filopodia formation in cells. The data support a combinatorial mechanism of IRSp53 activation.

  1. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human dynamin-related protein 1 GTPase-GED fusion protein

    Klinglmayr, Eva; Wenger, Julia; Mayr, Sandra; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella; Puehringer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization and initial diffraction analysis of human Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are reported. The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67 Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53 Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis

  2. A Bacterial Pathogen Targets a Host Rab-Family GTPase Defense Pathway with a GAP.

    Spanò, Stefania; Gao, Xiang; Hannemann, Sebastian; Lara-Tejero, María; Galán, Jorge E

    2016-02-10

    Cell-autonomous defense mechanisms are potent strategies that protect individual cells against intracellular pathogens. The Rab-family GTPase Rab32 was previously shown to restrict the intracellular human pathogen Salmonella Typhi, but its potential broader role in antimicrobial defense remains unknown. We show that Rab32 represents a general cell-autonomous, antimicrobial defense that is counteracted by two Salmonella effectors. Mice lacking Rab-32 or its nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 are permissive to S. Typhi infection and exhibit increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium. S. Typhimurium counters this defense pathway by delivering two type III secretion effectors, SopD2, a Rab32 GAP, and GtgE, a specific Rab32 protease. An S. Typhimurium mutant strain lacking these two effectors exhibits markedly reduced virulence, which is fully restored in BLOC-3-deficient mice. These results demonstrate that a cell-autonomous, Rab32-dependent host defense pathway plays a central role in the defense against vacuolar pathogens and describe a mechanism evolved by a bacterial pathogen to counter it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GTPase activity plays a key role in the pathobiology of LRRK2.

    Yulan Xiong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are associated with late-onset, autosomal-dominant, familial Parkinson's disease (PD and also contribute to sporadic disease. The LRRK2 gene encodes a large protein with multiple domains, including functional Roc GTPase and protein kinase domains. Mutations in LRRK2 most likely cause disease through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism. The expression of human LRRK2 variants in cultured primary neurons induces toxicity that is dependent on intact GTP binding or kinase activities. However, the mechanism(s underlying LRRK2-induced neuronal toxicity is poorly understood, and the contribution of GTPase and/or kinase activity to LRRK2 pathobiology is not well defined. To explore the pathobiology of LRRK2, we have developed a model of LRRK2 cytotoxicity in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein domain analysis in this model reveals that expression of GTPase domain-containing fragments of human LRRK2 are toxic. LRRK2 toxicity in yeast can be modulated by altering GTPase activity and is closely associated with defects in endocytic vesicular trafficking and autophagy. These truncated LRRK2 variants induce similar toxicity in both yeast and primary neuronal models and cause similar vesicular defects in yeast as full-length LRRK2 causes in primary neurons. The toxicity induced by truncated LRRK2 variants in yeast acts through a mechanism distinct from toxicity induced by human alpha-synuclein. A genome-wide genetic screen identified modifiers of LRRK2-induced toxicity in yeast including components of vesicular trafficking pathways, which can also modulate the trafficking defects caused by expression of truncated LRRK2 variants. Our results provide insight into the basic pathobiology of LRRK2 and suggest that the GTPase domain may contribute to the toxicity of LRRK2. These findings may guide future therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating LRRK2-mediated neurodegeneration.

  4. Epac : effectors and biological functions

    Roscioni, Sara S.; Elzinga, Carolina R. S.; Schmidt, Martina

    Epac1 (also known as cAMP-GEF-I) and Epac2 (also known as cAMP-GEF-II) are cyclic AMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Ras-like GTPases. Since their discovery about 10 years ago, it is now accepted that Epac proteins are novel cAMP sensors that regulate several pivotal cellular

  5. The interaction properties of the human Rab GTPase family--comparative analysis reveals determinants of molecular binding selectivity.

    Matthias Stein

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases constitute the largest subfamily of the Ras protein superfamily. Rab proteins regulate organelle biogenesis and transport, and display distinct binding preferences for effector and activator proteins, many of which have not been elucidated yet. The underlying molecular recognition motifs, binding partner preferences and selectivities are not well understood.Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic molecular interaction fields of 62 human Rab proteins revealed a wide range of binding properties with large differences between some Rab proteins. This analysis assists the functional annotation of Rab proteins 12, 14, 26, 37 and 41 and provided an explanation for the shared function of Rab3 and 27. Rab7a and 7b have very different electrostatic potentials, indicating that they may bind to different effector proteins and thus, exert different functions. The subfamily V Rab GTPases which are associated with endosome differ subtly in the interaction properties of their switch regions, and this may explain exchange factor specificity and exchange kinetics.We have analysed conservation of sequence and of molecular interaction fields to cluster and annotate the human Rab proteins. The analysis of three dimensional molecular interaction fields provides detailed insight that is not available from a sequence-based approach alone. Based on our results, we predict novel functions for some Rab proteins and provide insights into their divergent functions and the determinants of their binding partner selectivity.

  6. The Rab7 effector PLEKHM1 binds Arl8b to promote cargo traffic to lysosomes.

    Marwaha, Rituraj; Arya, Subhash B; Jagga, Divya; Kaur, Harmeet; Tuli, Amit; Sharma, Mahak

    2017-04-03

    Endocytic, autophagic, and phagocytic vesicles move on microtubule tracks to fuse with lysosomes. Small GTPases, such as Rab7 and Arl8b, recruit their downstream effectors to mediate this transport and fusion. However, the potential cross talk between these two GTPases is unclear. Here, we show that the Rab7 effector PLEKHM1 simultaneously binds Rab7 and Arl8b, bringing about clustering and fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes. We show that the N-terminal RUN domain of PLEKHM1 is necessary and sufficient for interaction with Arl8b and its subsequent localization to lysosomes. Notably, we also demonstrate that Arl8b mediates recruitment of HOPS complex to PLEKHM1-positive vesicle contact sites. Consequently, Arl8b binding to PLEKHM1 is required for its function in delivery and, therefore, degradation of endocytic and autophagic cargo in lysosomes. Finally, we also show that PLEKHM1 competes with SKIP for Arl8b binding, which dictates lysosome positioning. These findings suggest that Arl8b, along with its effectors, orchestrates lysosomal transport and fusion. © 2017 Marwaha et al.

  7. Structural basis for the recruitment and activation of the Legionella phospholipase VipD by the host GTPase Rab5

    Lucas, María; Gaspar, Andrew H.; Pallara, Chiara; Rojas, Adriana Lucely; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Machner, Matthias P.; Hierro, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    A challenge for microbial pathogens is to assure that their translocated effector proteins target only the correct host cell compartment during infection. The Legionella pneumophila effector vacuolar protein sorting inhibitor protein D (VipD) localizes to early endosomal membranes and alters their lipid and protein composition, thereby protecting the pathogen from endosomal fusion. This process requires the phospholipase A1 (PLA1) activity of VipD that is triggered specifically on VipD binding to the host cell GTPase Rab5, a key regulator of endosomes. Here, we present the crystal structure of VipD in complex with constitutively active Rab5 and reveal the molecular mechanism underlying PLA1 activation. An active site-obstructing loop that originates from the C-terminal domain of VipD is repositioned on Rab5 binding, thereby exposing the catalytic pocket within the N-terminal PLA1 domain. Substitution of amino acid residues located within the VipD–Rab5 interface prevented Rab5 binding and PLA1 activation and caused a failure of VipD mutant proteins to target to Rab5-enriched endosomal structures within cells. Experimental and computational analyses confirmed an extended VipD-binding interface on Rab5, explaining why this L. pneumophila effector can compete with cellular ligands for Rab5 binding. Together, our data explain how the catalytic activity of a microbial effector can be precisely linked to its subcellular localization. PMID:25114243

  8. Systematic Identification of Intracellular-Translocated Candidate Effectors in Edwardsiella piscicida

    Lingzhi Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens inject effectors directly into host cells to target a variety of host cellular processes and promote bacterial dissemination and survival. Identifying the bacterial effectors and elucidating their functions are central to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these pathogens. Edwardsiella piscicida is a pathogen with a wide host range, and very few of its effectors have been identified to date. Here, based on the genes significantly regulated by macrophage infection, we identified 25 intracellular translocation-positive candidate effectors, including all five previously reported effectors, namely EseG, EseJ, EseH, EseK, and EvpP. A subsequent secretion analysis revealed diverse secretion patterns for the 25 effector candidates, suggesting that multiple transport pathways were involved in the internalization of these candidate effectors. Further, we identified two novel type VI secretion system (T6SS putative effectors and three outer membrane vesicles (OMV-dependent putative effectors among the candidate effectors described above, and further analyzed their contribution to bacterial virulence in a zebrafish model. This work demonstrates an effective approach for screening bacterial effectors and expands the effectors repertoire in E. piscicida.

  9. Orbital maneuvering end effectors

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an end effector device for grasping and maneuvering objects such as berthing handles of a space telescope. The device includes a V-shaped capture window defined as inclined surfaces in parallel face plates which converge toward a retainer recess in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess where latches lock handle in the recess. To align the capture window, plates may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base. Drive means is included in the form of a motor coupled with a harmonic drive speed reducer, which provides for slow movement of the fingers at a high torque so that large articles may be handled. Novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the combined intermeshing finger structure, drive means and the harmonic drive speed reducer, which features provide the required maneuverability and strength.

  10. Inter-cellular transport of ran GTPase.

    Deepak Khuperkar

    Full Text Available Ran, a member of the Ras-GTPase superfamily, has a well-established role in regulating the transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope (NE. Ran has also been implicated in mitosis, cell cycle progression, and NE formation. Over-expression of Ran is associated with various cancers, although the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unclear. Serendipitously, we found that Ran possesses the ability to move from cell-to-cell when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that the inter-cellular transport of Ran is GTP-dependent. Importantly, Ran displays a similar distribution pattern in the recipient cells as that in the donor cell and co-localizes with the Ran binding protein Nup358 (also called RanBP2. Interestingly, leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1-mediated export, or siRNA mediated depletion of CRM1, significantly impaired the inter-cellular transport of Ran, suggesting a function for CRM1 in this process. These novel findings indicate a possible role for Ran beyond nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, with potential implications in inter-cellular communication and cancers.

  11. RhoA GTPase regulates radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cell adhesion and migration

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Gaugler, Marie-Hélène; Rodallec, Audrey; Bonnaud, Stéphanie; Paris, François; Corre, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We explore the role of RhoA in endothelial cell response to ionizing radiation. ► RhoA is rapidly activated by single high-dose of radiation. ► Radiation leads to RhoA/ROCK-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling. ► Radiation-induced apoptosis does not require the RhoA/ROCK pathway. ► Radiation-induced alteration of endothelial adhesion and migration requires RhoA/ROCK. -- Abstract: Endothelial cells of the microvasculature are major target of ionizing radiation, responsible of the radiation-induced vascular early dysfunctions. Molecular signaling pathways involved in endothelial responses to ionizing radiation, despite being increasingly investigated, still need precise characterization. Small GTPase RhoA and its effector ROCK are crucial signaling molecules involved in many endothelial cellular functions. Recent studies identified implication of RhoA/ROCK in radiation-induced increase in endothelial permeability but other endothelial functions altered by radiation might also require RhoA proteins. Human microvascular endothelial cells HMEC-1, either treated with Y-27632 (inhibitor of ROCK) or invalidated for RhoA by RNA interference were exposed to 15 Gy. We showed a rapid radiation-induced activation of RhoA, leading to a deep reorganisation of actin cytoskeleton with rapid formation of stress fibers. Endothelial early apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation was not affected by Y-27632 pre-treatment or RhoA depletion. Endothelial adhesion to fibronectin and formation of focal adhesions increased in response to radiation in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. Consistent with its pro-adhesive role, ionizing radiation also decreased endothelial cells migration and RhoA was required for this inhibition. These results highlight the role of RhoA GTPase in ionizing radiation-induced deregulation of essential endothelial functions linked to actin cytoskeleton.

  12. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  13. Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz.

    Bozkurt, Tolga O; Schornack, Sebastian; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-08-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. Understanding how effectors evolve, translocate and traffic inside host cells, and perturb host processes are major themes in the study of oomycete-plant interactions. The last year has seen important progress in the study of oomycete effectors with, notably, the elucidation of the 3D structures of five RXLR effectors, and novel insights into how cytoplasmic effectors subvert host cells. In this review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight the most important open questions in oomycete effector biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Principles and applications of TAL effectors for plant physiology and metabolism.

    Bogdanove, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in DNA targeting allow unprecedented control over gene function and expression. Targeting based on TAL effectors is arguably the most promising for systems biology and metabolic engineering. Multiple, orthogonal TAL-effector reagents of different types can be used in the same cell. Furthermore, variation in base preferences of the individual structural repeats that make up the TAL effector DNA recognition domain makes targeting stringency tunable. Realized applications range from genome editing to epigenome modification to targeted gene regulation to chromatin labeling and capture. The principles that govern TAL effector DNA recognition make TAL effectors well suited for applications relevant to plant physiology and metabolism. TAL effector targeting has merits that are distinct from those of the RNA-based DNA targeting CRISPR/Cas9 system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  16. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

    Johnathan J Dalzell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research

  17. Diacylglycerol kinases in T cell tolerance and effector function

    Shelley S Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs are a family of enzymes that regulate the relative levels of diacylglycerol (DAG and phosphatidic acid (PA in cells by phosphorylating DAG to produce PA. Both DAG and PA are important second messengers cascading T cell receptor (TCR signal by recruiting multiple effector molecules such as RasGRP1, PKC, and mTOR. Studies have revealed important physiological functions of DGKs in the regulation of receptor signaling and the development and activation of immune cells. In this review, we will focus on recent progresses in our understanding of two DGK isoforms,  and , in CD8 T effector and memory cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, and invariant NKT cell development and effector lineage differentiation.

  18. The interdependence of the Rho GTPases and apicobasal cell polarity.

    Mack, Natalie Ann; Georgiou, Marios

    2014-01-01

    Signaling via the Rho GTPases provides crucial regulation of numerous cell polarization events, including apicobasal (AB) polarity, polarized cell migration, polarized cell division and neuronal polarity. Here we review the relationships between the Rho family GTPases and epithelial AB polarization events, focusing on the 3 best-characterized members: Rho, Rac and Cdc42. We discuss a multitude of processes that are important for AB polarization, including lumen formation, apical membrane specification, cell-cell junction assembly and maintenance, as well as tissue polarity. Our discussions aim to highlight the immensely complex regulatory mechanisms that encompass Rho GTPase signaling during AB polarization. More specifically, in this review we discuss several emerging common themes, that include: 1) the need for Rho GTPase activities to be carefully balanced in both a spatial and temporal manner through a multitude of mechanisms; 2) the existence of signaling feedback loops and crosstalk to create robust cellular responses; and 3) the frequent multifunctionality that exists among AB polarity regulators. Regarding this latter theme, we provide further discussion of the potential plasticity of the cell polarity machinery and as a result the possible implications for human disease.

  19. The small GTPase Arl8b regulates assembly of the mammalian HOPS complex on lysosomes

    Khatter, Divya; Raina, Vivek B.; Dwivedi, Devashish; Sindhwani, Aastha; Bahl, Surbhi; Sharma, Mahak

    2015-01-01

    The homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) complex is a multi-subunit complex conserved from yeast to mammals that regulates late endosome and lysosome fusion. However, little is known about how the HOPS complex is recruited to lysosomes in mammalian cells. Here, we report that the small GTPase Arl8b, but not Rab7 (also known as RAB7A), is essential for membrane localization of the human (h)Vps41 subunit of the HOPS complex. Assembly of the core HOPS subunits to Arl8b- and hVps41-positive lysosomes is guided by their subunit–subunit interactions. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hVps41 resulted in the impaired degradation of EGFR that was rescued upon expression of wild-type but not an Arl8b-binding-defective mutant of hVps41, suggesting that Arl8b-dependent lysosomal localization of hVps41 is required for its endocytic function. Furthermore, we have also identified that the Arl8b effector SKIP (also known as PLEKHM2) interacts with and recruits HOPS subunits to Arl8b and kinesin-positive peripheral lysosomes. Accordingly, RNAi-mediated depletion of SKIP impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation of EGFR. These findings reveal that Arl8b regulates the association of the human HOPS complex with lysosomal membranes, which is crucial for the function of this tethering complex in endocytic degradation. PMID:25908847

  20. GTPase ROP2 binds and promotes activation of target of rapamycin, TOR, in response to auxin.

    Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Makarian, Joelle; Srour, Ola; Geldreich, Angèle; Yang, Zhenbiao; Chicher, Johana; Hammann, Philippe; Ryabova, Lyubov A

    2017-04-03

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) promotes reinitiation at upstream ORFs (uORFs) in genes that play important roles in stem cell regulation and organogenesis in plants. Here, we report that the small GTPase ROP2, if activated by the phytohormone auxin, promotes activation of TOR, and thus translation reinitiation of uORF-containing mRNAs. Plants with high levels of active ROP2, including those expressing constitutively active ROP2 (CA-ROP2), contain high levels of active TOR ROP2 physically interacts with and, when GTP-bound, activates TOR in vitro TOR activation in response to auxin is abolished in ROP-deficient rop2 rop6 ROP4 RNAi plants. GFP-TOR can associate with endosome-like structures in ROP2-overexpressing plants, indicating that endosomes mediate ROP2 effects on TOR activation. CA-ROP2 is efficient in loading uORF-containing mRNAs onto polysomes and stimulates translation in protoplasts, and both processes are sensitive to TOR inhibitor AZD-8055. TOR inactivation abolishes ROP2 regulation of translation reinitiation, but not its effects on cytoskeleton or intracellular trafficking. These findings imply a mode of translation control whereby, as an upstream effector of TOR, ROP2 coordinates TOR function in translation reinitiation pathways in response to auxin. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. The small GTPase Arl8b regulates assembly of the mammalian HOPS complex on lysosomes.

    Khatter, Divya; Raina, Vivek B; Dwivedi, Devashish; Sindhwani, Aastha; Bahl, Surbhi; Sharma, Mahak

    2015-05-01

    The homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) complex is a multi-subunit complex conserved from yeast to mammals that regulates late endosome and lysosome fusion. However, little is known about how the HOPS complex is recruited to lysosomes in mammalian cells. Here, we report that the small GTPase Arl8b, but not Rab7 (also known as RAB7A), is essential for membrane localization of the human (h)Vps41 subunit of the HOPS complex. Assembly of the core HOPS subunits to Arl8b- and hVps41-positive lysosomes is guided by their subunit-subunit interactions. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hVps41 resulted in the impaired degradation of EGFR that was rescued upon expression of wild-type but not an Arl8b-binding-defective mutant of hVps41, suggesting that Arl8b-dependent lysosomal localization of hVps41 is required for its endocytic function. Furthermore, we have also identified that the Arl8b effector SKIP (also known as PLEKHM2) interacts with and recruits HOPS subunits to Arl8b and kinesin-positive peripheral lysosomes. Accordingly, RNAi-mediated depletion of SKIP impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation of EGFR. These findings reveal that Arl8b regulates the association of the human HOPS complex with lysosomal membranes, which is crucial for the function of this tethering complex in endocytic degradation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. The Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasal3 supports survival of naive T cells.

    Ryunosuke Muro

    Full Text Available The Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway is crucial for T cell receptor (TCR signaling in the development and function of T cells. The significance of various modulators of the Ras-MAPK pathway in T cells, however, remains to be fully understood. Ras-activating protein-like 3 (Rasal3 is an uncharacterized member of the SynGAP family that contains a conserved Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP domain, and is predominantly expressed in the T cell lineage. In the current study, we investigated the function and physiological roles of Rasal3. Our results showed that Rasal3 possesses RasGAP activity, but not Rap1GAP activity, and represses TCR-stimulated ERK phosphorylation in a T cell line. In systemic Rasal3-deficient mice, T cell development in the thymus including positive selection, negative selection, and β-selection was unaffected. However, the number of naive, but not effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cell in the periphery was significantly reduced in Rasal3-deficient mice, and associated with a marked increase in apoptosis of these cells. Indeed, survival of Rasal3 deficient naive CD4 T cells in vivo by adoptive transfer was significantly impaired, whereas IL-7-dependent survival of naive CD4 T cells in vitro was unaltered. Collectively, Rasal3 is required for in vivo survival of peripheral naive T cells, contributing to the maintenance of optimal T cell numbers.

  3. Increased diacylglycerol kinase ζ expression in human metastatic colon cancer cells augments Rho GTPase activity and contributes to enhanced invasion

    Cai, Kun; Mulatz, Kirk; Ard, Ryan; Nguyen, Thanh; Gee, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the signaling pathways responsible for the establishment of a metastatic phenotype in carcinoma cells is critically important for understanding the pathology of cancer. The acquisition of cell motility is a key property of metastatic tumor cells and is a prerequisite for invasion. Rho GTPases regulate actin cytoskeleton reorganization and the cellular responses required for cell motility and invasion. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid, regulates the activity of the Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA. DGKζ mRNA is highly expressed in several different colon cancer cell lines, as well as in colon cancer tissue relative to normal colonic epithelium, and thus may contribute to the metastatic process. To investigate potential roles of DGKζ in cancer metastasis, a cellular, isogenic model of human colorectal cancer metastatic transition was used. DGKζ protein levels, Rac1 and RhoA activity, and PAK phosphorylation were measured in the non-metastatic SW480 adenocarcinoma cell line and its highly metastatic variant, the SW620 line. The effect of DGKζ silencing on Rho GTPase activity and invasion through Matrigel-coated Transwell inserts was studied in SW620 cells. Invasiveness was also measured in PC-3 prostate cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depleted of DGKζ. DGKζ protein levels were elevated approximately 3-fold in SW620 cells compared to SW480 cells. There was a concomitant increase in active Rac1 in SW620 cells, as well as substantial increases in the expression and phosphorylation of the Rac1 effector PAK1. Similarly, RhoA activity and expression were increased in SW620 cells. Knockdown of DGKζ expression in SW620 cells by shRNA-mediated silencing significantly reduced Rac1 and RhoA activity and attenuated the invasiveness of SW620 cells in vitro. DGKζ silencing in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and PC-3 prostate cancer cells also significantly attenuated

  4. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations

  5. Orbital maneuvering vehicle end effectors

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An end effector device (A) for grasping and holding an article such as a handle (18) of a space telescope is disclosed. The device includes a V-shaped capture window (74) defined as inclined surfaces (76, 78) in parallel face plates (22, 24) which converge toward a retainer recess (54) in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers (26, 28) which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess (54) where latches (50) lock handle (18) in the recess. To align the capture window, plates (22, 24) may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base (64).

  6. The GTPase Rab43 Controls the Anterograde ER-Golgi Trafficking and Sorting of GPCRs

    Chunman Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute the largest superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins. However, mechanisms underlying their surface targeting and sorting are poorly understood. Here, we screen the Rab family of small GTPases in the surface transport of multiple GPCRs. We find that manipulation of Rab43 function significantly alters the surface presentation and signaling of all GPCRs studied without affecting non-GPCR membrane proteins. Rab43 specifically regulates the transport of nascent GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi. More interestingly, Rab43 directly interacts with GPCRs in an activation-dependent fashion. The Rab43-binding domain identified in the receptors effectively converts non-GPCR membrane protein transport into a Rab43-dependent pathway. These data reveal a crucial role for Rab43 in anterograde ER-Golgi transport of nascent GPCRs, as well as the ER sorting of GPCR members by virtue of its ability to interact directly.

  7. The Shigella flexneri OspB effector: an early immunomodulator.

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants.

    Jwa, Nam-Soo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2017-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs) as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs) responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  9. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants

    Nam-Soo Jwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  10. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  11. Legionella Effector AnkX Disrupts Host Cell Endocytic Recycling in a Phosphocholination-Dependent Manner

    Samual C. Allgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila proliferates within amoebae and human alveolar macrophages, and it is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia. Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. The Legionella effector AnkX is a phosphocholine transferase that covalently modifies host Rab1 and Rab35. However, a detailed understanding of the biological consequence of Rab GTPase phosphocholination remains elusive. Here, we broaden the understanding of AnkX function by presenting three lines of evidence that it interferes with host endocytic recycling. First, using immunogold transmission electron microscopy, we determined that GFP-tagged AnkX ectopically produced in mammalian cells localizes at the plasma membrane and tubular membrane compartments, sites consistent with targeting the endocytic recycling pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AnkX was responsible for association with the plasma membrane, and we determined that this region was also able to bind the phosphoinositide lipids PI(3P and PI(4P in vitro. Second, we observed that mCherry-AnkX co-localized with Rab35, a regulator of recycling endocytosis and with major histocompatibility class I protein (MHC-I, a key immunoregulatory protein whose recycling from and back to the plasma membrane is Rab35-dependent. Third, we report that during infection of macrophages, AnkX is responsible for the disruption of endocytic recycling of transferrin, and AnkX's phosphocholination activity is critical for this function. These results support the hypothesis that AnkX targets endocytic recycling during host cell infection. Finally, we have demonstrated that the phosphocholination activity of AnkX is also critical for inhibiting fusion of the Legionella

  12. SPRYSEC effector proteins in Globodera rostochiensis

    Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens inject so-called effector molecules into the cells of a host plant to promote their growth and reproduction in these hosts. In plant parasitic nematodes, these effector molecules are produced in the salivary glands. The objective of this thesis was to identify and characterize

  13. Functional Characterization of Monomeric GTPase Rab1 in the Secretory Pathway of Leishmania*

    Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. PMID:26499792

  14. Functional Characterization of Monomeric GTPase Rab1 in the Secretory Pathway of Leishmania.

    Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-12-11

    Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  16. The 'invisible hand': regulation of RHO GTPases by RHOGDIs.

    Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Boulter, Etienne; Burridge, Keith

    2011-07-22

    The 'invisible hand' is a term originally coined by Adam Smith in The Theory of Moral Sentiments to describe the forces of self-interest, competition and supply and demand that regulate the resources in society. This metaphor continues to be used by economists to describe the self-regulating nature of a market economy. The same metaphor can be used to describe the RHO-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RHOGDI) family, which operates in the background, as an invisible hand, using similar forces to regulate the RHO GTPase cycle.

  17. The invisible hand: regulation of RHO GTPases by RHOGDIs

    Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Boulter, Etienne; Burridge, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Preface The 'invisible hand' is a term originally coined by Adam Smith in the Theory of Moral Sentiments to describe the forces of self-interest, competition, and supply and demand that regulate the resources in society. This metaphor continues to be used by economists to describe the self-regulating nature of a market economy. The same metaphor can be used to describe the RHO-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RHOGDI) family, which operates in the background, as an invisible hand, using similar forces to regulate the RHO GTPase cycle. PMID:21779026

  18. Small GTPases and formins in mammalian oocyte maturation: cytoskeletal organizers.

    Kwon, Sojung; Lim, Hyunjung J

    2011-03-01

    The maturation process of mammalian oocytes accompanies an extensive rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and associated proteins. As this process requires a delicate interplay between the cytoskeleton and its regulators, it is often targeted by various external and internal adversaries that affect the congression and/or segregation of chromosomes. Asymmetric cell division in oocytes also requires specific regulators of the cytoskeleton, including formin-2 and small GTPases. Recent literature providing clues regarding how actin filaments and microtubules interact during spindle migration in mouse oocytes are highlighted in this review.

  19. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    Eija Nissilä

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2 have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  1. Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens

    Mark eGijzen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.

  2. Rab4GTPase modulates CFTR function by impairing channel expression at plasma membrane

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Kaur, Simarna; George, Constantine

    2006-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or the function of a membrane cAMP-activated chloride channel, CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include recruitment of channel proteins to the cell surface from intracellular pools and by protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in regulated trafficking controlling vesicle docking and fusion. Rab4 controls recycling events from endosome to the plasma membrane, fusion, and degradation. The colorectal cell line HT-29 natively expresses CFTR and responds to cAMP stimulation with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. Rab4 over-expression in HT-29 cells inhibits both basal and cAMP-stimulated CFTR-mediated currents. GTPase-deficient Rab4Q67L and GDP locked Rab4S22N both inhibit channel activity, which appears characteristically different. Active status of Rab4 was confirmed by GTP overlay assay, while its expression was verified by Western blotting. The pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Rab4 physically interacts with CFTR through protein-protein interaction. Biotinylation with cell impermeant NHS-Sulfo-SS-Biotin implies that Rab4 impairs CFTR expression at cell surface. The enhanced cytosolic CFTR indicates that Rab4 expression restrains CFTR appearance at the cell membrane. The study suggests that Rab4 regulates the channel through multiple mechanisms that include protein-protein interaction, GTP/GDP exchange, and channel protein trafficking. We propose that Rab4 is a dynamic molecule with a significant role in CFTR function

  3. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  4. Identification of the GTPase superfamily in Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Clayton Luiz Borges

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are the smallest known prokaryotes with self-replication ability. They are obligate parasites, taking up many molecules of their hosts and acting as pathogens in men, animals, birds and plants. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the infective agent of swine mycoplasmosis and Mycoplasma synoviae is responsible for subclinical upper respiratory infections that may result in airsacculitis and synovitis in chickens and turkeys. These highly infectious organisms present a worldwide distribution and are responsible for major economic problems. Proteins of the GTPase superfamily occur in all domains of life, regulating functions such as protein synthesis, cell cycle and differentiation. Despite their functional diversity, all GTPases are believed to have evolved from a single common ancestor. In this work we have identified mycoplasma GTPases by searching the complete genome databases of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, J (non-pathogenic and 7448 (pathogenic strains. Fifteen ORFs encoding predicted GTPases were found in M. synoviae and in the two strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Searches for conserved G domains in GTPases were performed and the sequences were classified into families. The GTPase phylogenetic analysis showed that the subfamilies were well resolved into clades. The presence of GTPases in the three strains suggests the importance of GTPases in 'minimalist' genomes.

  5. Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Transformation by Rho GTPase Through a Novel Mechanism

    2009-08-01

    87: 635-44. 18. Burbelo P, Wellstein A, Pestell RG. Altered Rho GTPase signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2004; 84...Burbelo P, Wellstein A, Pestell RG. Altered Rho GTPase signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2004;84:43–8. 19. Band V

  6. Comprehensive functional analysis of Rab GTPases in Drosophila nephrocytes.

    Fu, Yulong; Zhu, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Fujian; Richman, Adam; Zhao, Zhanzheng; Han, Zhe

    2017-06-01

    The Drosophila nephrocyte is a critical component of the fly renal system and bears structural and functional homology to podocytes and proximal tubule cells of the mammalian kidney. Investigations of nephrocyte cell biological processes are fundamental to understanding the insect renal system. Nephrocytes are highly active in endocytosis and vesicle trafficking. Rab GTPases regulate endocytosis and trafficking but specific functions of nephrocyte Rabs remain undefined. We analyzed Rab GTPase expression and function in Drosophila nephrocytes and found that 11 out of 27 Drosophila Rabs were required for normal activity. Rabs 1, 5, 7, 11 and 35 were most important. Gene silencing of the nephrocyte-specific Rab5 eliminated all intracellular vesicles and the specialized plasma membrane structures essential for nephrocyte function. Rab7 silencing dramatically increased clear vacuoles and reduced lysosomes. Rab11 silencing increased lysosomes and reduced clear vacuoles. Our results suggest that Rab5 mediates endocytosis that is essential for the maintenance of functionally critical nephrocyte plasma membrane structures and that Rabs 7 and 11 mediate alternative downstream vesicle trafficking pathways leading to protein degradation and membrane recycling, respectively. Elucidating molecular pathways underlying nephrocyte function has the potential to yield important insights into human kidney cell physiology and mechanisms of cell injury that lead to disease. The Drosophila nephrocyte is emerging as a useful in vivo model system for molecular target identification and initial testing of therapeutic approaches in humans.

  7. Characterization of mitochondrion-targeted GTPases in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Gupta, Kirti; Gupta, Ankit; Haider, Afreen; Habib, Saman

    2018-04-12

    Ribosome assembly is critical for translation and regulating the response to cellular events and requires a complex interplay of ribosomal RNA and proteins with assembly factors. We investigated putative participants in the biogenesis of the reduced organellar ribosomes of Plasmodium falciparum and identified homologues of two assembly GTPases - EngA and Obg that were found in mitochondria. Both are indispensable in bacteria and P. berghei EngA is among the 'essential' parasite blood stage proteins identified recently. PfEngA and PfObg1 interacted with parasite mitoribosomes in vivo. GTP stimulated PfEngA interaction with the 50S subunit of Escherichia coli surrogate ribosomes. Although PfObg1-ribosome interaction was independent of nucleotide binding, GTP hydrolysis by PfObg1 was enhanced upon ribosomal association. An additional function for PfObg1 in mitochondrial DNA transactions was suggested by its specific interaction with the parasite mitochondrial genome in vivo. Deletion analysis revealed that the positively-charged OBG (spoOB-associated GTP-binding protein) domain mediates DNA-binding. A role for PfEngA in mitochondrial genotoxic stress response was indicated by its over-expression upon methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage. PfEngA had lower sensitivity to an E. coli EngA inhibitor suggesting differences with bacterial counterparts. Our results show the involvement of two important GTPases in P. falciparum mitochondrial function, with the first confirmed localization of an EngA homologue in eukaryotic mitochondria.

  8. A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin.

    Yao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H95EXXH99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cell rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of actin to form polymers. Furthermore, an F352A mutation renders actin resistant to RavK-mediated cleavage; expression of the mutant in mammalian cells suppresses the cell rounding phenotype caused by RavK, further establishing that actin is the physiological substrate of RavK. Thus, L. pneumophila exploits components of the host cytoskeleton by multiple effectors with distinct mechanisms, highlighting the importance of modulating cellular processes governed by the actin cytoskeleton in the intracellular life cycle of this pathogen.

  9. Evolution and Diversity of the Ras Superfamily of Small GTPases in Prokaryotes

    Wuichet, Kristin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The Ras superfamily of small GTPases are single domain nucleotide-dependent molecular switches that act as highly tuned regulators of complex signal transduction pathways. Originally identified in eukaryotes for their roles in fundamental cellular processes including proliferation, motility, polarity, nuclear transport, and vesicle transport, recent studies have revealed that single domain GTPases also control complex functions such as cell polarity, motility, predation, development and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Here, we used a computational genomics approach to understand the abundance, diversity, and evolution of small GTPases in prokaryotes. We collected 520 small GTPase sequences present in 17% of 1,611 prokaryotic genomes analyzed that cover diverse lineages. We identified two discrete families of small GTPases in prokaryotes that show evidence of three distinct catalytic mechanisms. The MglA family includes MglA homologs, which are typically associated with the MglB GTPase activating protein, whereas members of the Rup (Ras superfamily GTPase of unknown function in prokaryotes) family are not predicted to interact with MglB homologs. System classification and genome context analyses support the involvement of small GTPases in diverse prokaryotic signal transduction pathways including two component systems, laying the foundation for future experimental characterization of these proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic GTPases supports that the last universal common ancestor contained ancestral MglA and Rup family members. We propose that the MglA family was lost from the ancestral eukaryote and that the Ras superfamily members in extant eukaryotes are the result of vertical and horizontal gene transfer events of ancestral Rup GTPases. PMID:25480683

  10. Secretion of Rhoptry and Dense Granule Effector Proteins by Nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii Uracil Auxotrophs Controls the Development of Antitumor Immunity.

    Barbara A Fox

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonreplicating type I uracil auxotrophic mutants of Toxoplasma gondii possess a potent ability to activate therapeutic immunity to established solid tumors by reversing immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we engineered targeted deletions of parasite secreted effector proteins using a genetically tractable Δku80 vaccine strain to show that the secretion of specific rhoptry (ROP and dense granule (GRA proteins by uracil auxotrophic mutants of T. gondii in conjunction with host cell invasion activates antitumor immunity through host responses involving CD8α+ dendritic cells, the IL-12/interferon-gamma (IFN-γ TH1 axis, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Deletion of parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM associated proteins ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35 or ROP38, intravacuolar network associated dense granule proteins GRA2 or GRA12, and GRA24 which traffics past the PVM to the host cell nucleus severely abrogated the antitumor response. In contrast, deletion of other secreted effector molecules such as GRA15, GRA16, or ROP16 that manipulate host cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, or deletion of PVM associated ROP21 or GRA3 molecules did not affect the antitumor activity. Association of ROP18 with the PVM was found to be essential for the development of the antitumor responses. Surprisingly, the ROP18 kinase activity required for resistance to IFN-γ activated host innate immunity related GTPases and virulence was not essential for the antitumor response. These data show that PVM functions of parasite secreted effector molecules, including ROP18, manipulate host cell responses through ROP18 kinase virulence independent mechanisms to activate potent antitumor responses. Our results demonstrate that PVM associated rhoptry effector proteins secreted prior to host cell invasion and dense granule effector proteins localized to the intravacuolar network and host nucleus that are secreted after host cell invasion coordinately

  11. The small GTPase Rab5 homologue Ypt5 regulates cell morphology, sexual development, ion-stress response and vacuolar formation in fission yeast

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Katayama, Chisako [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Shinohara, Miki; Shinohara, Akira [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Maekawa, Shohei [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Miyamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: miya@kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Multiple functions of Rab5 GTPase in fission yeast were found. •Roles of Rab5 in fission yeast were discussed. •Relation between Rab5 and actin cytoskeleton were discussed. -- Abstract: Inner-membrane transport is critical to cell function. Rab family GTPases play an important role in vesicle transport. In mammalian cells, Rab5 is reported to be involved in the regulation of endosome formation, phagocytosis and chromosome alignment. Here, we examined the role of the fission yeast Rab5 homologue Ypt5 using a point mutant allele. Mutant cells displayed abnormal cell morphology, mating, sporulation, endocytosis, vacuole fusion and responses to ion stress. Our data strongly suggest that fission yeast Rab5 is involved in the regulation of various types of cellular functions.

  12. The small GTPase Rab5 homologue Ypt5 regulates cell morphology, sexual development, ion-stress response and vacuolar formation in fission yeast

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Katayama, Chisako; Shinohara, Miki; Shinohara, Akira; Maekawa, Shohei; Miyamoto, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Multiple functions of Rab5 GTPase in fission yeast were found. •Roles of Rab5 in fission yeast were discussed. •Relation between Rab5 and actin cytoskeleton were discussed. -- Abstract: Inner-membrane transport is critical to cell function. Rab family GTPases play an important role in vesicle transport. In mammalian cells, Rab5 is reported to be involved in the regulation of endosome formation, phagocytosis and chromosome alignment. Here, we examined the role of the fission yeast Rab5 homologue Ypt5 using a point mutant allele. Mutant cells displayed abnormal cell morphology, mating, sporulation, endocytosis, vacuole fusion and responses to ion stress. Our data strongly suggest that fission yeast Rab5 is involved in the regulation of various types of cellular functions

  13. Gene targeting implicates Cdc42 GTPase in GPVI and non-GPVI mediated platelet filopodia formation, secretion and aggregation.

    Huzoor Akbar

    Full Text Available Cdc42 and Rac1, members of the Rho family of small GTPases, play critical roles in actin cytoskeleton regulation. We have shown previously that Rac1 is involved in regulation of platelet secretion and aggregation. However, the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation remains controversial. This study was undertaken to better understand the role of Cdc42 in platelet activation.We utilized the Mx-cre;Cdc42(lox/lox inducible mice with transient Cdc42 deletion to investigate the involvement of Cdc42 in platelet function. The Cdc42-deficient mice exhibited a significantly reduced platelet count than the matching Cdc42(+/+ mice. Platelets isolated from Cdc42(-/-, as compared to Cdc42(+/+, mice exhibited (a diminished phosphorylation of PAK1/2, an effector molecule of Cdc42, (b inhibition of filopodia formation on immobilized CRP or fibrinogen, (c inhibition of CRP- or thrombin-induced secretion of ATP and release of P-selectin, (d inhibition of CRP, collagen or thrombin induced platelet aggregation, and (e minimal phosphorylation of Akt upon stimulation with CRP or thrombin. The bleeding times were significantly prolonged in Cdc42(-/- mice compared with Cdc42(+/+ mice.Our data demonstrate that Cdc42 is required for platelet filopodia formation, secretion and aggregation and therefore plays a critical role in platelet mediated hemostasis and thrombosis.

  14. New clues in the nucleus: Transcriptional reprogramming in effector-triggered immunity

    SAIKAT eBHATTACHARJEE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of plant effector-triggered immunity is correlated with massive alterations of the host transcriptome. Yet the molecular mechanisms that cause and underlie this reprogramming remain obscure. Here we will review recent advances in deciphering nuclear functions of plant immune receptors and of associated proteins. Important open questions remain, such as the identities of the primary transcription factors involved in control of effector-triggered immune responses, and indeed whether this can be generalized or whether particular effector-resistance protein interactions impinge on distinct sectors in the transcriptional response web. Multiple lines of evidence have implicated WRKY transcription factors at the core of responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns and in intersections with effector-triggered immunity. Recent findings from yeast two-hybrid studies suggest that members of the TCP transcription factor family are targets of several effectors from diverse pathogens. Additional transcription factor families that are directly or indirectly involved in effector-triggered immunity are likely to be identified.

  15. Effector gene birth in plant parasitic nematodes: Neofunctionalization of a housekeeping glutathione synthetase gene

    Lilley, Catherine J.; Maqbool, Abbas; Wu, Duqing; Yusup, Hazijah B.; Jones, Laura M.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Urwin, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Plant pathogens and parasites are a major threat to global food security. Plant parasitism has arisen four times independently within the phylum Nematoda, resulting in at least one parasite of every major food crop in the world. Some species within the most economically important order (Tylenchida) secrete proteins termed effectors into their host during infection to re-programme host development and immunity. The precise detail of how nematodes evolve new effectors is not clear. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of a novel effector gene family. We show that during the evolution of plant parasitism in the Tylenchida, the housekeeping glutathione synthetase (GS) gene was extensively replicated. New GS paralogues acquired multiple dorsal gland promoter elements, altered spatial expression to the secretory dorsal gland, altered temporal expression to primarily parasitic stages, and gained a signal peptide for secretion. The gene products are delivered into the host plant cell during infection, giving rise to “GS-like effectors”. Remarkably, by solving the structure of GS-like effectors we show that during this process they have also diversified in biochemical activity, and likely represent the founding members of a novel class of GS-like enzyme. Our results demonstrate the re-purposing of an endogenous housekeeping gene to form a family of effectors with modified functions. We anticipate that our discovery will be a blueprint to understand the evolution of other plant-parasitic nematode effectors, and the foundation to uncover a novel enzymatic function. PMID:29641602

  16. Role of Arf GTPases in fungal morphogenesis and virulence.

    Hayet Labbaoui

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3. Our results indicate that of these proteins, Arf2 is required for viability and sensitivity to antifungal drugs. Repressible ARF2 expression results in defects in filamentous growth, cell wall integrity and virulence, likely due to alteration of the Golgi. Arl1 is also required for invasive filamentous growth and, although arl1/arl1 cells can initiate hyphal growth, hyphae are substantially shorter than that of the wild-type, due to the inability of this mutant to maintain hyphal growth at a single site. We show that this defect does not result from an alteration of phospholipid distribution and is unlikely to result from the sole Golgin Imh1 mislocalization, as Imh1 is not required for invasive filamentous growth. Rather, our results suggest that the arl1/arl1 hyphal growth defect results from increased secretion in this mutant. Strikingly, the arl1/arl1 mutant is drastically reduced in virulence during oropharyngeal candidiasis. Together, our results highlight the importance of Arl1 and Arf2 as key regulators of hyphal growth and virulence in C. albicans and identify a unique function of Arl1 in secretion.

  17. Rho GTPasas como blancos terapéuticos relevantes en cáncer y otras enfermedades humanas Rho GTPases as therapeutic targets in cancer and other human diseases

    Pablo Lorenzano Menna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Rho GTPasas son una familia de proteínas clave en la transmisión de señales provenientes del exterior celular hacia efectores intracelulares tanto citoplasmáticos como nucleares. En los últimos año ha habido un desarrollo vertiginoso de múltiples herramientas genéticas y farmacológicas, lo que ha permitido establecer de manera mucho más precisa las funciones específicas de estas proteínas. El objetivo de la presente revisión es hacer foco en las múltiples funciones celulares reguladas por las Rho GTPasas, describiendo en detalle el mecanismo molecular involucrado. Se discute además la participación de estas proteínas en diversas enfermedades humanas haciendo énfasis en su vinculación con el cáncer. Por último, se hace una actualización detallada sobre las estrategias terapéuticas en experimentación que tienen a las Rho GTPasas como blancos moleculares.Rho GTPases are a key protein family controlling the transduction of external signals to cytoplasmatic and nuclear effectors. In the last few years, the development of genetic and pharmacological tools has allowed a more precise definition of the specific roles of Rho GTPases. The aim of this review is to describe the cellular functions regulated by these proteins with focus on the molecular mechanism involved. We also address the role of Rho GTPases in the development of different human diseases such as cancer. Finally, we describe different experimental therapeutic strategies with Rho GTPases as molecular targets.

  18. Activation of Rab GTPase Sec4 by its GEF Sec2 is required for prospore membrane formation during sporulation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Ichiro; Kurita, Tomokazu; Saito, Chieko; Kurokawa, Kazuo; Nakano, Akihiko; Irie, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    Sec2 activates Sec4 Rab GTPase as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the recruitment of downstream effectors to facilitate tethering and fusion of post-Golgi vesicles at the plasma membrane. During the meiosis and sporulation of budding yeast, post-Golgi vesicles are transported to and fused at the spindle pole body (SPB) to form a de novo membrane, called the prospore membrane. Previous studies have revealed the role of the SPB outer surface called the meiotic outer plaque (MOP) in docking and fusion of post-Golgi vesicles. However, the upstream molecular machinery for post-Golgi vesicular fusion that facilitates prospore membrane formation remains enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that the GTP exchange factor for Sec4, Sec2, participates in the formation of the prospore membrane. A conditional mutant in which the SEC2 expression is shut off during sporulation showed sporulation defects. Inactivation of Sec2 caused Sec4 targeting defects along the prospore membranes, thereby causing insufficient targeting of downstream effectors and cargo proteins to the prospore membrane. These results suggest that the activation of Sec4 by Sec2 is required for the efficient supply of post-Golgi vesicles to the prospore membrane and thus for prospore membrane formation/extension and subsequent deposition of spore wall materials. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Coupling mechanical tension and GTPase signaling to generate cell and tissue dynamics

    Zmurchok, Cole; Bhaskar, Dhananjay; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2018-07-01

    Regulators of the actin cytoskeleton such Rho GTPases can modulate forces developed in cells by promoting actomyosin contraction. At the same time, through mechanosensing, tension is known to affect the activity of Rho GTPases. What happens when these effects act in concert? Using a minimal model (1 GTPase coupled to a Kelvin–Voigt element), we show that two-way feedback between signaling (‘RhoA’) and mechanical tension (stretching) leads to a spectrum of cell behaviors, including contracted or relaxed cells, and cells that oscillate between these extremes. When such ‘model cells’ are connected to one another in a row or in a 2D sheet (‘epithelium’), we observe waves of contraction/relaxation and GTPase activity sweeping through the tissue. The minimal model lends itself to full bifurcation analysis, and suggests a mechanism that explains behavior observed in the context of development and collective cell behavior.

  20. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein.

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-07-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057-6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that

  1. Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 Type III secretion effector polymutants reveal an interplay between hopAD1 and AvrPtoB

    The model pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of plants by injecting a complex repertoire of effector proteins into host cells via the type III secretion system. The model effector AvrPtoB has multiple domains and plant protein interactors i...

  2. Parallel manipulators with two end-effectors : Getting a grip on Jacobian-based stiffness analysis

    Hoevenaars, A.G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Robots that are developed for applications which require a high stiffness-over-inertia ratio, such as pick-and-place robots, machining robots, or haptic devices, are often based on parallel manipulators. Parallel manipulators connect an end-effector to an inertial base using multiple serial

  3. Mammalian knock out cells reveal prominent roles for atlastin GTPases in ER network morphology

    Zhao, Guohua; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Renvoisé, Benoît; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Park, Seong Hee; Blackstone, Craig, E-mail: blackstc@ninds.nih.gov

    2016-11-15

    Atlastins are large, membrane-bound GTPases that participate in the fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules to generate the polygonal ER network in eukaryotes. They also regulate lipid droplet size and inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, though mechanisms remain unclear. Humans have three atlastins (ATL1, ATL2, and ATL3), and ATL1 and ATL3 are mutated in autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathies. Cellular investigations of atlastin orthologs in most yeast, plants, flies and worms are facilitated by the presence of a single or predominant isoform, but loss-of-function studies in mammalian cells are complicated by multiple, broadly-expressed paralogs. We have generated mouse NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three mammalian atlastins (Atl1/2/3) using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout (KO). ER morphology is markedly disrupted in these triple KO cells, with prominent impairment in formation of three-way ER tubule junctions. This phenotype can be rescued by expression of distant orthologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sey1p) and Arabidopsis (ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3) as well as any one of the three human atlastins. Minimal, if any, changes are observed in the morphology of mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. Alterations in BMP signaling and increased sensitivity to ER stress are also noted, though effects appear more modest. Finally, atlastins appear required for the proper differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells into an adipocyte-like phenotype. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegias and sensory neuropathies associated with atlastin mutations. - Highlights: • NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three atlastin paralogs were generated using CRISPR/Cas9. • Cells lacking all atlastin GTPases exhibit far fewer 3-way ER tubule junctions. • ER morphology defects in atlastin knockout cells are rescued by distant plant and yeast orthologs. • Atlastin knock out cells also

  4. Mammalian knock out cells reveal prominent roles for atlastin GTPases in ER network morphology

    Zhao, Guohua; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Renvoisé, Benoît; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Park, Seong Hee; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Atlastins are large, membrane-bound GTPases that participate in the fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules to generate the polygonal ER network in eukaryotes. They also regulate lipid droplet size and inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, though mechanisms remain unclear. Humans have three atlastins (ATL1, ATL2, and ATL3), and ATL1 and ATL3 are mutated in autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathies. Cellular investigations of atlastin orthologs in most yeast, plants, flies and worms are facilitated by the presence of a single or predominant isoform, but loss-of-function studies in mammalian cells are complicated by multiple, broadly-expressed paralogs. We have generated mouse NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three mammalian atlastins (Atl1/2/3) using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout (KO). ER morphology is markedly disrupted in these triple KO cells, with prominent impairment in formation of three-way ER tubule junctions. This phenotype can be rescued by expression of distant orthologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sey1p) and Arabidopsis (ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE3) as well as any one of the three human atlastins. Minimal, if any, changes are observed in the morphology of mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. Alterations in BMP signaling and increased sensitivity to ER stress are also noted, though effects appear more modest. Finally, atlastins appear required for the proper differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells into an adipocyte-like phenotype. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegias and sensory neuropathies associated with atlastin mutations. - Highlights: • NIH-3T3 cells lacking all three atlastin paralogs were generated using CRISPR/Cas9. • Cells lacking all atlastin GTPases exhibit far fewer 3-way ER tubule junctions. • ER morphology defects in atlastin knockout cells are rescued by distant plant and yeast orthologs. • Atlastin knock out cells also

  5. Role of the Small GTPase Rho3 in Golgi/Endosome trafficking through functional interaction with adaptin in Fission Yeast.

    Ayako Kita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We had previously identified the mutant allele of apm1(+ that encodes a homolog of the mammalian µ1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1 complex, and we demonstrated the role of Apm1 in Golgi/endosome trafficking, secretion, and vacuole fusion in fission yeast. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we isolated rho3(+, which encodes a Rho-family small GTPase, an important regulator of exocystosis, as a multicopy-suppressor of the temperature-sensitive growth of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 suppressed the Cl(- sensitivity and immunosuppressant sensitivity of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 also suppressed the fragmentation of vacuoles, and the accumulation of v-SNARE Syb1 in Golgi/endosomes and partially suppressed the defective secretion associated with apm1-deletion cells. Notably, electron microscopic observation of the rho3-deletion cells revealed the accumulation of abnormal Golgi-like structures, vacuole fragmentation, and accumulation of secretory vesicles; these phenotypes were very similar to those of the apm1-deletion cells. Furthermore, the rho3-deletion cells and apm1-deletion cells showed very similar phenotypic characteristics, including the sensitivity to the immunosuppressant FK506, the cell wall-damaging agent micafungin, Cl(-, and valproic acid. Green fluorescent protein (GFP-Rho3 was localized at Golgi/endosomes as well as the plasma membrane and division site. Finally, Rho3 was shown to form a complex with Apm1 as well as with other subunits of the clathrin-associated AP-1 complex in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings reveal a novel role of Rho3 in the regulation of Golgi/endosome trafficking and suggest that clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 and Rho3 co-ordinate in intracellular transport in fission yeast. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence

  6. Co-ordinate regulation of distinct host cell signalling pathways by multifunctional enteropathogenic Escherichia coli effector molecules.

    Kenny, Brendan; Ellis, Sarah; Leard, Alan D; Warawa, Jonathan; Mellor, Harry; Jepson, Mark A

    2002-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of paediatric diarrhoea and a model for the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. A/E pathogens encode a type III secretion system to transfer effector proteins into host cells. The EPEC Tir effector protein acts as a receptor for the bacterial surface protein intimin and is involved in the formation of Cdc42-independent, actin-rich pedestal structures beneath the adhered bacteria. In this paper, we demonstrate that EPEC binding to HeLa cells also induces Tir-independent, cytoskeletal rearrangement evidenced by the early, transient formation of filopodia-like structures at sites of infection. Filopodia formation is dependent on expression of the EPEC Map effector molecule - a protein that targets mitochondria and induces their dysfunction. We show that Map-induced filopodia formation is independent of mitochondrial targeting and is abolished by cellular expression of the Cdc42 inhibitory WASP-CRIB domain, demonstrating that Map has at least two distinct functions in host cells. The transient nature of the filopodia is related to an ability of EPEC to downregulate Map-induced cell signalling that, like pedestal formation, was dependent on both Tir and intimin proteins. The ability of Tir to downregulate filopodia was impaired by disrupting a putative GTPase-activating protein (GAP) motif, suggesting that Tir may possess such a function, with its interaction with intimin triggering this activity. Furthermore, we also found that Map-induced cell signalling inhibits pedestal formation, revealing that the cellular effects of Tir and Map must be co-ordinately regulated during infection. Possible implications of the multifunctional nature of EPEC effector molecules in pathogenesis are discussed.

  7. Haploinsufficiency of a spliceosomal GTPase encoded by EFTUD2 causes mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly.

    Lines, Matthew A; Huang, Lijia; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Douglas, Stuart L; Lynch, Danielle C; Beaulieu, Chandree; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Gener, Blanca; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Nava, Caroline; Baujat, Geneviève; Horn, Denise; Kini, Usha; Caliebe, Almuth; Alanay, Yasemin; Utine, Gulen Eda; Lev, Dorit; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Grix, Arthur W; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Hehr, Ute; Böhm, Detlef; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Boycott, Kym M

    2012-02-10

    Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is a rare sporadic syndrome comprising craniofacial malformations, microcephaly, developmental delay, and a recognizable dysmorphic appearance. Major sequelae, including choanal atresia, sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft palate, each occur in a significant proportion of affected individuals. We present detailed clinical findings in 12 unrelated individuals with MFDM; these 12 individuals compose the largest reported cohort to date. To define the etiology of MFDM, we employed whole-exome sequencing of four unrelated affected individuals and identified heterozygous mutations or deletions of EFTUD2 in all four. Validation studies of eight additional individuals with MFDM demonstrated causative EFTUD2 mutations in all affected individuals tested. A range of EFTUD2-mutation types, including null alleles and frameshifts, is seen in MFDM, consistent with haploinsufficiency; segregation is de novo in all cases assessed to date. U5-116kD, the protein encoded by EFTUD2, is a highly conserved spliceosomal GTPase with a central regulatory role in catalytic splicing and post-splicing-complex disassembly. MFDM is the first multiple-malformation syndrome attributed to a defect of the major spliceosome. Our findings significantly extend the range of reported spliceosomal phenotypes in humans and pave the way for further investigation in related conditions such as Treacher Collins syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Encephalomyocarditis virus Leader protein hinge domain is responsible for interactions with Ran GTPase

    Bacot-Davis, Valjean R., E-mail: bacotdavis@wisc.edu [Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, R.M. Bock Laboratories, 1525 Linden Dr. Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Palmenberg, Ann C., E-mail: acpalmen@wisc.edu [Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, R.M. Bock Laboratories, 1525 Linden Dr. Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, R.M. Bock Laboratories, 1525 Linden Dr. Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a Cardiovirus, initiates its polyprotein with a short 67 amino acid Leader (L) sequence. The protein acts as a unique pathogenicity factor, with anti-host activities which include the triggering of nuclear pore complex hyperphosphorylation and direct binding inhibition of the active cellular transport protein, Ran GTPase. Chemical modifications and protein mutagenesis now map the Ran binding domain to the L hinge-linker region, and in particular, to amino acids 35–40. Large deletions affecting this region were shown previously to diminish Ran binding. New point mutations, especially K35Q, D37A and W40A, preserve the intact L structure, abolish Ran binding and are deficient for nucleoporin (Nup) hyperphosphorylation. Ran itself morphs through multiple configurations, but reacts most effectively with L when in the GDP format, preferably with an empty nucleotide binding pocket. Therefore, L:Ran binding, mediated by the linker-hinge, is a required step in L-induced nuclear transport inhibition. - Highlights: • The hinge domain provides critical residues in Cardiovirus L:Ran complex formation. • Leader prefers to bind Ran in a nucleotide free, GDP-conformation. • L-induced Nup62 phosphorylation is reduced with Ran-deficient binding mutations.

  9. The late endocytic Rab39a GTPase regulates the interaction between multivesicular bodies and chlamydial inclusions.

    Gambarte Tudela, Julian; Capmany, Anahi; Romao, Maryse; Quintero, Cristian; Miserey-Lenkei, Stephanie; Raposo, Graca; Goud, Bruno; Damiani, Maria Teresa

    2015-08-15

    Given their obligate intracellular lifestyle, Chlamydia trachomatis ensure that they have access to multiple host sources of essential lipids by interfering with vesicular transport. These bacteria hijack Rab6-, Rab11- and Rab14-controlled trafficking pathways to acquire sphingomyelin from the Golgi complex. Another important source of sphingolipids, phospholipids and cholesterol are multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Despite their participation in chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial replication, the molecular mechanisms mediating the interaction between MVBs and chlamydial inclusions remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that Rab39a labels a subset of late endocytic vesicles - mainly MVBs - that move along microtubules. Moreover, Rab39a is actively recruited to chlamydial inclusions throughout the pathogen life cycle by a bacterial-driven process that depends on the Rab39a GTP- or GDP-binding state. Interestingly, Rab39a participates in the delivery of MVBs and host sphingolipids to maturing chlamydial inclusions, thereby promoting inclusion growth and bacterial development. Taken together, our findings indicate that Rab39a favours chlamydial replication and infectivity. This is the first report showing that a late endocytic Rab GTPase is involved in chlamydial infection development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Interaction of LRRK2 with kinase and GTPase signaling cascades

    Joon Y Boon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LRRK2 is a protein that interacts with a plethora of signaling molecules, but the complexity of LRRK2 function presents a challenge for understanding the role of LRRK2 in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. Studies of LRRK2 using over-expression in transgenic mice have been disappointing, however studies using invertebrate systems have yielded a much clearer picture, with clear effects of LRRK2 expression, knockdown or deletion in C. elegans and Drosophila on modulation of survival of dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies have begun to focus attention on particular signaling cascades that are a target of LRRK2 function. LRRK2 interacts with members of the MAPK pathway and might regulate the pathway action by acting as a scaffold that directs the location of MAPK pathway activity, without strongly affecting the amount of MAPK pathway activity. Binding to GTPases, GAPs and GEFs are another strong theme in LRRK2 biology, with LRRK2 binding to Rac1, cdc42, rab5, rab7L1, endoA, RGS2, ArfGAP1 and ArhGEF7. All of these molecules appear to feed into a function output for LRRK2 that modulates cytoskeletal outgrowth and vesicular dynamics, including autophagy. These functions likely impact modulation of α-synuclein aggregation and associated toxicity eliciting the disease processes that we term Parkinson’s disease.

  11. Autoreactive T effector memory differentiation mirrors β-cell function in type 1 diabetes.

    Yeo, Lorraine; Woodwyk, Alyssa; Sood, Sanjana; Lorenc, Anna; Eichmann, Martin; Pujol-Autonell, Irma; Melchiotti, Rossella; Skowera, Ania; Fidanis, Efthymios; Dolton, Garry M; Tungatt, Katie; Sewell, Andrew K; Heck, Susanne; Saxena, Alka; Beam, Craig A; Peakman, Mark

    2018-05-31

    In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8 T cells with specificity for β-cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β-cell-reactive CD8 T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β-cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β-cell-reactive CD8 T cell subsets and measured β-cell function longitudinally for two years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. We found that change in β-cell-specific effector memory CD8 T cells expressing CD57 was positively correlated with C-peptide change in subjects below 12 years of age. Autoreactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cells bore the signature of enhanced effector function (higher expression of granzyme B, killer specific protein 37 and CD16, and reduced expression of CD28) compared with their CD57-negative counterparts, and network association modelling indicated that the dynamics of β-cell-reactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cell subsets were strongly linked. Thus, coordinated changes in circulating β-cell-specific CD8 T cells within the CD57+ effector memory subset calibrate to functional insulin reserve in type 1 diabetes, providing a tool for immune monitoring and a mechanism-based target for immunotherapy.

  12. IgG-Fc-mediated effector functions: molecular definition of interaction sites for effector ligands and the role of glycosylation.

    Jefferis, R; Lund, J; Pound, J D

    1998-06-01

    The Fc region of human IgG expresses interaction sites for many effector ligands. In this review the topographical distributions of ten of these sites are discussed in relation to functional requirement. It is apparent that interaction sites localised to the inter-CH2-CH3 domain region of the Fc allow for functional divalency, whereas sites localised to the hinge proximal region of the CH2 domain are functionally monovalent, with expression of the latter sites being particularly dependent on glycosylation. All x-ray crystal structures for Fc and Fc-ligand complexes report that the protein structure of the hinge proximal region of the CH2 domain is "disordered", suggesting "internal mobility". We propose a model in which such "internal mobility" results in the generation of a dynamic equilibrium between multiple conformers, certain of which express interaction sites specific to individual ligands. The emerging understanding of the influence of oligosaccharide/protein interactions on protein conformation and biological function of IgG antibodies suggests a potential to generate novel glycoforms of antibody molecules having unique profiles of effector functions.

  13. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  14. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea

    Anna Kirjavainen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC, a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea.

  15. Regulation of ER-Golgi Transport Dynamics by GTPases in Budding Yeast

    Yasuyuki Suda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of proteins are synthesized de novo in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. They are transported through the Golgi apparatus and then delivered to their proper destinations. The ER and the Golgi play a central role in protein processing and sorting and show dynamic features in their forms. Ras super family small GTPases mediate the protein transport through and between these organelles. The ER-localized GTPase, Sar1, facilitates the formation of COPII transport carriers at the ER exit sites (ERES on the ER for the transport of cargo proteins from the ER to the Golgi. The Golgi-localized GTPase, Arf1, controls intra-Golgi, and Golgi-to-ER transport of cargo proteins by the formation of COPI carriers. Rab GTPases localized at the Golgi, which are responsible for fusion of membranes, are thought to establish the identities of compartments. Recent evidence suggests that these small GTPases regulate not only discrete sites for generation/fusion of transport carriers, but also membrane dynamics of the organelles where they locate to ensure the integrity of transport. Here we summarize the current understandings about the membrane traffic between these organelles and highlight the cutting-edge advances from super-resolution live imaging of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  16. Human Lsg1 defines a family of essential GTPases that correlates with the evolution of compartmentalization

    Scheffzek Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compartmentalization is a key feature of eukaryotic cells, but its evolution remains poorly understood. GTPases are the oldest enzymes that use nucleotides as substrates and they participate in a wide range of cellular processes. Therefore, they are ideal tools for comparative genomic studies aimed at understanding how aspects of biological complexity such as cellular compartmentalization evolved. Results We describe the identification and characterization of a unique family of circularly permuted GTPases represented by the human orthologue of yeast Lsg1p. We placed the members of this family in the phylogenetic context of the YlqF Related GTPase (YRG family, which are present in Eukarya, Bacteria and Archea and include the stem cell regulator Nucleostemin. To extend the computational analysis, we showed that hLsg1 is an essential GTPase predominantly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and, in some cells, in Cajal bodies in the nucleus. Comparison of localization and siRNA datasets suggests that all members of the family are essential GTPases that have increased in number as the compartmentalization of the eukaryotic cell and the ribosome biogenesis pathway have evolved. Conclusion We propose a scenario, consistent with our data, for the evolution of this family: cytoplasmic components were first acquired, followed by nuclear components, and finally the mitochondrial and chloroplast elements were derived from different bacterial species, in parallel with the formation of the nucleolus and the specialization of nuclear components.

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  18. Structural basis for Rab1 de-AMPylation by the Legionella pneumophila effector SidD.

    Yang Chen

    Full Text Available The covalent attachment of adenosine monophosphate (AMP to proteins, a process called AMPylation (adenylylation, has recently emerged as a novel theme in microbial pathogenesis. Although several AMPylating enzymes have been characterized, the only known virulence protein with de-AMPylation activity is SidD from the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. SidD de-AMPylates mammalian Rab1, a small GTPase involved in secretory vesicle transport, thereby targeting the host protein for inactivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying Rab1 recognition and de-AMPylation by SidD are unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the catalytic region of SidD at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure reveals a phosphatase-like fold with additional structural elements not present in generic PP2C-type phosphatases. The catalytic pocket contains a binuclear metal-binding site characteristic of hydrolytic metalloenzymes, with strong dependency on magnesium ions. Subsequent docking and molecular dynamics simulations between SidD and Rab1 revealed the interface contacts and the energetic contribution of key residues to the interaction. In conjunction with an extensive structure-based mutational analysis, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for a remarkable adaptation of SidD to its host cell target Rab1 which explains how this effector confers specificity to the reaction it catalyses.

  19. RhoA Drives T-Cell Activation and Encephalitogenic Potential in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Alba Manresa-Arraut

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells are known to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. T-cell activation is controlled by a range of intracellular signaling pathways regulating cellular responses such as proliferation, cytokine production, integrin expression, and migration. These processes are crucial for the T-cells’ ability to mediate inflammatory processes in autoimmune diseases such as MS. RhoA is a ubiquitously expressed small GTPase well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. It is essential for embryonic development and together with other Rho GTPases controls various cellular processes such as cell development, shaping, proliferation, and locomotion. However, the specific contribution of RhoA to these processes in T-cells in general, and in autoreactive T-cells in particular, has not been fully characterized. Using mice with a T-cell specific deletion of the RhoA gene (RhoAfl/flLckCre+, we investigated the role of RhoA in T-cell development, functionality, and encephalitogenic potential in EAE. We show that lack of RhoA specifically in T-cells results in reduced numbers of mature T-cells in thymus and spleen but normal counts in peripheral blood. EAE induction in RhoAfl/flLckCre+ mice results in significantly reduced disease incidence and severity, which coincides with a reduced CNS T-cell infiltration. Besides presenting reduced migratory capacity, both naïve and autoreactive effector T-cells from RhoAfl/flLckCre+ mice show decreased viability, proliferative capacity, and an activation profile associated with reduced production of Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our study demonstrates that RhoA is a central regulator of several archetypical T-cell responses, and furthermore points toward RhoA as a new potential therapeutic target in diseases such as MS, where T-cell activity plays a central role.

  20. Uncoupling of dynamin polymerization and GTPase activity revealed by the conformation-specific nanobody dynab.

    Galli, Valentina; Sebastian, Rafael; Moutel, Sandrine; Ecard, Jason; Perez, Franck; Roux, Aurélien

    2017-10-12

    Dynamin is a large GTPase that forms a helical collar at the neck of endocytic pits, and catalyzes membrane fission (Schmid and Frolov, 2011; Ferguson and De Camilli, 2012). Dynamin fission reaction is strictly dependent on GTP hydrolysis, but how fission is mediated is still debated (Antonny et al., 2016): GTP energy could be spent in membrane constriction required for fission, or in disassembly of the dynamin polymer to trigger fission. To follow dynamin GTP hydrolysis at endocytic pits, we generated a conformation-specific nanobody called dynab, that binds preferentially to the GTP hydrolytic state of dynamin-1. Dynab allowed us to follow the GTPase activity of dynamin-1 in real-time. We show that in fibroblasts, dynamin GTP hydrolysis occurs as stochastic bursts, which are randomly distributed relatively to the peak of dynamin assembly. Thus, dynamin disassembly is not coupled to GTPase activity, supporting that the GTP energy is primarily spent in constriction.

  1. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development

    Nagahama, Ryo; Yamada, Atsushi; Tanaka, Junichi; Aizawa, Ryo; Suzuki, Dai; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Mishima, Kenji; Aiba, Atsu; Maki, Koutaro; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42 "f"l"/"f"l; Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42 "f"l"/"f"l) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen-induced cartilage specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice were generated. • Cdc42 mutant mice were shorter limbs and body. • Severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes.

  2. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development

    Nagahama, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: yamadaa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Junichi [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kassai, Hidetoshi [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, Kenji [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aiba, Atsu [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}; Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen-induced cartilage specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice were generated. • Cdc42 mutant mice were shorter limbs and body. • Severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes.

  3. Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms

    Carl H. Mesarich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-associated organisms, including microbes, nematodes, and insects, deliver effector proteins into the apoplast, vascular tissue, or cell cytoplasm of their prospective hosts. These effectors function to promote colonization, typically by altering host physiology or by modulating host immune responses. The same effectors however, can also trigger host immunity in the presence of cognate host immune receptor proteins, and thus prevent colonization. To circumvent effector-triggered immunity, or to further enhance host colonization, plant-associated organisms often rely on adaptive effector evolution. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that several effectors of plant-associated organisms are repeat-containing proteins (RCPs that carry tandem or non-tandem arrays of an amino acid sequence or structural motif. In this review, we highlight the diverse roles that these repeat domains play in RCP effector function. We also draw attention to the potential role of these repeat domains in adaptive evolution with regards to RCP effector function and the evasion of effector-triggered immunity. The aim of this review is to increase the profile of RCP effectors from plant-associated organisms.

  4. Code-assisted discovery of TAL effector targets in bacterial leaf streak of rice reveals contrast with bacterial blight and a novel susceptibility gene.

    Raul A Cernadas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc is an increasingly important yield constraint in this staple crop. A mesophyll colonizer, Xoc differs from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, which invades xylem to cause bacterial blight of rice. Both produce multiple distinct TAL effectors, type III-delivered proteins that transactivate effector-specific host genes. A TAL effector finds its target(s via a partially degenerate code whereby the modular effector amino acid sequence identifies nucleotide sequences to which the protein binds. Virulence contributions of some Xoo TAL effectors have been shown, and their relevant targets, susceptibility (S genes, identified, but the role of TAL effectors in leaf streak is uncharacterized. We used host transcript profiling to compare leaf streak to blight and to probe functions of Xoc TAL effectors. We found that Xoc and Xoo induce almost completely different host transcriptional changes. Roughly one in three genes upregulated by the pathogens is preceded by a candidate TAL effector binding element. Experimental analysis of the 44 such genes predicted to be Xoc TAL effector targets verified nearly half, and identified most others as false predictions. None of the Xoc targets is a known bacterial blight S gene. Mutational analysis revealed that Tal2g, which activates two genes, contributes to lesion expansion and bacterial exudation. Use of designer TAL effectors discriminated a sulfate transporter gene as the S gene. Across all targets, basal expression tended to be higher than genome-average, and induction moderate. Finally, machine learning applied to real vs. falsely predicted targets yielded a classifier that recalled 92% of the real targets with 88% precision, providing a tool for better target prediction in the future. Our study expands the number of known TAL effector targets, identifies a new class of S gene, and improves our ability to predict functional targeting.

  5. A Legionella pneumophila effector protein encoded in a region of genomic plasticity binds to Dot/Icm-modified vacuoles.

    Shira Ninio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. In the environment, L. pneumophila is found in fresh water reservoirs in a large spectrum of environmental conditions, where the bacteria are able to replicate within a variety of protozoan hosts. To survive within eukaryotic cells, L. pneumophila require a type IV secretion system, designated Dot/Icm, that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. In recent years, a number of Dot/Icm substrate proteins have been identified; however, the function of most of these proteins remains unknown, and it is unclear why the bacterium maintains such a large repertoire of effectors to promote its survival. Here we investigate a region of the L. pneumophila chromosome that displays a high degree of plasticity among four sequenced L. pneumophila strains. Analysis of GC content suggests that several genes encoded in this region were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Protein translocation studies establish that this region of genomic plasticity encodes for multiple Dot/Icm effectors. Ectopic expression studies in mammalian cells indicate that one of these substrates, a protein called PieA, has unique effector activities. PieA is an effector that can alter lysosome morphology and associates specifically with vacuoles that support L. pneumophila replication. It was determined that the association of PieA with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila requires modifications to the vacuole mediated by other Dot/Icm effectors. Thus, the localization properties of PieA reveal that the Dot/Icm system has the ability to spatially and temporally control the association of an effector with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila through activities mediated by other effector proteins.

  6. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  7. Fibre optic sensor on robot end effector for flexible assembly

    Yung, K.L.; Lau, W.S.; Choi, C.K.; Shan, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fibre optic sensor system was constructed for use on robot end effectors for flexible assembly. The sensor detected the deviations between robot end effector and the workpiece. The signal was fed back to robot controller to shift the end effector until the centre of end effector and the centre of workpiece were aligned at the correct orientation. Then workpiece can be grasped symmetrically. Sensor fusion concept was used to guard against sensor system failure. Fuzzy linguistic variable and control rule concept were introduced in the sensor integration. The experimental setup for the sensor integrated system was shown. The accuracy was also discussed

  8. Neuronal Rho GTPase Rac1 elimination confers neuroprotection in a mouse model of permanent ischemic stroke

    Karabiyik, Cansu; Fernandes, Rui; Figueiredo, Francisco Rosário

    2018-01-01

    The Rho GTPase Rac1 is a multifunctional protein involved in distinct pathways ranging from development to pathology. The aim of the present study was to unravel the contribution of neuronal Rac1 in regulating the response to brain injury induced by permanent focal cerebral ischemia (pMCAO). Our ...

  9. The Ins and Outs of Small GTPase Rac1 in the Vasculature

    Marinković, Goran; Heemskerk, Niels; van Buul, Jaap D.; de Waard, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases forms a 20-member family within the Ras superfamily of GTP-dependent enzymes that are activated by a variety of extracellular signals. The most well known Rho family members are RhoA (Ras homolog gene family, member A), Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42), and

  10. Neuronal Rho GTPase Rac1 elimination confers neuroprotection in a mice model of permanent ischemic stroke

    Karabiyik, Cansu; Fernandes, Rui; Figueiredo, Francisci Rosário

    2017-01-01

    The Rho GTPase Rac1 is a multifunctional protein involved in distinct pathways ranging from development to pathology. The aim of the present study was to unravel the contribution of neuronal Rac1 in regulating the response to brain injury induced by permanent focal cerebral ischemia (pMCAO). Our ...

  11. Small GTPases are involved in sprout formation in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Franz, Maximilian B; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Sator, Michael; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The corpus luteum (CL), develops from the ruptured follicle after gonadotropin stimulation. Based on intracellular reorganization of the cytoskeleton an human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dependent sprouting and migration of luteinizing granulosa cells (LGCs) and endothelial cells is observed. Rho-GTPases are shown to be key regulators of cytoskeletal restructuring. In the present study we analyzed the role of Rho-GTPases in the sprouting activity of LGCs. We used the Rho-GTPase-inhibitors Toxin A and -B and the Cdc42-activator Bradykinin in a LGC-spheroid sprouting assay to determine the effect of these modulators in LGCs. Toxin A and Toxin B reduces sprout formation in LGC spheroids. However, the reduction is less than in hCG treated cells. The usage of Bradykinin demonstrates both, a reduction of sprouts in untreated spheroids and an increase of sprouting in previous hCG treated spheroids. The presented results let us suggest that small Rho-GTPases may regulate the sprouting activity of LGCs after stimulation by hCG and that this mechanism may play a role in CL formation.

  12. Small GTPases and Stress Responses of vvran1 in the Straw Mushroom Volvariella volvacea

    Jun-Jie Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases play important roles in the growth, development and environmental responses of eukaryotes. Based on the genomic sequence of the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea, 44 small GTPases were identified. A clustering analysis using human small GTPases as the references revealed that V. volvacea small GTPases can be grouped into five families: nine are in the Ras family, 10 are in the Rho family, 15 are in the Rab family, one is in the Ran family and nine are in the Arf family. The transcription of vvran1 was up-regulated upon hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 stress, and could be repressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, a NADPH oxidase-specific inhibitor. The number of vvran1 transcripts also increased upon cold stress. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride, but not the superoxide dismutase (SOD inhibitor diethy dithiocarbamate (DDC, could suppress the up-regulation of vvran1 gene expression to cold stress. These results combined with the high correlations between gene expression and superoxide anion (O2− generation indicated that vvran1 could be one of the candidate genes in the downstream of O2− mediated pathways that are generated by NADPH oxidase under low temperature and oxidative stresses.

  13. Interaction between the p21ras GTPase activating protein and the insulin receptor

    Pronk, G.J.; Medema, R.H.; Burgering, B.M.T.; Clark, R.; McCormick, F.; Bos, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of the p21ras-GTPase activating protein (GAP) in insulin-induced signal transduction. In cells overexpressing the insulin receptor, we did not observe association between GAP and the insulin receptor after insulin treatment nor the phosphorylation of GAP on tyrosine

  14. The immunity-related GTPase Irga6 dimerizes in a parallel head-to-head fashion.

    Schulte, Kathrin; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Faelber, Katja; Fröhlich, Chris; Howard, Jonathan; Daumke, Oliver

    2016-03-02

    The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) constitute a powerful cell-autonomous resistance system against several intracellular pathogens. Irga6 is a dynamin-like protein that oligomerizes at the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) of Toxoplasma gondii leading to its vesiculation. Based on a previous biochemical analysis, it has been proposed that the GTPase domains of Irga6 dimerize in an antiparallel fashion during oligomerization. We determined the crystal structure of an oligomerization-impaired Irga6 mutant bound to a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog. Contrary to the previous model, the structure shows that the GTPase domains dimerize in a parallel fashion. The nucleotides in the center of the interface participate in dimerization by forming symmetric contacts with each other and with the switch I region of the opposing Irga6 molecule. The latter contact appears to activate GTP hydrolysis by stabilizing the position of the catalytic glutamate 106 in switch I close to the active site. Further dimerization contacts involve switch II, the G4 helix and the trans stabilizing loop. The Irga6 structure features a parallel GTPase domain dimer, which appears to be a unifying feature of all dynamin and septin superfamily members. This study contributes important insights into the assembly and catalytic mechanisms of IRG proteins as prerequisite to understand their anti-microbial action.

  15. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  16. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins that are delivered to the apoplast, as well as...

  17. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  18. Effector-Triggered Self-Replication in Coupled Subsystems.

    Komáromy, Dávid; Tezcan, Meniz; Schaeffer, Gaël; Marić, Ivana; Otto, Sijbren

    2017-11-13

    In living systems processes like genome duplication and cell division are carefully synchronized through subsystem coupling. If we are to create life de novo, similar control over essential processes such as self-replication need to be developed. Here we report that coupling two dynamic combinatorial subsystems, featuring two separate building blocks, enables effector-mediated control over self-replication. The subsystem based on the first building block shows only self-replication, whereas that based on the second one is solely responsive toward a specific external effector molecule. Mixing the subsystems arrests replication until the effector molecule is added, resulting in the formation of a host-effector complex and the liberation of the building block that subsequently engages in self-replication. The onset, rate and extent of self-replication is controlled by the amount of effector present. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  20. Novel Activities of Select NSAID R-Enantiomers against Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases.

    Tudor I Oprea

    Full Text Available Rho family GTPases (including Rac, Rho and Cdc42 collectively control cell proliferation, adhesion and migration and are of interest as functional therapeutic targets in numerous epithelial cancers. Based on high throughput screening of the Prestwick Chemical Library® and cheminformatics we identified the R-enantiomers of two approved drugs (naproxen and ketorolac as inhibitors of Rac1 and Cdc42. The corresponding S-enantiomers are considered the active component in racemic drug formulations, acting as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs with selective activity against cyclooxygenases. Here, we show that the S-enantiomers of naproxen and ketorolac are inactive against the GTPases. Additionally, more than twenty other NSAIDs lacked inhibitory action against the GTPases, establishing the selectivity of the two identified NSAIDs. R-naproxen was first identified as a lead compound and tested in parallel with its S-enantiomer and the non-chiral 6-methoxy-naphthalene acetic acid (active metabolite of nabumetone, another NSAID as a structural series. Cheminformatics-based substructure analyses-using the rotationally constrained carboxylate in R-naproxen-led to identification of racemic [R/S] ketorolac as a suitable FDA-approved candidate. Cell based measurement of GTPase activity (in animal and human cell lines demonstrated that the R-enantiomers specifically inhibit epidermal growth factor stimulated Rac1 and Cdc42 activation. The GTPase inhibitory effects of the R-enantiomers in cells largely mimic those of established Rac1 (NSC23766 and Cdc42 (CID2950007/ML141 specific inhibitors. Docking predicts that rotational constraints position the carboxylate moieties of the R-enantiomers to preferentially coordinate the magnesium ion, thereby destabilizing nucleotide binding to Rac1 and Cdc42. The S-enantiomers can be docked but are less favorably positioned in proximity to the magnesium. R-naproxen and R-ketorolac have potential for rapid

  1. The small GTPase RhoH is an atypical regulator of haematopoietic cells

    Kubatzky Katharina F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases are a distinct subfamily of the superfamily of Ras GTPases. The best-characterised members are RhoA, Rac and Cdc42 that regulate many diverse actions such as actin cytoskeleton reorganisation, adhesion, motility as well as cell proliferation, differentiation and gene transcription. Among the 20 members of that family, only Rac2 and RhoH show an expression restricted to the haematopoietic lineage. RhoH was first discovered in 1995 as a fusion transcript with the transcriptional repressor LAZ3/BCL6. It was therefore initially named translation three four (TTF but later on renamed RhoH due to its close relationship to the Ras/Rho family of GTPases. Since then, RhoH has been implicated in human cancer as the gene is subject to somatic hypermutation and by the detection of RHOH as a translocation partner for LAZ3/BCL6 or other genes in human lymphomas. Underexpression of RhoH is found in hairy cell leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia. Some of the amino acids that are crucial for GTPase activity are mutated in RhoH so that the protein is a GTPase-deficient, so-called atypical Rho GTPase. Therefore other mechanisms of regulating RhoH activity have been described. These include regulation at the mRNA level and tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein's unique ITAM-like motif. The C-terminal CaaX box of RhoH is mainly a target for farnesyl-transferase but can also be modified by geranylgeranyl-transferase. Isoprenylation of RhoH and changes in subcellular localisation may be an additional factor to fine-tune signalling. Little is currently known about its signalling, regulation or interaction partners. Recent studies have shown that RhoH negatively influences the proliferation and homing of murine haematopoietic progenitor cells, presumably by acting as an antagonist for Rac1. In leukocytes, RhoH is needed to keep the cells in a resting, non-adhesive state, but the exact mechanism has yet to be elucidated. RhoH has also been

  2. TAL effectors specificity stems from negative discrimination.

    Basile I M Wicky

    Full Text Available Transcription Activator-Like (TAL effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD. The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks--allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix--the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools.

  3. WAVE regulatory complex activation by cooperating GTPases Arf and Rac1

    Koronakis, Vassilis; Hume, Peter J; Humphreys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) is a critical element in the control of actin polymerization at the eukaryotic cell membrane, but how WRC is activated remains uncertain. While Rho GTPase Rac1 can bind and activate WRC in vitro, this interaction is of low affinity, suggesting other factors may...... be important. By reconstituting WAVE-dependent actin assembly on membrane-coated beads in mammalian cell extracts, we found that Rac1 was not sufficient to engender bead motility, and we uncovered a key requirement for Arf GTPases. In vitro, Rac1 and Arf1 were individually able to bind weakly to recombinant...... be central components in WAVE signalling, acting directly, alongside Rac1....

  4. Nanofibrillar scaffolds induce preferential activation of Rho GTPases in cerebral cortical astrocytes

    Tiryaki, Volkan Mujdat; Ayres, Virginia M; Khan, Adeel A; Ahmed, Ijaz; Shreiber, David I; Meiners, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral cortical astrocyte responses to polyamide nanofibrillar scaffolds versus poly-L-lysine (PLL)-functionalized planar glass, unfunctionalized planar Aclar coverslips, and PLL-functionalized planar Aclar surfaces were investigated by atomic force microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The physical properties of the cell culture environments were evaluated using contact angle and surface roughness measurements and compared. Astrocyte morphological responses, including filopodia, lamellipodia, and stress fiber formation, and stellation were imaged using atomic force microscopy and phalloidin staining for F-actin. Activation of the corresponding Rho GTPase regulators was investigated using immunolabeling with Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA. Astrocytes cultured on the nanofibrillar scaffolds showed a unique response that included stellation, cell–cell interactions by stellate processes, and evidence of depression of RhoA. The results support the hypothesis that the extracellular environment can trigger preferential activation of members of the Rho GTPase family, with demonstrable morphological consequences for cerebral cortical astrocytes. PMID:22915841

  5. Regulation of cerebral cortex development by Rho GTPases: insights from in vivo studies

    Roberta eAzzarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex is the site of higher human cognitive and motor functions. Histologically, it is organized into six horizontal layers, each containing unique populations of molecularly and functionally distinct excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. The stereotyped cellular distribution of cortical neurons is crucial for the formation of functional neural circuits and it is predominantly established during embryonic development. Cortical neuron development is a multiphasic process characterized by sequential steps of neural progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit, neuroblast migration and neuronal differentiation. This series of events requires an extensive and dynamic remodeling of the cell cytoskeleton at each step of the process. As major regulators of the cytoskeleton, the family of small Rho GTPases has been shown to play essential functions in cerebral cortex development. Here we review in vivo findings that support the contribution of Rho GTPases to cortical projection neuron development and we address their involvement in the etiology of cerebral cortex malformations.

  6. Characterization of a Rab11-like GTPase, EhRab11, of Entamoeba histolytica.

    McGugan, Glen C; Temesvari, Lesly A

    2003-07-01

    The Entamoeba histolytica Rab11 family of small molecular weight GTPases consists of three members, EhRab11, EhRab11B, and EhRab11C. The functions of these Rabs in Entamoeba have not been determined. Therefore, as an approach to elucidate the role of the Rab11 family of GTPases in Entamoeba, immunofluorescence microscopy was undertaken to define the subcellular localization of one member of this family, EhRab11. Under conditions of growth, EhRab11 displayed a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of trophozoites. EhRab11 did not colocalize with markers for the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, pinosomes, phagosomes, or compartments formed by receptor-mediated endocytosis, suggesting that this Rab may not play a role in vesicle trafficking between these organelles. Under conditions of iron and serum starvation, EhRab11 was translocated to the periphery of the cell. The altered cellular localization was accompanied by multinucleation of the cells as well as the acquisition of detergent resistance by the cells, features that are characteristic of Entamoeba cysts. The translocation of EhRab11 to the periphery of the cell during iron and serum starvation was specific as the subcellular localizations of two other Rab GTPases, EhRab7 and EhRabA, were not altered under the same conditions. In addition, the formation of multinucleated cells by inhibition of cytokinesis was not sufficient to induce the translocation of EhRab11 to the cell periphery. Taken together, the data suggest that iron and serum starvation may induce encystation in E. histolytica and that EhRab11 may play a role in this process. Moreover, these studies are the first to describe a putative role for a Rab GTPase in encystation in Entamoeba sp.

  7. A photocleavable rapamycin conjugate for spatiotemporal control of small GTPase activity.

    Umeda, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Tasuku; Pohlmeyer, Christopher; Nagano, Tetsuo; Inoue, Takanari

    2011-01-12

    We developed a novel method to spatiotemporally control the activity of signaling molecules. A newly synthesized photocaged rapamycin derivative induced rapid dimerization of FKBP (FK-506 binding protein) and FRB (FKBP-rapamycin binding protein) upon UV irradiation. With this system and the spatially confined UV irradiation, we achieved subcellularly localized activation of Rac, a member of small GTPases. Our technique offers a powerful approach to studies of dynamic intracellular signaling events.

  8. Rab GTPases Regulate Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Trafficking of Factor VIIa

    Nayak, Ramesh C.; Keshava, Shiva; Esmon, Charles T.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). FVIIa binding to EPCR may promote the endocytosis of this receptor/ligand complex. Rab GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the endocytic and exocytic pathways of receptors or receptor/ligand complexes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of EPCR and FVIIa. CHO-EPCR cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transduced with recombinant adenoviral vectors to express wild-type, constitutively active, or dominant negative mutant of various Rab GTPases. Cells were exposed to FVIIa conjugated with AF488 fluorescent probe (AF488-FVIIa), and intracellular trafficking of FVIIa, EPCR, and Rab proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In cells expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab4A, internalized AF488-FVIIa accumulated in early/sorting endosomes and its entry into the recycling endosomal compartment (REC) was inhibited. Expression of constitutively active Rab5A induced large endosomal structures beneath the plasma membrane where EPCR and FVIIa accumulated. Dominant negative Rab5A inhibited the endocytosis of EPCR-FVIIa. Expression of constitutively active Rab11 resulted in retention of accumulated AF488-FVIIa in the REC, whereas expression of a dominant negative form of Rab11 led to accumulation of internalized FVIIa in the cytoplasm and prevented entry of internalized FVIIa into the REC. Expression of dominant negative Rab11 also inhibited the transport of FVIIa across the endothelium. Overall our data show that Rab GTPases regulate the internalization and intracellular trafficking of EPCR-FVIIa. PMID:23555015

  9. Insight into temperature dependence of GTPase activity in human guanylate binding protein-1.

    Anjana Rani

    Full Text Available Interferon-γ induced human guanylate binding protein-1(hGBP1 belongs to a family of dynamin related large GTPases. Unlike all other GTPases, hGBP1 hydrolyzes GTP to a mixture of GDP and GMP with GMP being the major product at 37°C but GDP became significant when the hydrolysis reaction was carried out at 15°C. The hydrolysis reaction in hGBP1 is believed to involve with a number of catalytic steps. To investigate the effect of temperature in the product formation and on the different catalytic complexes of hGBP1, we carried out temperature dependent GTPase assays, mutational analysis, chemical and thermal denaturation studies. The Arrhenius plot for both GDP and GMP interestingly showed nonlinear behaviour, suggesting that the product formation from the GTP-bound enzyme complex is associated with at least more than one step. The negative activation energy for GDP formation and GTPase assay with external GDP together indicate that GDP formation occurs through the reversible dissociation of GDP-bound enzyme dimer to monomer, which further reversibly dissociates to give the product. Denaturation studies of different catalytic complexes show that unlike other complexes the free energy of GDP-bound hGBP1 decreases significantly at lower temperature. GDP formation is found to be dependent on the free energy of the GDP-bound enzyme complex. The decrease in the free energy of this complex at low temperature compared to at high is the reason for higher GDP formation at low temperature. Thermal denaturation studies also suggest that the difference in the free energy of the GTP-bound enzyme dimer compared to its monomer plays a crucial role in the product formation; higher stability favours GMP but lower favours GDP. Thus, this study provides the first thermodynamic insight into the effect of temperature in the product formation of hGBP1.

  10. Structure of the ribosomal interacting GTPase YjeQ from the enterobacterial species Salmonella typhimurium

    Nichols, C. E. [Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Johnson, C.; Lamb, H. K. [Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Catherine Cookson Building, Medical School, Framlington Place, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Lockyer, M. [Arrow Therapeutics Ltd, Britannia House, Trinity Street, Borough, London SE1 1DA (United Kingdom); Charles, I. G. [The Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, The Cruciform Building, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hawkins, A. R. [Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Catherine Cookson Building, Medical School, Framlington Place, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Stammers, D. K., E-mail: daves@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Division of Structural Biology, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the GTPase YjeQ from S. typhimurium is presented and compared with those of orthologues from T. maritima and B. subtilis. The YjeQ class of P-loop GTPases assist in ribosome biogenesis and also bind to the 30S subunit of mature ribosomes. YjeQ ribosomal binding is GTP-dependent and thought to specifically direct protein synthesis, although the nature of the upstream signal causing this event in vivo is as yet unknown. The attenuating effect of YjeQ mutants on bacterial growth in Escherichia coli makes it a potential target for novel antimicrobial agents. In order to further explore the structure and function of YjeQ, the isolation, crystallization and structure determination of YjeQ from the enterobacterial species Salmonella typhimurium (StYjeQ) is reported. Whilst the overall StYjeQ fold is similar to those of the previously reported Thematoga maritima and Bacillus subtilis orthologues, particularly the GTPase domain, there are larger differences in the three OB folds. Although the zinc-finger secondary structure is conserved, significant sequence differences alter the nature of the external surface in each case and may reflect varying signalling pathways. Therefore, it may be easier to develop YjeQ-specific inhibitors that target the N- and C-terminal regions, disrupting the metabolic connectivity rather than the GTPase activity. The availability of coordinates for StYjeQ will provide a significantly improved basis for threading Gram-negative orthologue sequences and in silico compound-screening studies, with the potential for the development of species-selective drugs.

  11. Structure of the ribosomal interacting GTPase YjeQ from the enterobacterial species Salmonella typhimurium

    Nichols, C. E.; Johnson, C.; Lamb, H. K.; Lockyer, M.; Charles, I. G.; Hawkins, A. R.; Stammers, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the GTPase YjeQ from S. typhimurium is presented and compared with those of orthologues from T. maritima and B. subtilis. The YjeQ class of P-loop GTPases assist in ribosome biogenesis and also bind to the 30S subunit of mature ribosomes. YjeQ ribosomal binding is GTP-dependent and thought to specifically direct protein synthesis, although the nature of the upstream signal causing this event in vivo is as yet unknown. The attenuating effect of YjeQ mutants on bacterial growth in Escherichia coli makes it a potential target for novel antimicrobial agents. In order to further explore the structure and function of YjeQ, the isolation, crystallization and structure determination of YjeQ from the enterobacterial species Salmonella typhimurium (StYjeQ) is reported. Whilst the overall StYjeQ fold is similar to those of the previously reported Thematoga maritima and Bacillus subtilis orthologues, particularly the GTPase domain, there are larger differences in the three OB folds. Although the zinc-finger secondary structure is conserved, significant sequence differences alter the nature of the external surface in each case and may reflect varying signalling pathways. Therefore, it may be easier to develop YjeQ-specific inhibitors that target the N- and C-terminal regions, disrupting the metabolic connectivity rather than the GTPase activity. The availability of coordinates for StYjeQ will provide a significantly improved basis for threading Gram-negative orthologue sequences and in silico compound-screening studies, with the potential for the development of species-selective drugs

  12. Slit-Robo GTPase-Activating Protein 2 as a metastasis suppressor in osteosarcoma

    Marko, Tracy A.; Shamsan, Ghaidan A.; Edwards, Elizabeth N.; Hazelton, Paige E.; Rathe, Susan K.; Cornax, Ingrid; Overn, Paula R.; Varshney, Jyotika; Diessner, Brandon J.; Moriarity, Branden S.; O?Sullivan, M. Gerard; Odde, David J.; Largaespada, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor, with metastatic disease responsible for most treatment failure and patient death. A forward genetic screen utilizing Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis in mice previously identified potential genetic drivers of osteosarcoma metastasis, including Slit-Robo GTPase-Activating Protein 2 (Srgap2). This study evaluates the potential role of SRGAP2 in metastases-associated properties of osteosarcoma cell lines through Srgap2 knockout via the CRISPR/Cas9 n...

  13. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures

  14. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the small GTPase Rab 2 are crucial for Brucella replication.

    Emilie Fugier

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus survives and replicates inside host cells within an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-derived replicative organelle named the "Brucella-containing vacuole" (BCV. Here, we developed a subcellular fractionation method to isolate BCVs and characterize for the first time the protein composition of its replicative niche. After identification of BCV membrane proteins by 2 dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we focused on two eukaryotic proteins: the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and the small GTPase Rab 2 recruited to the vacuolar membrane of Brucella. These proteins were previously described to localize on vesicular and tubular clusters (VTC and to regulate the VTC membrane traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the Golgi. Inhibition of either GAPDH or Rab 2 expression by small interfering RNA strongly inhibited B. abortus replication. Consistent with this result, inhibition of other partners of GAPDH and Rab 2, such as COPI and PKC iota, reduced B. abortus replication. Furthermore, blockage of Rab 2 GTPase in a GDP-locked form also inhibited B. abortus replication. Bacteria did not fuse with the ER and instead remained in lysosomal-associated membrane vacuoles. These results reveal an essential role for GAPDH and the small GTPase Rab 2 in B. abortus virulence within host cells.

  15. A class of dynamin-like GTPases involved in the generation of the tubular ER network

    Hu, Junjie; Shibata, Yoko; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Voss, Christiane; Rismanchi, Neggy; Prinz, William A.; Rapoport, Tom A.; Blackstone, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of tubules that are shaped by the reticulons and DP1/Yop1p, but how the tubules form an interconnected network is unknown. Here, we show that mammalian atlastins, which are dynamin-like, integral membrane GTPases, interact with the tubule-shaping proteins. The atlastins localize to the tubular ER and are required for proper network formation in vivo and in vitro. Depletion of the atlastins or overexpression of dominant-negative forms inhibits tubule interconnections. The Sey1p GTPase in S. cerevisiae is likely a functional ortholog of the atlastins; it shares the same signature motifs and membrane topology and interacts genetically and physically with the tubule-shaping proteins. Cells simultaneously lacking Sey1p and a tubule-shaping protein have ER morphology defects. These results indicate that formation of the tubular ER network depends on conserved dynamin-like GTPases. Since atlastin-1 mutations cause a common form of hereditary spastic paraplegia, we suggest ER shaping defects as a novel neuropathogenic mechanism. PMID:19665976

  16. Influence of bacterial toxins on the GTPase activity of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments

    Rybin, V.O.; Gureeva, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The action of cholera toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the activator N/sub s/ protein, and pertussis toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the inhibitor N/sub i/ protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, on transducin, the GTP-binding protein of the rod outer segments of the retina, was investigated. It was shown that under the action of pertussis and cholera toxins, the GTPase activity of transducin is inhibited. Pertussin toxin inhibits the GTPase of native retinal rod outer segments by 30-40%, while GTPase of homogeneous transducin produces a 70-80% inhibition. The action of toxins on transducin depends on the presence and nature of the guanylic nucleotide with which incubation is performed. On the basis of the data obtained it is suggested that pertussis toxin interacts with pretransducin and with the transducin-GDP complex, while cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates the transducin-GTP complex and does not act on transducin lacking GTP

  17. Maturation and integration of adult born hippocampal neurons: signal convergence onto small Rho GTPases

    Krishna eVadodaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, restricted to specific regions in the mammalian brain, represents one of the most interesting forms of plasticity in the mature nervous system. Adult-born hippocampal neurons play important roles in certain forms of learning and memory, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression and epilepsy. Newborn neurons go through distinct developmental steps from a dividing neurogenic precursor to a synaptically integrated mature neuron. Previous studies have uncovered several molecular signaling pathways involved in distinct steps of this maturational process. In this context, the small Rho GTPases, Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA have recently been shown to regulate the morphological and synaptic maturation of adult-born dentate granule cells in vivo. Distinct upstream regulators, including several growth factors that modulate maturation and integration of newborn neurons have been shown to also recruit the small Rho GTPases. Here we review recent findings and highlight the possibility that small Rho GTPases may act as central assimilators, downstream of critical input onto adult-born hippocampal neurons contributing to their maturation and integration into the existing dentate gyrus circuitry.

  18. Uncovering the Legionella genus effector repertoire - strength in diversity and numbers

    Burstein, David; Amaro, Francisco; Zusman, Tal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Cohen, Ofir; Gilbert, Jack A; Pupko, Tal; Shuman, Howard A; Segal, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila relies on the translocation of ~300 virulence proteins, termed effectors, which manipulate host-cell processes. However, almost no information exists regarding effectors in other Legionella pathogens. Here we sequenced, assembled and characterized the genomes of 38 Legionella species, and predicted their effector repertoire using a previously validated machine-learning approach. This analysis revealed a treasure trove of 5,885 predicted effectors. The effector repertoire of different Legionella species was found to be largely non-overlapping, and only seven core-effectors were shared among all species studied. Species-specific effectors had atypically low GC content, suggesting exogenous acquisition, possibly from their natural protozoan hosts. Furthermore, we detected numerous novel conserved effector domains, and discovered new domain combinations, which allowed inferring yet undescribed effector functions. The effector collection and network of domain architectures described here can serve as a roadmap for future studies of effector function and evolution. PMID:26752266

  19. Effector-triggered immunity: from pathogen perception to robust defense.

    Cui, Haitao; Tsuda, Kenichi; Parker, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    In plant innate immunity, individual cells have the capacity to sense and respond to pathogen attack. Intracellular recognition mechanisms have evolved to intercept perturbations by pathogen virulence factors (effectors) early in host infection and convert it to rapid defense. One key to resistance success is a polymorphic family of intracellular nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) receptors that detect effector interference in different parts of the cell. Effector-activated NLRs connect, in various ways, to a conserved basal resistance network in order to transcriptionally boost defense programs. Effector-triggered immunity displays remarkable robustness against pathogen disturbance, in part by employing compensatory mechanisms within the defense network. Also, the mobility of some NLRs and coordination of resistance pathways across cell compartments provides flexibility to fine-tune immune outputs. Furthermore, a number of NLRs function close to the nuclear chromatin by balancing actions of defense-repressing and defense-activating transcription factors to program cells dynamically for effective disease resistance.

  20. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-11-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  1. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  2. Functional heterogeneity of human effector CD8+ T cells.

    Takata, Hiroshi; Naruto, Takuya; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-02-09

    Effector CD8(+) T cells are believed to be terminally differentiated cells having cytotoxic activity and the ability to produce effector cytokines such as INF-γ and TNF-α. We investigated the difference between CXCR1(+) and CXCR1(-) subsets of human effector CD27(-)CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells. The subsets expressed cytolytic molecules similarly and exerted substantial cytolytic activity, whereas only the CXCR1(-) subset had IL-2 productivity and self-proliferative activity and was more resistant to cell death than the CXCR1(+) subset. These differences were explained by the specific up-regulation of CAMK4, SPRY2, and IL-7R in the CXCR1(-) subset and that of pro-apoptotic death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in the CXCR1(+) subset. The IL-2 producers were more frequently found in the IL-7R(+) subset of the CXCR1(-) effector CD8(+) T cells than in the IL-7R(-) subset. IL-7/IL-7R signaling promoted cell survival only in the CXCR1(-) subset. The present study has highlighted a novel subset of effector CD8(+) T cells producing IL-2 and suggests the importance of this subset in the homeostasis of effector CD8(+) T cells.

  3. Effectors of Th1 and Th17 cells act on astrocytes and augment their neuroinflammatory properties.

    Prajeeth, Chittappen K; Kronisch, Julius; Khorooshi, Reza; Knier, Benjamin; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Gudi, Viktoria; Floess, Stefan; Huehn, Jochen; Owens, Trevor; Korn, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2017-10-16

    Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of the neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that only Th1 but not Th17 effectors activate microglia. However, it is not clear which cells are targets of Th17 effectors in the CNS. To understand the effects driven by Th17 cells in the CNS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in wild-type mice and CD4 + T cell-specific integrin α4-deficient mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected. We compared microglial and astrocyte response in the brain and spinal cord of these mice. We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the messenger RNA expression of neurotrophic factors, cytokines and chemokines, using real-time PCR. Data obtained was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates, suggesting that Th17 cells target astrocytes and not microglia. In vitro, in response to supernatants from Th1 and Th17 cultures, astrocytes showed altered expression of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, increased expression of chemokines in Th1- and Th17-treated astrocytes enhanced recruitment of microglia and transendothelial migration of Th17 cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate the delicate interaction between T cell subsets and glial cells and how they communicate to mediate their effects. Effectors of Th1 act on both microglia and astrocytes whereas Th17 effectors preferentially target astrocytes to promote neuroinflammation.

  4. Physical and neural entrainment to rhythm: human sensorimotor coordination across tasks and effector systems

    Jessica Marie Ross

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human sensorimotor system can be readily entrained to environmental rhythms, through multiple sensory modalities. In this review, we provide an overview of theories of timekeeping that make this neuroentrainment possible. First, we present recent evidence that contests the assumptions made in classic timekeeper models. The role of state estimation, sensory feedback and movement parameters on the organization of sensorimotor timing are discussed in the context of recent experiments that examined simultaneous timing and force control. This discussion is extended to the study of coordinated multi-effector movements and how they may be entrained.

  5. The Small GTPase Rac1 Contributes to Extinction of Aversive Memories of Drug Withdrawal by Facilitating GABAA Receptor Endocytosis in the vmPFC.

    Wang, Weisheng; Ju, Yun-Yue; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Tang, Jian-Xin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Shuo; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Wang, Yu-Jun; Ji, Hui; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2017-07-26

    Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABA A receptor (GABA A R) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization. Active Rac1 is essential and sufficient for GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. Knockdown of Rac1 expression within the vmPFC of rats using Rac1-shRNA suppressed GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction, whereas expression of a constitutively active form of Rac1 accelerated GABA A R endocytosis and CPA extinction. The crucial role of GABA A R endocytosis in the LTP induction and CPA extinction is evinced by the findings that blockade of GABA A R endocytosis by a dynamin function-blocking peptide (Myr-P4) abolishes LTP induction and CPA extinction. Thus, the present study provides first evidence that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories and reveals the sequence of molecular events that contribute to learning experience modulation of synaptic GABA A R endocytosis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that Rac1-dependent GABA A R endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories associated with drug withdrawal and identifies Arc as a downstream effector of Rac1 regulations of synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory, thereby suggesting therapeutic targets to promote extinction of the unwanted memories. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377096-15$15.00/0.

  6. A translocator-specific export signal establishes the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy that is important for type III secretion system function

    Tomalka, Amanda G.; Stopford, Charles M.; Lee, Pei-Chung; Rietsch, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type III secretion systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to directly deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. To accomplish this, bacteria secrete translocator proteins that form a pore in the host-cell membrane through which the effector proteins are then introduced into the host cell. Evidence from multiple systems indicates that the pore-forming translocator proteins are exported before effectors, but how this secretion hierarchy is established is unclear. Here we used the P. aeruginosa translocator protein PopD as a model to identify its export signals. The amino-terminal secretion signal and chaperone, PcrH, are required for export under all conditions. Two novel signals in PopD, one proximal to the chaperone-binding site and one at the very C-terminus of the protein, are required for export of PopD before effector proteins. These novel export signals establish the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy, which in turn, is critical for the delivery of effectors into host cells. PMID:23121689

  7. The Rho-family GTPase Rac1 regulates integrin localization in Drosophila immunosurveillance cells.

    Miguel J Xavier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi lays an egg in a Drosophila larva, phagocytic cells called plasmatocytes and specialized cells known as lamellocytes encapsulate the egg. The Drosophila β-integrin Myospheroid (Mys is necessary for lamellocytes to adhere to the cellular capsule surrounding L. boulardi eggs. Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of α and β subunits, and similar to other plasma membrane receptors undergo ligand-dependent endocytosis. In mammalian cells it is known that integrin binding to the extracellular matrix induces the activation of Rac GTPases, and we have previously shown that Rac1 and Rac2 are necessary for a proper encapsulation response in Drosophila larvae. We wanted to test the possibility that Myospheroid and Rac GTPases interact during the Drosophila anti-parasitoid immune response. RESULTS: In the current study we demonstrate that Rac1 is required for the proper localization of Myospheroid to the cell periphery of haemocytes after parasitization. Interestingly, the mislocalization of Myospheroid in Rac1 mutants is rescued by hyperthermia, involving the heat shock protein Hsp83. From these results we conclude that Rac1 and Hsp83 are required for the proper localization of Mys after parasitization. SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that the small GTPase Rac1 is required for Mysopheroid localization. Interestingly, the necessity of Rac1 in Mys localization was negated by hyperthermia. This presents a problem, in Drosophila we quite often raise larvae at 29°C when using the GAL4/UAS misexpression system. If hyperthermia rescues receptor endosomal recycling defects, raising larvae in hyperthermic conditions may mask potentially interesting phenotypes.

  8. Functional differences between PD-1+ and PD-1- CD4+ effector T cells in healthy donors and patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

    Brittany A Goods

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 have been highly successful in the treatment of cancer. While PD-1 expression has been widely investigated, its role in CD4+ effector T cells in the setting of health and cancer remains unclear, particularly in the setting of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most aggressive and common form of brain cancer. We examined the functional and molecular features of PD-1+CD4+CD25-CD127+Foxp3-effector cells in healthy subjects and in patients with GBM. In healthy subjects, we found that PD-1+CD4+ effector cells are dysfunctional: they do not proliferate but can secrete large quantities of IFNγ. Strikingly, blocking antibodies against PD-1 did not rescue proliferation. RNA-sequencing revealed features of exhaustion in PD-1+ CD4 effectors. In the context of GBM, tumors were enriched in PD-1+ CD4+ effectors that were similarly dysfunctional and unable to proliferate. Furthermore, we found enrichment of PD-1+TIM-3+ CD4+ effectors in tumors, suggesting that co-blockade of PD-1 and TIM-3 in GBM may be therapeutically beneficial. RNA-sequencing of blood and tumors from GBM patients revealed distinct differences between CD4+ effectors from both compartments with enrichment in multiple gene sets from tumor infiltrating PD-1-CD4+ effectors cells. Enrichment of these gene sets in tumor suggests a more metabolically active cell state with signaling through other co-receptors. PD-1 expression on CD4 cells identifies a dysfunctional subset refractory to rescue with PD-1 blocking antibodies, suggesting that the influence of immune checkpoint inhibitors may involve recovery of function in the PD-1-CD4+ T cell compartment. Additionally, co-blockade of PD-1 and TIM-3 in GBM may be therapeutically beneficial.

  9. Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors.

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Target selection is often biased by an observer's recent experiences. However, not much is known about whether these selection biases influence behavior across different effectors. For example, does looking at a red object make it easier to subsequently reach towards another red object? In the current study, we asked observers to find the uniquely colored target object on each trial. Randomly intermixed pre-trial cues indicated the mode of action: either an eye movement or a visually guided reach movement to the target. In Experiment 1, we found that priming of popout, reflected in faster responses following repetition of the target color on consecutive trials, occurred regardless of whether the effector was repeated from the previous trial or not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether an inhibitory selection bias away from a feature could transfer across effectors. While priming of popout reflects both enhancement of the repeated target features and suppression of the repeated distractor features, the distractor previewing effect isolates a purely inhibitory component of target selection in which a previewed color is presented in a homogenous display and subsequently inhibited. Much like priming of popout, intertrial suppression biases in the distractor previewing effect transferred across effectors. Together, these results suggest that biases for target selection driven by recent trial history transfer across effectors. This indicates that representations in memory that bias attention towards or away from specific features are largely independent from their associated actions.

  10. NADPH oxidase complex-derived reactive oxygen species, the actin cytoskeleton, and rho GTPases in cell migration

    Stanley, Alanna; Thompson, Kerry; Hynes, Ailish

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Rho GTPases are historically known to be central regulators of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. This affects many processes including cell migration. In addition, members of the Rac subfamily are known to be involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through...... mediating cytoskeletal reorganization. Critical Issues: The role of the actin cytoskeleton in providing a scaffold for components of the Nox complex needs to be examined in the light of these new advances. During cell migration, Rho GTPases, ROS, and cytoskeletal organization appear to function as a complex...... compartments. This in conjunction with the analysis of tissues lacking specific Rho GTPases, and Nox components will facilitate a detailed examination of the interactions of these structures with the actin cytoskeleton. In combination with the analysis of ROS production, including its subcellular location...

  11. CD4+ T cells are required to contain early extrathoracic TB dissemination and sustain multi-effector functions of CD8+ T and CD3− lymphocytes

    Yao, Shuyu; Huang, Dan; Chen, Crystal Y.; Halliday, Lisa; Wang, Richard C.; Chen, Zheng W.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that CD4+ T cells can act as “innate-like” cells to contain very-early M. tuberculosis (Mtb) dissemination and function as master helpers to sustain multiple effector functions of CD8+ T cells and CD3-negative lymphocytes during development of adaptive immunity against primary tuberculosis(TB) has not been demonstrated. We showed that pulmonary Mtb infection of CD4-depleted macaques surprisingly led to very-early extrathoracic Mtb dissemination, whereas CD4 deficiency clearly resulted in rapid TB progression. CD4 depletion during Mtb infection revealed the ability of CD8+ T cells to compensate and rapidly differentiate to Th17-like/Th1-like, and cytotoxic-like effectors, but these effector functions were subsequently unsustainable due to CD4 deficiency. While CD3-negative non-T lymphocytes in presence of CD4+ T cells developed predominant Th22-like and NK-like (perforin production) responses to Mtb infection, CD4 depletion abrogated these Th22-/NK-like effector functions and favored IL-17 production by CD3-negative lymphocytes. CD4-depleted macaques exhibited no or few pulmonary T effector cells constitutively producing IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-17, IL-22, and perforin at the endpoint of more severe TB, but presented pulmonary IL-4+ T effectors. TB granulomas in CD4-depleted macaques contained fewer IL-22+ and perforin+ cells despite presence of IL-17+ and IL-4+ cells. These results implicate previously-unknown “innate-like” ability of CD4+ T cells to contain extrathoracic Mtb dissemination at very early stage. Data also suggest that CD4+ T cells are required to sustain multiple effector functions of CD8+ T cells and CD3-negative lymphocytes and to prevent rapid TB progression during Mtb infection of nonhuman primates. PMID:24489088

  12. Special-purpose multifingered robotic end-effectors

    Crowder, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A number of advanced multifingered robotic end-effectors have been developed recently in which the finger joints are powered from external actuators. Although this gives dexterous performance, there are considerable problems with power transmission, due to the use of flexible tendons between the external actuators and the individual finger joints. If a multifingered robotic end-effector is to be operated in a confined space, local actuation of the fingers needs to be fully considered, even if there is a reduction in hand dexterity over that of an externally mounted actuator system. The University of Southampton has developed a number of end-effectors that incorporate integral finger actuators and mechanisms, two examples of which are discussed in this paper

  13. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD ampersand E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design

  14. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now.By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system.The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  15. Identification and functional analysis of secreted effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes.

    Rehman, Sajid; Gupta, Vijai K; Goyal, Aakash K

    2016-03-21

    Plant parasitic nematodes develop an intimate and long-term feeding relationship with their host plants. They induce a multi-nucleate feeding site close to the vascular bundle in the roots of their host plant and remain sessile for the rest of their life. Nematode secretions, produced in the oesophageal glands and secreted through a hollow stylet into the host plant cytoplasm, are believed to play key role in pathogenesis. To combat these persistent pathogens, the identity and functional analysis of secreted effectors can serve as a key to devise durable control measures. In this review, we will recapitulate the knowledge over the identification and functional characterization of secreted nematode effector repertoire from phytoparasitic nematodes. Despite considerable efforts, the identity of genes encoding nematode secreted proteins has long been severely hampered because of their microscopic size, long generation time and obligate biotrophic nature. The methodologies such as bioinformatics, protein structure modeling, in situ hybridization microscopy, and protein-protein interaction have been used to identify and to attribute functions to the effectors. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) has been instrumental to decipher the role of the genes encoding secreted effectors necessary for parasitism and genes attributed to normal development. Recent comparative and functional genomic approaches have accelerated the identification of effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes and offers opportunities to control these pathogens. Plant parasitic nematodes pose a serious threat to global food security of various economically important crops. There is a wealth of genomic and transcriptomic information available on plant parasitic nematodes and comparative genomics has identified many effectors. Bioengineering crops with dsRNA of phytonematode genes can disrupt the life cycle of parasitic nematodes and therefore holds great promise to develop resistant crops against plant

  16. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  17. Nanorobotic end-effectors: Design, fabrication, and in situ characterization

    Fan, Zheng

    Nano-robotic end-effectors have promising applications for nano-fabrication, nano-manufacturing, nano-optics, nano-medical, and nano-sensing; however, low performances of the conventional end-effectors have prevented the widespread utilization of them in various fields. There are two major difficulties in developing the end-effectors: their nano-fabrication and their advanced characterization in the nanoscale. Here we introduce six types of end-effectors: the nanotube fountain pen (NFP), the super-fine nanoprobe, the metal-filled carbon nanotube (m CNT)-based sphere-on-pillar (SOP) nanoantennas, the tunneling nanosensor, and the nanowire-based memristor. The investigations on the NFP are focused on nano-fluidics and nano-fabrications. The NFP could direct write metallic "inks" and fabricating complex metal nanostructures from 0D to 3D with a position servo control, which is critically important to future large-scale, high-throughput nanodevice production. With the help of NFP, we could fabricate the end-effectors such as super-fine nanoprobe and m CNT-based SOP nanoantennas. Those end-effectors are able to detect local flaws or characterize the electrical/mechanical properties of the nanostructure. Moreover, using electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy (EELS) technique during the operation of the SOP optical antenna opens a new basis for the application of nano-robotic end-effectors. The technique allows advanced characterization of the physical changes, such as carrier diffusion, that are directly responsible for the device's properties. As the device was coupled with characterization techniques of scanning-trasmission-electron-microscopy (STEM), the development of tunneling nanosensor advances this field of science into quantum world. Furthermore, the combined STEM-EELS technique plays an important role in our understanding of the memristive switching performance in the nanowire-based memristor. The developments of those nano-robotic end-effectors expend the study

  18. Rab27a regulates epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity through synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 effector mechanism

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Horiuchi, Hisanori; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2006-01-01

    Liddle's syndrome (excessive absorption of sodium ions) and PHA-1 (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1) with decreased sodium absorption are caused by the mutations in the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. Earlier, we reported that Rab27a inhibits ENaC-mediated currents through protein-protein interaction in HT-29 cells. We hereby report that Rab27a-dependent inhibition is associated with the GTP/GDP status as constitutively active or GTPase-deficient mutant Q78L inhibits amiloride-sensitive currents whereas GDP-locked inactive mutant T23N showed no effect. In order to further explore the molecular mechanism of this regulation, we performed competitive assays with two Rab27a-binding proteins: synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). Both proteins eliminate negative modulation of Rab27a on ENaC function. The SLP-5 reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C-terminal C2A/C2B domains assigned for putative phospholipids-binding function while the Rab27a-binding SHD motif imparted higher inhibition. The ENaC-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab27a though SLP-5 appears to strongly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that in the presence of excessive Munc13-4 and SLP-5 proteins, Rab27a interaction with ENaC is diminished. Munc13-4 and SLP-5 limit the Rab27a availability to ENaC, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a inhibits ENaC function through a complex mechanism that involves GTP/GDP status, and protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins

  19. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  20. Ablation of p120-Catenin Altering the Activity of Small GTPase in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Nan LIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective p120-catenin (p120ctn, a member of the Armadillo gene family, has emerged as an important modulator of small GTPase activities. Therefore, it plays novel roles in tumor malignant phenotype, such as invasion and metastasis, whose mechanism are not well clarified yet. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of p120ctn on the regulation of small GTP family members in lung cancer and the effects to lung cancer invasions andmetastasis. Methods After p120ctn was knocked down by siRNA, in vivo and in vitro analysis was applied to investigate the role and possible mechanism of p120ctn in lung cancer, such as Western Blot, pull-down analysis, and nude mice models. Results p120ctn depletion inactivated RhoA, with the the activity of Cdc42 and Rac1 increased, the invasiveness of lung cancer cells was promoted both in vitro and in vivo . Conclusion p120ctn gene knockdown enhances the metastasis of lung cancer cells, probably by altering expression of small GTPase, such as inactivation of RhoA and activation of Cdc42/Rac1.

  1. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells.

  2. Essential role of the small GTPase Ran in postnatal pancreatic islet development.

    Fang Xia

    Full Text Available The small GTPase Ran orchestrates pleiotropic cellular responses of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling, mitosis and subcellular trafficking, but whether deregulation of these pathways contributes to disease pathogenesis has remained elusive. Here, we generated transgenic mice expressing wild type (WT Ran, loss-of-function Ran T24N mutant or constitutively active Ran G19V mutant in pancreatic islet β cells under the control of the rat insulin promoter. Embryonic pancreas and islet development, including emergence of insulin(+ β cells, was indistinguishable in control or transgenic mice. However, by one month after birth, transgenic mice expressing any of the three Ran variants exhibited overt diabetes, with hyperglycemia, reduced insulin production, and nearly complete loss of islet number and islet mass, in vivo. Deregulated Ran signaling in transgenic mice, adenoviral over-expression of WT or mutant Ran in isolated islets, or short hairpin RNA (shRNA silencing of endogenous Ran in model insulinoma INS-1 cells, all resulted in decreased expression of the pancreatic and duodenal homeobox transcription factor, PDX-1, and reduced β cell proliferation, in vivo. These data demonstrate that a finely-tuned balance of Ran GTPase signaling is essential for postnatal pancreatic islet development and glucose homeostasis, in vivo.

  3. The Rho-GTPase binding protein IQGAP2 is required for the glomerular filtration barrier.

    Sugano, Yuya; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Auberger, Ines; Ziegler, Urs; Segerer, Stephan; Cohen, Clemens D; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Loffing, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Podocyte dysfunction impairs the size selectivity of the glomerular filter, leading to proteinuria, hypoalbuminuria, and edema, clinically defined as nephrotic syndrome. Hereditary forms of nephrotic syndrome are linked to mutations in podocyte-specific genes. To identify genes contributing to podocyte dysfunction in acquired nephrotic syndrome, we studied human glomerular gene expression data sets for glomerular-enriched gene transcripts differentially regulated between pretransplant biopsy samples and biopsies from patients with nephrotic syndrome. Candidate genes were screened by in situ hybridization for expression in the zebrafish pronephros, an easy-to-use in vivo assay system to assess podocyte function. One glomerulus-enriched product was the Rho-GTPase binding protein, IQGAP2. Immunohistochemistry found a strong presence of IQGAP2 in normal human and zebrafish podocytes. In zebrafish larvae, morpholino-based knockdown of iqgap2 caused a mild foot process effacement of zebrafish podocytes and a cystic dilation of the urinary space of Bowman's capsule upon onset of urinary filtration. Moreover, the glomerulus of zebrafish morphants showed a glomerular permeability for injected high-molecular-weight dextrans, indicating an impaired size selectivity of the glomerular filter. Thus, IQGAP2 is a Rho-GTPase binding protein, highly abundant in human and zebrafish podocytes, which controls normal podocyte structure and function as evidenced in the zebrafish pronephros.

  4. ULtiMATE system for rapid assembly of customized TAL effectors.

    Junjiao Yang

    Full Text Available Engineered TAL-effector nucleases (TALENs and TALE-based constructs have become powerful tools for eukaryotic genome editing. Although many methods have been reported, it remains a challenge for the assembly of designer-based TALE repeats in a fast, precise and cost-effective manner. We present an ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector system for speedy and accurate assembly of customized TALE constructs. This method takes advantage of uracil-specific excision reagent (USER to create multiple distinct sticky ends between any neighboring DNA fragments for specific ligation. With pre-assembled templates, multiple TALE DNA-binding domains could be efficiently assembled in order within hours with minimal manual operation. This system has been demonstrated to produce both functional TALENs for effective gene knockout and TALE-mediated gene-specific transcription activation (TALE-TA. The feature of both ease-of-operation and high efficiency of ULtiMATE system makes it not only an ideal method for biologic labs, but also an approach well suited for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions.

  5. Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing

    Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

  6. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  7. p21-ras effector domain mutants constructed by "cassette" mutagenesis

    Stone, J C; Vass, W C; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A series of mutations encoding single-amino-acid substitutions within the v-rasH effector domain were constructed, and the ability of the mutants to induce focal transformation of NIH 3T3 cells was studied. The mutations, which spanned codons 32 to 40, were made by a "cassette" mutagenesis...

  8. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Pedersen, Carsten; Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren van; McGuffin, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute...

  9. Effector profiles distinguish formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum.

    van Dam, Peter; Fokkens, Like; Schmidt, Sarah M; Linmans, Jasper H J; Kistler, H Corby; Ma, Li-Jun; Rep, Martijn

    2016-11-01

    Formae speciales (ff.spp.) of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum are often polyphyletic within the species complex, making it impossible to identify them on the basis of conserved genes. However, sequences that determine host-specific pathogenicity may be expected to be similar between strains within the same forma specialis. Whole genome sequencing was performed on strains from five different ff.spp. (cucumerinum, niveum, melonis, radicis-cucumerinum and lycopersici). In each genome, genes for putative effectors were identified based on small size, secretion signal, and vicinity to a "miniature impala" transposable element. The candidate effector genes of all genomes were collected and the presence/absence patterns in each individual genome were clustered. Members of the same forma specialis turned out to group together, with cucurbit-infecting strains forming a supercluster separate from other ff.spp. Moreover, strains from different clonal lineages within the same forma specialis harbour identical effector gene sequences, supporting horizontal transfer of genetic material. These data offer new insight into the genetic basis of host specificity in the F. oxysporum species complex and show that (putative) effectors can be used to predict host specificity in F. oxysporum. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Type IV Secretion System of Brucella spp. and its Effectors

    Yuehua eKe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. cause brucellosis in domestic and wild animals. They are intracellular bacterial pathogens and used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we will discuss roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and in more detail of all 15 identified effectors, which may be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells, suggesting that it plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. So, we listed some key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating functions of the effectors secreted will be crucial to clarifying mechanism of T4SS during infection. Studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms by which the bacteria hijack the host signaling pathways, which help us to develop better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  11. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  12. The Coding and Effector Transfer of Movement Sequences

    Kovacs, Attila J.; Muhlbauer, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments utilizing a 14-element arm movement sequence were designed to determine if reinstating the visual-spatial coordinates, which require movements to the same spatial locations utilized during acquisition, results in better effector transfer than reinstating the motor coordinates, which require the same pattern of homologous muscle…

  13. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    . Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  14. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Truttmann, Matthias C; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  15. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Matthias C Truttmann

    Full Text Available The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  16. Genome-scale identification of Legionella pneumophila effectors using a machine learning approach.

    David Burstein

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of highly pathogenic bacteria utilize secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Using these effectors, the bacteria subvert host cell processes during infection. Legionella pneumophila translocates effectors via the Icm/Dot type-IV secretion system and to date, approximately 100 effectors have been identified by various experimental and computational techniques. Effector identification is a critical first step towards the understanding of the pathogenesis system in L. pneumophila as well as in other bacterial pathogens. Here, we formulate the task of effector identification as a classification problem: each L. pneumophila open reading frame (ORF was classified as either effector or not. We computationally defined a set of features that best distinguish effectors from non-effectors. These features cover a wide range of characteristics including taxonomical dispersion, regulatory data, genomic organization, similarity to eukaryotic proteomes and more. Machine learning algorithms utilizing these features were then applied to classify all the ORFs within the L. pneumophila genome. Using this approach we were able to predict and experimentally validate 40 new effectors, reaching a success rate of above 90%. Increasing the number of validated effectors to around 140, we were able to gain novel insights into their characteristics. Effectors were found to have low G+C content, supporting the hypothesis that a large number of effectors originate via horizontal gene transfer, probably from their protozoan host. In addition, effectors were found to cluster in specific genomic regions. Finally, we were able to provide a novel description of the C-terminal translocation signal required for effector translocation by the Icm/Dot secretion system. To conclude, we have discovered 40 novel L. pneumophila effectors, predicted over a hundred additional highly probable effectors, and shown the applicability of machine

  17. Actin re-organization induced by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D--evidence for a critical role of the effector protein CT166 targeting Rac.

    Jessica Thalmann

    Full Text Available The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes infections of urogenital tract, eyes or lungs. Alignment reveals homology of CT166, a putative effector protein of urogenital C. trachomatis serovars, with the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs. CGTs contain an essential DXD-motif and mono-glucosylate GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras families, the master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. CT166 is preformed in elementary bodies of C. trachomatis D and is detected in the host-cell shortly after infection. Infection with high MOI of C. trachomatis serovar D containing the CT166 ORF induces actin re-organization resulting in cell rounding and a decreased cell diameter. A comparable phenotype was observed in HeLa cells treated with the Rho-GTPase-glucosylating Toxin B from Clostridium difficile (TcdB or HeLa cells ectopically expressing CT166. CT166 with a mutated DXD-motif (CT166-mut exhibited almost unchanged actin dynamics, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosyltransferase motif of CT166. The cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 from E. coli deamidates and thereby activates Rho-GTPases and transiently protects them against TcdB-induced glucosylation. CNF1-treated cells were found to be protected from TcdB- and CT166-induced actin re-organization. CNF1 treatment as well as ectopic expression of non-glucosylable Rac1-G12V, but not RhoA-G14A, reverted CT166-induced actin re-organization, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosylation of Rac1. In accordance, over-expression of CT166-mut diminished TcdB induced cell rounding, suggesting shared substrates. Cell rounding induced by high MOI infection with C. trachomatis D was reduced in cells expressing CT166-mut or Rac1-G12V, and in CNF1 treated cells. These observations indicate that the cytopathic effect of C. trachomatis D is mediated by CT166 induced Rac1 glucosylation

  18. HIV-specific Fc effector function early in infection predicts the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Simone I Richardson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs is a major goal of HIV vaccination strategies, there is mounting evidence to suggest that antibodies with Fc effector function also contribute to protection against HIV infection. Here we investigated Fc effector functionality of HIV-specific IgG plasma antibodies over 3 years of infection in 23 individuals, 13 of whom developed bNAbs. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP, complement deposition (ADCD, cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and cellular trogocytosis (ADCT were detected in almost all individuals with levels of activity increasing over time. At 6 months post-infection, individuals with bNAbs had significantly higher levels of ADCD and ADCT that correlated with antibody binding to C1q and FcγRIIa respectively. In addition, antibodies from individuals with bNAbs showed more IgG subclass diversity to multiple HIV antigens which also correlated with Fc polyfunctionality. Germinal center activity represented by CXCL13 levels and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID was found to be associated with neutralization breadth, Fc polyfunctionality and IgG subclass diversity. Overall, multivariate analysis by random forest classification was able to group bNAb individuals with 85% sensitivity and 80% specificity based on the properties of their antibody Fc early in HIV infection. Thus, the Fc effector function profile predicted the development of neutralization breadth in this cohort, suggesting that intrinsic immune factors within the germinal center provide a mechanistic link between the Fc and Fab of HIV-specific antibodies.

  19. HIV-specific Fc effector function early in infection predicts the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Richardson, Simone I; Chung, Amy W; Natarajan, Harini; Mabvakure, Batsirai; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Salim; Moore, Penny L; Ackerman, Margaret E; Alter, Galit; Morris, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    While the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a major goal of HIV vaccination strategies, there is mounting evidence to suggest that antibodies with Fc effector function also contribute to protection against HIV infection. Here we investigated Fc effector functionality of HIV-specific IgG plasma antibodies over 3 years of infection in 23 individuals, 13 of whom developed bNAbs. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), complement deposition (ADCD), cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cellular trogocytosis (ADCT) were detected in almost all individuals with levels of activity increasing over time. At 6 months post-infection, individuals with bNAbs had significantly higher levels of ADCD and ADCT that correlated with antibody binding to C1q and FcγRIIa respectively. In addition, antibodies from individuals with bNAbs showed more IgG subclass diversity to multiple HIV antigens which also correlated with Fc polyfunctionality. Germinal center activity represented by CXCL13 levels and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was found to be associated with neutralization breadth, Fc polyfunctionality and IgG subclass diversity. Overall, multivariate analysis by random forest classification was able to group bNAb individuals with 85% sensitivity and 80% specificity based on the properties of their antibody Fc early in HIV infection. Thus, the Fc effector function profile predicted the development of neutralization breadth in this cohort, suggesting that intrinsic immune factors within the germinal center provide a mechanistic link between the Fc and Fab of HIV-specific antibodies.

  20. Triptolide disrupts the actin-based Sertoli-germ cells adherens junctions by inhibiting Rho GTPases expression

    Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Fang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Lv, Zhong-ming; Shi, Wei-qin [Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Lu-yong, E-mail: lyzhang@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: brookming@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Triptolide (TP), derived from the medicinal plant Triterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (TWHF), is a diterpene triepoxide with variety biological and pharmacological activities. However, TP has been restricted in clinical application due to its narrow therapeutic window especially in reproductive system. During spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell cytoskeleton plays an essential role in facilitating germ cell movement and cell-cell actin-based adherens junctions (AJ). At Sertoli cell-spermatid interface, the anchoring device is a kind of AJ, known as ectoplasmic specializations (ES). In this study, we demonstrate that β-actin, an important component of cytoskeleton, has been significantly down-regulated after TP treatment. TP can inhibit the expression of Rho GTPase such as, RhoA, RhoB, Cdc42 and Rac1. Downstream of Rho GTPase, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCKs) gene expressions were also suppressed by TP. F-actin immunofluorescence proved that TP disrupts Sertoli cells cytoskeleton network. As a result of β-actin down-regulation, TP treatment increased expression of testin, which indicating ES has been disassembled. In summary, this report illustrates that TP induces cytoskeleton dysfunction and disrupts cell-cell adherens junctions via inhibition of Rho GTPases. - Highlights: • Triptolide induced the disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adherens junction. • Rho GTPases expression and actin dynamics have been suppressed by triptolide. • Actin-based adherens junction is a potential antifertility target of triptolide. • Rho-Rock is involved in the regulation of actin dynamics.

  1. Tandem duplications of a degenerated GTP-binding domain at the origin of GTPase receptors Toc159 and thylakoidal SRP

    Hernandez Torres, Jorge; Maldonado, Monica Alexandra Arias; Chomilier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of some nuclear encoded proteins that translocate proteins across the chloroplast envelope remains unknown. Therefore, sequences of GTPase proteins constituting the Arabidopsis thaliana translocon at the outer membrane of chloroplast (atToc) complexes were analyzed by means of HCA. In particular, atToc159 and related proteins (atToc132, atToc120, and atToc90) do not have proven homologues of prokaryotic or eukaryotic ancestry. We established that the three domains commonly referred to as A, G, and M originate from the GTPase G domain, tandemly repeated, and probably evolving toward an unstructured conformation in the case of the A domain. It resulted from this study a putative common ancestor for these proteins and a new domain definition, in particular the splitting of A into three domains (A1, A2, and A3), has been proposed. The family of Toc159, previously containing A. thaliana and Pisum sativum, has been extended to Medicago truncatula and Populus trichocarpa and it has been revised for Oryza sativa. They have also been compared to GTPase subunits involved in the cpSRP system. A distant homology has been revealed among Toc and cpSRP GTP-hydrolyzing proteins of A. thaliana, and repetitions of a GTPase domain were also found in cpSRP protein receptors, by means of HCA analysis

  2. Mutation spectrum in the large GTPase dynamin 2, and genotype-phenotype correlation in autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy

    Böhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valérie; Dechene, Elizabeth T

    2012-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzym...

  3. A GTPase chimera illustrates an uncoupled nucleotide affinity and release rate, Providing insight into the activation mechanism

    Guilfoyle, Amy P.; Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Font Sadurni, Josep

    2014-01-01

    , biophysical studies on both the eukaryotic Gα proteins and the GTPase domain (NFeoB) of prokaryotic FeoB proteins have revealed conformational changes in the G5 loop that accompany nucleotide binding and release. However, it is unclear whether this conformational change in the G5 loop is a prerequisite...

  4. Triptolide disrupts the actin-based Sertoli-germ cells adherens junctions by inhibiting Rho GTPases expression

    Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Fang; Lv, Zhong-ming; Shi, Wei-qin; Zhang, Lu-yong; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Triptolide (TP), derived from the medicinal plant Triterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (TWHF), is a diterpene triepoxide with variety biological and pharmacological activities. However, TP has been restricted in clinical application due to its narrow therapeutic window especially in reproductive system. During spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell cytoskeleton plays an essential role in facilitating germ cell movement and cell-cell actin-based adherens junctions (AJ). At Sertoli cell-spermatid interface, the anchoring device is a kind of AJ, known as ectoplasmic specializations (ES). In this study, we demonstrate that β-actin, an important component of cytoskeleton, has been significantly down-regulated after TP treatment. TP can inhibit the expression of Rho GTPase such as, RhoA, RhoB, Cdc42 and Rac1. Downstream of Rho GTPase, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCKs) gene expressions were also suppressed by TP. F-actin immunofluorescence proved that TP disrupts Sertoli cells cytoskeleton network. As a result of β-actin down-regulation, TP treatment increased expression of testin, which indicating ES has been disassembled. In summary, this report illustrates that TP induces cytoskeleton dysfunction and disrupts cell-cell adherens junctions via inhibition of Rho GTPases. - Highlights: • Triptolide induced the disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adherens junction. • Rho GTPases expression and actin dynamics have been suppressed by triptolide. • Actin-based adherens junction is a potential antifertility target of triptolide. • Rho-Rock is involved in the regulation of actin dynamics.

  5. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. In T. reesei the genome contains two Ras subfamily small GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 homologous to Ras1 and Ras2 from S. cerevisiae, but their functions remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated the roles of GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 during fungal morphogenesis and cellulase gene expression. We show that both TrRas1 and TrRas2 play important roles in some cellular processes such as polarized apical growth, hyphal branch formation, sporulation and cAMP level adjustment, while TrRas1 is more dominant in these processes. Strikingly, we find that TrRas2 is involved in modulation of cellulase gene expression. Deletion of TrRas2 results in considerably decreased transcription of cellulolytic genes upon growth on cellulose. Although the strain carrying a constitutively activated TrRas2G16V allele exhibits increased cellulase gene transcription, the cbh1 and cbh2 expression in this mutant still strictly depends on cellulose, indicating TrRas2 does not directly mediate the transmission of the cellulose signal. In addition, our data suggest that the effect of TrRas2 on cellulase gene is exerted through regulation of transcript abundance of cellulase transcription factors such as Xyr1, but the influence is independent of cAMP signalling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these findings elucidate the functions for Ras signalling of T. reesei in cellular morphogenesis, especially in cellulase gene expression, which contribute to deciphering the

  6. The Arf GTPase-activating protein family is exploited by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to invade nonphagocytic host cells.

    Davidson, Anthony C; Humphreys, Daniel; Brooks, Andrew B E; Hume, Peter J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2015-02-10

    To establish intracellular infections, Salmonella bacteria trigger host cell membrane ruffling and invasion by subverting cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases by promoting GTP binding. A family of cellular Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can downregulate Arf signaling by stimulating GTP hydrolysis, but whether they do this during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered a remarkable role for distinct Arf GAP family members in Salmonella invasion. The Arf6 GAPs ACAP1 and ADAP1 and the Arf1 GAP ASAP1 localized at Salmonella-induced ruffles, which was not the case for the plasma membrane-localized Arf6 GAPs ARAP3 and GIT1 or the Golgi-associated Arf1 GAP1. Surprisingly, we found that loss of ACAP1, ADAP1, or ASAP1 impaired Salmonella invasion, revealing that GAPs cannot be considered mere terminators of cytoskeleton remodeling. Salmonella invasion was restored in Arf GAP-depleted cells by expressing fast-cycling Arf derivatives, demonstrating that Arf GTP/GDP cycles facilitate Salmonella invasion. Consistent with this view, both constitutively active and dominant-negative Arf derivatives that cannot undergo GTP/GDP cycles inhibited invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arf GEFs and GAPs colocalize at invading Salmonella and collaborate to drive Arf1-dependent pathogen invasion. This study revealed that Salmonella bacteria exploit a remarkable interplay between Arf GEFs and GAPs to direct cycles of Arf GTPase activation and inactivation. These cycles drive Salmonella cytoskeleton remodeling and enable intracellular infections. To initiate infections, the Salmonella bacterial pathogen remodels the mammalian actin cytoskeleton and invades host cells by subverting host Arf GEFs that activate Arf1 and Arf6 GTPases. Cellular Arf GAPs deactivate Arf GTPases and negatively regulate cell processes, but whether they target Arfs during infection is unknown. Here, we uncovered an important role for the Arf GAP

  7. Ihh controls cartilage development by antagonizing Gli3, but requires additional effectors to regulate osteoblast and vascular development.

    Hilton, Matthew J; Tu, Xiaolin; Cook, Julie; Hu, Hongliang; Long, Fanxin

    2005-10-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) controls multiple aspects of endochondral skeletal development, including proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes, osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization. Although it is known that Gli transcription factors are key effectors of hedgehog signaling, it has not been established which Gli protein mediates Ihh activity in skeletal development. Here, we show that removal of Gli3 in Ihh-null mouse embryos restored normal proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes, but only partially rescued the defects in osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization. Remarkably, in both Ihh-/- and Ihh-/-; Gli3-/- embryos, vascularization promoted osteoblast development in perichondrial progenitor cells. Our results not only establish Gli3 as a critical effector for Ihh activity in the developing skeleton, but also identify an osteogenic role for a vasculature-derived signal, which integrates with Ihh and Wnt signals to determine the osteoblast versus chondrocyte fate in the mesenchymal progenitors.

  8. The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

    Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z

    2012-01-01

    The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL...... be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice......)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose...

  9. Rac1 GTPase activates the WAVE regulatory complex through two distinct binding sites

    Brautigam, Chad A; Xing, Wenmin; Yang, Sheng; Henry, Lisa; Doolittle, Lynda K; Walz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Rho GTPase Rac1 activates the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) to drive Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization, which underpins diverse cellular processes. Here we report the structure of a WRC-Rac1 complex determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Surprisingly, Rac1 is not located at the binding site on the Sra1 subunit of the WRC previously identified by mutagenesis and biochemical data. Rather, it binds to a distinct, conserved site on the opposite end of Sra1. Biophysical and biochemical data on WRC mutants confirm that Rac1 binds to both sites, with the newly identified site having higher affinity and both sites required for WRC activation. Our data reveal that the WRC is activated by simultaneous engagement of two Rac1 molecules, suggesting a mechanism by which cells may sense the density of active Rac1 at membranes to precisely control actin assembly. PMID:28949297

  10. The Drosophila small GTPase Rac2 is required for normal feeding and mating behaviour.

    Goergen, Philip; Kasagiannis, Anna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Williams, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    All multicellular organisms require the ability to regulate bodily processes in order to maintain a stable condition, which necessitates fluctuations in internal metabolics, as well as modifications of outward behaviour. Understanding the genetics behind this modulation is important as a general model for the metabolic modification of behaviour. This study demonstrates that the activity of the small GTPase Rac2 is required in Drosophila for the proper regulation of lipid storage and feeding behaviour, as well as aggression and mating behaviours. Rac2 mutant males and females are susceptible to starvation and contain considerably less lipids than controls. Furthermore, Rac2 mutants also have disrupted feeding behaviour, eating fewer but larger meals than controls. Intriguingly, Rac2 mutant males rarely initiate aggressive behaviour and display significantly increased levels of courtship behaviour towards other males and mated females. From these results we conclude that Rac2 has a central role in regulating the Drosophila homeostatic system.

  11. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Drives Cell Motility via Rho-GTPase-Induced Filopodium Formation.

    Stakaitytė, Gabrielė; Nwogu, Nnenna; Dobson, Samuel J; Knight, Laura M; Wasson, Christopher W; Salguero, Francisco J; Blackbourn, David J; Blair, G Eric; Mankouri, Jamel; Macdonald, Andrew; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2018-01-15

    Cell motility and migration is a complex, multistep, and multicomponent process intrinsic to progression and metastasis. Motility is dependent on the activities of integrin receptors and Rho family GTPases, resulting in the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of various motile actin-based protrusions. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer with a high likelihood of recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with the majority of MCC cases, and MCPyV-induced tumorigenesis largely depends on the expression of the small tumor antigen (ST). Since the discovery of MCPyV, a number of mechanisms have been suggested to account for replication and tumorigenesis, but to date, little is known about potential links between MCPyV T antigen expression and the metastatic nature of MCC. Previously, we described the action of MCPyV ST on the microtubule network and how it impacts cell motility and migration. Here, we demonstrate that MCPyV ST affects the actin cytoskeleton to promote the formation of filopodia through a mechanism involving the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 4 (PP4C). We also show that MCPyV ST-induced cell motility is dependent upon the activities of the Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA. In addition, our results indicate that the MCPyV ST-PP4C interaction results in the dephosphorylation of β 1 integrin, likely driving the cell motility pathway. These findings describe a novel mechanism by which a tumor virus induces cell motility, which may ultimately lead to cancer metastasis, and provides opportunities and strategies for targeted interventions for disseminated MCC. IMPORTANCE Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is the most recently discovered human tumor virus. It causes the majority of cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms implicating MCPyV-encoded proteins in cancer development are yet to be fully elucidated. This study builds

  12. Transcriptional Dynamics Driving MAMP-Triggered Immunity and Pathogen Effector-Mediated Immunosuppression in Arabidopsis Leaves Following Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000.

    Lewis, Laura A; Polanski, Krzysztof; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Bowden, Laura; Moore, Jonathan; Penfold, Christopher A; Jenkins, Dafyd J; Hill, Claire; Baxter, Laura; Kulasekaran, Satish; Truman, William; Littlejohn, George; Prusinska, Justyna; Mead, Andrew; Steinbrenner, Jens; Hickman, Richard; Rand, David; Wild, David L; Ott, Sascha; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Smirnoff, Nick; Beynon, Jim; Denby, Katherine; Grant, Murray

    2015-11-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) and that orchestrated by effectors. A high-resolution time course of genome-wide expression changes following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the nonpathogenic mutant strain DC3000hrpA- allowed us to establish causal links between the activities of pathogen effectors and suppression of MTI and infer with high confidence a range of processes specifically targeted by effectors. Analysis of this information-rich data set with a range of computational tools provided insights into the earliest transcriptional events triggered by effector delivery, regulatory mechanisms recruited, and biological processes targeted. We show that the majority of genes contributing to disease or defense are induced within 6 h postinfection, significantly before pathogen multiplication. Suppression of chloroplast-associated genes is a rapid MAMP-triggered defense response, and suppression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and induction of ubiquitin-related genes coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid accumulation. Specific combinations of promoter motifs are engaged in fine-tuning the MTI response and active transcriptional suppression at specific promoter configurations by P. syringae. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrotransposition and mutation events yield Rap1 GTPases with differential signalling capacity

    Penzkofer Tobias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposition of mRNA transcripts gives occasionally rise to functional retrogenes. Through acquiring tempero-spatial expression patterns distinct from their parental genes and/or functional mutations in their coding sequences, such retrogenes may in principle reshape signalling networks. Results Here we present evidence for such a scenario, involving retrogenes of Rap1 belonging to the Ras family of small GTPases. We identified two murine and one human-specific retrogene of Rap1A and Rap1B, which encode proteins that differ by only a few amino acids from their parental Rap1 proteins. Markedly, human hRap1B-retro and mouse mRap1A-retro1 acquired mutations in the 12th and 59th amino acids, respectively, corresponding to residues mutated in constitutively active oncogenic Ras proteins. Statistical and structural analyses support a functional evolution scenario, where Rap1 isoforms of retrogenic origin are functionally distinct from their parental proteins. Indeed, all retrogene-encoded GTPases have an increased GTP/GDP binding ratio in vivo, indicating that their conformations resemble that of active GTP-bound Rap1. We furthermore demonstrate that these three Rap1 isoforms exhibit distinct affinities for the Ras-binding domain of RalGDS. Finally, when tested for their capacity to induce key cellular processes like integrin-mediated cell adhesion or cell spreading, marked differences are seen. Conclusions Together, these data lend strong support for an evolution scenario, where retrotransposition and subsequent mutation events generated species-specific Rap1 isoforms with differential signaling potential. Expression of the constitutively active human Rap1B-retro in cells like those derived from Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma and bone marrow from a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS warrants further investigation into its role in disease development.

  14. Quantification of local morphodynamics and local GTPase activity by edge evolution tracking.

    Yuki Tsukada

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in time-lapse fluorescence microscopy have enabled us to directly observe dynamic cellular phenomena. Although the techniques themselves have promoted the understanding of dynamic cellular functions, the vast number of images acquired has generated a need for automated processing tools to extract statistical information. A problem underlying the analysis of time-lapse cell images is the lack of rigorous methods to extract morphodynamic properties. Here, we propose an algorithm called edge evolution tracking (EET to quantify the relationship between local morphological changes and local fluorescence intensities around a cell edge using time-lapse microscopy images. This algorithm enables us to trace the local edge extension and contraction by defining subdivided edges and their corresponding positions in successive frames. Thus, this algorithm enables the investigation of cross-correlations between local morphological changes and local intensity of fluorescent signals by considering the time shifts. By applying EET to fluorescence resonance energy transfer images of the Rho-family GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, we examined the cross-correlation between the local area difference and GTPase activity. The calculated correlations changed with time-shifts as expected, but surprisingly, the peak of the correlation coefficients appeared with a 6-8 min time shift of morphological changes and preceded the Rac1 or Cdc42 activities. Our method enables the quantification of the dynamics of local morphological change and local protein activity and statistical investigation of the relationship between them by considering time shifts in the relationship. Thus, this algorithm extends the value of time-lapse imaging data to better understand dynamics of cellular function.

  15. A translocated effector required for Bartonella dissemination from derma to blood safeguards migratory host cells from damage by co-translocated effectors.

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ΔbepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ΔbepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ΔbepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ΔbepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that

  16. A translocated effector required for Bartonella dissemination from derma to blood safeguards migratory host cells from damage by co-translocated effectors.

    Rusudan Okujava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs infected with a ΔbepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ΔbepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ΔbepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe. Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d. model for B. tribocorum (Btr infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ΔbepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we

  17. Role of Blimp-1 in programing Th effector cells into IL-10 producers

    Neumann, Christian; Heinrich, Frederik; Neumann, Katrin; Junghans, Victoria; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Ahlers, Jonas; Janke, Marko; Rudolph, Christine; Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine; Kühl, Anja A.; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Esser, Charlotte; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Radbruch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 by effector T cells is an essential mechanism of self-limitation during infection. However, the transcriptional regulation of IL-10 expression in proinflammatory T helper (Th) 1 cells is insufficiently understood. We report a crucial role for the transcriptional regulator Blimp-1, induced by IL-12 in a STAT4-dependent manner, in controlling IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. Blimp-1 deficiency led to excessive inflammation during Toxoplasma gondii infection with increased mortality. IL-10 production from Th1 cells was strictly dependent on Blimp-1 but was further enhanced by the synergistic function of c-Maf, a transcriptional regulator of IL-10 induced by multiple factors, such as the Notch pathway. We found Blimp-1 expression, which was also broadly induced by IL-27 in effector T cells, to be antagonized by transforming growth factor (TGF) β. While effectively blocking IL-10 production from Th1 cells, TGF-β shifted IL-10 regulation from a Blimp-1–dependent to a Blimp-1–independent pathway in IL-27–induced Tr1 (T regulatory 1) cells. Our findings further illustrate how IL-10 regulation in Th cells relies on several transcriptional programs that integrate various signals from the environment to fine-tune expression of this critical immunosuppressive cytokine. PMID:25073792

  18. End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot

    Fowley, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck

  19. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  20. Proliferation requirements of cytomegalovirus-specific, effector-type human CD8+ T cells

    van Leeuwen, Ester M.; Gamadia, Laila E.; Baars, Paul A.; Remmerswaal, Ester B.; ten Berge, Ineke J.; van Lier, René A.

    2002-01-01

    Two prototypic types of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells can be found in latently infected individuals: CD45R0(+)CD27(+)CCR7(-) effector-memory, and CD45RA(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-) effector-type cells. It has recently been implied that CD45RA(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-) T cells are terminally differentiated effector

  1. Two Components of Aversive Memory in Drosophila, Anesthesia-Sensitive and Anesthesia-Resistant Memory, Require Distinct Domains Within the Rgk1 Small GTPase.

    Murakami, Satoshi; Minami-Ohtsubo, Maki; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2017-05-31

    Multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities for aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation. Rgk1 is specifically accumulated at the synaptic site of the Kenyon cells (KCs), the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies, which play a pivotal role in olfactory memory formation. A higher than normal Rgk1 level enhanced memory retention, which is consistent with the result that Rgk1 suppressed Rac-dependent memory decay; these findings suggest that rgk1 bolsters ASM via the suppression of forgetting. We propose that Rgk1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of memory stabilization by serving as a molecular node that resides at KC synapses, where the ASM and ARM pathway may interact. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory consists of multiple components. Drosophila olfactory memory serves as a fundamental model with which to investigate the mechanisms that underlie memory formation and has provided genetic and molecular means to identify the components of memory, namely short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term memory, depending on how long the memory lasts. Intermediate memory is further divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We have identified a small GTPase in Drosophila , Rgk1, which plays a pivotal role in the regulation of olfactory memory stability. Rgk1 is required for both ASM and ARM. Moreover, N

  2. Evidence for acquisition of virulence effectors in pathogenic chytrids

    Summers Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in amphibian populations across the world is frequently linked to the infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. This is particularly perplexing because Bd was only recently discovered in 1999 and no chytrid fungus had previously been identified as a vertebrate pathogen. Results In this study, we show that two large families of known virulence effector genes, crinkler (CRN proteins and serine peptidases, were acquired by Bd from oomycete pathogens and bacteria, respectively. These two families have been duplicated after their acquisition by Bd. Additional selection analyses indicate that both families evolved under strong positive selection, suggesting that they are involved in the adaptation of Bd to its hosts. Conclusions We propose that the acquisition of virulence effectors, in combination with habitat disruption and climate change, may have driven the Bd epidemics and the decline in amphibian populations. This finding provides a starting point for biochemical investigations of chytridiomycosis.

  3. Genomic characterisation of the effector complement of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Thorpe, Peter; Mantelin, Sophie; Cock, Peter Ja; Blok, Vivian C; Coke, Mirela C; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Guzeeva, Elena; Lilley, Catherine J; Smant, Geert; Reid, Adam J; Wright, Kathryn M; Urwin, Peter E; Jones, John T

    2014-10-23

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida has biotrophic interactions with its host. The nematode induces a feeding structure - the syncytium - which it keeps alive for the duration of the life cycle and on which it depends for all nutrients required to develop to the adult stage. Interactions of G. pallida with the host are mediated by effectors, which are produced in two sets of gland cells. These effectors suppress host defences, facilitate migration and induce the formation of the syncytium. The recent completion of the G. pallida genome sequence has allowed us to identify the effector complement from this species. We identify 128 orthologues of effectors from other nematodes as well as 117 novel effector candidates. We have used in situ hybridisation to confirm gland cell expression of a subset of these effectors, demonstrating the validity of our effector identification approach. We have examined the expression profiles of all effector candidates using RNAseq; this analysis shows that the majority of effectors fall into one of three clusters of sequences showing conserved expression characteristics (invasive stage nematode only, parasitic stage only or invasive stage and adult male only). We demonstrate that further diversity in the effector pool is generated by alternative splicing. In addition, we show that effectors target a diverse range of structures in plant cells, including the peroxisome. This is the first identification of effectors from any plant pathogen that target this structure. This is the first genome scale search for effectors, combined to a life-cycle expression analysis, for any plant-parasitic nematode. We show that, like other phylogenetically unrelated plant pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes deploy hundreds of effectors in order to parasitise plants, with different effectors required for different phases of the infection process.

  4. Effector T-cells are expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with high disease activity and damage indexes.

    Piantoni, S; Regola, F; Zanola, A; Andreoli, L; Dall'Ara, F; Tincani, A; Airo', P

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives T-cell activation may be one of the pathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). After repeated antigenic stimulation, T-cells undergo different modifications, leading to the differentiation into effector memory T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA-) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TDEM) T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA+). Similarly, down-modulation of CD28 may lead to the expansion of the CD28- T-cells, a subpopulation with peculiar effector activities. The aim of this study was the characterization of T-cell phenotype in a cohort of patients with SLE according to disease activity and damage index. Materials and methods Phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood T lymphocytes of 51 SLE patients and 21 healthy controls was done by flow-cytometry. SLE disease activity was evaluated by SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and damage by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). The variations between different groups were evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons ( p adj ). Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlations between quantitative variables. Results CD4+ lymphopenia was found among SLE patients. Patients showed a trend for a higher percentage of TDEM among the CD4+ T-cell subpopulation in comparison with healthy controls ( p = .04). SLE patients were divided into two groups according to disease activity: patients with SLEDAI-2K ≥ 6 ( n = 13) had a higher percentage of circulating CD4+ T-cells with CD28- phenotype ( p adj  = .005) as well as those with an effector memory ( p adj  = .004) and TDEM ( p adj  = .002) phenotype and a trend of decrease of regulatory T-cells (TREGs) ( p = .02), in comparison with patients with low disease activity ( n = 38). Patients with damage (SDI ≥ 1) tended to show an expansion of TDEM among CD4+ T-cells as compared with

  5. Transcriptional programming and functional interactions within the Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector repertoire.

    Wang, Qunqing; Han, Changzhi; Ferreira, Adriana O; Yu, Xiaoli; Ye, Wenwu; Tripathy, Sucheta; Kale, Shiv D; Gu, Biao; Sheng, Yuting; Sui, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhengguang; Cheng, Baoping; Dong, Suomeng; Shan, Weixing; Zheng, Xiaobo; Dou, Daolong; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2011-06-01

    The genome of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae contains nearly 400 genes encoding candidate effector proteins carrying the host cell entry motif RXLR-dEER. Here, we report a broad survey of the transcription, variation, and functions of a large sample of the P. sojae candidate effectors. Forty-five (12%) effector genes showed high levels of polymorphism among P. sojae isolates and significant evidence for positive selection. Of 169 effectors tested, most could suppress programmed cell death triggered by BAX, effectors, and/or the PAMP INF1, while several triggered cell death themselves. Among the most strongly expressed effectors, one immediate-early class was highly expressed even prior to infection and was further induced 2- to 10-fold following infection. A second early class, including several that triggered cell death, was weakly expressed prior to infection but induced 20- to 120-fold during the first 12 h of infection. The most strongly expressed immediate-early effectors could suppress the cell death triggered by several early effectors, and most early effectors could suppress INF1-triggered cell death, suggesting the two classes of effectors may target different functional branches of the defense response. In support of this hypothesis, misexpression of key immediate-early and early effectors severely reduced the virulence of P. sojae transformants.

  6. Rheb Protein Binds CAD (Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase 2, Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, and Dihydroorotase) Protein in a GTP- and Effector Domain-dependent Manner and Influences Its Cellular Localization and Carbamoyl-phosphate Synthetase (CPSase) Activity*

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-01

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. PMID:25422319

  7. Rheb protein binds CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase) protein in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner and influences its cellular localization and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) activity.

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Akasu, Hitomi; Shimono, Wataru; Matsu, Chisa; Fujiwara, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Heard, Jeffrey J; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Hattori, Seisuke

    2015-01-09

    Rheb small GTPases, which consist of Rheb1 and Rheb2 (also known as RhebL1) in mammalian cells, are unique members of the Ras superfamily and play central roles in regulating protein synthesis and cell growth by activating mTOR. To gain further insight into the function of Rheb, we carried out a search for Rheb-binding proteins and found that Rheb binds to CAD protein (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase), a multifunctional enzyme required for the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. CAD binding is more pronounced with Rheb2 than with Rheb1. Rheb binds CAD in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. The region of CAD where Rheb binds is located at the C-terminal region of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase domain and not in the dihydroorotase and aspartate transcarbamoylase domains. Rheb stimulated carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase activity of CAD in vitro. In addition, an elevated level of intracellular UTP pyrimidine nucleotide was observed in Tsc2-deficient cells, which was attenuated by knocking down of Rheb. Immunostaining analysis showed that expression of Rheb leads to increased accumulation of CAD on lysosomes. Both a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that blocks membrane association of Rheb and knockdown of Rheb mislocalized CAD. These results establish CAD as a downstream effector of Rheb and suggest a possible role of Rheb in regulating de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    Kachhap, Sushant K; Faith, Dennis; Qian, David Z; Shabbeer, Shabana; Galloway, Nathan L; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Carducci, Michael A

    2007-09-05

    Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  9. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1 Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    Sushant K Kachhap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1 increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  10. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Peter eMoffett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs, including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll., are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genera Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense response in N. tabacum, and tobacco was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  11. Analysis of Globodera rostochiensis effectors reveals conserved functions of SPRYSEC proteins in suppressing and eliciting plant immune responses

    Ali, Shawkat

    2015-08-11

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), including Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.), are important pests of potato. Plant parasitic nematodes produce multiple effector proteins, secreted from their stylets, to successfully infect their hosts. These include proteins delivered to the apoplast and to the host cytoplasm. A number of effectors from G. rostochiensis predicted to be delivered to the host cytoplasm have been identified, including several belonging to the secreted SPRY domain (SPRYSEC) family. SPRYSEC proteins are unique to members of the genus Globodera and have been implicated in both the induction and the repression of host defense responses. We have tested the properties of six different G. rostochiensis SPRYSEC proteins by expressing them in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum. We have found that all SPRYSEC proteins tested are able to suppress defense responses induced by NB-LRR proteins as well as cell death induced by elicitors, suggesting that defense repression is a common characteristic of members of this effector protein family. At the same time, GrSPRYSEC-15 elicited a defense responses in N. tabacum, which was found to be resistant to a virus expressing GrSPRYSEC-15. These results suggest that SPRYSEC proteins may possess characteristics that allow them to be recognized by the plant immune system.

  12. Stage-specific functions of the small Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 for adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Brakebusch, Cord; Suter, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation, maturation, and integration of new granule cells generated throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus remain poorly understood. Small Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42 and Rac1, have been implicated previously in neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC......) proliferation and neuronal maturation during embryonic development. Here we used conditional genetic deletion and virus-based loss-of-function approaches to identify temporally distinct functions for Cdc42 and Rac1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We found that Cdc42 is involved in mouse NSPC proliferation......, initial dendritic development, and dendritic spine maturation. In contrast, Rac1 is dispensable for early steps of neuronal development but is important for late steps of dendritic growth and spine maturation. These results establish cell-autonomous and stage-specific functions for the small Rho GTPases...

  13. Defect in the GTPase activating protein (GAP) function of eIF5 causes repression of GCN4 translation.

    Antony A, Charles; Alone, Pankaj V

    2017-05-13

    In eukaryotes, the eIF5 protein plays an important role in translation start site selection by providing the GAP (GTPase activating protein) function. However, in yeast translation initiation fidelity defective eIF5 G31R mutant causes preferential utilization of UUG as initiation codon and is termed as Suppressor of initiation codon (Sui - ) phenotype due to its hyper GTPase activity. The eIF5 G31R mutant dominantly represses GCN4 expression and confers sensitivity to 3-Amino-1,2,4-Trizole (3AT) induced starvation. The down-regulation of the GCN4 expression (Gcn - phenotype) in the eIF5 G31R mutant was not because of leaky scanning defects; rather was due to the utilization of upUUG initiation codons at the 5' regulatory region present between uORF1 and the main GCN4 ORF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A role for Sar1 and ARF1 GTPases during Golgi biogenesis in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    Yavuz, Sevil; Warren, Graham

    2017-01-01

    A single Golgi stack is duplicated and partitioned into two daughter cells during the cell cycle of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The source of components required to generate the new Golgi and the mechanism by which it forms are poorly understood. Using photoactivatable GFP, we show that the existing Golgi supplies components directly to the newly forming Golgi in both intact and semipermeabilized cells. The movement of a putative glycosyltransferase, GntB, requires the Sar1 and ARF1 GTPases in intact cells. In addition, we show that transfer of GntB from the existing Golgi to the new Golgi can be recapitulated in semipermeabilized cells and is sensitive to the GTP analogue GTPγS. We suggest that the existing Golgi is a key source of components required to form the new Golgi and that this process is regulated by small GTPases. PMID:28495798

  15. Rac1 GTPase regulates 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and fibrotic remodeling.

    Lavall, Daniel; Schuster, Pia; Jacobs, Nadine; Kazakov, Andrey; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-05

    The aim of the study was to characterize the role of Rac1 GTPase for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-mediated pro-fibrotic remodeling. Transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (RacET) develop an age-dependent phenotype with atrial dilatation, fibrosis, and atrial fibrillation. Expression of MR was similar in RacET and WT mice. The expression of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) was age-dependently up-regulated in the atria and the left ventricles of RacET mice on mRNA and protein levels. Statin treatment inhibiting Rac1 geranylgeranylation reduced 11β-HSD2 up-regulation. Samples of human left atrial myocardium showed a positive correlation between Rac1 activity and 11β-HSD2 expression ( r = 0.7169). Immunoprecipitation showed enhanced Rac1-bound 11β-HSD2 relative to Rac1 expression in RacET mice that was diminished with statin treatment. Both basal and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced NADPH oxidase activity were increased in RacET and correlated positively with 11β-HSD2 expression ( r = 0.788 and r = 0.843, respectively). In cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes, Rac1 activation with l-buthionine sulfoximine increased; Rac1 inhibition with NSC23766 decreased 11β-HSD2 mRNA and protein expression. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) up-regulation induced by aldosterone was prevented with NSC23766. Cardiomyocyte transfection with 11β-HSD2 siRNA abolished the aldosterone-induced CTGF up-regulation. Aldosterone-stimulated MR nuclear translocation was blocked by the 11β-HSD2 inhibitor carbenoxolone. In cardiac fibroblasts, nuclear MR translocation induced by aldosterone was inhibited with NSC23766 and spironolactone. NSC23766 prevented the aldosterone-induced proliferation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts and the up-regulation of CTGF and fibronectin. In conclusion, Rac1 GTPase regulates 11β-HSD2 expression, MR activation, and MR-mediated pro-fibrotic signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for

  16. Involvement of rho-gtpases in fibroblast adhesion and fibronectine fibrillogenesis under stretch

    Guignandon, A.; Lambert, C.; Rattner, A.; Servotte, S.; Lapiere, C.; Nusgens, B.; Vico, L.

    The Rho family small GTPases play a crucial role in mediating cellular adaptation to mechanical stimulation (MS), and possibly to microgravity (μg), through effects on the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion which is, in turn, mainly regulated by fibronectin fibrillogenesis (FnF). It remains unclear how mechanical stimulation is transduced to the Rho signaling pathways and how it impacts on fibronectin (fbn) fibrillogenesis (FnF). μg (2 days, mission STS-095) led to de-adhesion of fibroblasts and modification of the underlying extracellular matrix. To determine whether GTPases modulated FnF, we generated stable cell lines expressing high level of activated RhoA and Rac1 (QL) as compared to wild type (WI26-WT). After MS application [8% deformation, 1Hz, 15 min., 3 times/day for 1-2 days], we quantified focal adhesion (vinculin, paxillin, FAKY397), f-actin stress fibers (Sf) and FnF with home-developed softwares. We reported that after MS, Sf are more rapidly (30min) formed under the nucleus in Wi26-WT (+100%) and Rac1 (+200%) than in RhoA (+20%). Vinculin & paxillin were only restricted to the cell edge in static conditions and homogeneously distributed after MS in WT and Rac1. The relative area of contacts (vinculin & paxillin) was more dramatically enhanced by MS in Rac1 (+80%) than in WT (+40%) and RhoA (+25%) indicating that new focal contacts are formed under MS and supported the presence of Sf. MS Activation of FAK (FAKY397) was clear in WT and Rac1 and reduced in RhoA. FnF was restricted to cell-cell contacts zone without any change in the relative area of fbn after a 2-days MS. However we found more numerous spots of fbn at the cell center in Rac1 as compared with RhoA & WT suggesting that these fibrillar contacts will grow upon maturation and modulate FnF. The results indicate that MS induces formation of Sf and focal adhesions and enhances FF. RhoA has been shown to induce the formation of Sf and focal adhesions, and Rac1 activation decreases Rho activity in

  17. Spatio-temporal manipulation of small GTPase activity at subcellular level and on timescale of seconds in living cells.

    DeRose, Robert; Pohlmeyer, Christopher; Umeda, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Tasuku; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kuo, Scot; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-03-09

    Dynamic regulation of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with great spatiotemporal precision is essential for various cellular functions and events(1, 2). Their spatiotemporally dynamic nature has been revealed by visualization of their activity and localization in real time(3). In order to gain deeper understanding of their roles in diverse cellular functions at the molecular level, the next step should be perturbation of protein activities at a precise subcellular location and timing. To achieve this goal, we have developed a method for light-induced, spatio-temporally controlled activation of small GTPases by combining two techniques: (1) rapamycin-induced FKBP-FRB heterodimerization and (2) a photo-caging method of rapamycin. With the use of rapamycin-mediated FKBP-FRB heterodimerization, we have developed a method for rapidly inducible activation or inactivation of small GTPases including Rac(4), Cdc42(4), RhoA(4) and Ras(5), in which rapamycin induces translocation of FKBP-fused GTPases, or their activators, to the plasma membrane where FRB is anchored. For coupling with this heterodimerization system, we have also developed a photo-caging system of rapamycin analogs. A photo-caged compound is a small molecule whose activity is suppressed with a photocleavable protecting group known as a caging group. To suppress heterodimerization activity completely, we designed a caged rapamycin that is tethered to a macromolecule such that the resulting large complex cannot cross the plasma membrane, leading to virtually no background activity as a chemical dimerizer inside cells(6). Figure 1 illustrates a scheme of our system. With the combination of these two systems, we locally recruited a Rac activator to the plasma membrane on a timescale of seconds and achieved light-induced Rac activation at the subcellular level(6).

  18. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated and retinitis pigmentosa guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) regulator-interacting protein-1 like polymorphisms with body mass index in Chinese women.

    Chen, Boyu; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jianhua; Ji, Jue; Shen, Jingyi; Xu, Yufeng; Zhao, Yingying; Liu, Danping; Shen, Yinhuan; Zhang, Weijie; Shen, Jiawei; Wang, Yonggang; Shi, Yongyong

    2018-04-14

    Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of adiposity. It is a kind of complex genetic diseases which are caused by multiple susceptibility genes. The first intron of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) has been widely discovered to be associated with BMI. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like (RPGRIP1L) is located in the upstream region of FTO and has been proved to be linked with obesity through functional tests. We carried out a genetic association analysis to figure out the role of the FTO gene and the RPGRIP1L gene in BMI. A quantitative traits study with 6,102 Chinese female samples, adjusted for age, was performed during our project. Among the twelve SNPs, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939609, rs7202296, rs56137030, rs9930506 and rs12149832 in the FTO gene were significantly associated with BMI after Bonferroni correction. Meanwhile, rs9934800 in the RPGRIP1L gene showed significance with BMI before Bonferroni correction, but this association was eliminated after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggested that genetic variants in the FTO gene were strongly associated with BMI in Chinese women, which may serve as targets of pharmaceutical research and development concerning BMI. Meanwhile, we didn't found the significant association between RPGRIP1L and BMI in Chinese women.

  19. Neurotrophin Promotes Neurite Outgrowth by Inhibiting Rif GTPase Activation Downstream of MAPKs and PI3K Signaling.

    Tian, Xiaoxia; Yan, Huijuan; Li, Jiayi; Wu, Shuang; Wang, Junyu; Fan, Lifei

    2017-01-13

    Members of the well-known semaphorin family of proteins can induce both repulsive and attractive signaling in neural network formation and their cytoskeletal effects are mediated in part by small guanosine 5'-triphosphatase (GTPases). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular role of Rif GTPase in the neurotrophin-induced neurite outgrowth. By using PC12 cells which are known to cease dividing and begin to show neurite outgrowth responding to nerve growth factor (NGF), we found that semaphorin 6A was as effective as nerve growth factor at stimulating neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and that its neurotrophic effect was transmitted through signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). We further found that neurotrophin-induced neurite formation in PC12 cells could be partially mediated by inhibition of Rif GTPase activity downstream of MAPKs and PI3K signaling. In conclusion, we newly identified Rif as a regulator of the cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by semaphorins.

  20. Chlamydia abortus YhbZ, a truncated Obg family GTPase, associates with the Escherichia coli large ribosomal subunit.

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    The stringent stress response is vital for bacterial survival under adverse environmental conditions. Obligate intracellular Chlamydia lack key stringent response proteins, but nevertheless can interrupt the cell cycle and enter stasis or persistence upon amino acid starvation. A possible key protein retained is YhbZ, a homologue of the ObgE guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) superfamily connecting the stringent stress response to ribosome maturation. Curiously, chlamydial YhbZ lacks the ObgE C-terminal domain thought to be essential for binding the large ribosomal subunit. We expressed recombinant Chlamydia abortus YhbZ and showed it to be a functional GTPase, with similar activity to other Obg GTPase family members. As Chlamydia are resistant to genetic manipulation, we performed heterologous expression and gradient centrifugation experiments in Escherichia coli and found that, despite the missing C-terminal domain, C. abortus YhbZ co-fractionates with the E. coli 50S large ribosomal subunit. In addition, overexpression of chlamydial YhbZ in E. coli leads to growth defects and elongation, as reported for other Obg members. YhbZ did not complement an E. coli obgE temperature-sensitive mutant, indicating the C-terminal acidic domain may have an additional role. This data supports a role for YhbZ linking the chlamydial stress response to ribosome function and cellular growth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An extracellular-matrix-specific GEF-GAP interaction regulates Rho GTPase crosstalk for 3D collagen migration.

    Kutys, Matthew L; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2014-09-01

    Rho-family GTPases govern distinct types of cell migration on different extracellular matrix proteins in tissue culture or three-dimensional (3D) matrices. We searched for mechanisms selectively regulating 3D cell migration in different matrix environments and discovered a form of Cdc42-RhoA crosstalk governing cell migration through a specific pair of GTPase activator and inhibitor molecules. We first identified βPix, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), as a specific regulator of migration in 3D collagen using an affinity-precipitation-based GEF screen. Knockdown of βPix specifically blocks cell migration in fibrillar collagen microenvironments, leading to hyperactive cellular protrusion accompanied by increased collagen matrix contraction. Live FRET imaging and RNAi knockdown linked this βPix knockdown phenotype to loss of polarized Cdc42 but not Rac1 activity, accompanied by enhanced, de-localized RhoA activity. Mechanistically, collagen phospho-regulates βPix, leading to its association with srGAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), needed to suppress RhoA activity. Our results reveal a matrix-specific pathway controlling migration involving a GEF-GAP interaction of βPix with srGAP1 that is critical for maintaining suppressive crosstalk between Cdc42 and RhoA during 3D collagen migration.

  2. Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity.

    Remco Stam

    Full Text Available Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions.

  3. An overexpression screen of Toxoplasma gondii Rab-GTPases reveals distinct transport routes to the micronemes.

    Katrin Kremer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic organisation of the endomembrane system is conserved in all eukaryotes and comparative genome analyses provides compelling evidence that the endomembrane system of the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA is complex with many genes required for regulated traffic being present. Although apicomplexan parasites, causative agents of severe human and animal diseases, appear to have only a basic set of trafficking factors such as Rab-GTPases, they evolved unique secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules that are sequentially secreted during invasion of the host cell. In order to define the secretory pathway of apicomplexans, we performed an overexpression screen of Rabs in Toxoplasma gondii and identified Rab5A and Rab5C as important regulators of traffic to micronemes and rhoptries. Intriguingly, we found that not all microneme proteins traffic depends on functional Rab5A and Rab5C, indicating the existence of redundant microneme targeting pathways. Using two-colour super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED we verified distinct localisations of independent microneme proteins and demonstrate that micronemal organelles are organised in distinct subsets or subcompartments. Our results suggest that apicomplexan parasites modify classical regulators of the endocytic system to carryout essential parasite-specific roles in the biogenesis of their unique secretory organelles.

  4. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  5. Crosstalk between Bcl-2 family and Ras family small GTPases: potential cell fate regulation?

    Kang, Jia; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2013-01-01

    Cell fate regulation is a function of diverse cell signaling pathways that promote cell survival and or inhibit cell death execution. In this regard, the role of the Bcl-2 family in maintaining a tight balance between cell death and cell proliferation has been extensively studied. The conventional dogma links cell fate regulation by the Bcl-2 family to its effect on mitochondrial permeabilization and apoptosis amplification. However, recent evidence provide a novel mechanism for death regulation by the Bcl-2 family via modulating cellular redox metabolism. For example overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to contribute to a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu and down-regulation of cellular superoxide levels enhanced death sensitivity of Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. Interestingly, gene knockdown of the small GTPase Rac1 or pharmacological inhibition of its activity also reverted death phenotype in Bcl-2 expressing cells. This appears to be a function of an interaction between Bcl-2 and Rac1. Similar functional associations have been described between the Bcl-2 family and other members of the Ras superfamily. These interactions at the mitochondria provide novel opportunities for strategic therapeutic targeting of drug-resistant cancers.

  6. Maize ROP2 GTPase provides a competitive advantage to the male gametophyte.

    Arthur, K M; Vejlupkova, Z; Meeley, R B; Fowler, J E

    2003-12-01

    Rop GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of plant signal transduction and cell morphogenesis. To explore ROP2 function in maize, we isolated five Mutator transposon insertions (rop2::Mu alleles). Transmission frequency through the male gametophyte, but not the female, was lower than expected in three of the rop2::Mu mutants. These three alleles formed an allelic series on the basis of the relative transmission rate of each when crossed as trans-heterozygotes. A dramatic reduction in the level of ROP2-mRNA in pollen was associated with the three alleles causing a transmission defect, whereas a rop2::Mu allele that did not result in a defect had wild-type transcript levels, thus confirming that mutation of rop2 causes the mutant phenotype. These data strongly support a role for rop2 in male gametophyte function, perhaps surprisingly, given the expression in pollen of the nearly identical duplicate gene rop9. However, the transmission defect was apparent only when a rop2::Mu heterozygote was used as the pollen donor or when a mixture of wild-type and homozygous mutant pollen was used. Thus, mutant pollen is at a competitive disadvantage compared to wild-type pollen, although mutant pollen grains lacked an obvious cellular defect. Our data demonstrate the importance in vivo of a specific Rop, rop2, in the male gametophyte.

  7. Sprouty regulates cell migration by inhibiting the activation of Rac1 GTPase

    Poppleton, Helen M.; Edwin, Francis; Jaggar, Laura; Ray, Ramesh; Johnson, Leonard R.; Patel, Tarun B.

    2004-01-01

    Sprouty (SPRY) protein negatively modulates fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor actions. We showed that human SPRY2 inhibits cell growth and migration in response to serum and several growth factors. Using rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells, we investigated the involvement of the Rho family of GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and cdc42 in SPRY2-mediated inhibition of cell migration and proliferation. The ability of TAT-tagged SPRY2 to inhibit proliferation and migration of IEC-6 cells transfected with constitutively active mutants of RhoA(G14V), Rac1(G12V), and cdc42 (F28L) was determined. Constitutively active RhoA(G14V), Rac1(G12V), or cdc42(F28L) did not protect cells from the anti-proliferative actions of TAT-SPRY2. The ability of TAT-hSPRY2 to inhibit migration was not altered by of RhoA(G14V) and cdc42(F28L). However, Rac1(G12V) obliterated the ability of SPRY2 to inhibit cell autonomous or serum-induced migration. Also, the activation of endogenous Rac1 was attenuated by TAT-SPRY2. Thus, SPRY2 mediates its anti-migratory actions by inhibiting Rac1 activation

  8. Rho GTPases: Novel Players in the Regulation of the DNA Damage Response?

    Gerhard Fritz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1 belongs to the family of Ras-homologous small GTPases. It is well characterized as a membrane-bound signal transducing molecule that is involved in the regulation of cell motility and adhesion as well as cell cycle progression, mitosis, cell death and gene expression. Rac1 also adjusts cellular responses to genotoxic stress by regulating the activity of stress kinases, including c-Jun-N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK and p38 kinases as well as related transcription factors. Apart from being found on the inner side of the outer cell membrane and in the cytosol, Rac1 has also been detected inside the nucleus. Different lines of evidence indicate that genotoxin-induced DNA damage is able to activate nuclear Rac1. The exact mechanisms involved and the biological consequences, however, are unclear. The data available so far indicate that Rac1 might integrate DNA damage independent and DNA damage dependent cellular stress responses following genotoxin treatment, thereby coordinating mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR that are related to DNA repair, survival and cell death.

  9. Epidermal activation of the small GTPase Rac1 in psoriasis pathogenesis.

    Winge, Mårten C G; Marinkovich, M Peter

    2017-01-05

    The small GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) plays a central role in skin homeostasis, including barrier function, wound healing and inflammatory responses. Psoriasis is a common skin disease characterized by deregulation of these functions, and affected skin exhibit keratinocyte hyperproliferation, inflammation and immune cell infiltration. Although psoriasis is often triggered by environmental stimulus, there is a strong genetic association with genes expressed in both immune cells and keratinocytes, of which several are linked to Rac1 signaling. Rac1 is highly active in human psoriatic lesional skin and keratinocytes, and keratinocyte-specific overexpression of an activated mutant of Rac1, Rac1 V12 , in a transgenic mouse model closely mimics the presentation of human psoriasis. Both Rac1 activation in keratinocytes and immune derived stimulus are required to drive psoriasiform signaling in transgenic mouse and human xenograft models of psoriasis. Therefore, understanding how increased Rac1 activation in psoriatic epidermis is regulated is central to understanding how the abnormal crosstalk between keratinocytes and immune cells is maintained.

  10. GTPase activity, structure, and mechanical properties of filaments assembled from bacterial cytoskeleton protein MreB.

    Esue, Osigwe; Wirtz, Denis; Tseng, Yiider

    2006-02-01

    MreB, a major component of the recently discovered bacterial cytoskeleton, displays a structure homologous to its eukaryotic counterpart actin. Here, we study the assembly and mechanical properties of Thermotoga maritima MreB in the presence of different nucleotides in vitro. We found that GTP, not ADP or GDP, can mediate MreB assembly into filamentous structures as effectively as ATP. Upon MreB assembly, both GTP and ATP release the gamma phosphate at similar rates. Therefore, MreB is an equally effective ATPase and GTPase. Electron microscopy and quantitative rheology suggest that the morphologies and micromechanical properties of filamentous ATP-MreB and GTP-MreB are similar. In contrast, mammalian actin assembly is favored in the presence of ATP over GTP. These results indicate that, despite high structural homology of their monomers, T. maritima MreB and actin filaments display different assembly, morphology, micromechanics, and nucleotide-binding specificity. Furthermore, the biophysical properties of T. maritima MreB filaments, including high rigidity and propensity to form bundles, suggest a mechanism by which MreB helical structure may be involved in imposing a cylindrical architecture on rod-shaped bacterial cells.

  11. Mechanisms of membrane binding of small GTPase K-Ras4B farnesylated hypervariable region.

    Jang, Hyunbum; Abraham, Sherwin J; Chavan, Tanmay S; Hitchinson, Ben; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Tarasova, Nadya I; Nussinov, Ruth; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2015-04-10

    K-Ras4B belongs to a family of small GTPases that regulates cell growth, differentiation and survival. K-ras is frequently mutated in cancer. K-Ras4B association with the plasma membrane through its farnesylated and positively charged C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) is critical to its oncogenic function. However, the structural mechanisms of membrane association are not fully understood. Here, using confocal microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular dynamics simulations, we observed that K-Ras4B can be distributed in rigid and loosely packed membrane domains. Its membrane binding domain interaction with phospholipids is driven by membrane fluidity. The farnesyl group spontaneously inserts into the disordered lipid microdomains, whereas the rigid microdomains restrict the farnesyl group penetration. We speculate that the resulting farnesyl protrusion toward the cell interior allows oligomerization of the K-Ras4B membrane binding domain in rigid microdomains. Unlike other Ras isoforms, K-Ras4B HVR contains a single farnesyl modification and positively charged polylysine sequence. The high positive charge not only modulates specific HVR binding to anionic phospholipids but farnesyl membrane orientation. Phosphorylation of Ser-181 prohibits spontaneous farnesyl membrane insertion. The mechanism illuminates the roles of HVR modifications in K-Ras4B targeting microdomains of the plasma membrane and suggests an additional function for HVR in regulation of Ras signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Mechanisms of Membrane Binding of Small GTPase K-Ras4B Farnesylated Hypervariable Region*

    Jang, Hyunbum; Abraham, Sherwin J.; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Hitchinson, Ben; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Nussinov, Ruth; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras4B belongs to a family of small GTPases that regulates cell growth, differentiation and survival. K-ras is frequently mutated in cancer. K-Ras4B association with the plasma membrane through its farnesylated and positively charged C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) is critical to its oncogenic function. However, the structural mechanisms of membrane association are not fully understood. Here, using confocal microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular dynamics simulations, we observed that K-Ras4B can be distributed in rigid and loosely packed membrane domains. Its membrane binding domain interaction with phospholipids is driven by membrane fluidity. The farnesyl group spontaneously inserts into the disordered lipid microdomains, whereas the rigid microdomains restrict the farnesyl group penetration. We speculate that the resulting farnesyl protrusion toward the cell interior allows oligomerization of the K-Ras4B membrane binding domain in rigid microdomains. Unlike other Ras isoforms, K-Ras4B HVR contains a single farnesyl modification and positively charged polylysine sequence. The high positive charge not only modulates specific HVR binding to anionic phospholipids but farnesyl membrane orientation. Phosphorylation of Ser-181 prohibits spontaneous farnesyl membrane insertion. The mechanism illuminates the roles of HVR modifications in K-Ras4B targeting microdomains of the plasma membrane and suggests an additional function for HVR in regulation of Ras signaling. PMID:25713064

  13. A Conserved Role for Atlastin GTPases in Regulating Lipid Droplet Size

    Robin W. Klemm

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are the major fat storage organelles in eukaryotic cells, but how their size is regulated is unknown. Using genetic screens in C. elegans for LD morphology defects in intestinal cells, we found that mutations in atlastin, a GTPase required for homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes, cause not only ER morphology defects, but also a reduction in LD size. Similar results were obtained after depletion of atlastin or expression of a dominant-negative mutant, whereas overexpression of atlastin had the opposite effect. Atlastin depletion in Drosophila fat bodies also reduced LD size and decreased triglycerides in whole animals, sensitizing them to starvation. In mammalian cells, co-overexpression of atlastin-1 and REEP1, a paralog of the ER tubule-shaping protein DP1/REEP5, generates large LDs. The effect of atlastin-1 on LD size correlates with its activity to promote membrane fusion in vitro. Our results indicate that atlastin-mediated fusion of ER membranes is important for LD size regulation.

  14. Phosphatidylserine and GTPase activation control Cdc42 nanoclustering to counter dissipative diffusion.

    Sartorel, Elodie; Ünlü, Caner; Jose, Mini; Massoni-Laporte, Aurélie; Meca, Julien; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; McCusker, Derek

    2018-04-18

    The anisotropic organization of plasma membrane constituents is indicative of mechanisms that drive the membrane away from equilibrium. However, defining these mechanisms is challenging due to the short spatio-temporal scales at which diffusion operates. Here, we use high-density single protein tracking combined with photoactivation localization microscopy (sptPALM) to monitor Cdc42 in budding yeast, a system in which Cdc42 exhibits anisotropic organization. Cdc42 exhibited reduced mobility at the cell pole, where it was organized in nanoclusters. The Cdc42 nanoclusters were larger at the cell pole than those observed elsewhere in the cell. These features were exacerbated in cells expressing Cdc42-GTP, and were dependent on the scaffold Bem1, which contributed to the range of mobility and nanocluster size exhibited by Cdc42. The lipid environment, in particular phosphatidylserine levels, also played a role in regulating Cdc42 nanoclustering. These studies reveal how the mobility of a Rho GTPase is controlled to counter the depletive effects of diffusion, thus stabilizing Cdc42 on the plasma membrane and sustaining cell polarity. Movie S1 Movie S1 sptPALM imaging of live yeast expressing Pil1-mEOS expressed at the genomic locus. Pil1-mEOS was simultaneously photo-converted with a 405 nm laser and imaged with a 561 nm laser using HiLo illumination. Images were acquired at 20 ms intervals, of which 300 frames are shown at 7 frames per second.

  15. The Rab2A GTPase Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Tumorigenesis via Erk Signaling Activation

    Man-Li Luo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proline-directed phosphorylation is regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1, which plays a fundamental role in driving breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs. Rab2A is a small GTPase critical for vesicle trafficking. Here, we show that Pin1 increases Rab2A transcription to promote BCSC expansion and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Rab2A directly interacts with and prevents dephosphorylation/inactivation of Erk1/2 by the MKP3 phosphatase, resulting in Zeb1 upregulation and β-catenin nuclear translocation. In cancer cells, Rab2A is activated via gene amplification, mutation or Pin1 overexpression. Rab2A overexpression or mutation endows BCSC traits to primary normal human breast epithelial cells, whereas silencing Rab2A potently inhibits the expansion and tumorigenesis of freshly isolated BCSCs. Finally, Rab2A overexpression correlates with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Thus, Pin1/Rab2A/Erk drives BCSC expansion and tumorigenicity, suggesting potential drug targets.

  16. Cell cycle-dependent Rho GTPase activity dynamically regulates cancer cell motility and invasion in vivo.

    Kagawa, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Shinji; Kamioka, Yuji; Mimori, Koshi; Naito, Yoko; Ishii, Taeko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nishida, Naohiro; Maeda, Sakae; Naito, Atsushi; Kikuta, Junichi; Nishikawa, Keizo; Nishimura, Junichi; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Takemasa, Ichiro; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Ikeda, Masataka; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Ishii, Hideshi; Doki, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Kikuchi, Akira; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism behind the spatiotemporal control of cancer cell dynamics and its possible association with cell proliferation has not been well established. By exploiting the intravital imaging technique, we found that cancer cell motility and invasive properties were closely associated with the cell cycle. In vivo inoculation of human colon cancer cells bearing fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) demonstrated an unexpected phenomenon: S/G2/M cells were more motile and invasive than G1 cells. Microarray analyses showed that Arhgap11a, an uncharacterized Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP), was expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion. Expression of ARHGAP11A in cancer cells suppressed RhoA-dependent mechanisms, such as stress fiber formation and focal adhesion, which made the cells more prone to migrate. We also demonstrated that RhoA suppression by ARHGAP11A induced augmentation of relative Rac1 activity, leading to an increase in the invasive properties. RNAi-based inhibition of Arhgap11a reduced the invasion and in vivo expansion of cancers. Additionally, analysis of human specimens showed the significant up-regulation of Arhgap11a in colon cancers, which was correlated with clinical invasion status. The present study suggests that ARHGAP11A, a cell cycle-dependent RhoGAP, is a critical regulator of cancer cell mobility and is thus a promising therapeutic target in invasive cancers.

  17. Cell cycle-dependent Rho GTPase activity dynamically regulates cancer cell motility and invasion in vivo.

    Yoshinori Kagawa

    Full Text Available The mechanism behind the spatiotemporal control of cancer cell dynamics and its possible association with cell proliferation has not been well established. By exploiting the intravital imaging technique, we found that cancer cell motility and invasive properties were closely associated with the cell cycle. In vivo inoculation of human colon cancer cells bearing fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci demonstrated an unexpected phenomenon: S/G2/M cells were more motile and invasive than G1 cells. Microarray analyses showed that Arhgap11a, an uncharacterized Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP, was expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion. Expression of ARHGAP11A in cancer cells suppressed RhoA-dependent mechanisms, such as stress fiber formation and focal adhesion, which made the cells more prone to migrate. We also demonstrated that RhoA suppression by ARHGAP11A induced augmentation of relative Rac1 activity, leading to an increase in the invasive properties. RNAi-based inhibition of Arhgap11a reduced the invasion and in vivo expansion of cancers. Additionally, analysis of human specimens showed the significant up-regulation of Arhgap11a in colon cancers, which was correlated with clinical invasion status. The present study suggests that ARHGAP11A, a cell cycle-dependent RhoGAP, is a critical regulator of cancer cell mobility and is thus a promising therapeutic target in invasive cancers.

  18. Identification of potential small molecule binding pockets on Rho family GTPases.

    Juan Manuel Ortiz-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Rho GTPases are conformational switches that control a wide variety of signaling pathways critical for eukaryotic cell development and proliferation. They represent attractive targets for drug design as their aberrant function and deregulated activity is associated with many human diseases including cancer. Extensive high-resolution structures (>100 and recent mutagenesis studies have laid the foundation for the design of new structure-based chemotherapeutic strategies. Although the inhibition of Rho signaling with drug-like compounds is an active area of current research, very little attention has been devoted to directly inhibiting Rho by targeting potential allosteric non-nucleotide binding sites. By avoiding the nucleotide binding site, compounds may minimize the potential for undesirable off-target interactions with other ubiquitous GTP and ATP binding proteins. Here we describe the application of molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, sequence conservation analysis, and ensemble small-molecule fragment mapping to provide an extensive mapping of potential small-molecule binding pockets on Rho family members. Characterized sites include novel pockets in the vicinity of the conformationaly responsive switch regions as well as distal sites that appear to be related to the conformations of the nucleotide binding region. Furthermore the use of accelerated molecular dynamics simulation, an advanced sampling method that extends the accessible time-scale of conventional simulations, is found to enhance the characterization of novel binding sites when conformational changes are important for the protein mechanism.

  19. Exact positioning of the robotic arm end effector

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-07-01

    Orbital service becomes a new challenge of space exploration. The necessity to introduce it is connected first of all with an attractive opportunity to prolong the exploitation terms of expensive commercial satellites by, e.g., refilling of fuel or changing batteries. Other application area is a fight with permanently increasing amount of space litter - defunct satellites, burnt-out rocket stages, discarded trash and other debris. Now more than few tens of thousands orbiting objects larger than 5-10 cm (or about 1 million junks larger than 1 cm) are a huge problem for crucial and costly satellites and manned vehicles. For example, in 2014 the International Space Station had to change three times its orbit to avoid collision with space debris. So the development of the concepts and actions related to removal of space debris or non-operational satellites with use of robotic arm of a servicing satellite is very actual. Such a technology is also applicable for unmanned exploratory missions in solar system, for example for collecting a variety of samples from a celestial body surface. Naturally, the robotic arm movements should be controlled with great accuracy at influence of its non-rigidity, thermal and other factors. In these circumstances often the position of the arm end effector has to be controlled with high accuracy. The possibility of coordinate determination for the robotic arm end effector with use of a low frequency active electromagnetic system has been considered in the presented report. The proposed design of such a system consists of a small magnetic dipole source, which is mounted inside of the arm end effector and two or three 3-component magnetic field sensors mounted on a servicing satellite body. The data from this set of 3-component magnetic field sensors, which are fixed relatively to the satellite body, allows use of the mathematical approach for determination of position and orientation of the magnetic dipole source. The theoretical

  20. Telepresence master glove controller for dexterous robotic end-effectors

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA's Ames Research Center to develop a glove-like, control and data-recording device (DataGlove) that records and transmits to a host computer in real time, and at appropriate resolution, a numeric data-record of a user's hand/finger shape and dynamics. System configuration and performance specifications are detailed, and current research is discussed investigating its applications in operator control of dexterous robotic end-effectors and for use as a human factors research tool in evaluation of operator hand function requirements and performance in other specialized task environments.

  1. Hacker Within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy

    Taslima Taher Lina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME, an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival.

  2. Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.

    Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

    2012-09-01

    A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the

  3. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

    Maryam eRafiqi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  4. Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector

    1998-09-01

    A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed

  5. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients.

  6. Genetic diversity of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus based on two hypervariable effector genes in Thailand.

    Puttamuk, Thamrongjet; Zhou, Lijuan; Thaveechai, Niphone; Zhang, Shouan; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las) being the most widely distributed around the world, and the only species detected in Thailand. To understand the genetic diversity of Las bacteria in Thailand, we evaluated two closely-related effector genes, lasAI and lasAII, found within the Las prophages from 239 infected citrus and 55 infected psyllid samples collected from different provinces in Thailand. The results indicated that most of the Las-infected samples collected from Thailand contained at least one prophage sequence with 48.29% containing prophage 1 (FP1), 63.26% containing prophage 2 (FP2), and 19.38% containing both prophages. Interestingly, FP2 was found to be the predominant population in Las-infected citrus samples while Las-infected psyllids contained primarily FP1. The multiple banding patterns that resulted from amplification of lasAI imply extensive variation exists within the full and partial repeat sequence while the single band from lasAII indicates a low amount of variation within the repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of Las-infected samples from 22 provinces in Thailand suggested that the bacterial pathogen may have been introduced to Thailand from China and the Philippines. This is the first report evaluating the genetic variation of a large population of Ca. L. asiaticus infected samples in Thailand using the two effector genes from Las prophage regions.

  7. Extracellular vesicles – biomarkers and effectors of the cellular interactome in cancer

    Janusz eRak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms both health and disease are defined by patterns of communications between the constituent cells. In addition to networks of soluble mediators, cells are also programmed to exchange complex messages pre-assembled as multimolecular cargo of membraneous structures known extracellular vesicles (EV. Several biogenetic pathways produce EVs with different properties and known as exosomes, ectosomes and apoptotic bodies. In cancer, EVs carry molecular signatures and effectors of the disease, such as mutant oncoproteins, oncogenic transcripts, microRNA and DNA sequences. Intercellular trafficking of such EVs (oncosomes may contribute to horizontal cellular transformation, phenotypic reprogramming and functional re-education of recipient cells, both locally and systemically. The EV-mediated, reciprocal molecular exchange also includes tumor suppressors, phosphoproteins, proteases, growth factors and bioactive lipids, all of which participate in the functional integration of multiple cells and their collective involved in tumor angiogenesis, inflammation, immunity, coagulopathy, mobilization of bone marrow derived effectors, metastasis, drug resistance or cellular stemness. In cases where the EV involvement is rate limiting their production and uptake may represent and unexplored anticancer therapy target. Moreover, oncosomes circulating in biofluids of cancer patients offer an unprecedented, remote and non-invasive access to crucial molecular information about cancer cells, including their driver mutations, classifiers, molecular subtypes, therapeutic targets and biomarkers of drug resistance. New nanotechnologies are being developed to exploit this unique biomarker platform. Indeed, embracing the notion that human cancers are defined not only by processes occurring within cancer cells, but also between them, and amidst the altered tumor and systemic microenvironment may open new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  8. Evaluation of secretion prediction highlights differing approaches needed for oomycete and fungal effectors

    Jana eSperschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesised intracellularly and must be externalised to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localisation predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes.

  9. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm gripper end effector

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This gripper end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  10. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm sampler end effector

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This sampler end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  11. The Toolbox for Uncovering the Functions of Legionella Dot/Icm Type IVb Secretion System Effectors: Current State and Future Directions

    Gunnar N. Schroeder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The defective in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm Type IVb secretion system (T4SS is the essential virulence factor for the intracellular life style and pathogenicity of Legionella species. Screens demonstrated that an individual L. pneumophila strain can use the Dot/Icm T4SS to translocate an unprecedented number of more than 300 proteins into host cells, where these, so called Icm/Dot-translocated substrates (IDTS or effectors, manipulate host cell functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis of the pan-genus genome predicts at least 608 orthologous groups of putative effectors. Deciphering the function of these effectors is key to understanding Legionella pathogenesis; however, the analysis is challenging. Substantial functional redundancy renders classical, phenotypic screening of single gene deletion mutants mostly ineffective. Here, I review experimental approaches that were successfully used to identify, validate and functionally characterize T4SS effectors and highlight new methods, which promise to facilitate unlocking the secrets of Legionella's extraordinary weapons arsenal.

  12. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 promotes the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal breast carcinoma via canonical Wnt pathway.

    Zhao, Huan-Yu; Han, Yang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Lian-He; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Du, Jiang; Wu, Guang-Ping; Wang, En-Hua

    2017-06-01

    IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 is a scaffolding protein with multidomain which plays a role in modulating dishevelled (Dvl) nuclear translocation in canonical Wnt pathway. However, the biological function and mechanism of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) remain unknown. In this study, we found that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinoma, which was positively correlated with tumor grade, lymphatic metastasis, and poor prognosis. Coexpression of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 and Dvl in the nucleus and cytoplasm of invasive ductal carcinoma was significantly correlated but not in the membrane. Postoperative survival in the patients with their coexpression in the nucleus and cytoplasm was obviously lower than that without coexpression. The positive expression rates of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in the patients with nuclear coexpression of Dvl and IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 than that with cytoplasmic coexpression, correlating with poor prognosis. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in invasive ductal carcinoma cell lines by interacting with Dvl in cytoplasm to promote Dvl nuclear translocation so as to upregulate the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1. Collectively, our data suggest that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 may promote the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal carcinoma via canonical Wnt signaling, and it could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients.

  13. The barley powdery mildew effector candidates CSEP0081 and CSEP0254 promote fungal infection success

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Pedersen, Carsten; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Effectors play significant roles in the success of pathogens. Recent advances in genome sequencing have revealed arrays of effectors and effector candidates from a wide range of plant pathogens. Yet, the vast majority of them remain uncharacterized. Among the ~500 Candidate Secreted Effector...... independent silencing of the transcripts for these CSEPs significantly reduced the fungal penetration and haustoria formation rate. Both CSEPs are likely required during and after the formation of haustoria, in which their transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, rather than in epiphytic tissue...

  14. Virus-specific regulatory T cells ameliorate encephalitis by repressing effector T cell functions from priming to effector stages.

    Jingxian Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN. Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings.

  15. Contrasting patterns in the evolution of the Rab GTPase family in Archaeplastida

    Romana Petrželková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases are a vast group of proteins serving a role of master regulators in membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. Previous studies delineated some 23 Rab and Rab-like paralogs ancestral for eukaryotes and mapped their current phylogenetic distribution, but the analyses relied on a limited sampling of the eukaryotic diversity. Taking advantage of the recent growth of genome and transcriptome resources for phylogenetically diverse plants and algae, we reanalyzed the evolution of the Rab family in eukaryotes with the primary plastid, collectively constituting the presumably monophyletic supergroup Archaeplastida. Our most important novel findings are as follows: (i the ancestral set of Rabs in Archaeplastida included not only the paralogs Rab1, Rab2, Rab5, Rab6, Rab7, Rab8, Rab11, Rab18, Rab23, Rab24, Rab28, IFT27, and RTW (=Rabl2, as suggested previously, but also Rab14 and Rab34, because Rab14 exists in glaucophytes and Rab34 is present in glaucophytes and some green algae; (ii except in embryophytes, Rab gene duplications have been rare in Archaeplastida. Most notable is the independent emergence of divergent, possibly functionally novel, in-paralogs of Rab1 and Rab11 in several archaeplastidial lineages; (iii recurrent gene losses have been a significant factor shaping Rab gene complements in archaeplastidial species; for example, the Rab21 paralog was lost at least six times independently within Archaeplastida, once in the lineage leading to the “core” eudicots; (iv while the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa has retained the highest number of ancestral Rab paralogs among all archaeplastidial species studied so far, rhodophytes underwent an extreme reduction of the Rab gene set along their stem lineage, resulting in only six paralogs (Rab1, Rab2, Rab6, Rab7, Rab11, and Rab18 present in modern red algae. Especially notable is the absence of Rab5, a virtually universal paralog essential for the endocytic pathway, suggesting that endocytosis

  16. Neuronal Rho GTPase Rac1 elimination confers neuroprotection in a mouse model of permanent ischemic stroke.

    Karabiyik, Cansu; Fernandes, Rui; Figueiredo, Francisco Rosário; Socodato, Renato; Brakebusch, Cord; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Relvas, João Bettencourt; Santos, Sofia Duque

    2017-09-28

    The Rho GTPase Rac1 is a multifunctional protein involved in distinct pathways ranging from development to pathology. The aim of the present study was to unravel the contribution of neuronal Rac1 in regulating the response to brain injury induced by permanent focal cerebral ischemia (pMCAO). Our results show that pMCAO significantly increased total Rac1 levels in wild type mice, mainly through rising nuclear Rac1, while a reduction in Rac1 activation was observed. Such changes preceded cell death induced by excitotoxic stress. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 in primary neuronal cortical cells prevented the increase in oxidative stress induced after overactivation of glutamate receptors. However, this was not sufficient to prevent the associated neuronal cell death. In contrast, RNAi-mediated knock down of Rac1 in primary cortical neurons prevented cell death elicited by glutamate excitotoxicity and decreased the activity of NADPH oxidase. To test whether in vivo down regulation of neuronal Rac1 was neuroprotective after pMCAO, we used tamoxifen-inducible neuron-specific conditional Rac1-knockout mice. We observed a significant 50% decrease in brain infarct volume of knockout mice and a concomitant increase in HIF-1α expression compared to littermate control mice, demonstrating that ablation of Rac1 in neurons is neuroprotective. Transmission electron microscopy performed in the ischemic brain showed that lysosomes in the infarct of Rac1- knockout mice were preserved at similar levels to those of non-infarcted tissue, while littermate mice displayed a decrease in the number of lysosomes, further corroborating the notion that Rac1 ablation in neurons is neuroprotective. Our results demonstrate that Rac1 plays important roles in the ischemic pathological cascade and that modulation of its levels is of therapeutic interest. © 2017 International Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Synapse Formation in Monosynaptic Sensory–Motor Connections Is Regulated by Presynaptic Rho GTPase Cdc42

    Imai, Fumiyasu; Ladle, David R.; Leslie, Jennifer R.; Duan, Xin; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Ciraolo, Georgianne M.; Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Spinal reflex circuit development requires the precise regulation of axon trajectories, synaptic specificity, and synapse formation. Of these three crucial steps, the molecular mechanisms underlying synapse formation between group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons and motor neurons is the least understood. Here, we show that the Rho GTPase Cdc42 controls synapse formation in monosynaptic sensory–motor connections in presynaptic, but not postsynaptic, neurons. In mice lacking Cdc42 in presynaptic sensory neurons, proprioceptive sensory axons appropriately reach the ventral spinal cord, but significantly fewer synapses are formed with motor neurons compared with wild-type mice. Concordantly, electrophysiological analyses show diminished EPSP amplitudes in monosynaptic sensory–motor circuits in these mutants. Temporally targeted deletion of Cdc42 in sensory neurons after sensory–motor circuit establishment reveals that Cdc42 does not affect synaptic transmission. Furthermore, addition of the synaptic organizers, neuroligins, induces presynaptic differentiation of wild-type, but not Cdc42-deficient, proprioceptive sensory neurons in vitro. Together, our findings demonstrate that Cdc42 in presynaptic neurons is required for synapse formation in monosynaptic sensory–motor circuits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons form direct synapses with motor neurons, but the molecular mechanisms underlying synapse formation in these monosynaptic sensory–motor connections are unknown. We show that deleting Cdc42 in sensory neurons does not affect proprioceptive sensory axon targeting because axons reach the ventral spinal cord appropriately, but these neurons form significantly fewer presynaptic terminals on motor neurons. Electrophysiological analysis further shows that EPSPs are decreased in these mice. Finally, we demonstrate that Cdc42 is involved in neuroligin-dependent presynaptic differentiation of proprioceptive sensory neurons in vitro

  18. Small GTPase R-Ras participates in neural tube formation in zebrafish embryonic spinal cord.

    Ohata, Shinya; Uga, Hideko; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Katada, Toshiaki

    2018-06-27

    Ras related (R-Ras), a small GTPase, is involved in the maintenance of apico-basal polarity in neuroepithelial cells of the zebrafish hindbrain, axonal collapse in cultured murine hippocampal neurons, and maturation of blood vessels in adult mice. However, the role of R-Ras in neural tube formation remains unknown. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), we found that in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos, the lumen was formed bilaterally in rras morphants, whereas it was formed at the midline in control embryos. As AMO can cause off-target effects, we generated rras mutant zebrafish lines using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Although these rras mutant embryos did not have a bilateral lumen in the spinal cord, the following findings suggest that the phenotype is unlikely due to an off-target effect of rras AMO: 1) The rras morphant phenotype was rescued by an injection of AMO-resistant rras mRNA, and 2) a bilaterally segregated spinal cord was not observed in rras mutant embryos injected with rras AMO. The results suggest that the function of other ras family genes may be redundant in rras mutants. Previous research reported a bilaterally formed lumen in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos with a mutation in a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene, van gogh-like 2 (vangl2). In the present study, in cultured cells, R-Ras was co-immunoprecipitated with Vangl2 but not with another PCP regulator, Pricke1. Interestingly, the interaction between R-Ras and Vangl2 was stronger in guanine-nucleotide free point mutants of R-Ras than in wild-type or constitutively active (GTP-bound) forms of R-Ras. R-Ras may regulate neural tube formation in cooperation with Vangl2 in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amphetamine activates Rho GTPase signaling to mediate dopamine transporter internalization and acute behavioral effects of amphetamine

    Wheeler, David S.; Underhill, Suzanne M.; Stolz, Donna B.; Murdoch, Geoffrey H.; Thiels, Edda; Romero, Guillermo; Amara, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Acute amphetamine (AMPH) exposure elevates extracellular dopamine through a variety of mechanisms that include inhibition of dopamine reuptake, depletion of vesicular stores, and facilitation of dopamine efflux across the plasma membrane. Recent work has shown that the DAT substrate AMPH, unlike cocaine and other nontransported blockers, can also stimulate endocytosis of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT). Here, we show that when AMPH enters the cytoplasm it rapidly stimulates DAT internalization through a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent process. This effect, which can be observed in transfected cells, cultured dopamine neurons, and midbrain slices, is mediated by activation of the small GTPase RhoA. Inhibition of RhoA activity with C3 exotoxin or a dominant-negative RhoA blocks AMPH-induced DAT internalization. These actions depend on AMPH entry into the cell and are blocked by the DAT inhibitor cocaine. AMPH also stimulates cAMP accumulation and PKA-dependent inactivation of RhoA, thus providing a mechanism whereby PKA- and RhoA-dependent signaling pathways can interact to regulate the timing and robustness of AMPH’s effects on DAT internalization. Consistent with this model, the activation of D1/D5 receptors that couple to PKA in dopamine neurons antagonizes RhoA activation, DAT internalization, and hyperlocomotion observed in mice after AMPH treatment. These observations support the existence of an unanticipated intracellular target that mediates the effects of AMPH on RhoA and cAMP signaling and suggest new pathways to target to disrupt AMPH action. PMID:26553986

  20. Identification and Characterization of a Chloroplast-Targeted Obg GTPase in Dendrobium officinale.

    Chen, Ji; Deng, Feng; Deng, Mengsheng; Han, Jincheng; Chen, Jianbin; Wang, Li; Yan, Shen; Tong, Kai; Liu, Fan; Tian, Mengliang

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial homologous chloroplast-targeted Obg GTPases (ObgCs) belong to the plant-typical Obg group, which is involved in diverse physiological processes during chloroplast development. However, the evolutionarily conserved function of ObgC in plants remains elusive and requires further investigation. In this study, we identified DoObgC from an epiphytic plant Dendrobium officinale and demonstrated the characteristics of DoObgC. Sequence analysis indicated that DoObgC is highly conserved with other plant ObgCs, which contain the chloroplast transit peptide (cTP), Obg fold, G domain, and OCT regions. The C terminus of DoObgC lacking the chloroplast-targeting cTP region, DoObgC Δ1-160 , showed strong similarity to ObgE and other bacterial Obgs. Overexpression of DoObgC Δ1-160 in Escherichia coli caused slow cell growth and an increased number of elongated cells. This phenotype was consistent with the phenotype of cells overexpressing ObgE. Furthermore, the expression of recombinant DoObgC Δ1-160 enhanced the cell persistence of E. coli to streptomycin. Results of transient expression assays revealed that DoObgC was localized to chloroplasts. Moreover, we demonstrated that DoObgC could rescue the embryotic lethal phenotype of the Arabidopsis obgc-t mutant, suggesting that DoObgC is a functional homolog to Arabidopsis AtObgC in D. officinale. Gene expression profiles showed that DoObgC was expressed in leaf-specific and light-dependent patterns and that DoObgC responded to wounding treatments. Our previous and present studies reveal that ObgC has an evolutionarily conserved role in ribosome biogenesis to adapt chloroplast development to the environment.

  1. Guanosine triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) interacts with the p21 ras effector binding domain

    Adari, H; Lowy, D R; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A cytoplasmic protein that greatly enhances the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of N-ras protein but does not affect the activity of oncogenic ras mutants has been recently described. This protein (GAP) is shown here to be ubiquitous in higher eukaryotes and to interact with H-ras as w...

  2. Wash functions downstream of Rho1 GTPase in a subset of Drosophila immune cell developmental migrations

    Verboon, Jeffrey M.; Rahe, Travis K.; Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila immune cells, the hemocytes, undergo four stereotypical developmental migrations to populate the embryo, where they provide immune reconnoitering, as well as a number of non–immune-related functions necessary for proper embryogenesis. Here, we describe a role for Rho1 in one of these developmental migrations in which posteriorly located hemocytes migrate toward the head. This migration requires the interaction of Rho1 with its downstream effector Wash, a Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome family protein. Both Wash knockdown and a Rho1 transgene harboring a mutation that prevents Wash binding exhibit the same developmental migratory defect as Rho1 knockdown. Wash activates the Arp2/3 complex, whose activity is needed for this migration, whereas members of the WASH regulatory complex (SWIP, Strumpellin, and CCDC53) are not. Our results suggest a WASH complex–independent signaling pathway to regulate the cytoskeleton during a subset of hemocyte developmental migrations. PMID:25739458

  3. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System.

    Tay, Daniel Ming Ming; Govindarajan, Kunde Ramamoorthy; Khan, Asif M; Ong, Terenze Yao Rui; Samad, Hanif M; Soh, Wei Wei; Tong, Minyan; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2010-10-15

    Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE) sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i) comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii) submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii) the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression) are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%). Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors. The T3SEdb represents a platform for inclusion of

  4. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System

    Tong Minyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Results Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%. Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. Conclusions T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors

  5. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Department's needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications

  6. Hanford Waste End Effector Phase I Test Report

    Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatchell, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mount, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neill, Kevin J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-22

    This test plan describes the Phase 1 testing program of the Hanford Waste End Effector (HWEE) at the Washington River Protection Solutions’ Cold Test Facility (CTF) using a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)-designed testing setup. This effort fulfills the informational needs for initial assessment of the HWEE to support Hanford single-shell tank A-105 retrieval. This task will install the HWEE on a PNNL-designed robotic gantry system at CTF, install and calibrate instrumentation to measure reaction forces and process parameters, prepare and characterize simulant materials, and implement the test program. The tests will involve retrieval of water, sludge, and hardpan simulants to determine pumping rate, dilution factors, and screen fouling rate.

  7. Comparative reactivity of human IgE to cynomolgus monkey and human effector cells and effects on IgE effector cell potency

    Saul, Louise; Saul, Louise; Josephs, Debra H; Josephs, Debra H; Cutler, Keith; Cutler, Keith; Bradwell, Andrew; Bradwell, Andrew; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Selkirk, Chris; Selkirk, Chris; Gould, Hannah J; Gould, Hannah J; Jones, Paul; Jones, Paul; Spicer, James F; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to genetic similarities with humans, primates of the macaque genus such as the cynomolgus monkey are often chosen as models for toxicology studies of antibody therapies. IgE therapeutics in development depend upon engagement with the FcεRI and FcεRII receptors on immune effector cells for their function. Only limited knowledge of the primate IgE immune system is available to inform the choice of models for mechanistic and safety evaluations.   Methods: The recognition of human IgE by peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkey and man was compared. We used effector cells from each species in ex vivo affinity, dose-response, antibody-receptor dissociation and potency assays. Results: We report cross-reactivity of human IgE Fc with cynomolgus monkey cells, and comparable binding kinetics to peripheral blood lymphocytes from both species. In competition and dissociation assays, however, human IgE dissociated faster from cynomolgus monkey compared with human effector cells. Differences in association and dissociation kinetics were reflected in effector cell potency assays of IgE-mediated target cell killing, with higher concentrations of human IgE needed to elicit effector response in the cynomolgus monkey system. Additionally, human IgE binding on immune effector cells yielded significantly different cytokine release profiles in each species. Conclusion: These data suggest that human IgE binds with different characteristics to human and cynomolgus monkey IgE effector cells. This is likely to affect the potency of IgE effector functions in these two species, and so has relevance for the selection of biologically-relevant model systems when designing pre-clinical toxicology and functional studies. PMID:24492303

  8. Pointing Hand Stimuli Induce Spatial Compatibility Effects and Effector Priming

    Akio eNishimura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the automatic influence of perceiving a picture that indicates other’s action on one’s own task performance in terms of spatial compatibility and effector priming. Participants pressed left and right buttons with their left and right hands respectively, depending on the color of a central dot target. Preceding the target, a left or right hand stimulus (pointing either to the left or right with the index or little finger was presented. In Experiment 1, with brief presentation of the pointing hand, a spatial compatibility effect was observed: Responses were faster when the direction of the pointed finger and the response position were spatially congruent than when incongruent. The spatial compatibility effect was larger for the pointing index finger stimulus compared to the pointing little finger stimulus. Experiment 2 employed longer duration of the pointing hand stimuli. In addition to the spatial compatibility effect for the pointing index finger, the effector priming effect was observed: Responses were faster when the anatomical left/right identity of the pointing and response hands matched than when the pointing and response hands differed in left/right identity. The results indicate that with sufficient processing time, both spatial/symbolic and anatomical features of a static body part implying another’s action simultaneously influence different aspects of the perceiver’s own action. Hierarchical coding, according to which an anatomical code is used only when a spatial code is unavailable, may not be applicable if stimuli as well as responses contain anatomical features.

  9. Genotyping of polymorphic effectors of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China

    Weisheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan apicomplexan and obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of animals and humans. Rhoptry proteins 5 (ROP5, ROP16, ROP18 and dense granules 15 (GRA15 are the important effectors secreted by T. gondii which link to the strain virulence for mice and modulate the host’s response to the parasite. Little has been known about these molecules as well as GRA3 in type Chinese 1 strains that show polymorphism among strains of archetypical genotypes. This study examined the genetic diversity of these effectors and its correlated virulence in mice among T. gondii isolates from China. Results Twenty-one isolates from stray cats were detected, of which 15 belong to Chinese 1, and 6 to ToxoDB #205. Wh6 isolate, a Chinese 1 strain, has an avirulent phenotype. PCR-RFLP results of ROP5 and ROP18 presented few variations among the strains. Genotyping of GRA15 and ROP16 revealed that all the strains belong to type II allele except Xz7 which carries type I allele. ROP16 amino acid alignment at 503 locus demonstrated that 17 isolates are featured as type I or type III (ROP16I/III, and the other 4 as type II (ROP16II. The strains investigated may be divided into four groups based on GRA3 amino acid alignment, and all isolates of type Chinese 1 belong to the μ-1 allele except Wh6 which is identical to type II strain. Conclusions PCR-RFLP and sequence alignment analyses of ROP5, ROP16, ROP18, GRA3, and GRA15 in T. gondii revealed that strains with the same genotype may have variations in some of their key genes. GRA3 variation exhibited by Wh6 strain may be associated with the difference in phenotype and pathogenesis.

  10. Expression of GIMAP1, a GTPase of the immunity-associated protein family, is not up-regulated in malaria

    Carter Christine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GIMAP (GTPase of the immunity-associated protein family proteins are a family of putative GTPases believed to be regulators of cell death in lymphomyeloid cells. GIMAP1 was the first reported member of this gene family, identified as a gene up-regulated at the RNA level in the spleens of mice infected with the malarial parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. Methods A monoclonal antibody against mouse GIMAP1 was developed and was used to analyse the expression of the endogenous protein in tissues of normal mice and in defined sub-populations of cells prepared from lymphoid tissues using flow cytometry. It was also used to assess the expression of GIMAP1 protein after infection and/or immunization of mice with P. chabaudi. Real-time PCR analysis was employed to measure the expression of GIMAP1 for comparison with the protein level analysis. Results GIMAP1 protein expression was detected in all lineages of lymphocytes (T, B, NK, in F4/80+ splenic macrophages and in some lymphoid cell lines. Additional evidence is presented suggesting that the strong expression by mature B cells of GIMAP1 and other GIMAP genes and proteins seen in mice may be a species-dependent characteristic. Unexpectedly, no increase was found in the expression of GIMAP1 in P. chabaudi infected mice at either the mRNA or protein level, and this remained so despite applying a number of variations to the protocol. Conclusion The model of up-regulation of GIMAP1 in response to infection/immunization with P. chabaudi is not a robustly reproducible experimental system. The GIMAP1 protein is widely expressed in lymphoid cells, with an interesting increase in expression in the later stages of B cell development. Alternative approaches will be required to define the functional role of this GTPase in immune cells.

  11. PlexinA2 Forward Signaling through Rap1 GTPases Regulates Dentate Gyrus Development and Schizophrenia-like Behaviors

    Xiao-Feng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Dentate gyrus (DG development requires specification of granule cell (GC progenitors in the hippocampal neuroepithelium, as well as their proliferation and migration into the primordial DG. We identify the Plexin family members Plxna2 and Plxna4 as important regulators of DG development. Distribution of immature GCs is regulated by Sema5A signaling through PlxnA2 and requires a functional PlxnA2 GTPase-activating protein (GAP domain and Rap1 small GTPases. In adult Plxna2−/− but not Plxna2-GAP-deficient mice, the dentate GC layer is severely malformed, neurogenesis is compromised, and mossy fibers form aberrant synaptic boutons within CA3. Behavioral studies with Plxna2−/− mice revealed deficits in associative learning, sociability, and sensorimotor gating—traits commonly observed in neuropsychiatric disorder. Remarkably, while morphological defects are minimal in Plxna2-GAP-deficient brains, defects in fear memory and sensorimotor gating persist. Since allelic variants of human PLXNA2 and RAP1 associate with schizophrenia, our studies identify a biochemical pathway important for brain development and mental health. : Zhao et al. find that Sema5A-PlexinA2 forward signaling through Rap1 GTPases is required for progenitor distribution in the developing mouse dentate gyrus. Adult Plxna2−/−, but not Plxna2-GAP-deficient, mice show defects in dentate morphology, neurogenesis, and mossy fiber connectivity. Plxna2−/− and Plxna2-GAP mice exhibit behavioral defects suggestive of neuropsychiatric illness. Keywords: PlexinA2, semaphoring, Rap1, GAP, dentate gyrus, adult neurogenesis, mossy fiber, fear memory, sensorimotor gating, schizophrenia

  12. Leucine-rich repeat kinase-1 regulates osteoclast function by modulating RAC1/Cdc42 Small GTPase phosphorylation and activation.

    Zeng, Canjun; Goodluck, Helen; Qin, Xuezhong; Liu, Bo; Mohan, Subburaman; Xing, Weirong

    2016-10-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase-1 (Lrrk1) consists of ankyrin repeats (ANK), leucine-rich repeats (LRR), a GTPase-like domain of Roc (ROC), a COR domain, a serine/threonine kinase domain (KD), and WD40 repeats (WD40). Previous studies have revealed that knockout (KO) of Lrrk1 in mice causes severe osteopetrosis, and a human mutation of Lrrk1 leads to osteosclerotic metaphysial dysplasia. The molecular mechanism by which Lrrk1 regulates osteoclast function is unknown. In this study, we generated a series of Lrrk1 mutants and evaluated their ability to rescue defective bone resorption in Lrrk1-deficient osteoclasts by use of pit formation assays. Overexpression of Lrrk1 or LRR-truncated Lrrk1, but not ANK-truncated Lrrk1, WD40-truncated Lrrk1, Lrrk1-KD, or K651A mutant Lrrk1, rescued bone resorption function of Lrrk1 KO osteoclasts. We next examined whether RAC1/Cdc42 small GTPases are direct substrates of Lrrk1 in osteoclasts. Western blot and pull-down assays revealed that Lrrk1 deficiency in osteoclasts resulted in reduced phosphorylation and activation of RAC1/Cdc42. In vitro kinase assays confirmed that recombinant Lrrk1 phosphorylated RAC1-GST protein, and immunoprecipitation showed that the interaction of Lrrk1 with RAC1 occurred within 10 min after RANKL treatment. Overexpression of constitutively active Q61L RAC1 partially rescued the resorptive function of Lrrk1-deficient osteoclasts. Furthermore, lack of Lrrk1 in osteoclasts led to reduced autophosphorylation of p21 protein-activated kinase-1 at Ser 144 , catalyzed by RAC1/Cdc42 binding and activation. Our data indicate that Lrrk1 regulates osteoclast function by directly modulating phosphorylation and activation of small GTPase RAC1/Cdc42 and that its function depends on ANK, ROC, WD40, and kinase domains. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Herzog, Dominik; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    -renewal and proliferation of later stage, but not early migratory NCSCs. This stage-specific requirement for small Rho GTPases is due to changes in NCSCs that, during development, acquire responsiveness to mitogenic EGF acting upstream of both Cdc42 and Rac1. Thus, our data reveal distinct mechanisms for growth control......The neural crest (NC) generates a variety of neural and non-neural tissues during vertebrate development. Both migratory NC cells and their target structures contain cells with stem cell features. Here we show that these populations of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are differentially...

  14. Development of a Novel NMR-based Rheb GTPase Assay and Molecular Characterization of TSC2 GAP Activity

    2010-05-01

    GTPase) that belongs to the Ras superfamily and has homologs in yeast, fungi , slime mold, fruit fly, zebra fish, and mammals (1–3). Ge- netic and...characterization of TSC2 disease mutations affecting its GAP activity (months 9-12) While the final aspects of this task are yet to be completed, we have...domain mutants of TSC2 that we examined affected its enzymatic activ- ity. This method can now be applied to study the function and regulation of other

  15. Type VI secretion system MIX-effectors carry both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities.

    Ray, Ann; Schwartz, Nika; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Zhang, Junmei; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2017-11-01

    Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class. Remarkably, in addition to six predicted bactericidal effectors, the T6SS1 secretome includes three putative anti-eukaryotic effectors. One of these is a MIX-effector containing a cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 domain. We demonstrate that T6SS1 can use this MIX-effector to target phagocytic cells, resulting in morphological changes and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. In conclusion, the V. proteolyticus T6SS1, a system homologous to one found in pathogenic vibrios, uses a suite of polymorphic effectors that target both bacteria and eukaryotic neighbors. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  17. High immunosuppressive burden in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients: Can effector functions be restored?

    Lugade, Amit A; Kalathil, Suresh; Miller, Austin; Iyer, Renuka; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2013-07-01

    The accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and exhausted effector T cells highlight an important immune dysfunction in advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. These cells significantly hamper the efficacy immunotherapies and facilitate HCC progression. We have recently demonstrated that the multipronged depletion of immunosuppressive cells potentially restores effector T-cell function in HCC.

  18. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2012-01-01

    A large number of effector candidates have been identified recently in powdery mildew fungi. However, their roles and how they perform their functions remain unresolved. In this study, we made use of host-induced gene silencing and confirmed that the secreted barley powdery mildew effector candid...

  19. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  20. Identification of proteins similar to AvrE type III effector proteins from ...

    Type III effector proteins are injected into host cells through type III secretion systems. Some effectors are similar to host proteins to promote pathogenicity, while others lead to the activation of disease resistance. We used partial least squares alignment-free bioinformatics methods to identify proteins similar to AvrE proteins ...

  1. The Genome Biology of Effector Gene Evolution in Filamentous Plant Pathogens.

    Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Fouché, Simone; Fudal, Isabelle; Hartmann, Fanny E; Soyer, Jessica L; Tellier, Aurélien; Croll, Daniel

    2018-05-16

    Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes are tightly linked to the genomic compartments where these genes are located in pathogen genomes. The presence of repetitive elements in these compartments is associated with elevated rates of point mutations and sequence rearrangements with a major impact on effector diversification. The expression of many effectors converges on an epigenetic control mediated by the presence of repetitive elements. Population genomics analyses showed that rapidly evolving pathogens show high rates of turnover at effector loci and display a mosaic in effector presence-absence polymorphism among strains. We conclude that effective pathogen containment strategies require a thorough understanding of the effector genome biology and the pathogen's potential for rapid adaptation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology Volume 56 is August 25, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  2. TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA targeting proteins

    Doyle, Erin L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

  3. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX leads to activation of the Rac 1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells

    Llavero, Francisco; Urzelai, Bakarne; Osinalde, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have reported that the active form of Rac 1 GTPase binds to the glycogen phosphorylase muscle isoform (PYGM) and modulates its enzymatic activity leading to T cell proliferation. In the lymphoid system, Rac 1 and in general other small GTPases of the Rho family participate...... in the signaling cascades that are activated after engagement of the T cell antigen receptor. However, little is known about the IL-2-dependent Rac 1 activator molecules. For the first time, a signaling pathway leading to the activation of Rac 1/PYGM in response to IL-2-stimulated T cell proliferation is described....... More specifically, αPIX, a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPases of the Rho family, preferentially Rac 1, mediates PYGM activation in Kit 225 T cells stimulated with IL-2. Using directed mutagenesis, phosphorylation of αPIX Rho-GEF serines 225 and 488 is required for activation...

  4. Characterization and Functional Analysis of the Calmodulin-Binding Domain of Rac1 GTPase

    Xu, Bing; Chelikani, Prashen; Bhullar, Rajinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, has been shown to promote formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of motile cells and affect cell migration. We previously demonstrated that calmodulin can bind to a region in the C-terminal of Rac1 and that this interaction is important in the activation of platelet Rac1. Now, we have analyzed amino acid residue(s) in the Rac1-calmodulin binding domain that are essential for the interaction and assessed their functional contribution in Rac1 activation. The results demonstrated that region 151–164 in Rac1 is essential for calmodulin binding. Within the 151–164 region, positively-charged amino acids K153 and R163 were mutated to alanine to study impact on calmodulin binding. Mutant form of Rac1 (K153A) demonstrated significantly reduced binding to calmodulin while the double mutant K153A/R163A demonstrated complete lack of binding to calmodulin. Thrombin or EGF resulted in activation of Rac1 in CHRF-288-11 or HeLa cells respectively and W7 inhibited this activation. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that higher amount of CaM was associated with Rac1 during EGF dependent activation. In cells expressing mutant forms of Rac1 (K153A or K153A/R163A), activation induced by EGF was significantly decreased in comparison to wild type or the R163A forms of Rac1. The lack of Rac1 activation in mutant forms was not due to an inability of GDP-GTP exchange or a change in subcelllular distribution. Moreover, Rac1 activation was decreased in cells where endogenous level of calmodulin was reduced using shRNA knockdown and increased in cells where calmodulin was overexpressed. Docking analysis and modeling demonstrated that K153 in Rac1 interacts with Q41 in calmodulin. These results suggest an important role for calmodulin in the activation of Rac1 and thus, in cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration. PMID:22905193

  5. Characterization and functional analysis of the calmodulin-binding domain of Rac1 GTPase.

    Bing Xu

    Full Text Available Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, has been shown to promote formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of motile cells and affect cell migration. We previously demonstrated that calmodulin can bind to a region in the C-terminal of Rac1 and that this interaction is important in the activation of platelet Rac1. Now, we have analyzed amino acid residue(s in the Rac1-calmodulin binding domain that are essential for the interaction and assessed their functional contribution in Rac1 activation. The results demonstrated that region 151-164 in Rac1 is essential for calmodulin binding. Within the 151-164 region, positively-charged amino acids K153 and R163 were mutated to alanine to study impact on calmodulin binding. Mutant form of Rac1 (K153A demonstrated significantly reduced binding to calmodulin while the double mutant K153A/R163A demonstrated complete lack of binding to calmodulin. Thrombin or EGF resulted in activation of Rac1 in CHRF-288-11 or HeLa cells respectively and W7 inhibited this activation. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that higher amount of CaM was associated with Rac1 during EGF dependent activation. In cells expressing mutant forms of Rac1 (K153A or K153A/R163A, activation induced by EGF was significantly decreased in comparison to wild type or the R163A forms of Rac1. The lack of Rac1 activation in mutant forms was not due to an inability of GDP-GTP exchange or a change in subcelllular distribution. Moreover, Rac1 activation was decreased in cells where endogenous level of calmodulin was reduced using shRNA knockdown and increased in cells where calmodulin was overexpressed. Docking analysis and modeling demonstrated that K153 in Rac1 interacts with Q41 in calmodulin. These results suggest an important role for calmodulin in the activation of Rac1 and thus, in cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration.

  6. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  7. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  8. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  9. Catalysis of GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases at atomic detail by integration of X-ray crystallography, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy.

    Rudack, Till; Jenrich, Sarah; Brucker, Sven; Vetter, Ingrid R; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-10-02

    Small GTPases regulate key processes in cells. Malfunction of their GTPase reaction by mutations is involved in severe diseases. Here, we compare the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras. By combination of time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy and QM/MM simulations we elucidate that the Mg(2+) coordination by the phosphate groups, which varies largely among the x-ray structures, is the same for Ran and Ras. A new x-ray structure of a Ran·RanBD1 complex with improved resolution confirmed this finding and revealed a general problem with the refinement of Mg(2+) in GTPases. The Mg(2+) coordination is not responsible for the much slower GTPase reaction of Ran. Instead, the location of the Tyr-39 side chain of Ran between the γ-phosphate and Gln-69 prevents the optimal positioning of the attacking water molecule by the Gln-69 relative to the γ-phosphate. This is confirmed in the RanY39A·RanBD1 crystal structure. The QM/MM simulations provide IR spectra of the catalytic center, which agree very nicely with the experimental ones. The combination of both methods can correlate spectra with structure at atomic detail. For example the FTIR difference spectra of RasA18T and RanT25A mutants show that spectral differences are mainly due to the hydrogen bond of Thr-25 to the α-phosphate in Ran. By integration of x-ray structure analysis, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy the catalytic center of the x-ray structural models are further refined to sub-Å resolution, allowing an improved understanding of catalysis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Catalysis of GTP Hydrolysis by Small GTPases at Atomic Detail by Integration of X-ray Crystallography, Experimental, and Theoretical IR Spectroscopy*

    Rudack, Till; Jenrich, Sarah; Brucker, Sven; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Small GTPases regulate key processes in cells. Malfunction of their GTPase reaction by mutations is involved in severe diseases. Here, we compare the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras. By combination of time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy and QM/MM simulations we elucidate that the Mg2+ coordination by the phosphate groups, which varies largely among the x-ray structures, is the same for Ran and Ras. A new x-ray structure of a Ran·RanBD1 complex with improved resolution confirmed this finding and revealed a general problem with the refinement of Mg2+ in GTPases. The Mg2+ coordination is not responsible for the much slower GTPase reaction of Ran. Instead, the location of the Tyr-39 side chain of Ran between the γ-phosphate and Gln-69 prevents the optimal positioning of the attacking water molecule by the Gln-69 relative to the γ-phosphate. This is confirmed in the RanY39A·RanBD1 crystal structure. The QM/MM simulations provide IR spectra of the catalytic center, which agree very nicely with the experimental ones. The combination of both methods can correlate spectra with structure at atomic detail. For example the FTIR difference spectra of RasA18T and RanT25A mutants show that spectral differences are mainly due to the hydrogen bond of Thr-25 to the α-phosphate in Ran. By integration of x-ray structure analysis, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy the catalytic center of the x-ray structural models are further refined to sub-Å resolution, allowing an improved understanding of catalysis. PMID:26272610

  11. Different roles of the small GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoG in CALEB/NGC-induced dendritic tree complexity.

    Schulz, Jana; Franke, Kristin; Frick, Manfred; Schumacher, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Rho GTPases play prominent roles in the regulation of cytoskeletal reorganization. Many aspects have been elaborated concerning the individual functions of Rho GTPases in distinct signaling pathways leading to cytoskeletal rearrangements. However, major questions have yet to be answered regarding the integration and the signaling hierarchy of different Rho GTPases in regulating the cytoskeleton in fundamental physiological events like neuronal process differentiation. Here, we investigate the roles of the small GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoG in defining dendritic tree complexity stimulated by the transmembrane epidermal growth factor family member CALEB/NGC. Combining gain-of-function and loss-of-function analysis in primary hippocampal neurons, we find that Rac1 is essential for CALEB/NGC-mediated dendritic branching. Cdc42 reduces the complexity of dendritic trees. Interestingly, we identify the palmitoylated isoform of Cdc42 to adversely affect dendritic outgrowth and dendritic branching, whereas the prenylated Cdc42 isoform does not. In contrast to Rac1, CALEB/NGC and Cdc42 are not directly interconnected in regulating dendritic tree complexity. Unlike Rac1, the Rac1-related GTPase RhoG reduces the complexity of dendritic trees by acting upstream of CALEB/NGC. Mechanistically, CALEB/NGC activates Rac1, and RhoG reduces the amount of CALEB/NGC that is located at the right site for Rac1 activation at the cell membrane. Thus, Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoG perform very specific and non-redundant functions at different levels of hierarchy in regulating dendritic tree complexity induced by CALEB/NGC. Rho GTPases play a prominent role in dendritic branching. CALEB/NGC is a transmembrane member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that mediates dendritic branching, dependent on Rac1. CALEB/NGC stimulates Rac1 activity. RhoG inhibits CALEB/NGC-mediated dendritic branching by decreasing the amount of CALEB/NGC at the plasma membrane. Palmitoylated, but not prenylated form

  12. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation by targeting Rac1 GTPase with small interference RNA in tumor cells

    Xue Yan; Bi Feng; Zhang Xueyong; Pan Yanglin; Liu Na; Zheng Yi; Fan Daiming

    2004-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis plays an important role in the malignancy of solid tumors. A number of recent studies including our own have suggested that Rho family small GTPases are involved in this process, and Rac1, a prominent member of the Rho family, may be critical in regulating hypoxia-induced gene activation of several angiogenesis factors and tumor suppressors. To further define Rac1 function in angiogenesis and to explore novel approaches to modulate angiogenesis, we employed the small interference RNA technique to knock down gene expression of Rac1 in gastric cancer cell line AGS that expresses a high level of Rac1. Both the mRNA and protein levels of Rac1 in the AGS cells were decreased dramatically after transfection with a Rac1-specific siRNA vector. When the conditioned medium derived from the Rac1 downregulated AGS cells was applied to the human endothelial cells, it could significantly inhibit the cell proliferation. Further study proved that, VEGF and HIF-1α, two angiogenesis promoting factors, were found to be downregulated whereas p53 and VHL, which are tumor suppressors and angiogenesis inhibitors, were upregulated in the Rac1 siRNA transfected cells. Our results suggest that Rac1 may be involved in angiogenesis by controlling the expression of angiogenesis-related factors and provide a possible strategy for the treatment of tumor angiogenesis by targeting the Rac1 GTPase

  13. Activation of Rho GTPases by Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Induces Macropinocytosis and Scavenging Activity in Epithelial Cells

    Fiorentini, Carla; Falzano, Loredana; Fabbri, Alessia; Stringaro, Annarita; Logozzi, Mariaantonia; Travaglione, Sara; Contamin, Stéphanette; Arancia, Giuseppe; Malorni, Walter; Fais, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    Macropinocytosis, a ruffling-driven process that allows the capture of large material, is an essential aspect of normal cell function. It can be either constitutive, as in professional phagocytes where it ends with the digestion of captured material, or induced, as in epithelial cells stimulated by growth factors. In this case, the internalized material recycles back to the cell surface. We herein show that activation of Rho GTPases by a bacterial protein toxin, the Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), allowed epithelial cells to engulf and digest apoptotic cells in a manner similar to that of professional phagocytes. In particular, we have demonstrated that 1) the activation of all Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 by CNF1 was essential for the capture and internalization of apoptotic cells; and 2) such activation allowed the discharge of macropinosomal content into Rab7 and lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 acidic lysosomal vesicles where the ingested particles underwent degradation. Taken together, these findings indicate that CNF1-induced “switching on” of Rho GTPases may induce in epithelial cells a scavenging activity, comparable to that exerted by professional phagocytes. The activation of such activity in epithelial cells may be relevant, in mucosal tissues, in supporting or integrating the scavenging activity of resident macrophages. PMID:11452003

  14. Rab GTPases and the Autophagy Pathway: Bacterial Targets for a Suitable Biogenesis and Trafficking of Their Own Vacuoles

    María Milagros López de Armentia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular process that comprises degradation of damaged organelles, protein aggregates and intracellular pathogens, having an important role in controlling the fate of invading microorganisms. Intracellular pathogens are internalized by professional and non-professional phagocytes, localizing in compartments called phagosomes. To degrade the internalized microorganism, the microbial phagosome matures by fusion events with early and late endosomal compartments and lysosomes, a process that is regulated by Rab GTPases. Interestingly, in order to survive and replicate in the phagosome, some pathogens employ different strategies to manipulate vesicular traffic, inhibiting phagolysosomal biogenesis (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis or surviving in acidic compartments and forming replicative vacuoles (e.g., Coxiella burnetti and Legionella pneumophila. The bacteria described in this review often use secretion systems to control the host’s response and thus disseminate. To date, eight types of secretion systems (Type I to Type VIII are known. Some of these systems are used by bacteria to translocate pathogenic proteins into the host cell and regulate replicative vacuole formation, apoptosis, cytokine responses, and autophagy. Herein, we have focused on how bacteria manipulate small Rab GTPases to control many of these processes. The growing knowledge in this field may facilitate the development of new treatments or contribute to the prevention of these types of bacterial infections.

  15. Potential involvement of drought-induced Ran GTPase CLRan1 in root growth enhancement in a xerophyte wild watermelon.

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hanada, Kouhei; Kosaka, Rina; Kato, Atsushi; Katoh, Akira; Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Yokota, Akiho

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced root growth is known as the survival strategy of plants under drought. Previous proteome analysis in drought-resistant wild watermelon has shown that Ran GTPase, an essential regulator of cell division and proliferation, was induced in the roots under drought. In this study, two cDNAs were isolated from wild watermelon, CLRan1 and CLRan2, which showed a high degree of structural similarity with those of other plant Ran GTPases. Quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays suggested that CLRan1 was expressed mainly in the root apex and lateral root primordia, whereas CLRan2 was more broadly expressed in other part of the roots. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed that the abundance of CLRan proteins was elevated in the root apex region under drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing CLRan1 showed enhanced primary root growth, and the growth was maintained under osmotic stress, indicating that CLRan1 functions as a positive factor for maintaining root growth under stress conditions.

  16. In Planta Functional Analysis and Subcellular Localization of the Oomycete Pathogen Plasmopara viticola Candidate RXLR Effector Repertoire

    Yunxiao Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine, causing tremendous economic loss in the grape and wine industry. The disease agent Plasmopara viticola is an obligate biotrophic oomycete, from which over 100 candidate RXLR effectors have been identified. In this study, 83 candidate RXLR effector genes (PvRXLRs were cloned from the P. viticola isolate “JL-7-2” genome. The results of the yeast signal sequence trap assay indicated that most of the candidate effectors are secretory proteins. The biological activities and subcellular localizations of all the 83 effectors were analyzed via a heterologous Agrobacterium-mediated Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Results showed that 52 effectors could completely suppress cell death triggered by elicitin, 10 effectors could partially suppress cell death, 11 effectors were unable to suppress cell death, and 10 effectors themselves triggered cell death. Live-cell imaging showed that the majority of the effectors (76 of 83 could be observed with informative fluorescence signals in plant cells, among which 34 effectors were found to be targeted to both the nucleus and cytosol, 29 effectors were specifically localized in the nucleus, and 9 effectors were targeted to plant membrane system. Interestingly, three effectors PvRXLR61, 86 and 161 were targeted to chloroplasts, and one effector PvRXLR54 was dually targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. However, western blot analysis suggested that only PvRXLR86 carried a cleavable N-terminal transit peptide and underwent processing in planta. Many effectors have previously been predicted to target organelles, however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to provide experimental evidence of oomycete effectors targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  17. A Novel Function for the Streptococcus pneumoniae Aminopeptidase N: Inhibition of T Cell Effector Function through Regulation of TCR Signaling

    Lance K. Blevins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn causes a variety of disease states including fatal bacterial pneumonia. Our previous finding that introduction of Spn into an animal with ongoing influenza virus infection resulted in a CD8+ T cell population with reduced effector function gave rise to the possibility of direct regulation by pneumococcal components. Here, we show that treatment of effector T cells with lysate derived from Spn resulted in inhibition of IFNγ and tumor necrosis factor α production as well as of cytolytic granule release. Spn aminopeptidase N (PepN was identified as the inhibitory bacterial component and surprisingly, this property was independent of the peptidase activity found in this family of proteins. Inhibitory activity was associated with reduced activation of ZAP-70, ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, demonstrating the ability of PepN to negatively regulate TCR signaling at multiple points in the cascade. These results reveal a novel immune regulatory function for a bacterial aminopeptidase.

  18. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is protective against autoimmune-mediated demyelination by inhibiting effector T cell proliferation.

    Feng Mei

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (Que, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug (APD, can prevent myelin from breakdown without immune attack. Multiple sclerosis (MS, an autoimmune reactive inflammation demyelinating disease, is triggered by activated myelin-specific T lymphocytes (T cells. In this study, we investigated the potential efficacy of Que as an immune-modulating therapeutic agent for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model for MS. Que treatment was initiated on the onset of MOG(35-55 peptide induced EAE mice and the efficacy of Que on modulating the immune response was determined by Flow Cytometry through analyzing CD4(+/CD8(+ populations and the proliferation of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- in peripheral immune organs. Our results show that Que dramatically attenuates the severity of EAE symptoms. Que treatment decreases the extent of CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell infiltration into the spinal cord and suppresses local glial activation, thereby diminishing the loss of mature oligodendrocytes and myelin breakdown in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Our results further demonstrate that Que treatment decreases the CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell populations in lymph nodes and spleens of EAE mice and inhibits either MOG(35-55 or anti-CD3 induced proliferation as well as IL-2 production of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- isolated from EAE mice spleen. Together, these findings suggest that Que displays an immune-modulating role during the course of EAE, and thus may be a promising candidate for treatment of MS.

  19. DMPD: MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18191460 MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis...e and effector immunity totuberculosis. Authors Reiling N, Ehlers S, Holscher C. Publication Immunol Lett. 2

  20. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  1. Intrinsic disorder in pathogen effectors: protein flexibility as an evolutionary hallmark in a molecular arms race.

    Marín, Macarena; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ott, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Effector proteins represent a refined mechanism of bacterial pathogens to overcome plants' innate immune systems. These modular proteins often manipulate host physiology by directly interfering with immune signaling of plant cells. Even if host cells have developed efficient strategies to perceive the presence of pathogenic microbes and to recognize intracellular effector activity, it remains an open question why only few effectors are recognized directly by plant resistance proteins. Based on in-silico genome-wide surveys and a reevaluation of published structural data, we estimated that bacterial effectors of phytopathogens are highly enriched in long-disordered regions (>50 residues). These structurally flexible segments have no secondary structure under physiological conditions but can fold in a stimulus-dependent manner (e.g., during protein-protein interactions). The high abundance of intrinsic disorder in effectors strongly suggests positive evolutionary selection of this structural feature and highlights the dynamic nature of these proteins. We postulate that such structural flexibility may be essential for (1) effector translocation, (2) evasion of the innate immune system, and (3) host function mimicry. The study of these dynamical regions will greatly complement current structural approaches to understand the molecular mechanisms of these proteins and may help in the prediction of new effectors.

  2. A Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE) Toolbox for Genome Engineering

    Sanjana, Neville E.; Cong, Le; Zhou, Yang; Cunniff, Margaret M.; Feng, Guoping; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of naturally occurring DNA binding proteins found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas sp. The DNA binding domain of each TALE consists of tandem 34-amino acid repeat modules that can be rearranged according to a simple cipher to target new DNA sequences. Customized TALEs can be used for a wide variety of genome engineering applications, including transcriptional modulation and genome editing. Here we describe a toolbox for rapid construction of custom TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs) and nucleases (TALENs) using a hierarchical ligation procedure. This toolbox facilitates affordable and rapid construction of custom TALE-TFs and TALENs within one week and can be easily scaled up to construct TALEs for multiple targets in parallel. We also provide details for testing the activity in mammalian cells of custom TALE-TFs and TALENs using, respectively, qRT-PCR and Surveyor nuclease. The TALE toolbox described here will enable a broad range of biological applications. PMID:22222791

  3. Altered effector function of peripheral cytotoxic cells in COPD

    Corne Jonathan M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that perforin and granzymes are important mediators in the lung destruction seen in COPD. We investigated the characteristics of the three main perforin and granzyme containing peripheral cells, namely CD8+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD56+CD3- cells and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated and cell numbers and intracellular granzyme B and perforin were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunomagnetically selected CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells were used in an LDH release assay to determine cytotoxicity and cytotoxic mechanisms were investigated by blocking perforin and granzyme B with relevant antibodies. Results The proportion of peripheral blood NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in smokers with COPD (COPD subjects was significantly lower (0.6% than in healthy smokers (smokers (2.8%, p +CD3- cells from COPD subjects were significantly less cytotoxic than in smokers (16.8% vs 51.9% specific lysis, p +CD3+ cells (16.7% vs 52.4% specific lysis, p +CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells from smokers and HNS. Conclusion In this study, we show that the relative numbers of peripheral blood NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in COPD subjects are reduced and that their cytotoxic effector function is defective.

  4. The death effector domains of caspase-8 induce terminal differentiation.

    Ainhoa Mielgo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation and senescence programs of metazoans play key roles in regulating normal development and preventing aberrant cell proliferation, such as cancer. These programs are intimately associated with both the mitotic and apoptotic pathways. Caspase-8 is an apical apoptotic initiator that has recently been appreciated to coordinate non-apoptotic roles in the cell. Most of these functions are attributed to the catalytic domain, however, the amino-terminal death effector domains (DEDs, which belong to the death domain superfamily of proteins, can also play key roles during development. Here we describe a novel role for caspase-8 DEDs in regulating cell differentiation and senescence. Caspase-8 DEDs accumulate during terminal differentiation and senescence of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid cells; genetic deletion or shRNA suppression of caspase-8 disrupts cell differentiation, while re-expression of DEDs rescues this phenotype. Among caspase-8 deficient neuroblastoma cells, DED expression attenuated tumor growth in vivo and proliferation in vitro via disruption of mitosis and cytokinesis, resulting in upregulation of p53 and induction of differentiation markers. These events occur independent of caspase-8 catalytic activity, but require a critical lysine (K156 in a microtubule-binding motif in the second DED domain. The results demonstrate a new function for the DEDs of caspase-8, and describe an unexpected mechanism that contributes to cell differentiation and senescence.

  5. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  6. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells as Effectors in Innate Immunity

    Jennifer L. Granick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shed light on novel functions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC. While they are critical for maintenance and replenishment of blood cells in the bone marrow, these cells are not limited to the bone marrow compartment and function beyond their role in hematopoiesis. HSPC can leave bone marrow and circulate in peripheral blood and lymph, a process often manipulated therapeutically for the purpose of transplantation. Additionally, these cells preferentially home to extramedullary sites of inflammation where they can differentiate to more mature effector cells. HSPC are susceptible to various pathogens, though they may participate in the innate immune response without being directly infected. They express pattern recognition receptors for detection of endogenous and exogenous danger-associated molecular patterns and respond not only by the formation of daughter cells but can themselves secrete powerful cytokines. This paper summarizes the functional and phenotypic characterization of HSPC, their niche within and outside of the bone marrow, and what is known regarding their role in the innate immune response.

  7. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    E Torreggiani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet lysate (PL in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Corynespora cassiicola Leaf Fall Disease Putative Effectors.

    Lopez, David; Ribeiro, Sébastien; Label, Philippe; Fumanal, Boris; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Kohler, Annegret; de Oliveira, Ricardo R; Labutti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Lail, Kathleen; Bauer, Diane; Ohm, Robin A; Barry, Kerrie W; Spatafora, Joseph; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis M; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is an Ascomycetes fungus with a broad host range and diverse life styles. Mostly known as a necrotrophic plant pathogen, it has also been associated with rare cases of human infection. In the rubber tree, this fungus causes the Corynespora leaf fall (CLF) disease, which increasingly affects natural rubber production in Asia and Africa. It has also been found as an endophyte in South American rubber plantations where no CLF outbreak has yet occurred. The C. cassiicola species is genetically highly diverse, but no clear relationship has been evidenced between phylogenetic lineage and pathogenicity. Cassiicolin, a small glycosylated secreted protein effector, is thought to be involved in the necrotrophic interaction with the rubber tree but some virulent C. cassiicola isolates do not have a cassiicolin gene. This study set out to identify other putative effectors involved in CLF. The genome of a highly virulent C. cassiicola isolate from the rubber tree (CCP) was sequenced and assembled. In silico prediction revealed 2870 putative effectors, comprising CAZymes, lipases, peptidases, secreted proteins and enzymes associated with secondary metabolism. Comparison with the genomes of 44 other fungal species, focusing on effector content, revealed a striking proximity with phylogenetically unrelated species ( Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, nectria hematococca , and Botrosphaeria dothidea ) sharing life style plasticity and broad host range. Candidate effectors involved in the compatible interaction with the rubber tree were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Differentially expressed genes included 92 putative effectors, among which cassiicolin and two other secreted singleton proteins. Finally, the genomes of 35 C. cassiicola isolates representing the genetic diversity of the species were sequenced and assembled, and putative effectors identified. At the intraspecific level, effector

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of Corynespora cassiicola Leaf Fall Disease Putative Effectors

    David Lopez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is an Ascomycetes fungus with a broad host range and diverse life styles. Mostly known as a necrotrophic plant pathogen, it has also been associated with rare cases of human infection. In the rubber tree, this fungus causes the Corynespora leaf fall (CLF disease, which increasingly affects natural rubber production in Asia and Africa. It has also been found as an endophyte in South American rubber plantations where no CLF outbreak has yet occurred. The C. cassiicola species is genetically highly diverse, but no clear relationship has been evidenced between phylogenetic lineage and pathogenicity. Cassiicolin, a small glycosylated secreted protein effector, is thought to be involved in the necrotrophic interaction with the rubber tree but some virulent C. cassiicola isolates do not have a cassiicolin gene. This study set out to identify other putative effectors involved in CLF. The genome of a highly virulent C. cassiicola isolate from the rubber tree (CCP was sequenced and assembled. In silico prediction revealed 2870 putative effectors, comprising CAZymes, lipases, peptidases, secreted proteins and enzymes associated with secondary metabolism. Comparison with the genomes of 44 other fungal species, focusing on effector content, revealed a striking proximity with phylogenetically unrelated species (Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, nectria hematococca, and Botrosphaeria dothidea sharing life style plasticity and broad host range. Candidate effectors involved in the compatible interaction with the rubber tree were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Differentially expressed genes included 92 putative effectors, among which cassiicolin and two other secreted singleton proteins. Finally, the genomes of 35 C. cassiicola isolates representing the genetic diversity of the species were sequenced and assembled, and putative effectors identified. At the intraspecific level, effector

  10. Design and force analysis of end-effector for plug seedling transplanter.

    Zhuohua Jiang

    Full Text Available Automatic transplanters have been very important in greenhouses since the popularization of seedling nurseries. End-effector development is a key technology for transplanting plug seedlings. Most existing end-effectors have problems with holding root plugs or releasing plugs. An efficient end-effector driven by a linear pneumatic cylinder was designed in this study, which could hold root plugs firmly and release plugs easily. This end-effector with four needles could clamp the plug simultaneously while the needles penetrate into the substrate. The depth and verticality of the needles could be adjusted conveniently for different seedling trays. The effectiveness of this end-effector was tested by a combinational trial examining three seedling nursery factors (the moisture content of the substrate, substrate bulk density and the volume proportion of substrate ingredients. Results showed that the total transplanting success rate for the end-effector was 100%, and the root plug harm rate was below 17%. A force measure system with tension and pressure transducers was installed on the designed end-effector. The adhesive force FL between the root plug and the cell of seedling trays and the extrusion force FK on the root plug were measured and analyzed. The results showed that all three variable factors and their interactions had significant effects on the extrusion force. Each factor had a significant effect on adhesive force. Additionally, it was found that the end-effector did not perform very well when the value of FK/FL was beyond the range of 5.99~8.67. This could provide a scientific basis for end-effector application in transplanting.

  11. Design and force analysis of end-effector for plug seedling transplanter.

    Jiang, Zhuohua; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Huanyu; Tong, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    Automatic transplanters have been very important in greenhouses since the popularization of seedling nurseries. End-effector development is a key technology for transplanting plug seedlings. Most existing end-effectors have problems with holding root plugs or releasing plugs. An efficient end-effector driven by a linear pneumatic cylinder was designed in this study, which could hold root plugs firmly and release plugs easily. This end-effector with four needles could clamp the plug simultaneously while the needles penetrate into the substrate. The depth and verticality of the needles could be adjusted conveniently for different seedling trays. The effectiveness of this end-effector was tested by a combinational trial examining three seedling nursery factors (the moisture content of the substrate, substrate bulk density and the volume proportion of substrate ingredients). Results showed that the total transplanting success rate for the end-effector was 100%, and the root plug harm rate was below 17%. A force measure system with tension and pressure transducers was installed on the designed end-effector. The adhesive force FL between the root plug and the cell of seedling trays and the extrusion force FK on the root plug were measured and analyzed. The results showed that all three variable factors and their interactions had significant effects on the extrusion force. Each factor had a significant effect on adhesive force. Additionally, it was found that the end-effector did not perform very well when the value of FK/FL was beyond the range of 5.99~8.67. This could provide a scientific basis for end-effector application in transplanting.

  12. Site-directed mutagenesis of Arg58 and Asp86 of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli: effects on the GTPase reaction and aminoacyl-tRNA binding

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli was mutated separately at positions Asp86 and Arg58, in order to shed light both on the GTPase mechanism of elongation factor Tu and on the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. In addition, the binding of guanine nucleotides was investigated by determination...

  13. Abscisic Acid as Pathogen Effector and Immune Regulator

    Lievens, Laurens; Pollier, Jacob; Goossens, Alain; Beyaert, Rudi; Staal, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene signaling molecule produced in all kingdoms of life. To date, the best known functions of ABA are derived from its role as a major phytohormone in plant abiotic stress resistance. Different organisms have developed different biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways related to ABA. Despite this, there are also intriguing common themes where ABA often suppresses host immune responses and is utilized by pathogens as an effector molecule. ABA also seems to play an important role in compatible mutualistic interactions such as mycorrhiza and rhizosphere bacteria with plants, and possibly also the animal gut microbiome. The frequent use of ABA in inter-species communication could be a possible reason for the wide distribution and re-invention of ABA as a signaling molecule in different organisms. In humans and animal models, it has been shown that ABA treatment or nutrient-derived ABA is beneficial in inflammatory diseases like colitis and type 2 diabetes, which confer potential to ABA as an interesting nutraceutical or pharmacognostic drug. The anti-inflammatory activity, cellular metabolic reprogramming, and other beneficial physiological and psychological effects of ABA treatment in humans and animal models has sparked an interest in this molecule and its signaling pathway as a novel pharmacological target. In contrast to plants, however, very little is known about the ABA biosynthesis and signaling in other organisms. Genes, tools and knowledge about ABA from plant sciences and studies of phytopathogenic fungi might benefit biomedical studies on the physiological role of endogenously generated ABA in humans. PMID:28469630

  14. Multiplexed Quantitation of Intraphagocyte Mycobacterium tuberculosis Secreted Protein Effectors

    Fadel Sayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The pathogenic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis largely depends on ESX secretion systems exporting members of the multigenic Esx, Esp, and PE/PPE protein families. To study the secretion and regulation patterns of these proteins while circumventing immune cross-reactions due to their extensive sequence homologies, we developed an approach that relies on the recognition of their MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell receptors (TCRs of a panel of T cell hybridomas. The latter were engineered so that each expresses a unique fluorescent reporter linked to specific antigen recognition. The resulting polychromatic and multiplexed imaging assay enabled us to measure the secretion of mycobacterial effectors inside infected host cells. We applied this novel technology to a large panel of mutants, clinical isolates, and host-cell types to explore the host-mycobacteria interplay and its impact on the intracellular bacterial secretome, which also revealed the unexpected capacity of phagocytes from lung granuloma to present mycobacterial antigens via MHC class II. : Sayes et al. develop an approach to express distinct fluorescent reporters that is based on the recognition of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell hybridomas. This multiplexed technology allows the study of secretion, subcellular location, and regulation patterns of these instrumental protein members. Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, type VII secretion systems, intracellular bacteria, T-cell hybridomas, mycobacterial virulence factors, bacterial antigen presentation, lentiviral vectors, reporter T cells, in vivo antigen presentation, protein localization

  15. Effector Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Immune Homeostasis Depend on the Transcription Factor Myb.

    Dias, Sheila; D'Amico, Angela; Cretney, Erika; Liao, Yang; Tellier, Julie; Bruggeman, Christine; Almeida, Francisca F; Leahy, Jamie; Belz, Gabrielle T; Smyth, Gordon K; Shi, Wei; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-01-17

    FoxP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Activated Treg cells undergo further differentiation into an effector state that highly expresses genes critical for Treg cell function, although how this process is coordinated on a transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking the transcription factor Myb in Treg cells succumbed to a multi-organ inflammatory disease. Myb was specifically expressed in, and required for the differentiation of, thymus-derived effector Treg cells. The combination of transcriptome and genomic footprint analyses revealed that Myb directly regulated a large proportion of the gene expression specific to effector Treg cells, identifying Myb as a critical component of the gene regulatory network controlling effector Treg cell differentiation and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hitting the Sweet Spot: Glycans as Targets of Fungal Defense Effector Proteins

    Markus Künzler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Organisms which rely solely on innate defense systems must combat a large number of antagonists with a comparatively low number of defense effector molecules. As one solution of this problem, these organisms have evolved effector molecules targeting epitopes that are conserved between different antagonists of a specific taxon or, if possible, even of different taxa. In order to restrict the activity of the defense effector molecules to physiologically relevant taxa, these target epitopes should, on the other hand, be taxon-specific and easily accessible. Glycans fulfill all these requirements and are therefore a preferred target of defense effector molecules, in particular defense proteins. Here, we review this defense strategy using the example of the defense system of multicellular (filamentous fungi against microbial competitors and animal predators.

  17. Controlling transcription in human pluripotent stem cells using CRISPR-effectors.

    Genga, Ryan M; Kearns, Nicola A; Maehr, René

    2016-05-15

    The ability to manipulate transcription in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is fundamental for the discovery of key genes and mechanisms governing cellular state and differentiation. Recently developed CRISPR-effector systems provide a systematic approach to rapidly test gene function in mammalian cells, including hPSCs. In this review, we discuss recent advances in CRISPR-effector technologies that have been employed to control transcription through gene activation, gene repression, and epigenome engineering. We describe an application of CRISPR-effector mediated transcriptional regulation in hPSCs by targeting a synthetic promoter driving a GFP transgene, demonstrating the ease and effectiveness of CRISPR-effector mediated transcriptional regulation in hPSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    Ordonez, Soledad R; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk P

    2017-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that

  19. Structural basis for sequence-specific recognition of DNA by TAL effectors

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Pan, Xiaojing; Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Jiankang; Shi, Yi Gong; Yan, Nieng

    2012-01-01

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair

  20. Use of spring-roll EAP actuator applied as end-effector of a hyper-redundant robot

    Errico, Gianmarco; Fava, Victor; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a hyper-redundant continuous robot used to perform work in places which humans can not reach. This type of robot is generally a bio-inspired solution, it is composed by a lot of flexible segments driven by multiple actuators and its dynamics is described by a lot degrees of freedom. In this paper a model composed of some rigid links connected to each other by revolution joint is presented. In each link a torsional spring is added in order to simulate the resistant torque between the links and the interactions among the cables and the robot during the relative rotation. Moreover a type of EAP actuator, called spring roll, is used as the end-effector of the robot. Through a suitable sensor, such as a camera, the spring roll allows to track a target and it closes the control loop on the robot to follow it.

  1. Ran GTPase protein promotes human pancreatic cancer proliferation by deregulating the expression of Survivin and cell cycle proteins

    Deng, Lin; Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaodi; Sun, Yi; Shi, Yongquan; Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Changhao; Zhou, Jinfeng; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Guo, Xuegang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Overexpression of Ran in pancreatic cancer was correlated with histological grade. •Downregulation of Ran could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. •The effects were mediated by cell cycle proteins, Survivin and cleaved Caspase-3. -- Abstract: Ran, a member of the Ras GTPase family, has important roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Herein, we detected Ran expression in pancreatic cancer and explored its potential role on tumour progression. Overexpressed Ran in pancreatic cancer tissues was found highly correlated with the histological grade. Downregulation of Ran led to significant suppression of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase and induction of apoptosis. In vivo studies also validated that result. Further studies revealed that those effects were at least partly mediated by the downregulation of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, phospho-Rb and Survivin proteins and up regulation of cleaved Caspase-3

  2. The Role of CD39 in Modulating Effector Immune Responses in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Huang, Huang

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with excessive inflammation of the bowel and intestinal tissues in genetically susceptible individuals. IBD can manifest in two major forms, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. T helper type 17 cells (Th17) are effector lymphocytes that have been linked to intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans. Effector Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) – a subset pivotal to immune-tolerance maintenance – derive from the same CD4 progenitors. Our i...

  3. Sensory neuropathy with bone destruction due to a mutation in the membrane-shaping atlastin GTPase 3.

    Kornak, Uwe; Mademan, Inès; Schinke, Marte; Voigt, Martin; Krawitz, Peter; Hecht, Jochen; Barvencik, Florian; Schinke, Thorsten; Gießelmann, Sebastian; Beil, F Timo; Pou-Serradell, Adolf; Vílchez, Juan J; Beetz, Christian; Deconinck, Tine; Timmerman, Vincent; Kaether, Christoph; De Jonghe, Peter; Hübner, Christian A; Gal, Andreas; Amling, Michael; Mundlos, Stefan; Baets, Jonathan; Kurth, Ingo

    2014-03-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders present with sensory loss. In the group of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies loss of nociception is one of the disease hallmarks. To determine underlying factors of sensory neurodegeneration we performed whole-exome sequencing in affected individuals with the disorder. In a family with sensory neuropathy with loss of pain perception and destruction of the pedal skeleton we report a missense mutation in a highly conserved amino acid residue of atlastin GTPase 3 (ATL3), an endoplasmic reticulum-shaping GTPase. The same mutation (p.Tyr192Cys) was identified in a second family with similar clinical outcome by screening a large cohort of 115 patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Both families show an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and the mutation segregates with complete penetrance. ATL3 is a paralogue of ATL1, a membrane curvature-generating molecule that is involved in spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathy. ATL3 proteins are enriched in three-way junctions, branch points of the endoplasmic reticulum that connect membranous tubules to a continuous network. Mutant ATL3 p.Tyr192Cys fails to localize to branch points, but instead disrupts the structure of the tubular endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the mutation exerts a dominant-negative effect. Identification of ATL3 as novel disease-associated gene exemplifies that long-term sensory neuronal maintenance critically depends on the structural organisation of the endoplasmic reticulum. It emphasizes that alterations in membrane shaping-proteins are one of the major emerging pathways in axonal degeneration and suggests that this group of molecules should be considered in neuroprotective strategies.

  4. Genome - wide identification, molecular characterization and expression analysis of the rop gtpase family in pepper (capsicum annum)

    Huang, D.; Li, M.; He, S.

    2015-01-01

    ROP/RAC GTPases is a plant-specific subfamily of Rho GTPases that plays a versatile role in the regulation of plant growth, development, in hormone signal transduction and response to the environment. Prior to the present study, only one Rop gene in pepper has been described. However, with the recent release of the draft genome sequence of pepper allowes us to conduct a genome wide search to identify how many Rop family members existed in pepper genome. We carried out bioinformatics analysis to establish the conserved as well as divergent regions on the protein sequences, phylogenetically analysis and the corresponding result shows that, CaROPs could be distributed into four groups as described in the literature for their homologs in Arabidopsis. To understand the function of nine Rop genes in pepper, we accordingly studied the tissue, fruit development and ripening expression patterns of CaRop genes by obtained RNA-seq data from public database. From our analysis, we realized that the expression of CaRop genes shows no total tissue or developmental specific expression. Furthermore, gene expression profiles of CaRop in response to environment stresses and hormone treatment, such as inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum, by heat stress as well as treated with four phytohormones respectively and evaluated with real time RT-PCR. The potential involvement of specific CaRop genes in growth, fruit development, ripening, environment stresses as well as hormone responses discussed and may lay the foundation for future functional analysis to unravel their biological roles. (author)

  5. Early stages of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family revealed by genomic and localization studies in Paramecium species.

    Bright, Lydia J; Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2017-04-15

    New gene functions arise within existing gene families as a result of gene duplication and subsequent diversification. To gain insight into the steps that led to the functional diversification of paralogues, we tracked duplicate retention patterns, expression-level divergence, and subcellular markers of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family in three Paramecium aurelia species. After whole-genome duplication, Rab GTPase duplicates are more highly retained than other genes in the genome but appear to be diverging more rapidly in expression levels, consistent with early steps in functional diversification. However, by localizing specific Rab proteins in Paramecium cells, we found that paralogues from the two most recent whole-genome duplications had virtually identical localization patterns, and that less closely related paralogues showed evidence of both conservation and diversification. The functionally conserved paralogues appear to target to compartments associated with both endocytic and phagocytic recycling functions, confirming evolutionary and functional links between the two pathways in a divergent eukaryotic lineage. Because the functionally diversifying paralogues are still closely related to and derived from a clade of functionally conserved Rab11 genes, we were able to pinpoint three specific amino acid residues that may be driving the change in the localization and thus the function in these proteins. © 2017 Bright et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    Sato, Mai [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Tetsuya [Cell Signaling Group, Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABOIS), Waseda University, 11 Biopolis Way, 05-01/02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Numano, Rika [The Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tennpaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ikematsu, Kazuya [Forensic Pathology and Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kakeyama, Masaki [Laboratory of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Tsuboi, Takashi, E-mail: takatsuboi@bio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  7. Sevoflurane Inhalation Accelerates the Long-Term Memory Consolidation via Small GTPase Overexpression in the Hippocampus of Mice in Adolescence.

    Nakamura, Emi; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Feng, Guo-Gang; Hayashi, Hisaki; Satomoto, Maiko; Sato, Motohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposure impairs the long-term memory in neonates. Whether the exposure to animals in adolescence affects the memory, however, has been unclear. A small hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate (GTPase) rac1 plays a role in the F-actin dynamics related to the synaptic plasticity, as well as superoxide production via reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation. The current study was designed to examine whether sevoflurane exposure to mice in early adolescence modifies the long-term learning ability concomitantly with the changes in F-actin constitution as well as superoxide production in the hippocampus according to the levels of rac1 protein expression. Four-week-old mice were subjected to the evaluation of long-term learning ability for three days. On day one, each mouse was allowed to enter a dark chamber for five min to acclimatization. On day two, the procedure was repeated with the addition of an electric shock as soon as a mouse entered the dark chamber. All mice subsequently inhaled 2 L/min air with (Sevoflurane group) and without (Control group) 2.5% sevoflurane for three hours. On day three, each mouse was placed on the platform and retention time, which is the latency to enter the dark chamber, was examined. The brain removed after the behavior test, was used for analyses of immunofluorescence, Western immunoblotting and intracellular levels of superoxide. Sevoflurane exposure significantly prolonged retention time, indicating the enhanced long-term memory. Sevoflurane inhalation augmented F-actin constitution coexisting with the rac1 protein overexpression in the hippocampus whereas it did not alter the levels of superoxide. Sevoflurane exposure to 4-week-old mice accelerates the long-term memory concomitantly with the enhanced F-actin constitution coexisting with the small GTPase rac1 overexpression in the hippocampus. These results suggest that sevoflurane inhalation may amplify long-term memory

  8. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    Sato, Mai; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Numano, Rika; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Kakeyama, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. ► Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. ► Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  9. RAB10 Interacts with the Male Germ Cell-Specific GTPase-Activating Protein during Mammalian Spermiogenesis

    Ying-Hung Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to recent estimates, 2%–15% of couples are sterile, and approximately half of the infertility cases are attributed to male reproductive factors. However, the reasons remain undefined in approximately 25% of male infertility cases, and most infertility cases exhibit spermatogenic defects. Numerous genes involved in spermatogenesis still remain unknown. We previously identified Male Germ Cells Rab GTPase-Activating Proteins (MGCRABGAPs through cDNA microarray analysis of human testicular tissues with spermatogenic defects. MGCRABGAP contains a conserved RABGAP catalytic domain, TBC (Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16. RABGAP family proteins regulate cellular function (e.g., cytoskeletal remodeling, vesicular trafficking, and cell migration by inactivating RAB proteins. MGCRABGAP is a male germ cell-specific protein expressed in elongating and elongated spermatids during mammalian spermiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins that interact with MGCRABGAP during mammalian spermiogenesis using a proteomic approach. We found that MGCRABGAP exhibited GTPase-activating bioability, and several MGCRABGAP interactors, possible substrates (e.g., RAB10, RAB5C, and RAP1, were identified using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP and nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS. We confirmed the binding ability between RAB10 and MGCRABGAP via co-IP. Additionally, MGCRABGAP–RAB10 complexes were specifically colocalized in the manchette structure, a critical structure for the formation of spermatid heads, and were slightly expressed at the midpiece of mature spermatozoa. Based on these results, we propose that MGCRABGAP is involved in mammalian spermiogenesis by modulating RAB10.

  10. Palmitoylation of the immunity related GTPase, Irgm1: impact on membrane localization and ability to promote mitochondrial fission.

    Stanley C Henry

    Full Text Available The Immunity-Related GTPases (IRG are a family of large GTPases that mediate innate immune responses. Irgm1 is particularly critical for immunity to bacteria and protozoa, and for inflammatory homeostasis in the intestine. Although precise functions for Irgm1 have not been identified, prior studies have suggested roles in autophagy/mitophagy, phagosome remodeling, cell motility, and regulating the activity of other IRG proteins. These functions ostensibly hinge on the ability of Irgm1 to localize to intracellular membranes, such as those of the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria. Previously, it has been shown that an amphipathic helix, the αK helix, in the C-terminal portion of the protein partially mediates membrane binding. However, in absence of αK, there is still substantial binding of Irgm1 to cellular membranes, suggesting the presence of other membrane binding motifs. In the current work, an additional membrane localization motif was found in the form of palmitoylation at a cluster of cysteines near the αK. An Irgm1 mutant possessing alanine to cysteine substitutions at these amino acids demonstrated little residual palmitoylation, yet it displayed only a small decrease in localization to the Golgi and mitochondria. In contrast, a mutant containing the palmitoylation mutations in combination with mutations disrupting the amphipathic character of the αK displayed a complete loss of apparent localization to the Golgi and mitochondria, as well as an overall loss of association with cellular membranes in general. Additionally, Irgm1 was found to promote mitochondrial fission, and this function was undermined in Irgm1 mutants lacking the palmitoylation domain, and to a greater extent in those lacking the αK, or the αK and palmitoylation domains combined. Our data suggest that palmitoylation together with the αK helix firmly anchor Irgm1 in the Golgi and mitochondria, thus facilitating function of the protein.

  11. Interaction of the Small GTPase Cdc42 with Arginine Kinase Restricts White Spot Syndrome Virus in Shrimp.

    Xu, Ji-Dong; Jiang, Hai-Shan; Wei, Tian-Di; Zhang, Ke-Yi; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2017-03-01

    Many types of small GTPases are widely expressed in eukaryotes and have different functions. As a crucial member of the Rho GTPase family, Cdc42 serves a number of functions, such as regulating cell growth, migration, and cell movement. Several RNA viruses employ Cdc42-hijacking tactics in their target cell entry processes. However, the function of Cdc42 in shrimp antiviral immunity is not clear. In this study, we identified a Cdc42 protein in the kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus ) and named it Mj Cdc42. Mj Cdc42 was upregulated in shrimp challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The knockdown of Mj Cdc42 and injection of Cdc42 inhibitors increased the proliferation of WSSV. Further experiments determined that Mj Cdc42 interacted with an arginine kinase ( Mj AK). By analyzing the binding activity and enzyme activity of Mj AK and its mutant, Δ Mj AK, we found that Mj AK could enhance the replication of WSSV in shrimp. Mj AK interacted with the envelope protein VP26 of WSSV. An inhibitor of AK activity, quercetin, could impair the function of Mj AK in WSSV replication. Further study demonstrated that the binding of Mj Cdc42 and Mj AK depends on Cys 271 of Mj AK and suppresses the WSSV replication-promoting effect of Mj AK. By interacting with the active site of Mj AK and suppressing its enzyme activity, Mj Cdc42 inhibits WSSV replication in shrimp. Our results demonstrate a new function of Cdc42 in the cellular defense against viral infection in addition to the regulation of actin and phagocytosis, which has been reported in previous studies. IMPORTANCE The interaction of Cdc42 with arginine kinase plays a crucial role in the host defense against WSSV infection. This study identifies a new mechanism of Cdc42 in innate immunity and enriches the knowledge of the antiviral innate immunity of invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Human memory CD8 T cell effector potential is epigenetically preserved during in vivo homeostasis.

    Abdelsamed, Hossam A; Moustaki, Ardiana; Fan, Yiping; Dogra, Pranay; Ghoneim, Hazem E; Zebley, Caitlin C; Triplett, Brandon M; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Youngblood, Ben

    2017-06-05

    Antigen-independent homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells is vital for sustaining long-lived T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we report that maintenance of human memory CD8 T cell effector potential during in vitro and in vivo homeostatic proliferation is coupled to preservation of acquired DNA methylation programs. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of primary human naive, short-lived effector memory (T EM ), and longer-lived central memory (T CM ) and stem cell memory (T SCM ) CD8 T cells identified effector molecules with demethylated promoters and poised for expression. Effector-loci demethylation was heritably preserved during IL-7- and IL-15-mediated in vitro cell proliferation. Conversely, cytokine-driven proliferation of T CM and T SCM memory cells resulted in phenotypic conversion into T EM cells and was coupled to increased methylation of the CCR7 and Tcf7 loci. Furthermore, haploidentical donor memory CD8 T cells undergoing in vivo proliferation in lymphodepleted recipients also maintained their effector-associated demethylated status but acquired T EM -associated programs. These data demonstrate that effector-associated epigenetic programs are preserved during cytokine-driven subset interconversion of human memory CD8 T cells. © 2017 Abdelsamed et al.

  13. SPRYSEC effectors: a versatile protein-binding platform to disrupt plant innate immunity

    Amalia Diaz-Granados

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infections by sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes are a major threat to important food crops all over the world. These round worms manipulate host plant cell morphology and physiology to establish sophisticated feeding structures. Key modifications to plant cells during their transition into feeding structures are largely attributed to the activity of effectors secreted by the nematodes. The SPRYSEC effectors were initially identified in the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, and are characterized by a single SPRY domain, a non-catalytic domain present in modular proteins with different functions. The SPRY domain is wide-spread among eukaryotes and thought to be involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. Thus far, the SPRY domain is only reported as a functional domain in effectors of plant-parasitic nematodes, but not of other plant pathogens. SPRYSEC effectors have been implicated in both suppression and activation of plant immunity, but other possible roles in nematode virulence remain undefined. Here, we review the latest reports on the structure, function, and sequence diversity of SPRYSEC effectors, which provide support for a model featuring these effectors as a versatile protein-binding platform for the nematodes to target a wide range of host proteins during parasitism.

  14. Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants.

    MacLean, Allyson M; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V; Findlay, Kim C; Grieve, Victoria M; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches' broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host.

  15. The SecA2 pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exports effectors that work in concert to arrest phagosome and autophagosome maturation.

    Zulauf, Katelyn E; Sullivan, Jonathan Tabb; Braunstein, Miriam

    2018-04-30

    To subvert host defenses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) avoids being delivered to degradative phagolysosomes in macrophages by arresting the normal host process of phagosome maturation. Phagosome maturation arrest by Mtb involves multiple effectors and much remains unknown about this important aspect of Mtb pathogenesis. The SecA2 dependent protein export system is required for phagosome maturation arrest and consequently growth of Mtb in macrophages. To better understand the role of the SecA2 pathway in phagosome maturation arrest, we identified two effectors exported by SecA2 that contribute to this process: the phosphatase SapM and the kinase PknG. Then, utilizing the secA2 mutant of Mtb as a platform to study effector functions, we identified specific steps in phagosome maturation inhibited by SapM and/or PknG. By identifying a histidine residue that is essential for SapM phosphatase activity, we confirmed for the first time that the phosphatase activity of SapM is required for its effects on phagosome maturation in macrophages. We further demonstrated that SecA2 export of SapM and PknG contributes to the ability of Mtb to replicate in macrophages. Finally, we extended our understanding of the SecA2 pathway, SapM, and PknG by revealing that their contribution goes beyond preventing Mtb delivery to mature phagolysosomes and includes inhibiting Mtb delivery to autophagolysosomes. Together, our results revealed SapM and PknG to be two effectors exported by the SecA2 pathway of Mtb with distinct as well as cumulative effects on phagosome and autophagosome maturation. Our results further reveal that Mtb must have additional mechanisms of limiting acidification of the phagosome, beyond inhibiting recruitment of the V-ATPase proton pump to the phagosome, and they indicate differences between effects of Mtb on phagosome and autophagosome maturation.

  16. DEEP--a tool for differential expression effector prediction.

    Degenhardt, Jost; Haubrock, Martin; Dönitz, Jürgen; Wingender, Edgar; Crass, Torsten

    2007-07-01

    --differentially expressed or not--may play pivotal roles in the tissues or conditions under examination. The described method has been implemented in Java as a client/server application and a web interface called DEEP (Differential Expression Effector Prediction). The client, which features an easy-to-use graphical interface, can freely be downloaded from the following URL: http://deep.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de.

  17. Formulation of the bivalent prostate cancer vaccine with surgifoam elicits antigen-specific effector T cells in PSA-transgenic mice.

    Karan, Dev

    2017-10-13

    We previously developed and characterized an adenoviral-based prostate cancer vaccine for simultaneous targeting of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). We also demonstrated that immunization of mice with the bivalent vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) inhibited the growth of established prostate tumors. However, there are multiple challenges hindering the success of immunological therapies in the clinic. One of the prime concerns has been to overcome the immunological tolerance and maintenance of long-term effector T cells. In this study, we further characterized the use of the bivalent vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) in a transgenic mouse model expressing human PSA in the mouse prostate. We demonstrated the expression of PSA analyzed at the mRNA level (by RT-PCR) and protein level (by immunohistochemistry) in the prostate lobes harvested from the PSA-transgenic (PSA-Tg) mice. We established that the administration of the bivalent vaccine in surgifoam to the PSA-Tg mice induces strong PSA-specific effector CD8 + T cells as measured by IFN-γ secretion and in vitro cytotoxic T-cell assay. Furthermore, the use of surgifoam with Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA vaccine allows multiple boosting vaccinations with a significant increase in antigen-specific CD8 + T cells. These observations suggest that the formulation of the bivalent prostate cancer vaccine (Ad 5 -PSA+PSCA) with surgifoam bypasses the neutralizing antibody response, thus allowing multiple boosting. This formulation is also helpful for inducing an antigen-specific immune response in the presence of self-antigen, and maintains long-term effector CD8 + T cells. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis

    Hai-Lei Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six. The T3E library was also interrogated for effects on DC3000D36E elicitation of a reactive oxygen species burst, for growth in planta, and for T3Es that reversed these effects. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens heterologous delivery systems yielded notably different sets of death-T3Es. The DC3000D36E T3E library system highlights the importance of 13 T3Es and their interplay in interactions with N. benthamiana. : Wei et al. used a Pseudomonas syringae strain lacking all known type III effectors with a modularized library expressing the 29 active effectors in the strain’s native repertoire, individually and in pairs, to comprehensively determine effector actions and interplay in inducing and suppressing responses associated with plant pathogenesis and immunity. Keywords: effector-triggered-immunity, pattern-triggered-immunity, Hop proteins, plant immunity, mini-Tn7

  19. Subtle variation within conserved effector operon gene products contributes to T6SS-mediated killing and immunity.

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Zhu, Kevin; Hershey, Haley L; Musili, Ninette; Miller, Jessa E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-11-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein. In this study, we investigated the role that the PefE T6SS immunity protein plays in recognition between two strains harboring nearly identical effector operons. Interestingly, despite containing seven of eight identical effector proteins, the less conserved immunity proteins only provided protection against their native effectors, suggesting that specificity and recognition could be dependent on variation within an immunity protein and one effector gene product. The variable effector gene product, PefD, is encoded upstream from pefE, and displays toxic activity that can be countered by PefE independent of T6SS-activity. Interestingly, while the entire pef operon was necessary to exert toxic activity via the T6SS in P. mirabilis, production of PefD and PefE alone was unable to exert this effector activity. Chimeric PefE proteins constructed from two P. mirabilis strains were used to localize immunity function to three amino acids. A promiscuous immunity protein was created using site-directed mutagenesis to change these residues from one variant to another. These findings support the notion that subtle differences between conserved effectors are sufficient for T6SS-mediated kin discrimination and that PefD requires additional factors to function as a T6SS-dependent effector.

  20. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Mesquita Júnior, D. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruvinel, W.M. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biomedicina, Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Araujo, J.A.P. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G. [Disciplina de Imunologia Clínica e Alergia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.E.C. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-22

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25{sup +/high}CD127{sup Ø/low}FoxP3{sup +}, and effector T cells were defined as CD25{sup +}CD127{sup +}FoxP3{sup Ø}. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4{sup +}TREG and CD28{sup +}TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L{sup +}TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR{sup +}, HLA-DR{sup +}, OX40{sup +}, and CD45RO{sup +} cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L{sup +} cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L{sup +}TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease.

  1. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25 +/high CD127 Ø/low FoxP3 + , and effector T cells were defined as CD25 + CD127 + FoxP3 Ø . The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4 + TREG and CD28 + TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L + TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR + , HLA-DR + , OX40 + , and CD45RO + cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L + cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L + TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease

  2. Calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids as promising effectors of biochemical processes

    S. V. Komisarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study, performed with participation of research workers of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry and Institute of Organic Chemist­ry of NAS of Ukraine, is devoted to analysis of biochemical effects of some calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids (cyclic phenol oligomers on two well-known biological phenomenons – Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis (myosin subfragment-1 of myometrium smooth muscle was used as an example and fibrin polymerization. Calix[4]arene С-97 (calix[4]arene methylene bisphosphonic acids is a macrocyclic substance, which contains intramolecular highly ordered lipophilic cavity formed by four aromatic rings, one of which is functionalized at the upper rim with methylene bisphosphonic group. At concentration of 100 µM, this substance was shown to effectively inhibit ATPase activity of pig myometrium myosin subfragment-1 (inhibition coefficient І0.5 = 83 ± 7 µM. At the same time, this calix[4]arene causes significant (vs. control increase of myosin subfragment-1 hydrodynamic diameter, which may indicate formation of an intermolecular complex between calixa­rene and myosin head. Computer simulation methods (docking and molecular dynamics with addition of grid technologies enabled to elucidate the grounds of intermolecular interactions between calix[4]arene С-97 and myometrium myosin subfragment-1, that involve hydrophobic, electrostatic and π-π-stacking interactions, some of which are close to the ATPase active centre. In view of the ability of calixarenes to penetrate into the cell and their low toxicity, the results obtained may be used as a basis for further development of a new generation of supramolecular effectors (starting from the above mentioned substances, in particular calix[4]arene С-97 for regulation of smooth muscle contractile activity at the level of ATP dependent actin-myosin interaction. Calix[4]arenes bearing two or four methylenebisphosphonic acid groups at the macrocyclic upper

  3. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation by modulating IL-2 homeostasis

    McNally, Alice; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Sparwasser, Tim; Thomas, Ranjeny; Steptoe, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses. Although many mechanisms of Treg suppression in vitro have been described, the mechanisms by which Treg modulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and effector function in vivo are more poorly defined. It has been proposed, in many instances, that modulation of cytokine homeostasis could be an important mechanism by which Treg regulate adaptive immunity; however, direct experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate that CD4+CD25+ Treg, by critically regulating IL-2 homeostasis, modulate CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation. Expansion and effector differentiation of CD8+ T cells is promoted by autocrine IL-2 but, by competing for IL-2, Treg limit CD8+ effector differentiation. Furthermore, a regulatory loop exists between Treg and CD8+ effector T cells, where IL-2 produced during CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation promotes Treg expansion. PMID:21502514

  4. CXCR3 Directs Antigen-Specific Effector CD4+ T Cell Migration to the Lung During Parainfluenza Virus Infection

    Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Cookenham, Tres; Miller, Shannon C

    2009-01-01

    effector CD4(+) T cell migration to the lungs. To assess the role of CCR5 and CXCR3 in vivo, we directly compared the migration of Ag-specific wild-type and chemokine receptor-deficient effector T cells in mixed bone marrow chimeric mice during a parainfluenza virus infection. CXCR3-deficient effector CD4......(+) T cells were 5- to 10-fold less efficient at migrating to the lung compared with wild-type cells, whereas CCR5-deficient effector T cells were not impaired in their migration to the lung. In contrast to its role in trafficking, CXCR3 had no impact on effector CD4(+) T cell proliferation, phenotype......, or function in any of the tissues examined. These findings demonstrate that CXCR3 controls virus-specific effector CD4(+) T cell migration in vivo, and suggest that blocking CXCR3-mediated recruitment may limit T cell-induced immunopathology during respiratory virus infections....

  5. The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells

    Christina eNeumann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6, thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ΔspvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated.

  6. The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

    Fleur eGawehns

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem proteins. Of these, Six1 (Avr3, Six3 (Avr2, Six5 and Six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. To investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with Fol wild-type or either AVR2, AVR3, SIX2, SIX5 or SIX6 knockout strains was analyzed with nano-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (nLC-MSMS. Compared to mock-inoculated sap 12 additional plant proteins appeared while 45 proteins were no longer detectable in the xylem sap of Fol-infected plants. Of the 285 proteins found in both uninfected and infected plants the abundance of 258 proteins changed significantly following infection. The xylem sap proteome of plants infected with four Fol effector knockout strains differed significantly from plants infected with wild-type Fol, while that of the SIX2-knockout inoculated plants remained unchanged. Besides an altered abundance of a core set of 24 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs, each of the four effector knockout strains affected specifically the abundance of a subset of DAPs. Hence, Fol effectors have both unique and shared effects on the composition of the tomato xylem sap proteome.

  7. The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells

    Neumann, Christina

    2014-10-17

    Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ΔspvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated.

  8. Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  9. Shigella IpaH family effectors as a versatile model for studying pathogenic bacteria

    Hiroshi eAshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis. Via the type III secretion system (T3SS, Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  10. Effective prediction of bacterial type IV secreted effectors by combined features of both C-termini and N-termini.

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Yanzhi; Pu, Xuemei; Li, Menglong

    2017-11-01

    Various bacterial pathogens can deliver their secreted substrates also called as effectors through type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) into host cells and cause diseases. Since T4SS secreted effectors (T4SEs) play important roles in pathogen-host interactions, identifying them is crucial to our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of T4SSs. A few computational methods using machine learning algorithms for T4SEs prediction have been developed by using features of C-terminal residues. However, recent studies have shown that targeting information can also be encoded in the N-terminal region of at least some T4SEs. In this study, we present an effective method for T4SEs prediction by novelly integrating both N-terminal and C-terminal sequence information. First, we collected a comprehensive dataset across multiple bacterial species of known T4SEs and non-T4SEs from literatures. Then, three types of distinctive features, namely amino acid composition, composition, transition and distribution and position-specific scoring matrices were calculated for 50 N-terminal and 100 C-terminal residues. After that, we employed information gain represent to rank the importance score of the 150 different position residues for T4SE secretion signaling. At last, 125 distinctive position residues were singled out for the prediction model to classify T4SEs and non-T4SEs. The support vector machine model yields a high receiver operating curve of 0.916 in the fivefold cross-validation and an accuracy of 85.29% for the independent test set.

  11. Identification of Novel Host Interactors of Effectors Secreted by Salmonella and Citrobacter

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Niemann, George S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Sanchez, Octavio; Ansong, Charles; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Choi, Hyungwon; Valleau, Dylan; Weitz, Karl K.; Savchenko, Alexei; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2016-07-12

    Many pathogenic bacteria of the familyEnterobacteriaceaeuse type III secretion systems to inject virulence proteins, termed “effectors,” into the host cell cytosol. Although host-cellular activities of several effectors have been demonstrated, the function and host-targeted pathways of most of the effectors identified to date are largely undetermined. To gain insight into host proteins targeted by bacterial effectors, we performed coaffinity purification of host proteins from cell lysates using recombinant effectors from theEnterobacteriaceaeintracellular pathogensSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium andCitrobacter rodentium. We identified 54 high-confidence host interactors for theSalmonellaeffectors GogA, GtgA, GtgE, SpvC, SrfH, SseL, SspH1, and SssB collectively and 21 interactors for theCitrobactereffectors EspT, NleA, NleG1, and NleK. We biochemically validated the interaction between the SrfHSalmonellaprotein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) host protein kinase, which revealed a role for this effector in regulating phosphorylation levels of this enzyme, which plays a central role in signal transduction.

    IMPORTANCEDuring infection, pathogenic bacteria face an adverse environment of factors driven by both cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. To help evade the immune response and ultimately proliferate inside the host, many bacteria evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins directly into host cells. Translocated effector proteins function to subvert host defense mechanisms. Numerous pathogenic bacteria use a specialized secretion system called type III secretion to deliver effectors into the host cell cytosol. Here, we identified 75 new host targets ofSalmonellaandCitrobactereffectors, which will help elucidate their mechanisms of

  12. p130Cas scaffolds the signalosome to direct adaptor-effector cross talk during Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus trafficking in human microvascular dermal endothelial cells.

    Bandyopadhyay, Chirosree; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Dutta, Sujoy; Chandran, Bala

    2014-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) interacts with cell surface receptors, such as heparan sulfate, integrins (α3β1, αVβ3, and αVβ5), and EphrinA2 (EphA2), and activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), c-Cbl, and RhoA GTPase signal molecules early during lipid raft (LR)-dependent productive macropinocytic entry into human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our recent studies have identified CIB1 as a signal amplifier facilitating EphA2 phosphorylation and subsequent cytoskeletal cross talk during KSHV macropinocytosis. Although CIB1 lacks an enzymatic activity and traditional adaptor domain or known interacting sequence, it associated with the KSHV entry signal complex and the CIB1-KSHV association was sustained over 30 min postinfection. To identify factors scaffolding the EphA2-CIB1 signal axis, the role of major cellular scaffold protein p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate of Src) was investigated. Inhibitor and small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies demonstrated that KSHV induced p130Cas in an EphA2-, CIB1-, and Src-dependent manner. p130Cas and Crk were associated with KSHV, LRs, EphA2, and CIB1 early during infection. Live-cell microscopy and biochemical studies demonstrated that p130Cas knockdown did not affect KSHV entry but significantly reduced productive nuclear trafficking of viral DNA and routed KSHV to lysosomal degradation. p130Cas aided in scaffolding adaptor Crk to downstream guanine nucleotide exchange factor phospho-C3G possibly to coordinate GTPase signaling during KSHV trafficking. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that p130Cas acts as a bridging molecule between the KSHV-induced entry signal complex and the downstream trafficking signalosome in endothelial cells and suggest that simultaneous targeting of KSHV entry receptors with p130Cas would be an attractive potential avenue for therapeutic intervention in KSHV infection. Eukaryotic cell adaptor molecules, without any intrinsic

  13. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Huang, Xionggao; Wei, Yantao; Ma, Haizhi; Zhang, Shaochong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. ► Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. ► The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous-transformed human RPE cells undergo cytoskeletal rearrangements via Rac1 GTPase-dependent pathways that modulate LIMK1 and

  14. Breast cancer cell migration is regulated through junctional adhesion molecule-A-mediated activation of Rap1 GTPase

    McSherry, Elaine A

    2011-03-23

    Abstract Introduction The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. Methods MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and β1-integrin, we examined activation of the β1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we tested functional inhibitors of all three proteins separately or together in migration assays. Finally we performed immunoprecipitations in MCF7 cells and primary breast cells to determine the binding partners connecting JAM-A to Rap1 activation. Results JAM-A knockdown in MCF7 breast cancer cells reduced adhesion to, and migration through, the β1-integrin substrate fibronectin. This was accompanied by reduced protein expression of β1-integrin and its binding partners αV- and α5-integrin. Rap1 activity was reduced in response to JAM-A knockdown or inhibition, and pharmacological inhibition of Rap1 reduced MCF7 cell migration. No additive anti-migratory effect was observed in response to simultaneous inhibition of JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin, suggesting that they lie in a linear migratory pathway. Finally, in an attempt to elucidate the binding partners putatively linking JAM-A to Rap1 activation, we have demonstrated the formation of a complex between JAM-A, AF-6

  15. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Yokota, Hiroki; Na, Sungsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm 2 ) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  16. Breast cancer cell migration is regulated through junctional adhesion molecule-A-mediated activation of Rap1 GTPase.

    McSherry, Elaine A

    2011-03-23

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and β1-integrin, we examined activation of the β1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we tested functional inhibitors of all three proteins separately or together in migration assays. Finally we performed immunoprecipitations in MCF7 cells and primary breast cells to determine the binding partners connecting JAM-A to Rap1 activation. RESULTS: JAM-A knockdown in MCF7 breast cancer cells reduced adhesion to, and migration through, the β1-integrin substrate fibronectin. This was accompanied by reduced protein expression of β1-integrin and its binding partners αV- and α5-integrin. Rap1 activity was reduced in response to JAM-A knockdown or inhibition, and pharmacological inhibition of Rap1 reduced MCF7 cell migration. No additive anti-migratory effect was observed in response to simultaneous inhibition of JAM-A, Rap1 and β1-integrin, suggesting that they lie in a linear migratory pathway. Finally, in an attempt to elucidate the binding partners putatively linking JAM-A to Rap1 activation, we have demonstrated the formation of a complex between JAM-A, AF

  17. Breast cancer cell migration is regulated through junctional adhesion molecule-A-mediated activation of Rap1 GTPase.

    McSherry, Elaine A

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its over-expression has recently been linked with increased risk of metastasis in breast cancer patients. As cell migration is an early requirement for tumor metastasis, we sought to identify the JAM-A signalling events regulating migration in breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF7 breast cancer cells (which express high endogenous levels of JAM-A) and primary cultures from breast cancer patients were used for this study. JAM-A was knocked down in MCF7 cells using siRNA to determine the consequences for cell adhesion, cell migration and the protein expression of various integrin subunits. As we had previously demonstrated a link between the expression of JAM-A and beta1-integrin, we examined activation of the beta1-integrin regulator Rap1 GTPase in response to JAM-A knockdown or functional antagonism. To test whether JAM-A, Rap1 and beta1-integrin lie in a linear pathway, we tested functional inhibitors of all three proteins separately or together in migration assays. Finally we performed immunoprecipitations in MCF7 cells and primary breast cells to determine the binding partners connecting JAM-A to Rap1 activation. RESULTS: JAM-A knockdown in MCF7 breast cancer cells reduced adhesion to, and migration through, the beta1-integrin substrate fibronectin. This was accompanied by reduced protein expression of beta1-integrin and its binding partners alphaV- and alpha5-integrin. Rap1 activity was reduced in response to JAM-A knockdown or inhibition, and pharmacological inhibition of Rap1 reduced MCF7 cell migration. No additive anti-migratory effect was observed in response to simultaneous inhibition of JAM-A, Rap1 and beta1-integrin, suggesting that they lie in a linear migratory pathway. Finally, in an attempt to elucidate the binding partners putatively linking JAM-A to Rap1 activation, we have demonstrated the formation of a complex between

  18. Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases regulate shear stress-driven β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts

    Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Yokota, Hiroki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: sungna@iupui.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Shear stress increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated β-catenin nuclear localization. •Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA displayed distinct dynamic activity patterns under flow. •Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, regulate shear stress-driven TCF/LEF activation. •Cytoskeleton did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activation. -- Abstract: Beta-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancing factor) is known to be mechanosensitive and an important regulator for promoting bone formation. However, the functional connection between TCF/LEF activity and Rho family GTPases is not well understood in osteoblasts. Herein we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells using live cell imaging. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based biosensors, which allowed us to monitor signal transduction in living cells in real time. Oscillatory (1 Hz) shear stress (10 dynes/cm{sup 2}) increased TCF/LEF activity and stimulated translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus with the distinct activity patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42. The shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity was blocked by the inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 with their dominant negative mutants or selective drugs, but not by a dominant negative mutant of RhoA. In contrast, constitutively active Rac1 and Cdc42 mutants caused a significant enhancement of TCF/LEF activity. Moreover, activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 increased the basal level of TCF/LEF activity, while their inhibition decreased the basal level. Interestingly, disruption of cytoskeletal structures or inhibition of myosin activity did not significantly affect shear stress-induced TCF/LEF activity. Although Rac1 is reported to be involved in β-catenin in cancer cells, the involvement of Cdc42 in β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts has not been identified. Our findings in this study demonstrate

  19. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Huang, Xionggao [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Wei, Yantao; Ma, Haizhi [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Shaochong, E-mail: zhshaochong@163.com [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous

  20. A Novel Plasma Membrane-Anchored Protein Regulates Xylem Cell-Wall Deposition through Microtubule-Dependent Lateral Inhibition of Rho GTPase Domains.

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fukuda, Hiroo; Oda, Yoshihisa

    2017-08-21

    Spatial control of cell-wall deposition is essential for determining plant cell shape [1]. Rho-type GTPases, together with the cortical cytoskeleton, play central roles in regulating cell-wall patterning [2]. In metaxylem vessel cells, which are the major components of xylem tissues, active ROP11 Rho GTPases form oval plasma membrane domains that locally disrupt cortical microtubules, thereby directing the formation of oval pits in secondary cell walls [3-5]. However, the regulatory mechanism that determines the planar shape of active Rho of Plants (ROP) domains is still unknown. Here we show that IQD13 associates with cortical microtubules and the plasma membrane to laterally restrict the localization of ROP GTPase domains, thereby directing the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. Loss and overexpression of IQD13 led to the formation of abnormally round and narrow secondary cell-wall pits, respectively. Ectopically expressed IQD13 increased the presence of parallel cortical microtubules by promoting microtubule rescue. A reconstructive approach revealed that IQD13 confines the area of active ROP domains within the lattice of the cortical microtubules, causing narrow ROP domains to form. This activity required the interaction of IQD13 with the plasma membrane. These findings suggest that IQD13 positively regulates microtubule dynamics as well as their linkage to the plasma membrane, which synergistically confines the area of active ROP domains, leading to the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. This finding sheds light on the role of microtubule-plasma membrane linkage as a lateral fence that determines the planar shape of Rho GTPase domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Key interactions by conserved polar amino acids located at the transmembrane helical boundaries in Class B GPCRs modulate activation, effector specificity and biased signalling in the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

    Wootten, Denise; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Smith, Kevin J.; Mobarec, Juan C.; Furness, Sebastian G.B.; Miller, Laurence J.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    Class B GPCRs can activate multiple signalling effectors with the potential to exhibit biased agonism in response to ligand stimulation. Previously, we highlighted key TM domain polar amino acids that were crucial for the function of the GLP-1 receptor, a key therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. Using a combination of mutagenesis, pharmacological characterisation, mathematical and computational molecular modelling, this study identifies additional highly conserved polar residues locat...

  2. Learning-based position control of a closed-kinematic chain robot end-effector

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1990-01-01

    A trajectory control scheme whose design is based on learning theory, for a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot end-effector built to study robotic assembly of NASA hardwares in space is presented. The control scheme consists of two control systems: the feedback control system and the learning control system. The feedback control system is designed using the concept of linearization about a selected operating point, and the method of pole placement so that the closed-loop linearized system is stabilized. The learning control scheme consisting of PD-type learning controllers, provides additional inputs to improve the end-effector performance after each trial. Experimental studies performed on a 2 DOF end-effector built at CUA, for three tracking cases show that actual trajectories approach desired trajectories as the number of trials increases. The tracking errors are substantially reduced after only five trials.

  3. Subversion of the Endocytic and Secretory Pathways by Bacterial Effector Proteins

    Mary M. Weber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacteria have developed numerous strategies to hijack host vesicular trafficking pathways to form their unique replicative niches. To promote intracellular replication, the bacteria must interact with host organelles and modulate host signaling pathways to acquire nutrients and membrane for the growing parasitophorous vacuole all while suppressing activation of the immune response. To facilitate host cell subversion, bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial virulence factors, termed effectors, into the host cell that mimic, agonize, and/or antagonize the function of host proteins. In this review we will discuss how bacterial effector proteins from Coxiella burnetii, Brucella abortus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Orientia tsutsugamushi manipulate the endocytic and secretory pathways. Understanding how bacterial effector proteins manipulate host processes not only gives us keen insight into bacterial pathogenesis, but also enhances our understanding of how eukaryotic membrane trafficking is regulated.

  4. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  5. Structural basis for sequence-specific recognition of DNA by TAL effectors

    Deng, Dong

    2012-01-05

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair by using two hypervariable residues [known as repeat variable diresidues (RVDs)] at positions 12 and 13. Here, we report the crystal structures of an 11.5-repeat TAL effector in both DNA-free and DNA-bound states. Each TAL repeat comprises two helices connected by a short RVD-containing loop. The 11.5 repeats form a right-handed, superhelical structure that tracks along the sense strand of DNA duplex, with RVDs contacting the major groove. The 12th residue stabilizes the RVD loop, whereas the 13th residue makes a base-specific contact. Understanding DNA recognition by TAL effectors may facilitate rational design of DNA-binding proteins with biotechnological applications.

  6. Global study of holistic morphological effectors in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Suzuki, Godai; Wang, Yang; Kubo, Karen; Hirata, Eri; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2018-02-20

    The size of the phenotypic effect of a gene has been thoroughly investigated in terms of fitness and specific morphological traits in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but little is known about gross morphological abnormalities. We identified 1126 holistic morphological effectors that cause severe gross morphological abnormality when deleted, and 2241 specific morphological effectors with weak holistic effects but distinctive effects on yeast morphology. Holistic effectors fell into many gene function categories and acted as network hubs, affecting a large number of morphological traits, interacting with a large number of genes, and facilitating high protein expression. Holistic morphological abnormality was useful for estimating the importance of a gene to morphology. The contribution of gene importance to fitness and morphology could be used to efficiently classify genes into functional groups. Holistic morphological abnormality can be used as a reproducible and reliable gene feature for high-dimensional morphological phenotyping. It can be used in many functional genomic applications.

  7. Rac1 GTPase Promotes Interaction of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell with Niche and Participates in Leukemia Initiation and Maintenance in Mouse.

    Chen, Shuying; Li, Huan; Li, Shouyun; Yu, Jing; Wang, Min; Xing, Haiyan; Tang, Kejing; Tian, Zheng; Rao, Qing; Wang, Jianxiang

    2016-07-01

    Interaction between hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) with their niche is critical for HSPC function. The interaction also plays an important role in the multistep process of leukemogenesis. Rac1 GTPase has been found to be highly expressed and activated in leukemia patients. Here, by forced expression of constitutively active form of Rac1 (Rac1-V12) in HSPCs, we demonstrate that active Rac1 promotes interaction of HSPC with niche. We then established an active Rac1 associated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model by expression of Rac1-V12 cooperated with AML1-ETO9a (AE9a) in mouse HSPCs. Compared with AE9a alone, Rac1-V12 cooperated with AE9a (AER) drives an AML with a short latency, demonstrating that activation of Rac1 GTPase in mice promotes AML development. The mechanism of this AML promotion is by a better homing and lodging of leukemia cells in niche, which further enhancing their colony formation, quiescence and preventing leukemia cells from apoptosis. Further study showed that an inhibitor targeting activated Rac1 can increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents to leukemia cells. This study provides evidence that activation of Rac1 promotes leukemia development through enhancing leukemia cells' homing and retention in niche, and suggests that inhibition of Rac1 GTPase could be an effective way of eliminating AML cells. Stem Cells 2016;34:1730-1741. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    Katherine Maringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA, and dominant negative (DN forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  9. Effector-independent motor sequence representations exist in extrinsic and intrinsic reference frames.

    Wiestler, Tobias; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-04-02

    Many daily activities rely on the ability to produce meaningful sequences of movements. Motor sequences can be learned in an effector-specific fashion (such that benefits of training are restricted to the trained hand) or an effector-independent manner (meaning that learning also facilitates performance with the untrained hand). Effector-independent knowledge can be represented in extrinsic/world-centered or in intrinsic/body-centered coordinates. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to determine the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic finger sequence representations across the human neocortex. Participants practiced four sequences with one hand for 4 d, and then performed these sequences during fMRI with both left and right hand. Between hands, these sequences were equivalent in extrinsic or intrinsic space, or were unrelated. In dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we found that sequence-specific activity patterns correlated higher for extrinsic than for unrelated pairs, providing evidence for an extrinsic sequence representation. In contrast, primary sensory and motor cortices showed effector-independent representations in intrinsic space, with considerable overlap of the two reference frames in caudal PMd. These results suggest that effector-independent representations exist not only in world-centered, but also in body-centered coordinates, and that PMd may be involved in transforming sequential knowledge between the two. Moreover, although effector-independent sequence representations were found bilaterally, they were stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. This indicates that intermanual transfer relies on motor memories that are laid down during training in both hemispheres, but preferentially draws upon sequential knowledge represented in the trained hemisphere.

  10. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  11. Fructose 1-phosphate is the preferred effector of the metabolic regulator Cra of Pseudomonas putida.

    Chavarría, Max; Santiago, César; Platero, Raúl; Krell, Tino; Casasnovas, José M; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-03-18

    The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein is a global sensor and regulator of carbon fluxes through the central metabolic pathways of gram-negative bacteria. To examine the nature of the effector (or effectors) that signal such fluxes to the protein of Pseudomonas putida, the Cra factor of this soil microorganism has been purified and characterized and its three-dimensional structure determined. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and mobility shift assays showed that the effector-free Cra is a dimer that binds an operator DNA sequence in the promoter region of the fruBKA cluster. Furthermore, fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) was found to most efficiently dissociate the Cra-DNA complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the F1P-Cra-DNA interaction calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the factor associates tightly to the DNA sequence 5'-TTAAACGTTTCA-3' (K(D) = 26.3 ± 3.1 nM) and that F1P binds the protein with an apparent stoichiometry of 1.06 ± 0.06 molecules per Cra monomer and a K(D) of 209 ± 20 nM. Other possible effectors, like fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, did not display a significant affinity for the regulator under the assay conditions. Moreover, the structure of Cra and its co-crystal with F1P at a 2-Å resolution revealed that F1P fits optimally the geometry of the effector pocket. Our results thus single out F1P as the preferred metabolic effector of the Cra protein of P. putida.

  12. Fructose 1-Phosphate Is the Preferred Effector of the Metabolic Regulator Cra of Pseudomonas putida*

    Chavarría, Max; Santiago, César; Platero, Raúl; Krell, Tino; Casasnovas, José M.; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein is a global sensor and regulator of carbon fluxes through the central metabolic pathways of Gram-negative bacteria. To examine the nature of the effector (or effectors) that signal such fluxes to the protein of Pseudomonas putida, the Cra factor of this soil microorganism has been purified and characterized and its three-dimensional structure determined. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and mobility shift assays showed that the effector-free Cra is a dimer that binds an operator DNA sequence in the promoter region of the fruBKA cluster. Furthermore, fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) was found to most efficiently dissociate the Cra-DNA complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the F1P-Cra-DNA interaction calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the factor associates tightly to the DNA sequence 5′-TTAAACGTTTCA-3′ (KD = 26.3 ± 3.1 nm) and that F1P binds the protein with an apparent stoichiometry of 1.06 ± 0.06 molecules per Cra monomer and a KD of 209 ± 20 nm. Other possible effectors, like fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, did not display a significant affinity for the regulator under the assay conditions. Moreover, the structure of Cra and its co-crystal with F1P at a 2-Å resolution revealed that F1P fits optimally the geometry of the effector pocket. Our results thus single out F1P as the preferred metabolic effector of the Cra protein of P. putida. PMID:21239488

  13. A generalized quantitative antibody homeostasis model: maintenance of global antibody equilibrium by effector functions.

    Prechl, József

    2017-11-01

    The homeostasis of antibodies can be characterized as a balanced production, target-binding and receptor-mediated elimination regulated by an interaction network, which controls B-cell development and selection. Recently, we proposed a quantitative model to describe how the concentration and affinity of interacting partners generates a network. Here we argue that this physical, quantitative approach can be extended for the interpretation of effector functions of antibodies. We define global antibody equilibrium as the zone of molar equivalence of free antibody, free antigen and immune complex concentrations and of dissociation constant of apparent affinity: [Ab]=[Ag]=[AbAg]= K D . This zone corresponds to the biologically relevant K D range of reversible interactions. We show that thermodynamic and kinetic properties of antibody-antigen interactions correlate with immunological functions. The formation of stable, long-lived immune complexes correspond to a decrease of entropy and is a prerequisite for the generation of higher-order complexes. As the energy of formation of complexes increases, we observe a gradual shift from silent clearance to inflammatory reactions. These rules can also be applied to complement activation-related immune effector processes, linking the physicochemical principles of innate and adaptive humoral responses. Affinity of the receptors mediating effector functions shows a wide range of affinities, allowing the continuous sampling of antibody-bound antigen over the complete range of concentrations. The generation of multivalent, multicomponent complexes triggers effector functions by crosslinking these receptors on effector cells with increasing enzymatic degradation potential. Thus, antibody homeostasis is a thermodynamic system with complex network properties, nested into the host organism by proper immunoregulatory and effector pathways. Maintenance of global antibody equilibrium is achieved by innate qualitative signals modulating a

  14. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    Pardini, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory

  15. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  16. The pore-forming bacterial effector, VopQ, halts autophagic turnover.

    Sreelatha, Anju; Orth, Kim; Starai, Vincent J

    2013-12-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus Type III effector VopQ is both necessary and sufficient to induce autophagy within one hour of infection. We demonstrated that VopQ interacts with the Vo domain of the conserved vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Membrane-associated VopQ subsequently forms pores in the membranes of acidic compartments, resulting in immediate release of protons without concomitant release of lumenal protein contents. These studies show how a bacterial pathogen can compromise host ion potentials using a gated pore-forming effector to equilibrate levels of small molecules found in endolysosomal compartments and disrupt cellular processes such as autophagy.

  17. 9Å structure of the COPI coat reveals that the Arf1 GTPase occupies two contrasting molecular environments.

    Dodonova, Svetlana O; Aderhold, Patrick; Kopp, Juergen; Ganeva, Iva; Röhling, Simone; Hagen, Wim J H; Sinning, Irmgard; Wieland, Felix; Briggs, John A G

    2017-06-16

    COPI coated vesicles mediate trafficking within the Golgi apparatus and between the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum. Assembly of a COPI coated vesicle is initiated by the small GTPase Arf1 that recruits the coatomer complex to the membrane, triggering polymerization and budding. The vesicle uncoats before fusion with a target membrane. Coat components are structurally conserved between COPI and clathrin/adaptor proteins. Using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, we determined the structure of the COPI coat assembled on membranes in vitro at 9 Å resolution. We also obtained a 2.57 Å resolution crystal structure of βδ-COP. By combining these structures we built a molecular model of the coat. We additionally determined the coat structure in the presence of ArfGAP proteins that regulate coat dissociation. We found that Arf1 occupies contrasting molecular environments within the coat, leading us to hypothesize that some Arf1 molecules may regulate vesicle assembly while others regulate coat disassembly.

  18. Apical accumulation of the Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila eye development is promoted by the small GTPase Rap1.

    Baril, Caroline; Lefrançois, Martin; Sahmi, Malha; Knævelsrud, Helene; Therrien, Marc

    2014-08-01

    The Ras/MAPK-signaling pathway plays pivotal roles during development of metazoans by controlling cell proliferation and cell differentiation elicited, in several instances, by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). While the internal mechanism of RTK-driven Ras/MAPK signaling is well understood, far less is known regarding its interplay with other co-required signaling events involved in developmental decisions. In a genetic screen designed to identify new regulators of RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling during Drosophila eye development, we identified the small GTPase Rap1, PDZ-GEF, and Canoe as components contributing to Ras/MAPK-mediated R7 cell differentiation. Rap1 signaling has recently been found to participate in assembling cadherin-based adherens junctions in various fly epithelial tissues. Here, we show that Rap1 activity is required for the integrity of the apical domains of developing photoreceptor cells and that reduced Rap1 signaling hampers the apical accumulation of the Sevenless RTK in presumptive R7 cells. It thus appears that, in addition to its role in cell-cell adhesion, Rap1 signaling controls the partitioning of the epithelial cell membrane, which in turn influences signaling events that rely on apico-basal cell polarity. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Genetic analysis of Chinese families reveals a novel truncation allele of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene

    Fang Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make comprehensive molecular diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa (RP patients in a consanguineous Han Chinese family using next generation sequencing based Capture-NGS screen technology. METHODS: A five-generation Han Chinese family diagnosed as non-syndromic X-linked recessive RP (XLRP was recruited, including four affected males, four obligate female carriers and eleven unaffected family members. Capture-NGS was performed using a custom designed capture panel covers 163 known retinal disease genes including 47 RP genes, followed by the validation of detected mutation using Sanger sequencing in all recruited family members. RESULTS: Capture-NGS in one affected 47-year-old male reveals a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in exon ORF15 of RP GTPase regulator (RPGR gene results in a frameshift change that results in a premature stop codon and a truncated protein product. The mutation was further validated in three of four affected males and two of four female carriers but not in the other unaffected family members. CONCLUSION: We have identified a novel mutation, c.2417_2418insG:p.E806fs, in a Han Chinese family with XLRP. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RPGR and the phenotypic spectrum of XLRP in Han Chinese families, and confirms Capture-NGS could be an effective and economic approach for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP.

  20. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 controls normal human dermal fibroblasts proliferation with phosphorylation of the oncoprotein c-myc

    Nikolova, Ekaterina; Mitev, Vanio; Zhelev, Nikolai; Deroanne, Christophe F.; Poumay, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for the maintenance of skin. The small Rho GTPase, Rac1, has been identified as a key transducer of proliferative signals in various cell types, but in normal human dermal fibroblasts its significance to cell growth control has not been studied. In this study, we applied the method of RNA interference to suppress endogenous Rac1 expression and examined the consequences on human skin fibroblasts. Rac1 knock-down resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis. This effect was not mediated by inhibition of the central transducer of proliferative stimuli, ERK1/2 or by activation of the pro-apoptotic p38. Rather, as a consequence of the suppressed Rac1 expression we observed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of c-myc, revealing for the first time that in human fibroblasts Rac1 exerts control on proliferation through c-myc phosphorylation. Thus Rac1 activates proliferation of normal fibroblasts through stimulation of c-myc phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 activity

  1. Gain-of-function mutant p53 activates small GTPase Rac1 through SUMOylation to promote tumor progression.

    Yue, Xuetian; Zhang, Cen; Zhao, Yuhan; Liu, Juan; Lin, Alan W; Tan, Victor M; Drake, Justin M; Liu, Lianxin; Boateng, Michael N; Li, Jun; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

    2017-08-15

    Tumor suppressor p53 is frequently mutated in human cancer. Mutant p53 often promotes tumor progression through gain-of-function (GOF) mechanisms. However, the mechanisms underlying mutant p53 GOF are not well understood. In this study, we found that mutant p53 activates small GTPase Rac1 as a critical mechanism for mutant p53 GOF to promote tumor progression. Mechanistically, mutant p53 interacts with Rac1 and inhibits its interaction with SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1), which in turn inhibits SENP1-mediated de-SUMOylation of Rac1 to activate Rac1. Targeting Rac1 signaling by RNAi, expression of the dominant-negative Rac1 (Rac1 DN), or the specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 greatly inhibits mutant p53 GOF in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, mutant p53 expression is associated with enhanced Rac1 activity in clinical tumor samples. These results uncover a new mechanism for Rac1 activation in tumors and, most importantly, reveal that activation of Rac1 is an unidentified and critical mechanism for mutant p53 GOF in tumorigenesis, which could be targeted for therapy in tumors containing mutant p53. © 2017 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Glutaminase 2 is a novel negative regulator of small GTPase Rac1 and mediates p53 function in suppressing metastasis

    Zhang, Cen; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Yuhan; Yue, Xuetian; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Xiaolong; Wu, Hao; Blanco, Felix; Li, Shaohua; Bhanot, Gyan; Haffty, Bruce G; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Glutaminase (GLS) isoenzymes GLS1 and GLS2 are key enzymes for glutamine metabolism. Interestingly, GLS1 and GLS2 display contrasting functions in tumorigenesis with elusive mechanism; GLS1 promotes tumorigenesis, whereas GLS2 exhibits a tumor-suppressive function. In this study, we found that GLS2 but not GLS1 binds to small GTPase Rac1 and inhibits its interaction with Rac1 activators guanine-nucleotide exchange factors, which in turn inhibits Rac1 to suppress cancer metastasis. This function of GLS2 is independent of GLS2 glutaminase activity. Furthermore, decreased GLS2 expression is associated with enhanced metastasis in human cancer. As a p53 target, GLS2 mediates p53’s function in metastasis suppression through inhibiting Rac1. In summary, our results reveal that GLS2 is a novel negative regulator of Rac1, and uncover a novel function and mechanism whereby GLS2 suppresses metastasis. Our results also elucidate a novel mechanism that contributes to the contrasting functions of GLS1 and GLS2 in tumorigenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10727.001 PMID:26751560

  3. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Heldin, Johan [Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala SE-751 22 Uppsala (Sweden); Kreuger, Johan [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Aspenström, Pontus, E-mail: pontus.aspenstrom@ki.se [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  4. Multivalent adhesion molecule 7 clusters act as signaling platform for host cellular GTPase activation and facilitate epithelial barrier dysfunction.

    Jenson Lim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging bacterial pathogen which colonizes the gastrointestinal tract and can cause severe enteritis and bacteraemia. During infection, V. parahaemolyticus primarily attaches to the small intestine, where it causes extensive tissue damage and compromises epithelial barrier integrity. We have previously described that Multivalent Adhesion Molecule (MAM 7 contributes to initial attachment of V. parahaemolyticus to epithelial cells. Here we show that the bacterial adhesin, through multivalent interactions between surface-induced adhesin clusters and phosphatidic acid lipids in the host cell membrane, induces activation of the small GTPase RhoA and actin rearrangements in host cells. In infection studies with V. parahaemolyticus we further demonstrate that adhesin-triggered activation of the ROCK/LIMK signaling axis is sufficient to redistribute tight junction proteins, leading to a loss of epithelial barrier function. Taken together, these findings show an unprecedented mechanism by which an adhesin acts as assembly platform for a host cellular signaling pathway, which ultimately facilitates breaching of the epithelial barrier by a bacterial pathogen.

  5. Mutation Spectrum in the Large GTPase Dynamin 2, and Genotype–Phenotype Correlation in Autosomal Dominant Centronuclear Myopathy

    Böhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valérie; DeChene, Elizabeth T.; Bitoun, Marc; Pierson, Christopher R.; Schaefer, Elise; Karasoy, Hatice; Dempsey, Melissa A.; Klein, Fabrice; Dondaine, Nicolas; Kretz, Christine; Haumesser, Nicolas; Poirson, Claire; Toussaint, Anne; Greenleaf, Rebecca S.; Barger, Melissa A.; Mahoney, Lane J.; Kang, Peter B.; Zanoteli, Edmar; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Dowling, James; Merlini, Luciano; Oldfors, Anders; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Melki, Judith; Krause, Amanda; Jern, Christina; Oliveira, Acary S. B.; Petit, Florence; Jacquette, Aurélia; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mowat, David; Leheup, Bruno; Cristofano, Michele; Aldea, Juan José Poza; Michel, Fabrice; Furby, Alain; Llona, Jose E. Barcena; Van Coster, Rudy; Bertini, Enrico; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Béroud, Christophe; Prudhon, Bernard; Bedford, Melanie; Mathews, Katherine; Erby, Lori A. H.; Smith, Stephen A.; Roggenbuck, Jennifer; Crowe, Carol A.; Spitale, Allison Brennan; Johal, Sheila C.; Amato, Anthony A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Jonas, Jessica; Darras, Basil T.; Bird, Thomas D.; Laurino, Mercy; Welt, Selman I.; Trotter, Cynthia; Guicheney, Pascale; Das, Soma; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Beggs, Alan H.; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotype–phenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT. PMID:22396310

  6. Cross-talk between Rho and Rac GTPases drives deterministic exploration of cellular shape space and morphological heterogeneity.

    Sailem, Heba; Bousgouni, Vicky; Cooper, Sam; Bakal, Chris

    2014-01-22

    One goal of cell biology is to understand how cells adopt different shapes in response to varying environmental and cellular conditions. Achieving a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between cell shape and environment requires a systems-level understanding of the signalling networks that respond to external cues and regulate the cytoskeleton. Classical biochemical and genetic approaches have identified thousands of individual components that contribute to cell shape, but it remains difficult to predict how cell shape is generated by the activity of these components using bottom-up approaches because of the complex nature of their interactions in space and time. Here, we describe the regulation of cellular shape by signalling systems using a top-down approach. We first exploit the shape diversity generated by systematic RNAi screening and comprehensively define the shape space a migratory cell explores. We suggest a simple Boolean model involving the activation of Rac and Rho GTPases in two compartments to explain the basis for all cell shapes in the dataset. Critically, we also generate a probabilistic graphical model to show how cells explore this space in a deterministic, rather than a stochastic, fashion. We validate the predictions made by our model using live-cell imaging. Our work explains how cross-talk between Rho and Rac can generate different cell shapes, and thus morphological heterogeneity, in genetically identical populations.

  7. Rad GTPase is essential for the regulation of bone density and bone marrow adipose tissue in mice.

    Withers, Catherine N; Brown, Drew M; Byiringiro, Innocent; Allen, Matthew R; Condon, Keith W; Satin, Jonathan; Andres, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    The small GTP-binding protein Rad (RRAD, Ras associated with diabetes) is the founding member of the RGK (Rad, Rem, Rem2, and Gem/Kir) family that regulates cardiac voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel function. However, its cellular and physiological functions outside of the heart remain to be elucidated. Here we report that Rad GTPase function is required for normal bone homeostasis in mice, as Rad deletion results in significantly lower bone mass and higher bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) levels. Dynamic histomorphometry in vivo and primary calvarial osteoblast assays in vitro demonstrate that bone formation and osteoblast mineralization rates are depressed, while in vitro osteoclast differentiation is increased, in the absence of Rad. Microarray analysis revealed that canonical osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, osterix, etc.) is not altered in Rad -/- calvarial osteoblasts; instead robust up-regulation of matrix Gla protein (MGP, +11-fold), an inhibitor of extracellular matrix mineralization and a protein secreted during adipocyte differentiation, was observed. Strikingly, Rad deficiency also resulted in significantly higher marrow adipose tissue levels in vivo and promoted spontaneous in vitro adipogenesis of primary calvarial osteoblasts. Adipogenic differentiation of wildtype calvarial osteoblasts resulted in the loss of endogenous Rad protein, further supporting a role for Rad in the control of BMAT levels. These findings reveal a novel in vivo function for Rad and establish a role for Rad signaling in the complex physiological control of skeletal homeostasis and bone marrow adiposity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina; Heldin, Johan; Kreuger, Johan; Aspenström, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  9. Over-expression of a Rab family GTPase from phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora confers tolerance to salt stress on transgenic tobacco.

    George, Suja; Parida, Ajay

    2011-03-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, an abiotic stress tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a Rab family GTPase from P. juliflora (Pj Rab7) and the ability of this gene to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Northern analysis for Pj Rab7 in P. juliflora leaf tissue revealed up-regulation of this gene under salt stress under the concentrations and time points analyzed. Pj Rab7 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 150 mM NaCl stress compared to control un-transformed plants. Pj Rab7 transgenic plants were found to accumulate more sodium than control plants during salt stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for generation of crop plants tolerant to abiotic stress.

  10. Hepatic trans-Golgi action coordinated by the GTPase ARFRP1 is crucial for lipoprotein lipidation and assembly[S

    Hesse, Deike; Radloff, Katrin; Jaschke, Alexander; Lagerpusch, Merit; Chung, Bomee; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a major organ in whole body lipid metabolism and malfunctioning can lead to various diseases including dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Triglycerides and cholesteryl esters are packed in the liver as very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Generation of these lipoproteins is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum and further maturation likely occurs in the Golgi. ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1) is a small trans-Golgi-associated guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that regulates protein sorting and is required for chylomicron lipidation and assembly in the intestine. Here we show that the hepatocyte-specific deletion of Arfrp1 (Arfrp1liv−/−) results in impaired VLDL lipidation leading to reduced plasma triglyceride levels in the fasted state as well as after inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity by Triton WR-1339. In addition, the concentration of ApoC3 that comprises 40% of protein mass of secreted VLDLs is markedly reduced in the plasma of Arfrp1liv−/− mice but accumulates in the liver accompanied by elevated triglycerides. Fractionation of Arfrp1liv−/− liver homogenates reveals more ApoB48 and a lower concentration of triglycerides in the Golgi compartments than in the corresponding fractions from control livers. In conclusion, ARFRP1 and the Golgi apparatus play an important role in lipoprotein maturation in the liver by influencing lipidation and assembly of proteins to the lipid particles. PMID:24186947

  11. BRAF and RAS oncogenes regulate Rho GTPase pathways to mediate migration and invasion properties in human colon cancer cells: a comparative study

    Shirasawa Senji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is a common disease that involves genetic alterations, such as inactivation of tumour suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. Among them are RAS and BRAF mutations, which rarely coexist in the same tumour. Individual members of the Rho (Ras homology GTPases contribute with distinct roles in tumour cell morphology, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study is to dissect cell migration and invasion pathways that are utilised by BRAFV600E as compared to KRASG12V and HRASG12V oncoproteins. In particular, the role of RhoA (Ras homolog gene family, member A, Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 and Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42 in cancer progression induced by each of the three oncogenes is described. Methods Colon adenocarcinoma cells with endogenous as well as ectopically expressed or silenced oncogenic mutations of BRAFV600E, KRASG12V and HRASG12V were employed. Signalling pathways and Rho GTPases were inhibited with specific kinase inhibitors and siRNAs. Cell motility and invasion properties were correlated with cytoskeletal properties and Rho GTPase activities. Results Evidence presented here indicate that BRAFV600E significantly induces cell migration and invasion properties in vitro in colon cancer cells, at least in part through activation of RhoA GTPase. The relationship established between BRAFV600E and RhoA activation is mediated by the MEK-ERK pathway. In parallel, KRASG12V enhances the ability of colon adenocarcinoma cells Caco-2 to migrate and invade through filopodia formation and PI3K-dependent Cdc42 activation. Ultimately increased cell migration and invasion, mediated by Rac1, along with the mesenchymal morphology obtained through the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT were the main characteristics rendered by HRASG12V in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, BRAF and KRAS oncogenes are shown to cooperate with the TGFβ-1 pathway to provide cells with additional transforming

  12. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Burg, van den H.A.; Ökmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Liere, van S.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce

  13. Effector Gene Suites in Some Soil Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Are Not Sufficient Predictors of Vascular Wilt in Tomato.

    Jelinski, Nicolas A; Broz, Karen; Jonkers, Wilfried; Ma, Li-Jun; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-07-01

    Seventy-four Fusarium oxysporum soil isolates were assayed for known effector genes present in an F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 tomato wilt strain (FOL MN-25) obtained from the same fields in Manatee County, Florida. Based on the presence or absence of these genes, four haplotypes were defined, two of which represented 96% of the surveyed isolates. These two most common effector haplotypes contained either all or none of the assayed race 3 effector genes. We hypothesized that soil isolates with all surveyed effector genes, similar to FOL MN-25, would be pathogenic toward tomato, whereas isolates lacking all effectors would be nonpathogenic. However, inoculation experiments revealed that presence of the effector genes alone was not sufficient to ensure pathogenicity on tomato. Interestingly, a nonpathogenic isolate containing the full suite of unmutated effector genes (FOS 4-4) appears to have undergone a chromosomal rearrangement yet remains vegetatively compatible with FOL MN-25. These observations confirm the highly dynamic nature of the F. oxysporum genome and support the conclusion that pathogenesis among free-living populations of F. oxysporum is a complex process. Therefore, the presence of effector genes alone may not be an accurate predictor of pathogenicity among soil isolates of F. oxysporum.

  14. Aminoacyl-tRNA-charged eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is a bona fide substrate for Legionelle pneumophila effector glucosyltransferases

    Tzivelekidis, Tina; Jank, Thomas; Pohl, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, which is the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, translocates numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytosol by a type IV secretion system during infection. Among the most potent effector proteins of Legionella are glucosyltransferases (Lgt’s), which...

  15. Identification and characterisation of a hyper-variable apoplastic effector gene family of the potato cyst nematodes.

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Jones, John T; Urwin, Peter E

    2014-09-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism.

  16. Identification and characterisation of a hyper-variable apoplastic effector gene family of the potato cyst nematodes.

    Sebastian Eves-van den Akker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism.

  17. Identification, structure, and function of a novel type VI secretion peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector-immunity pair.

    Whitney, John C; Chou, Seemay; Russell, Alistair B; Biboy, Jacob; Gardiner, Taylor E; Ferrin, Michael A; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D

    2013-09-13

    Bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to facilitate interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the widespread identification of T6SSs among Gram-negative bacteria, the number of experimentally validated substrate effector proteins mediating these interactions remains small. Here, employing an informatics approach, we define novel families of T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effectors. Consistent with the known intercellular self-intoxication exhibited by the T6S pathway, we observe that each effector gene is located adjacent to a hypothetical open reading frame encoding a putative periplasmically localized immunity determinant. To validate our sequence-based approach, we functionally investigate a representative family member from the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas protegens. We demonstrate that this protein is secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and that it confers a fitness advantage in growth competition assays with Pseudomonas putida. In addition, we determined the 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of this effector in complex with its cognate immunity protein. The structure reveals the effector shares highest overall structural similarity to a glycoside hydrolase family associated with peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, suggesting that T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector families may comprise significant enzymatic diversity. Our structural analyses also demonstrate that self-intoxication is prevented by the immunity protein through direct occlusion of the effector active site. This work significantly expands our current understanding of T6S effector diversity.

  18. Identification, Structure, and Function of a Novel Type VI Secretion Peptidoglycan Glycoside Hydrolase Effector-Immunity Pair*

    Whitney, John C.; Chou, Seemay; Russell, Alistair B.; Biboy, Jacob; Gardiner, Taylor E.; Ferrin, Michael A.; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to facilitate interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the widespread identification of T6SSs among Gram-negative bacteria, the number of experimentally validated substrate effector proteins mediating these interactions remains small. Here, employing an informatics approach, we define novel families of T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effectors. Consistent with the known intercellular self-intoxication exhibited by the T6S pathway, we observe that each effector gene is located adjacent to a hypothetical open reading frame encoding a putative periplasmically localized immunity determinant. To validate our sequence-based approach, we functionally investigate a representative family member from the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas protegens. We demonstrate that this protein is secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and that it confers a fitness advantage in growth competition assays with Pseudomonas putida. In addition, we determined the 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of this effector in complex with its cognate immunity protein. The structure reveals the effector shares highest overall structural similarity to a glycoside hydrolase family associated with peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, suggesting that T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector families may comprise significant enzymatic diversity. Our structural analyses also demonstrate that self-intoxication is prevented by the immunity protein through direct occlusion of the effector active site. This work significantly expands our current understanding of T6S effector diversity. PMID:23878199

  19. New players in the same old game: a system level in silico study to predict type III secretion system and effector proteins in bacterial genomes reveals common themes in T3SS mediated pathogenesis.

    Sadarangani, Vineet; Datta, Sunando; Arunachalam, Manonmani

    2013-07-26

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) plays an important role in virulence or symbiosis of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria [CHM 2:291-294, 2007; Physiology (Bethesda) 20:326-339, 2005]. T3SS acts like a tunnel between a bacterium and its host through which the bacterium injects 'effector' proteins into the latter [Nature 444:567-573, 2006; COSB 18:258-266, 2008]. The effectors spatially and temporally modify the host signalling pathways [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe5:571-579, 2009]. In spite its crucial role in host-pathogen interaction, the study of T3SS and the associated effectors has been limited to a few bacteria [Cell Microbiol 13:1858-1869, 2011; Nat Rev Microbiol 6:11-16, 2008; Mol Microbiol 80:1420-1438, 2011]. Before one set out to perform systematic experimental studies on an unknown set of bacteria it would be beneficial to identify the potential candidates by developing an in silico screening algorithm. A system level study would also be advantageous over traditional laboratory methods to extract an overriding theme for host-pathogen interaction, if any, from the vast resources of data generated by sequencing multiple bacterial genomes. We have developed an in silico protocol in which the most conserved set of T3SS proteins was used as the query against the entire bacterial database with increasingly stringent search parameters. It enabled us to identify several uncharacterized T3SS positive bacteria. We adopted a similar strategy to predict the presence of the already known effectors in the newly identified T3SS positive bacteria. The huge resources of biochemical data [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe 5:571-579, 2009; BMC Bioinformatics 7(11):S4, 2010] on the T3SS effectors enabled us to search for the common theme in T3SS mediated pathogenesis. We identified few cellular signalling networks in the host, which are manipulated by most of the T3SS containing pathogens. We went on to look for

  20. Modulation of innate immune responses by Yersinia type III secretion system translocators and effectors.

    Bliska, James B; Wang, Xiaoying; Viboud, Gloria I; Brodsky, Igor E

    2013-10-01

    The innate immune system of mammals responds to microbial infection through detection of conserved molecular determinants called 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs). Pathogens use virulence factors to counteract PAMP-directed responses. The innate immune system can in turn recognize signals generated by virulence factors, allowing for a heightened response to dangerous pathogens. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens encode type III secretion systems (T3SSs) that translocate effector proteins, subvert PAMP-directed responses and are critical for infection. A plasmid-encoded T3SS in the human-pathogenic Yersinia species translocates seven effectors into infected host cells. Delivery of effectors by the T3SS requires plasma membrane insertion of two translocators, which are thought to form a channel called a translocon. Studies of the Yersinia T3SS have provided key advances in our understanding of how innate immune responses are generated by perturbations in plasma membrane and other signals that result from translocon insertion. Additionally, studies in this system revealed that effectors function to inhibit innateimmune responses resulting from insertion of translocons into plasma membrane. Here, we review these advances with the goal of providing insight into how a T3SS can activate and inhibit innate immune responses, allowing a virulent pathogen to bypass host defences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human reinforcement learning subdivides structured action spaces by learning effector-specific values.

    Gershman, Samuel J; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2009-10-28

    Humans and animals are endowed with a large number of effectors. Although this enables great behavioral flexibility, it presents an equally formidable reinforcement learning problem of discovering which actions are most valuable because of the high dimensionality of the action space. An unresolved question is how neural systems for reinforcement learning-such as prediction error signals for action valuation associated with dopamine and the striatum-can cope with this "curse of dimensionality." We propose a reinforcement learning framework that allows for learned action valuations to be decomposed into effector-specific components when appropriate to a task, and test it by studying to what extent human behavior and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity can exploit such a decomposition in a multieffector choice task. Subjects made simultaneous decisions with their left and right hands and received separate reward feedback for each hand movement. We found that choice behavior was better described by a learning model that decomposed the values of bimanual movements into separate values for each effector, rather than a traditional model that treated the bimanual actions as unitary with a single value. A decomposition of value into effector-specific components was also observed in value-related BOLD signaling, in the form of lateralized biases in striatal correlates of prediction error and anticipatory value correlates in the intraparietal sulcus. These results suggest that the human brain can use decomposed value representations to "divide and conquer" reinforcement learning over high-dimensional action spaces.

  2. Using effectors of Phytophthora infestans to teach pathogenesis: Our attempt to provide a more comprehensive education

    The topic of pathogenesis mechanisms (R/avirulence genes, effectors, and hypersensitive response) has proved challenging for students in our introductory plant pathology course. An apparent gap exists in the curriculum between this introductory course and higher level plant-microbe interaction cours...

  3. A Plant Immune Receptor Detects Pathogen Effectors that Target WRKY Transcription Factors.

    Sarris, Panagiotis F; Duxbury, Zane; Huh, Sung Un; Ma, Yan; Segonzac, Cécile; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Cevik, Volkan; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Saucet, Simon B; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Menke, Frank L H; Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2015-05-21

    Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain and forms a receptor complex with RPS4, another NB-LRR protein. This complex detects the bacterial effectors AvrRps4 or PopP2 and then activates defense. Both bacterial proteins interact with the RRS1 WRKY domain, and PopP2 acetylates lysines to block DNA binding. PopP2 and AvrRps4 interact with other WRKY domain-containing proteins, suggesting these effectors interfere with WRKY transcription factor-dependent defense, and RPS4/RRS1 has integrated a "decoy" domain that enables detection of effectors that target WRKY proteins. We propose that NB-LRR receptor pairs, one member of which carries an additional protein domain, enable perception of pathogen effectors whose function is to target that domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  5. Evidence of end-effector based gait machines in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

    Hesse, S; Schattat, N; Mehrholz, J; Werner, C

    2013-01-01

    A task-specific repetitive approach in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion is well accepted nowadays. To ease the therapists' and patients' physical effort, the past two decades have seen the introduction of gait machines to intensify the amount of gait practice. Two principles have emerged, an exoskeleton- and an endeffector-based approach. Both systems share the harness and the body weight support. With the end-effector-based devices, the patients' feet are positioned on two foot plates, whose movements simulate stance and swing phase. This article provides an overview on the end-effector based machine's effectiveness regarding the restoration of gait. For the electromechanical gait trainer GT I, a meta analysis identified nine controlled trials (RCT) in stroke subjects (n = 568) and were analyzed to detect differences between end-effector-based locomotion + physiotherapy and physiotherapy alone. Patients practising with the machine effected in a superior gait ability (210 out of 319 patients, 65.8% vs. 96 out of 249 patients, 38.6%, respectively, Z = 2.29, p = 0.020), due to a larger training intensity. Only single RCTs have been reported for other devices and etiologies. The introduction of end-effector based gait machines has opened a new succesful chapter in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

  6. Structure of the effector-binding domain of deoxyribonucleoside regulator DeoR from Bacillus subtilis

    Škerlová, Jana; Fábry, Milan; Hubálek, Martin; Otwinowski, Z.; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 18 (2014), s. 4280-4292 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : dimeric interface * effector binding * Schiff base * transcription repressor * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2014

  7. The interplay between a Phytophthora RXLR effector and an Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase

    Bouwmeester, K.

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans – the causal agent of potato late blight – secretes a plethora of effector proteins to facilitate plant infection. The central subject of this thesis is ipiO, one of the first cloned Phytophthora genes with a putative function in pathogenicity as was anticipated based on its

  8. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  9. Chloroplastic protein NRIP1 mediates innate immune receptor recognition of a viral effector

    Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Mamillapalli, Padmavathi; Burch-Smith, Tessa M.; Czymmek, Kirk; Dinesh-Kumar, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Plant innate immunity relies on the recognition of pathogen effector molecules by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptor families. Previously we have shown the N immune receptor, a member of TIR-NB-LRR family, indirectly recognizes the 50-kDa helicase (p50) domain of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) through its TIR domain. We have identified an N receptor-interacting protein, NRIP1, that directly interacts with both N's TIR domain and p50. NRIP1 is a functional rhodanese sulfurtransferase and is required for N to provide complete resistance to TMV. Interestingly, NRIP1 that normally localizes to the chloroplasts is recruited to the cytoplasm and nucleus by the p50 effector. As a consequence, NRIP1 interacts with N only in the presence of the p50 effector. Our findings show that a chloroplastic protein is intimately involved in pathogen recognition. We propose that N's activation requires a pre-recognition complex containing the p50 effector and NRIP1. PMID:18267075

  10. Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by repeat induced point mutations

    Rouxel, T.; Grandaubert, J.; Hane, J.K.; Hoede, C.; Wouw, A.; Couloux, A.; Dominguez, V.; Anthouard, V.; Bally, P.; Bourras, S.; Cozijnsen, A.J.; Ciuffetti, L.M.; Degrave, A.; Dilmaghani, A.; Duret, L.; Fudal, L.; Goodwin, S.B.; Gout, L.; Glaser, N.; Linglin, J.; Kema, G.H.J.; Lapalu, N.; Lawrence, C.B.; May, K.; Meyer, M.; Ollivier, B.; Poulain, J.; Schoch, C.L.; Simon, A.; Spatafora, J.W.; Stachowiak, A.; Turgeon, B.G.; Tyler, B.M.; Vincent, D.; Weissenbach, J.; Amselem, J.; Quesneville, H.; Oliver, R.P.; Wincker, P.; Balesdent, M.H.; Howlett, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are of primary ecological, biotechnological and economic importance. Many fundamental biological processes that are shared by animals and fungi are studied in fungi due to their experimental tractability. Many fungi are pathogens or mutualists and are model systems to analyse effector genes

  11. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of Phylotype I ...

    HP2000

    R. solanacearum finds its way into the plant through wounds in the roots and .... 10% (c) Acidic residues should be absent within the first twelve amino acids. .... PilA has been used to study the genetic diversity in soil bacterium ..... the GALA type III effector family contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum adaptation on different.

  12. The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

    Gawehns, Fleur; Ma, Lisong; Bruning, Oskar; Houterman, Petra M.; Boeren, Sjef; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem) proteins. Of these, Six1

  13. MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum

    Schmidt, S.M.; Houterman, P.M.; Schreiver, I.; Ma, L.; Amyotte, S.; Chellappan, B.; Boeren, S.; Takken, F.L.W.; Rep, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this

  14. Specific Hypersensitive Response–Associated Recognition of New Apoplastic Effectors from Cladosporium fulvum in Wild Tomato

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Ӧkmen, Bilal; Rovenich, Hanna; Griffiths, Scott A.; Wang, Changchun; Karimi Jashni, Mansoor; Mihajlovski, Aleksandar; Collemare, Jérôme; Hunziker, Lukas; Deng, Cecilia H.; Burgt, Van Der Ate; Beenen, Henriek G.; Templeton, Matthew D.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Wit, De Pierre J.G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes

  15. Distribution of non-LEE-encoded type 3 secretion system dependent effectors in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Fábia A. Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are important human gastroenteritis agents. The prevalence of six non-LEE genes encoding type 3 translocated effectors was investigated. The nleC, cif and nleB genes were more prevalent in typical than in atypical EPEC, although a higher diversity of genes combinations was observed in atypical EPEC.

  16. Persistent expansion of CD4(+) effector memory T cells in Wegener's granulomatosis

    Abdulahad, W. H.; van der Geld, Y. M.; Stegeman, C. A.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.

    In order to test the hypothesis that Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is associated with an ongoing immune effector response, even in remission, we examined the distribution of peripheral naive and memory T-lymphocytes in this disease, and analyzed the function-related phenotypes of the memory T-cell

  17. Plant parasitic nematode effectors target host defence and nuclear functions to establish feeding cells

    Michaël eQuentin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms, the most damaging species of which have adopted a sedentary lifestyle within their hosts. These obligate endoparasites have a biotrophic relationship with plants, in which they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied, multinucleate feeding cells. Effectors synthesised in the oesophageal glands of the nematode are injected into the plant cells via the syringe-like stylet and play a key role in manipulating the host machinery. The establishment of specialized feeding cells requires these effectors to modulate many aspects of plant cell morphogenesis and physiology, including defence responses. This cell reprogramming requires changes to host nuclear processes. Some proteins encoded by parasitism genes target host nuclei. Several of these proteins were immunolocalised within feeding cell nuclei or shown to interact with host nuclear proteins. Comparative genomics and functional analyses are gradually revealing the roles of nematode effectors. We describe here these effectors and their hypothesised roles in the unique feeding behaviour of these pests.

  18. Assessing the ability of Salmonella enterica to translocate Type III effectors into plant cells

    Salmonella enterica, a human enteric pathogen, has the ability to multiply and survive endophytically in plants, and mutations in genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) or its effectors (T3Es) may contribute to this colonization. Two reporter plasmids for T3E translocation into plant ce...

  19. Structural insight into gene transcriptional regulation and effector binding by the Lrp/AsnC family

    Thaw, P.; Sedelnikova, S.E.; Muranova, T.; Wiese, S.; Ayora, S.; Alonso, J.C.; Brinkman, A.B.; Akerboom, A.P.; Oost, van der J.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins is found in both archaea and bacteria. Members of the family influence cellular metabolism in both a global (Lrp) and specific (AsnC) manner, often in response to exogenous amino acid effectors. In the present study we have determined both

  20. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  1. Abstract and Effector-Selective Decision Signals Exhibit Qualitatively Distinct Dynamics before Delayed Perceptual Reports.

    Twomey, Deirdre M; Kelly, Simon P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2016-07-13

    Electrophysiological research has isolated neural signatures of decision formation in a variety of brain regions. Studies in rodents and monkeys have focused primarily on effector-selective signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, but, more recently, research on the human brain has identified an abstract signature of evidence accumulation that does not appear to play any direct role in action preparation. The functional dissociations between these distinct signal types have only begun to be characterized, and their dynamics during decisions with deferred actions with or without foreknowledge of stimulus-effector mapping, a commonly studied task scenario in single-unit and functional imaging investigations, have not been established. Here we traced the dynamics of distinct abstract and effector-selective decision signals in the form of the broad-band centro-parietal positivity (CPP) and limb-selective β-band (8-16 and 18-30 Hz) EEG activity, respectively, during delayed-reported motion direction decisions with and without foreknowledge of direction-response mapping. With foreknowledge, the CPP and β-band signals exhibited a similar gradual build-up following evidence onset, but whereas choice-predictive β-band activity persisted up until the delayed response, the CPP dropped toward baseline after peaking. Without foreknowledge, the CPP exhibited identical dynamics, whereas choice-selective β-band activity was eliminated. These findings highlight qualitative functional distinctions between effector-selective and abstract decision signals and are of relevance to the assumptions founding functional neuroimaging investigations of decision-making. Neural signatures of evidence accumulation have been isolated in numerous brain regions. Although animal neurophysiology has largely concentrated on effector-selective decision signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, recent research on the human brain has

  2. A genetic screen identifies interferon-α effector genes required to suppress hepatitis C virus replication.

    Fusco, Dahlene N; Brisac, Cynthia; John, Sinu P; Huang, Yi-Wen; Chin, Christopher R; Xie, Tiao; Zhao, Hong; Jilg, Nikolaus; Zhang, Leiliang; Chevaliez, Stephane; Wambua, Daniel; Lin, Wenyu; Peng, Lee; Chung, Raymond T; Brass, Abraham L

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Interferon-α (IFNα) is an important component of anti-HCV therapy; it up-regulates transcription of IFN-stimulated genes, many of which have been investigated for their antiviral effects. However, all of the genes required for the antiviral function of IFNα (IFN effector genes [IEGs]) are not known. IEGs include not only IFN-stimulated genes, but other nontranscriptionally induced genes that are required for the antiviral effect of IFNα. In contrast to candidate approaches based on analyses of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, identification of IEGs requires a broad functional approach. We performed an unbiased genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to identify IEGs that inhibit HCV. Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs incubated with IFNα and then infected with JFH1 HCV. Cells were stained using HCV core antibody, imaged, and analyzed to determine the percent infection. Candidate IEGs detected in the screen were validated and analyzed further. The screen identified 120 previously unreported IEGs. From these, we more fully evaluated the following: asparagine-linked glycosylation 10 homolog (yeast, α-1,2-glucosyltransferase); butyrylcholinesterase; dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (CD26, adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2); glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator; guanylate cyclase 1, soluble, β 3; MYST histone acetyltransferase 1; protein phosphatase 3 (formerly 2B), catalytic subunit, β isoform; peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ-DBD-interacting protein 1; and solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2; and demonstrated that they enabled IFNα-mediated suppression of HCV at multiple steps of its life cycle. Expression of these genes had more potent effects against flaviviridae because a subset was required for IFNα to suppress dengue virus but not influenza A virus. In addition, many of the host genes detected in this

  3. Increased numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells and decreased T-bet expression can restrain terminal differentiation of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cells.

    Joshi, Nikhil S; Cui, Weiguo; Dominguez, Claudia X; Chen, Jonathan H; Hand, Timothy W; Kaech, Susan M

    2011-10-15

    Memory CD8 T cells acquire effector memory cell properties after reinfection and may reach terminally differentiated, senescent states ("Hayflick limit") after multiple infections. The signals controlling this process are not well understood, but we found that the degree of secondary effector and memory CD8 T cell differentiation was intimately linked to the amount of T-bet expressed upon reactivation and preexisting memory CD8 T cell number (i.e., primary memory CD8 T cell precursor frequency) present during secondary infection. Compared with naive cells, memory CD8 T cells were predisposed toward terminal effector (TE) cell differentiation because they could immediately respond to IL-12 and induce T-bet, even in the absence of Ag. TE cell formation after secondary (2°) or tertiary infections was dependent on increased T-bet expression because T-bet(+/-) cells were resistant to these phenotypic changes. Larger numbers of preexisting memory CD8 T cells limited the duration of 2° infection and the amount of IL-12 produced, and consequently, this reduced T-bet expression and the proportion of 2° TE CD8 T cells that formed. Together, these data show that over repeated infections, memory CD8 T cell quality and proliferative fitness is not strictly determined by the number of serial encounters with Ag or cell divisions, but is a function of the CD8 T cell differentiation state, which is genetically controlled in a T-bet-dependent manner. This differentiation state can be modulated by preexisting memory CD8 T cell number and the intensity of inflammation during reinfection. These results have important implications for vaccinations involving prime-boost strategies.

  4. Generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector memory B cells: relevance to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Ota, Yuri; Niiro, Hiroaki; Ota, Shun-Ichiro; Ueki, Naoko; Tsuzuki, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Koji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Siamak; Mitoma, Hiroki; Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Arinobu, Yojiro; Kukita, Akiko; Yamada, Hisakata; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-03-16

    The efficacy of B cell-depleting therapies for rheumatoid arthritis underscores antibody-independent functions of effector B cells such as cognate T-B interactions and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is a key cytokine involved in bone destruction and is highly expressed in synovial fluid B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we sought to clarify the generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector B cells and their impacts on osteoclast differentiation. Peripheral blood and synovial fluid B cells from healthy controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis were isolated using cell sorter. mRNA expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Blimp-1 was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of RANKL, CD80, CD86, and CXCR3 were analyzed using flow cytometry. Functional analysis of osteoclastogenesis was carried out in the co-culture system using macrophage RAW264 reporter cells. RANKL expression was accentuated in CD80(+)CD86(+) B cells, a highly activated B-cell subset more abundantly observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Upon activation via B-cell receptor and CD40, switched-memory B cells predominantly expressed RANKL, which was further augmented by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) but suppressed by interleukin-21. Strikingly, IFN-γ also enhanced TNF-α expression, while it strongly suppressed osteoprotegerin expression in B cells. IFN-γ increased the generation of CXCR3(+)RANKL(+) effector B cells, mimicking the synovial B cell phenotype in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, RANKL(+) effector B cells in concert with TNF-α facilitated osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Our current findings have shed light on the generation mechanism of pathogenic RANKL(+) effector B cells that would be an ideal therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis in the future.

  5. Field performance of the waste retrieval end effectors in the Oak Ridge gunite tanks

    Mullen, O.D.

    1997-09-01

    Waterjet-based tank waste retrieval end effectors have been developed by Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology has demonstrated effectiveness for retrieval of simulants bounding a wide range of waste properties and compatibility with foreseen deployment systems. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT-TS). The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste, and deployment platforms. The conceptual design was done by the University of Missouri-Rolla in FY 1995-96. The university researchers conducted separate effects tests of the component concepts, scaled the basic design features, and constructed a full-scale test article incorporating their findings in early FY 1996. The test article was extensively evaluated in the Hanford Hydraulic Testbed and the design features were further refined. Detail design of the prototype item was started at Waterjet Technology, Inc. before the development testing was finished, and two of the three main subassemblies were substantially complete before final design of the waterjet manifold was determined from the Hanford hydraulic testbed (HTB) testing. The manifold on the first prototype was optimized for sludge retrieval; assembled with that manifold, the end effector is termed the Sludge Retrieval End Effector (SREE)

  6. Identification of antibody glycosylation structures that predict monoclonal antibody Fc-effector function.

    Chung, Amy W; Crispin, Max; Pritchard, Laura; Robinson, Hannah; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Yu, Xiaojie; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Ackerman, Margaret E; Scanlan, Chris; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Alter, Galit

    2014-11-13

    To determine monoclonal antibody (mAb) features that predict fragment crystalizable (Fc)-mediated effector functions against HIV. Monoclonal antibodies, derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells or Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized mouse heteromyelomas, with specificity to key regions of the HIV envelope including gp120-V2, gp120-V3 loop, gp120-CD4(+) binding site, and gp41-specific antibodies, were functionally profiled to determine the relative contribution of the variable and constant domain features of the antibodies in driving robust Fc-effector functions. Each mAb was assayed for antibody-binding affinity to gp140(SR162), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and for the ability to bind to FcγRIIa, FcγRIIb and FcγRIIIa receptors. Antibody glycan profiles were determined by HPLC. Neither the specificity nor the affinity of the mAbs determined the potency of Fc-effector function. FcγRIIIa binding strongly predicted ADCC and decreased galactose content inversely correlated with ADCP, whereas N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing structures exhibited enhanced ADCP. Additionally, the bi-antenary glycan arm onto which galactose was added predicted enhanced binding to FcγRIIIa and ADCC activity, independent of the specificity of the mAb. Our studies point to the specific Fc-glycan structures that can selectively promote Fc-effector functions independently of the antibody specificity. Furthermore, we demonstrated antibody glycan structures associated with enhanced ADCP activity, an emerging Fc-effector function that may aid in the control and clearance of HIV infection.

  7. Activation of the Small GTPase Rap1 Inhibits Choroidal Neovascularization by Regulating Cell Junctions and ROS Generation in Rats.

    Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Xin; Xu, Man; Ma, Jingxue; Shang, Qingli

    2018-03-30

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a common vision-threatening complication associated with many  fundus diseases. The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell junction barrier has critical functions in preventing CNV, and oxidative stress can cause compromise of barrier integrity and induce angiogenesis. Rap1, a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), is involved in regulating endothelial and epithelial cell junctions. In this work, we explored the function and mechanism of Rap1 in CNV in vivo. A laser-induced rat CNV model was developed. Rap1 was activated through intravitreal injection of the Rap1 activator 8CPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT). At 14 days after laser treatment, CNV size in RPE/choroid flat mounts was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran staining. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cell junction proteins in RPE/choroid tissues were analyzed by western blots and quantitative real-time PCR assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RPE cells were detectedbydichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assays. The antioxidant apocynin was intraperitoneally injected into rats. Activating Rap1 by 8CPT significantly reduced CNV size and VEGF expression in the rat CNV model. Rap1 activation enhanced protein and mRNA levels of ZO-1 and occludin, two tight junction proteins in the RPE barrier. In addition, reducing ROS generation by injection of apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, inhibited CNV formation. Rap1 activation reduced ROS generation and expression of NADPH oxidase 4. Rap1 activation inhibits CNV through regulating barrier integrity and ROS generation of RPE in vivo, and selectively activating Rap1 may be a way to reduce vision loss from CNV.

  8. GTPase Ran strongly accumulates at the kinetochores of somatic chromosomes in the spermatogonial mitoses of Acricotopus lucidus (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Staiber, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Unequal chromosome segregation and spindle formation occurs in the last gonial mitosis in the germ line of the chironomid Acricotopus lucidus. During this differential mitosis, all germ line-limited chromosomes (=Ks) migrate undivided to only one pole of the cell, while the somatic chromosomes (=Ss) first remain in the metaphase plane, and with the arrival of the Ks at the pole, they then separate equally. The evolutionarily conserved GTPase Ran plays a crucial role in many cellular processes. This includes the regulation of microtubule nucleation and stabilisation at kinetochores and of spindle assembly during mitosis, which is promoted by a RanGTP concentration gradient that forms around the mitotic chromosomes (Kalab et al. in Science 295:2452-2456, 2002, Nature 440:697-701, 2006). In the present study, a strong accumulation of Ran was detected by immunofluorescence at the kinetochores of the Ss in normal gonial and differential gonial mitoses of males of A. lucidus. In contrast, no Ran accumulation was observed at the kinetochores of the Ss in the metaphases of brain ganglia mitoses or of aberrant spermatocytes or in metaphases I and II of spermatocyte meiotic divisions. Likewise, there was no accumulation at the kinetochores of Drosophila melanogaster mitotic chromosomes from larval brains. The specific accumulation of Ran at the kinetochores of the Ss in differential gonial mitoses of A. lucidus strongly suggests that Ran is involved in a mechanism acting in this exceptional mitosis, which retains the Ss at the metaphase plane and prevents a premature separation and unequal segregation of the Ss during monopolar migration of the Ks.

  9. Regulation of Rac1 GTPase activity by quinine through G-protein and bitter taste receptor T2R4.

    Sidhu, Crystal; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Chelikani, Prashen; Bhullar, Rajinder P

    2017-02-01

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family of small GTPases and regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization. T2R4 is a bitter taste receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family of proteins. In addition to mediating bitter taste perception from the tongue, T2R4s are found in extra-oral tissues, e.g., nasal epithelium, airways, brain, testis suggesting a much broader physiological function for these receptors. Anti-malarial drug and a bitter tasting compound, quinine, is a known agonist for T2R4, whereas BCML (Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine) acts as an inverse agonist. Using western blot and Ca ++ mobilization assays, the effects of quinine on Rac1 activity in HEK293T cells stably expressing T2R4/Gα 16/44 , T2R4, or Gα 16/44 and transiently transfected with HA-Rac1 were investigated. Quinine treatment caused a significant reduction in the amount of active Rac1, whereas in the presence of BCML, quinine failed to cause any significant change in active Rac1. No significant change in Rac1 activity was observed in BAPTA-AM plus quinine-treated Gα 16/44 cells, suggesting possibility of a pathway in addition to the canonical Ca ++ -dependent pathway. A noticeable role for Gα 16/44 independent of T2R4 is observed in quinine-mediated Rac1 inactivation. Further, a significant difference in quinine-induced Ca ++ response in T2R4/Gα 16/44 or T2R4 cells was observed validating the partial role of calcium and importance of Gα 16/44 . This study is the first to show an inhibitory downstream action of a T2R4 agonist on Rac1 function. Further investigation will help in better understanding the downstream signal transduction network of T2R4 and its extra-oral physiological roles.

  10. FilGAP, a Rac-specific Rho GTPase-activating protein, is a novel prognostic factor for follicular lymphoma

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hashimura, Miki; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Ohta, Yasutaka; Saegusa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    FilGAP, a Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP), acts as a mediator of Rho/ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase)-dependent amoeboid movement, and its knockdown results in Rac-driven mesenchymal morphology. Herein, we focus on the possible roles of FilGAP expression in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Eighty-three cases of follicular lymphoma (FL), 84 of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 25 of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), as well as 10 of normal lymph nodes, were immunohistochemically investigated. In normal lymph nodes, FilGAP immunoreactivity was significantly higher in lymphocytes in the mantle zone as compared to those in the germinal center and paracortical areas. In contrast, the expression levels of both cytoplasmic and perinuclear Rac1 were significantly lower in the germinal center as compared to paracortical regions, suggesting that changes in the FilGAP/Rac axis may occur in B-cell lineages. In malignant lymphomas, FilGAP expression was significantly higher in B-cell lymphomas than PTCL, and the immunohistochemical scores were positively correlated with cytoplasmic Rac1 scores in FL and DLBCL, but not in PTCL. Patients with FL and germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)-type DLBCL showing high FilGAP scores had poor overall survival rates as compared to the low-score patients. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a high FilGAP score was a significant and independent unfavorable prognostic factor in FL, but not in DLBCL. In conclusion, FilGAP may contribute to change in cell motility of B-lymphocytes. In addition, its expression appears to be useful for predicting the behavior of B-cell lymphoma, in particular FL

  11. A rhodanine derivative CCR-11 inhibits bacterial proliferation by inhibiting the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ.

    Singh, Parminder; Jindal, Bhavya; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2012-07-10

    A perturbation of FtsZ assembly dynamics has been shown to inhibit bacterial cytokinesis. In this study, the antibacterial activity of 151 rhodanine compounds was assayed using Bacillus subtilis cells. Of 151 compounds, eight strongly inhibited bacterial proliferation at 2 μM. Subsequently, we used the elongation of B. subtilis cells as a secondary screen to identify potential FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents. We found that three compounds significantly increased bacterial cell length. One of the three compounds, namely, CCR-11 [(E)-2-thioxo-5-({[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]furan-2-yl}methylene)thiazolidin-4-one], inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ in vitro. CCR-11 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 1.5 ± 0.3 μM. A docking analysis indicated that CCR-11 may bind to FtsZ in a cavity adjacent to the T7 loop and that short halogen-oxygen, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions might be important for the binding of CCR-11 with FtsZ. CCR-11 inhibited the proliferation of B. subtilis cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.2 ± 0.2 μM and a minimal inhibitory concentration of 3 μM. It also potently inhibited proliferation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells. Further, CCR-11 perturbed Z-ring formation in B. subtilis cells; however, it neither visibly affected nucleoid segregation nor altered the membrane integrity of the cells. CCR-11 inhibited HeLa cell proliferation with an IC(50) value of 18.1 ± 0.2 μM (∼15 × IC(50) of B. subtilis cell proliferation). The results suggested that CCR-11 inhibits bacterial cytokinesis by inhibiting FtsZ assembly, and it can be used as a lead molecule to develop FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents.

  12. Electrophysiology of glioma: a Rho GTPase-activating protein reduces tumor growth and spares neuron structure and function.

    Vannini, Eleonora; Olimpico, Francesco; Middei, Silvia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; de Graaf, Erik L; McDonnell, Liam; Schmidt, Gudula; Fabbri, Alessia; Fiorentini, Carla; Baroncelli, Laura; Costa, Mario; Caleo, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastomas are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. A successful treatment should aim at halting tumor growth and protecting neuronal cells to prevent functional deficits and cognitive deterioration. Here, we exploited a Rho GTPase-activating bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), to interfere with glioma cell growth in vitro and vivo. We also investigated whether this toxin spares neuron structure and function in peritumoral areas. We performed a microarray transcriptomic and in-depth proteomic analysis to characterize the molecular changes triggered by CNF1 in glioma cells. We also examined tumor cell senescence and growth in vehicle- and CNF1-treated glioma-bearing mice. Electrophysiological and morphological techniques were used to investigate neuronal alterations in peritumoral cortical areas. Administration of CNF1 triggered molecular and morphological hallmarks of senescence in mouse and human glioma cells in vitro. CNF1 treatment in vivo induced glioma cell senescence and potently reduced tumor volumes. In peritumoral areas of glioma-bearing mice, neurons showed a shrunken dendritic arbor and severe functional alterations such as increased spontaneous activity and reduced visual responsiveness. CNF1 treatment enhanced dendritic length and improved several physiological properties of pyramidal neurons, demonstrating functional preservation of the cortical network. Our findings demonstrate that CNF1 reduces glioma volume while at the same time maintaining the physiological and structural properties of peritumoral neurons. These data indicate a promising strategy for the development of more effective antiglioma therapies. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. In vivo binding properties of SH2 domains from GTPase-activating protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Cooper, J A; Kashishian, A

    1993-01-01

    We have used a transient expression system and mutant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors to study the binding specificities of the Src homology 2 (SH2) regions of the Ras GTPase-activator protein (GAP) and the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase). A number of fusion proteins, each tagged with an epitope allowing recognition by a monoclonal antibody, were expressed at levels comparable to those of endogenous GAP. Fusion proteins containing the central SH2-SH3-SH2 region of GAP or the C-terminal region of p85 alpha, which includes two SH2 domains, bound to PDGF receptors in response to PDGF stimulation. Both fusion proteins showed the same requirements for tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the PDGF receptor as the full-length proteins from which they were derived, i.e., binding of the GAP fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-771, and binding of the p85 fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-740, Tyr-751, or both residues. Fusion proteins containing single SH2 domains from either GAP or p85 alpha did not bind detectably to PDGF receptors in this system, suggesting that two SH2 domains in a single polypeptide cooperate to raise the affinity of binding. The sequence specificities of individual SH2 domains were deduced from the binding properties of fusion proteins containing one SH2 domain from GAP and another from p85. The results suggest that the C-terminal GAP SH2 domain specifies binding to Tyr-771, the C-terminal p85 alpha SH2 domain binds to either Tyr-740 or Tyr-751, and each protein's N-terminal SH2 domain binds to unidentified phosphorylation sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8382774

  14. Meta-analytic approach to the accurate prediction of secreted virulence effectors in gram-negative bacteria

    Sato Yoshiharu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many pathogens use a type III secretion system to translocate virulence proteins (called effectors in order to adapt to the host environment. To date, many prediction tools for effector identification have been developed. However, these tools are insufficiently accurate for producing a list of putative effectors that can be applied directly for labor-intensive experimental verification. This also suggests that important features of effectors have yet to be fully characterized. Results In this study, we have constructed an accurate approach to predicting secreted virulence effectors from Gram-negative bacteria. This consists of a support vector machine-based discriminant analysis followed by a simple criteria-based filtering. The accuracy was assessed by estimating the average number of true positives in the top-20 ranking in the genome-wide screening. In the validation, 10 sets of 20 training and 20 testing examples were randomly selected from 40 known effectors of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. On average, the SVM portion of our system predicted 9.7 true positives from 20 testing examples in the top-20 of the prediction. Removal of the N-terminal instability, codon adaptation index and ProtParam indices decreased the score to 7.6, 8.9 and 7.9, respectively. These discrimination features suggested that the following characteristics of effectors had been uncovered: unstable N-terminus, non-optimal codon usage, hydrophilic, and less aliphathic. The secondary filtering process represented by coexpression analysis and domain distribution analysis further refined the average true positive counts to 12.3. We further confirmed that our system can correctly predict known effectors of P. syringae DC3000, strongly indicating its feasibility. Conclusions We have successfully developed an accurate prediction system for screening effectors on a genome-wide scale. We confirmed the accuracy of our system by external validation

  15. Multiple sclerosis

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  16. The cysteine rich necrotrophic effector SnTox1 produced by Stagonospora nodorum triggers susceptibility of wheat lines harboring Snn1.

    Zhaohui Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple necrotrophic effectors (also called host-selective toxins that promote disease by interacting with corresponding host sensitivity gene products. SnTox1 was the first necrotrophic effector identified in S. nodorum, and was shown to induce necrosis on wheat lines carrying Snn1. Here, we report the molecular cloning and validation of SnTox1 as well as the preliminary characterization of the mechanism underlying the SnTox1-Snn1 interaction which leads to susceptibility. SnTox1 was identified using bioinformatics tools and verified by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. SnTox1 encodes a 117 amino acid protein with the first 17 amino acids predicted as a signal peptide, and strikingly, the mature protein contains 16 cysteine residues, a common feature for some avirulence effectors. The transformation of SnTox1 into an avirulent S. nodorum isolate was sufficient to make the strain pathogenic. Additionally, the deletion of SnTox1 in virulent isolates rendered the SnTox1 mutated strains avirulent on the Snn1 differential wheat line. SnTox1 was present in 85% of a global collection of S. nodorum isolates. We identified a total of 11 protein isoforms and found evidence for strong diversifying selection operating on SnTox1. The SnTox1-Snn1 interaction results in an oxidative burst, DNA laddering, and pathogenesis related (PR gene expression, all hallmarks of a defense response. In the absence of light, the development of SnTox1-induced necrosis and disease symptoms were completely blocked. By comparing the infection processes of a GFP-tagged avirulent isolate and the same isolate transformed with SnTox1, we conclude that SnTox1 may play a critical role during fungal penetration. This research further demonstrates that necrotrophic fungal pathogens utilize small effector proteins to exploit plant resistance pathways for their colonization, which provides important insights into the molecular

  17. Mutations in the small GTPase gene RAB39B are responsible for X-linked mental retardation associated with autism, epilepsy, and macrocephaly.

    Giannandrea, Maila; Bianchi, Veronica; Mignogna, Maria Lidia; Sirri, Alessandra; Carrabino, Salvatore; D'Elia, Errico; Vecellio, Matteo; Russo, Silvia; Cogliati, Francesca; Larizza, Lidia; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Tzschach, Andreas; Kalscheuer, Vera; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara; Skinner, Cindy; Schwartz, Charles E; Gecz, Jozef; Van Esch, Hilde; Raynaud, Martine; Chelly, Jamel; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Toniolo, Daniela; D'Adamo, Patrizia

    2010-02-12

    Human Mental Retardation (MR) is a common and highly heterogeneous pediatric disorder affecting around 3% of the general population; at least 215 X-linked MR (XLMR) conditions have been described, and mutations have been identified in 83 different genes, encoding proteins with a variety of function, such as chromatin remodeling, synaptic function, and intracellular trafficking. The small GTPases of the RAB family, which play an essential role in intracellular vesicular trafficking, have been shown to be involved in MR. We report here the identification of mutations in the small GTPase RAB39B gene in two male patients. One mutation in family X (D-23) introduced a stop codon seven amino acids after the start codon (c.21C > A; p.Y7X). A second mutation, in the MRX72 family, altered the 5' splice site (c.215+1G > A) and normal splicing. Neither instance produced a protein. Mutations segregate with the disease in the families, and in some family members intellectual disabilities were associated with autism spectrum disorder, epileptic seizures, and macrocephaly. We show that RAB39B, a novel RAB GTPase of unknown function, is a neuronal-specific protein that is localized to the Golgi compartment. Its downregulation leads to an alteration in the number and morphology of neurite growth cones and a significant reduction in presynaptic buttons, suggesting that RAB39B is required for synapse formation and maintenance. Our results demonstrate developmental and functional neuronal alteration as a consequence of downregulation of RAB39B and emphasize the critical role of vesicular trafficking in the development of neurons and human intellectual abilities. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of interactions of the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 with the scaffolding protein IQGAP2.

    Ozdemir, E Sila; Jang, Hyunbum; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem; Li, Zhigang; Sacks, David B; Nussinov, Ruth

    2018-03-09

    IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating proteins (IQGAPs) are scaffolding proteins playing central roles in cell-cell adhesion, polarity, and motility. The Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1, in their GTP-bound active forms, interact with all three human IQGAPs. The IQGAP-Cdc42 interaction promotes metastasis by enhancing actin polymerization. However, despite their high sequence identity, Cdc42 and Rac1 differ in their interactions with IQGAP. Two Cdc42 molecules can bind to the Ex-domain and the RasGAP site of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain (GRD) of IQGAP and promote IQGAP dimerization. Only one Rac1 molecule might bind to the RasGAP site of GRD and may not facilitate the dimerization, and the exact mechanism of Cdc42 and Rac1 binding to IQGAP is unclear. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, site-directed mutagenesis, and Western blotting, we unraveled the detailed mechanisms of Cdc42 and Rac1 interactions with IQGAP2. We observed that Cdc42 binding to the Ex-domain of GRD of IQGAP2 (GRD2) releases the Ex-domain at the C-terminal region of GRD2, facilitating IQGAP2 dimerization. Cdc42 binding to the Ex-domain promoted allosteric changes in the RasGAP site, providing a binding site for the second Cdc42 in the RasGAP site. Of note, the Cdc42 "insert loop" was important for the interaction of the first Cdc42 with the Ex-domain. By contrast, differences in Rac1 insert-loop sequence and structure precluded its interaction with the Ex-domain. Rac1 could bind only to the RasGAP site of apo-GRD2 and could not facilitate IQGAP2 dimerization. Our detailed mechanistic insights help decipher how Cdc42 can stimulate actin polymerization in metastasis.

  19. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields promote mesenchymal stem cell migration by increasing intracellular Ca2+ and activating the FAK/Rho GTPases signaling pathways in vitro.

    Zhang, Yingchi; Yan, Jiyuan; Xu, Haoran; Yang, Yong; Li, Wenkai; Wu, Hua; Liu, Chaoxu

    2018-05-21

    The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to migrate to the desired tissues or lesions is crucial for stem cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Optimal therapeutics for promoting MSC migration are expected to become an effective means for tissue regeneration. Electromagnetic fields (EMF), as a noninvasive therapy, can cause a lot of biological changes in MSCs. However, whether EMF can promote MSC migration has not yet been reported. We evaluated the effects of EMF on cell migration in human bone marrow-derived MSCs. With the use of Helmholtz coils and an EMF stimulator, 7.5, 15, 30, 50, and 70 Hz/1 mT EMF was generated. Additionally, we employed the L-type calcium channel blocker verapamil and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-573228 to investigate the role of intracellular calcium content, cell adhesion proteins, and the Rho GTPase protein family (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) in EMF-mediated MSC migration. Cell adhesion proteins (FAK, talin, and vinculin) were detected by Western blot analysis. The Rho GTPase protein family activities were assessed by G-LISA, and F-actin levels, which reflect actin cytoskeletal organization, were detected using immunofluorescence. All the 7.5, 15, 30, 50, and 70 Hz/1 mT EMF promoted MSC migration. EMF increased MSC migration in an intracellular calcium-dependent manner. Notably, EMF-enhanced migration was mediated by FAK activation, which was critical for the formation of focal contacts, as evidenced by increased talin and vinculin expression. Moreover, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 were activated by FAK to increase cytoskeletal organization, thus promoting cell contraction. EMF promoted MSC migration by increasing intracellular calcium and activating the FAK/Rho GTPase signaling pathways. This study provides insights into the mechanisms of MSC migration and will enable the rational design of targeted therapies to improve MSC engraftment.

  20. The Tip of the Four N-Terminal α-Helices of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin Contains the Interaction Site with Membrane Phosphatidylserine Facilitating Small GTPases Glucosylation

    Carolina Varela Chavez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL is a powerful virulence factor responsible for severe toxic shock in man and animals. TcsL belongs to the large clostridial glucosylating toxin (LCGT family which inactivates small GTPases by glucosylation with uridine-diphosphate (UDP-glucose as a cofactor. Notably, TcsL modifies Rac and Ras GTPases, leading to drastic alteration of the actin cytoskeleton and cell viability. TcsL enters cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivers the N-terminal glucosylating domain (TcsL-cat into the cytosol. TcsL-cat was found to preferentially bind to phosphatidylserine (PS-containing membranes and to increase the glucosylation of Rac anchored to the lipid membrane. We have previously reported that the N-terminal four helical bundle structure (1–93 domain recognizes a broad range of lipids, but that TcsL-cat specifically binds to PS and phosphatidic acid. Here, we show using mutagenesis that the PS binding site is localized on the tip of the four-helix bundle which is rich in positively-charged amino acids. Residues Y14, V15, F17, and R18 on loop 1, between helices 1 and 2, in coordination with R68 from loop 3, between helices 3 and 4, form a pocket which accommodates L-serine. The functional PS-binding site is required for TcsL-cat binding to the plasma membrane and subsequent cytotoxicity. TcsL-cat binding to PS facilitates a high enzymatic activity towards membrane-anchored Ras by about three orders of magnitude as compared to Ras in solution. The PS-binding site is conserved in LCGTs, which likely retain a common mechanism of binding to the membrane for their full activity towards membrane-bound GTPases.

  1. Predicting the biodistribution of radiolabeled cMORF effector in MORF-pretargeted mice

    Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; He, Jiang; Liu, Xinrong; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Pretargeting with phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (MORFs) involves administration of a MORF-conjugated anti-tumor antibody such as MN14 as a pretargeting agent before that of the radiolabeled complementary MORF (cMORF) as the effector. The dosages of the pretargeting agent and effector, the pretargeting interval, and the detection time are the four pretargeting variables. The goal of this study was to develop a semiempirical description capable of predicting the biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector in pretargeted mice and then to compare predictions with experimental results from pretargeting studies in tumored animals in which the pretargeting interval and the detection time were both fixed but the dosages of both the effector and the pretargeting agent were separately varied. Pretargeting studies in LS174T tumored mice were performed using the anti-CEA antibody MN14 conjugated with MORF and the cMORF radiolabeled with 99m Tc. A description was developed based on our previous observations in the same mouse model of the blood and tumor levels of MORF-MN14, accessibility of MORF-MN14 to labeled cMORF, the tumor accumulation of labeled cMORF relative to MORF-MN14 levels therein, and the kidney accumulation of labeled cMORF. The predicted values were then compared with the experimental values. The predicted biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector and the experimental data were in gratifying agreement in normal organs, suggesting that the description of the pretargeting process was reliable. The tumor accumulations occasionally fell outside two standard deviations of that predicted, but after tumor size correction, good agreement between predicted and experimental values was observed here as well. A semiempirical description of the biodistribution of labeled cMORF was capable of predicting the biodistribution of the radiolabeled effector in the pretargeted tumored mouse model, demonstrating that the underlying pretargeting concepts are correct. We

  2. Enavatuzumab, a Humanized Anti-TWEAK Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Exerts Antitumor Activity through Attracting and Activating Innate Immune Effector Cells

    Shiming Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enavatuzumab is a humanized IgG1 anti-TWEAK receptor monoclonal antibody that was evaluated in a phase I clinical study for the treatment of solid malignancies. The current study was to determine whether and how myeloid effector cells were involved in postulated mechanisms for its potent antitumor activity in xenograft models. The initial evidence for a role of effector cells was obtained in a subset of tumor xenograft mouse models whose response to enavatuzumab relied on the binding of Fc of the antibody to Fcγ receptor. The involvement of effector cells was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which revealed strong infiltration of CD45+ effector cells into tumor xenografts in responding models, but minimal infiltration in nonresponders. Consistent with the xenograft studies, human effector cells preferentially migrated toward in vivo-responsive tumor cells treated by enavatuzumab in vitro, with the majority of migratory cells being monocytes. Conditioned media from enavatuzumab-treated tumor cells contained elevated levels of chemokines, which might be responsible for enavatuzumab-triggered effector cell migration. These preclinical studies demonstrate that enavatuzumab can exert its potent antitumor activity by actively recruiting and activating myeloid effectors to kill tumor cells. Enavatuzumab-induced chemokines warrant further evaluation in clinical studies as potential biomarkers for such activity.

  3. Normal hematopoietic stem cell function in mice with enforced expression of the Hippo signaling effector YAP1.

    Lina Jansson

    Full Text Available The Hippo pathway has recently been implicated in the regulation of organ size and stem cells in multiple tissues. The transcriptional cofactor yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1 is the most downstream effector of Hippo signaling and is functionally repressed by the upstream components of the pathway. Overexpression of YAP1 stimulates proliferation of stem and progenitor cells in many tissues, consistent with inhibition of Hippo signaling. To study the role of Hippo signaling in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, we created a transgenic model with inducible YAP1 expression exclusively within the hematopoietic system. Following 3 months induction, examination of blood and bone marrow in the induced mice revealed no changes in the distribution of the hematopoietic lineages compared to control mice. Moreover, the progenitor cell compartment was unaltered as determined by colony forming assays and immunophenotyping. To address whether YAP1 affects the quantity and function of HSCs we performed competitive transplantation experiments. We show that ectopic YAP1 expression does not influence HSC function neither during steady state nor in situations of hematopoietic stress. This is in sharp contrast to effects seen on stem- and progenitor cells in other organs and suggests highly tissue specific functions of the Hippo pathway in regulation of stem cells.

  4. An Aphid Effector Targets Trafficking Protein VPS52 in a Host-Specific Manner to Promote Virulence1[OPEN