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Sample records for multiple group confirmatory

  1. Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis of the motivational influencing individuals’ decisions about participating in intramural sports

    K. Rickel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.

  2. Investigating ethnic variations in reporting of psychotic symptoms: a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire.

    Heuvelman, Hein; Nazroo, James; Rai, Dheeraj

    2018-03-12

    Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248). We assessed the psychometric properties of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) with a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, assessing the equivalence of factor loadings, response thresholds and residual variances in an analysis of measurement non-invariance. Compared with prevalence among British Whites (5.4%), the prevalence of self-reported psychotic symptoms was greater in the Caribbean group (12.7%, adjusted OR = 2.38 [95% CI 1.84-3.07]). Prevalence was also increased among Pakistani individuals (8.3%, adjusted OR = 1.36 [1.01-1.84]) although this difference was driven by a greater likelihood of reporting paranoid symptoms. PSQ items for thought interference, strange experience and hallucination were measured in equivalent ways across ethnic groups. However, our measurement models suggested that paranoid symptoms were measured less reliably among ethnic minorities than among British Whites and appeared to exaggerate latent differences between Pakistani and White British groups when measurement non-invariance was not accounted for. Notwithstanding evidence for measurement non-invariance, the greater risk for reporting psychotic symptoms among Caribbean individuals is unlikely to be an artefact of measurement. Greater residual variance in the recording of paranoid symptoms among ethnic minority respondents warrants caution in using this item to investigate ethnic variation in psychosis risk.

  3. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  4. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Mia Scheffers

    Full Text Available Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL in a non-clinical sample.The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses.Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory.Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the

  5. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL) in a non-clinical sample. The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory. Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the DBIQ-NL in a

  6. Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety Scales: How Do They Perform in a Cancer Sample?

    Fox, Rina S; Lillis, Teresa A; Gerhart, James; Hoerger, Michael; Duberstein, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The DASS-21 is a public domain instrument that is commonly used to evaluate depression and anxiety in psychiatric and community populations; however, the factor structure of the measure has not previously been examined in oncologic settings. Given that the psychometric properties of measures of distress may be compromised in the context of symptoms related to cancer and its treatment, the present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales in cancer patients ( n = 376) as compared to noncancer control participants ( n = 207). Cancer patients ranged in age from 21 to 84 years (mean = 58.3, standard deviation = 10.4) and noncancer control participants ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (mean = 45.0, standard deviation = 11.7). Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural invariance of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales across groups; the factor variance/covariance invariance model was the best fit to the data. Cronbach's coefficient alpha values demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability across the total sample as well as within subgroups of cancer patients and noncancer control participants. Expected relationships of DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scale scores to measures of suicidal ideation, quality of life, self-rated health, and depressed mood supported construct validity. These results support the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales when measuring psychological distress in cancer patients.

  7. The Empirical Verification of an Assignment of Items to Subtests : The Oblique Multiple Group Method Versus the Confirmatory Common Factor Method

    Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; ten Berge, Jos M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares two confirmatory factor analysis methods on their ability to verify whether correct assignments of items to subtests are supported by the data. The confirmatory common factor (CCF) method is used most often and defines nonzero loadings so that they correspond to the assignment of

  8. Group sequential and confirmatory adaptive designs in clinical trials

    Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of the general principles of and techniques for confirmatory adaptive designs. Confirmatory adaptive designs are a generalization of group sequential designs. With these designs, interim analyses are performed in order to stop the trial prematurely under control of the Type I error rate. In adaptive designs, it is also permissible to perform a data-driven change of relevant aspects of the study design at interim stages. This includes, for example, a sample-size reassessment, a treatment-arm selection or a selection of a pre-specified sub-population. Essentially, this adaptive methodology was introduced in the 1990s. Since then, it has become popular and the object of intense discussion and still represents a rapidly growing field of statistical research. This book describes adaptive design methodology at an elementary level, while also considering designing and planning issues as well as methods for analyzing an adaptively planned trial. This includes estimation methods...

  9. A comparison of confirmatory factor analysis methods : Oblique multiple group method versus confirmatory common factor method

    Stuive, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Confirmatieve Factor Analyse (CFA) is een vaak gebruikte methode wanneer onderzoekers een bepaalde veronderstelling hebben over de indeling van items in één of meerdere subtests en willen onderzoeken of deze indeling ook wordt ondersteund door verzamelde onderzoeksgegevens. De meest gebruikte

  10. Measurement invariance of the strength of motivation for medical school: a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis.

    An, M; Kusurkar, R A; Li, L; Xiao, Y; Zheng, C; Hu, J; Chen, M

    2017-07-11

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised (SMMS-R) questionnaire measures students' motivation for studying medicine. It includes three subscales: 'willingness to sacrifice', 'readiness to start', and 'persistence'. Measurement invariance is a prerequisite for group comparisons. The objectives of this study were to verify the factorial structure of the SMMS-R questionnaire and to investigate it's measurement invariance. A total of 989 medical students were approached, 930 cases were kept for data analysis. Factorial structure of and measurement invariance of the SMMS-R were tested using single and multiple group confirmatory factor analyses with Mplus. Trational Cronbach's α along with McDonald's ω and glb were used to measure internal consistency for each subscale. Internal consistency for subscales and the full instrument were within the acceptable range. A 3-factor structure of the Chinese version of the SMMS-R was supported. Full configural, metric and partial scalar invariance were obtained. The SMMS-R showed measurement invariance across gender and two independent samples. So it can be used for group and cross-cultural comparisons.

  11. Using Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Research: Identifying and Understanding Non-Invariance

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Harris, Lois R.; O'Quin, Chrissie; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) allows researchers to determine whether a research inventory elicits similar response patterns across samples. If statistical equivalence in responding is found, then scale score comparisons become possible and samples can be said to be from the same population. This paper illustrates the use of…

  12. A versatile method for confirmatory evaluation of the effects of a covariate in multiple models

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Ritz, Christian; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    to provide a fine-tuned control of the overall type I error in a wide range of epidemiological experiments where in reality no other useful alternative exists. The methodology proposed is applied to a multiple-end-point study of the effect of neonatal bacterial colonization on development of childhood asthma.......Modern epidemiology often requires testing of the effect of a covariate on multiple end points from the same study. However, popular state of the art methods for multiple testing require the tests to be evaluated within the framework of a single model unifying all end points. This severely limits...

  13. Can high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection under all conditions be regarded as a sufficiently conclusive confirmatory method for B-group substances?

    Zuidema, T.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Stappers, S.J.W.; Rhijn, van J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Commission Decision 2002/657/EC requires confirmatory analysis of B-group compounds when detected at levels above the permitted limit. In contrast to banned substances, for B-group substances, the use of mass spectrometric techniques is not obligatory and several techniques including liquid

  14. Confirmatory factor analysis of the neck disability index, comparing patients with whiplash associated disorders to a control group with non-specific neck pain.

    Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Barr, Sebastian; Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn; Osborne, Jason W; Melloh, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Purpose The neck disability index (NDI) as a 10-item patient reported outcome (PRO) measure is the most commonly used whiplash associated disorders (WAD) assessment tool. However, statistical rigor and factor structure are not definitive. To date, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has not examined whether the factor structure generalizes across different groups (e.g., WAD versus non-WAD). This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the NDI in these population groups. This study used CFA to analyze NDI baseline-data for WAD (n = 804; 69 % females) and non-WAD (n = 963; 67 % females), each for the full sample and separate genders. Invariance analyses examined the NDI structure across the four groups. Across both populations and gender subgroups the one-factor solutions consistently showed better model fit over two-factor solutions. The NDI was best characterized as one-dimensional and invariant across multiple sub-groups. The NDI remains a valid PRO in WAD populations that provides acceptable measurement of neck status that is appropriate for basic functional assessment across genders. However, it is recommended that both clinicians and researchers initiate the transition toward more rigorous and less ambiguous PRO measurement tools for WAD patients and research. This future graduated movement toward other PROs should consider both regional PROs and computerized decision support systems, initially measured concurrently with the NDI to establish ways to convert existing scored data prior to their singular use.

  15. Multiple group membership and well-being

    Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Bases of Leader Power: First-Order Factor Model and Its Invariance Across Groups.

    Rahim, M A; Magner, N R

    1996-10-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses of data (from five samples: N = 308 accountants and finance professionals, N = 578 management and non-management employees, and N = 588 employed management students in the U.S.; N = 728 management and non-management employees in S. Korea, N = 250 management and non-management bank employees in Bangladesh) on the 29 items of the Rahim Leader Power Inventory were performed with LISREL 7. The results provided support for the convergent and discriminant validities of the subscales measuring the five bases of leader power (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, and referent), and the invariance of factor pattern and factor loadings across organizational levels and the three American samples. Additional analysis indicated that leader power profiles differed across the three national cultures represented in the study.

  17. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  18. Confirmatory Composite Analysis

    Schuberth, Florian; Henseler, Jörg; Dijkstra, Theo K.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) as a structural equation modeling technique that aims at testing composite models. CCA entails the same steps as confirmatory factor analysis: model specification, model identification, model estimation, and model testing. Composite models are

  19. The Multiple In-group Identity Framework

    Lock, Daniel; Funk, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of team identification on sport consumer behaviour are well established. Recent research, however, has moved beyond this perspective to examine how groups within and beyond the team identity influence consumption. Assimilating previous research findings, we advance a Multiple In-group Identity Framework (MIIF), which consists of three levels: (1) superordinate (e.g., team identity), (2) subgroup (e.g., specific stadium area), and (3) relational group (e.g., friends or family). In ...

  20. Confirmatory double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety of edaravone (MCI-186) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Abe, Koji; Itoyama, Yasuto; Sobue, Gen; Tsuji, Shoji; Aoki, Masashi; Doyu, Manabu; Hamada, Chikuma; Kondo, Kazuoki; Yoneoka, Takatomo; Akimoto, Makoto; Yoshino, Hiide

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to confirm the efficacy and safety of edaravone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We conducted a 36-week confirmatory study, consisting of 12-week pre-observation period followed by 24-week treatment period. Patients received placebo or edaravone i.v. infusion over 60 min for the first 14 days in cycle 1, and for 10 of the first 14 days during cycles 2 to 6. The efficacy primary endpoint was changed in the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) scores during the 24-week treatment. Patients were treated with placebo (n = 104) and edaravone (n = 102). Changes in ALSFRS-R during the 24-week treatment were -6.35 ± 0.84 in the placebo group (n = 99) and -5.70 ± 0.85 in the edaravone group (n = 100), with a difference of 0.65 ± 0.78 (p = 0.411). Adverse events amounted to 88.5% (92/104) in the placebo group and 89.2% (91/102) in the edaravone group. In conclusion, the reduction of ALSFRS-R was smaller in the edaravone group than in the placebo group, but efficacy of edaravone for treatment of ALS was not demonstrated. Levels and frequencies of reported adverse events were similar in the two groups.

  1. Renormalization group equations with multiple coupling constants

    Ghika, G.; Visinescu, M.

    1975-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the renormalization group equations of a renormalizable field theory with multiple coupling constants. A method for the investigation of the asymptotic stability is presented. This method is applied to a gauge theory with Yukawa and self-quartic couplings of scalar mesons in order to find the domains of asymptotic freedom. An asymptotic expansion for the solutions which tend to the origin of the coupling constants is given

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression of the Neck Disability Index: Assessment If Subscales Are Equally Relevant in Whiplash and Nonspecific Neck Pain.

    Croft, Arthur C; Milam, Bryce; Meylor, Jade; Manning, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Because of previously published recommendations to modify the Neck Disability Index (NDI), we evaluated the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the responsiveness and dimensionality of the NDI within a population of adult whiplash-injured subjects. Subjects who had sustained whiplash injuries of grade 2 or higher completed an NDI questionnaire. There were 123 subjects (55% female, of which 36% had recovered and 64% had chronic symptoms. NDI subscales were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, considering only the subscales and, secondly, using sex as an 11th variable. The subscales were also tested with multiple linear regression modeling using the total score as a target variable. When considering only the 10 NDI subscales, only a single factor emerged, with an eigenvalue of 5.4, explaining 53.7% of the total variance. Strong correlation (> .55) (P factor model of the NDI is not justified based on our results, and in this population of whiplash subjects, the NDI was unidimensional, demonstrating high internal consistency and supporting the original validation study of Vernon and Mior.

  3. A multi-group confirmatory factor analyses of the LupusPRO between southern California and Filipino samples of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Azizoddin, D R; Olmstead, R; Cost, C; Jolly, M; Ayeroff, J; Racaza, G; Sumner, L A; Ormseth, S; Weisman, M; Nicassio, P M

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) leads to a range of biopsychosocial health outcomes through an unpredictable and complex disease path. The LupusPRO is a comprehensive, self-report measure developed specifically for populations with SLE, which assesses both health-related quality of life and non-health related quality of life. Given its increasingly widespread use, additional research is needed to evaluate the psychometric integrity of the LupusPRO across diverse populations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the LupusPRO in two divergent patient samples and the model fit between both samples. Methods Two diverse samples with SLE included 136 patients from an ethnically-diverse, urban region in southern California and 100 from an ethnically-homogenous, rural region in Manila, Philippines. All patients met the ACR classification criteria for SLE. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFAs) were conducted in each sample separately and combined to provide evidence of the factorial integrity of the 12 subscales in the LupusPRO. Results Demographic analyses indicated significant differences in age, disease activity and duration, education, income, insurance, and medication use between groups. Results of the separate CFAs indicated moderate fit to the data for the hypothesized 12-factor model for both the Manila and southern California groups, respectively [χ 2 (794) = 1283.32, p < 0.001, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.793; χ 2 (794) =1398.44, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.858]. When the factor structures of the LupusPRO in the southern California and Manila groups were constrained to be equal between the two groups, findings revealed that the factor structures of measured variables fit the two groups reasonably well [χ 2  (1697) = 2950.413, df = 1697, p < 0.000; CFI = 0.811]. After removing seven constraints and eight correlations suggested by the Lagrange multiplier test, the model fit improved

  4. Comparison of Methods for Adjusting Incorrect Assignments of Items to Subtests Oblique Multiple Group Method Versus Confirmatory Common Factor Method

    Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    2009-01-01

    A common question in test evaluation is whether an a priori assignment of items to subtests is supported by empirical data. If the analysis results indicate the assignment of items to subtests under study is not supported by data, the assignment is often adjusted. In this study the authors compare

  5. Multiple Family Group Therapy: An Interpersonal/Postmodern Approach.

    Thorngren, Jill M.; Kleist, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple Family Group Therapy has been identified as a viable treatment model for a variety of client populations. A combination of family systems theories and therapeutic group factors provide the opportunity to explore multiple levels of intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships between families. This article depicts a Multiple Family Group…

  6. Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Group Credit Unions

    Willis, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) to diversify, credit unions now have the opportunity to market their services to specific employee groups or industries which can reduce the overall risk to the credit unions' health or solvency...

  7. Teacher regulation of multiple computer-supported collaborating groups

    Van Leeuwen, Anouschka; Janssen, Jeroen; Erkens, Gijsbert; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Teachers regulating groups of students during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) face the challenge of orchestrating their guidance at student, group, and class level. During CSCL, teachers can monitor all student activity and interact with multiple groups at the same time. Not much is

  8. Experiences of patients with multiple sclerosis from group counseling

    Mazaheri, Mina; Fanian, Nasrin; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group counseling is one of the most important methods in somatic and psychological rehabilitation of the multiple sclerosis (M.S.) patients. Knowing these patients? experiences, feelings, believes and emotion based on learning in group is necessary to indicate the importance of group discussion on quality of life of the patients. This study was done to achieve experiences of M.S. patients from group training. METHODS: This was a qualitative study using phenomenological method. The...

  9. Multivariate sparse group lasso for the multivariate multiple linear regression with an arbitrary group structure.

    Li, Yanming; Nan, Bin; Zhu, Ji

    2015-06-01

    We propose a multivariate sparse group lasso variable selection and estimation method for data with high-dimensional predictors as well as high-dimensional response variables. The method is carried out through a penalized multivariate multiple linear regression model with an arbitrary group structure for the regression coefficient matrix. It suits many biology studies well in detecting associations between multiple traits and multiple predictors, with each trait and each predictor embedded in some biological functional groups such as genes, pathways or brain regions. The method is able to effectively remove unimportant groups as well as unimportant individual coefficients within important groups, particularly for large p small n problems, and is flexible in handling various complex group structures such as overlapping or nested or multilevel hierarchical structures. The method is evaluated through extensive simulations with comparisons to the conventional lasso and group lasso methods, and is applied to an eQTL association study. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Experiences of patients with multiple sclerosis from group counseling.

    Mazaheri, Mina; Fanian, Nasrin; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Group counseling is one of the most important methods in somatic and psychological rehabilitation of the multiple sclerosis (M.S.) patients. Knowing these patients' experiences, feelings, believes and emotion based on learning in group is necessary to indicate the importance of group discussion on quality of life of the patients. This study was done to achieve experiences of M.S. patients from group training. This was a qualitative study using phenomenological method. The samples were selected using purposeful sampling. Ten patients from M.S. society who had passed group training were included in the study. The group training was done through seven sessions weekly and voluntarily. The participants were interviewed using in-depth interview. The average time of each interview was between 30-50 minutes which has been recorded digitally and moved to a compact disc to transcribe and analysis. The data analyzed using 7-step Colaizzi method. The data were transformed into 158 codes, 12 sub-concepts and 4 main concepts including emotional consequences, communication, quality of life and needs. M.S can lead to multiple problems in patients such as somatic, behavioral, emotional and social disorders. Group psychotherapy is one of the methods which can decrease these problems and improve rehabilitation of the patients. Group discussion helps patients to overcome adverse feelings, behaviors and thoughts and guides them to move in a meaningful life. It also can improve quality of life and mental health of the patients.

  11. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Efficacy of group cognitive rehabilitation therapy in multiple sclerosis.

    Mani, A; Chohedri, E; Ravanfar, P; Mowla, A; Nikseresht, A

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in 40%-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Several techniques for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) in these patients have been evaluated; however, the results have been controversial. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of group compensatory CR in patients with MS-related cognitive impairment. Thirty-four female patients with diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS and evidence of impaired cognitive function were included and randomized to intervention (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. CR intervention consisted of eight 2-hour sessions of comprehensive group CR over a 4-week period that focused on improvement of memory, attention, and executive function. As placebo, the control group received the same number of non-therapeutic group sessions. Assessment of cognitive function was performed before intervention (pretest), at the end of intervention (post-test), and 3 months later (follow-up). The study population included 34 patients with a mean age of 35.5 years. Statistical comparison of memory assessments at 3-month follow-up showed significantly higher scores in the CR group than in the control group (93.33 vs 86.40 for Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination test and 16.58 vs 12.00 for visual memory, 19.32 vs 14.05 for verbal memory, and 51.28 vs 44.41 for general scores on the Memory Functioning Questionnaire test, respectively). Wisconsin card sorting test score comparison showed significantly lower total time consumption in the CR group than in the control group (308.1 vs 340.8 seconds, respectively). Behavior rating inventory of executive function-adult scores in all four subtests were significantly higher in the CR group than in the control group (40.25 vs 55.4 for behavioral regulation index, 51.16 vs 68.6 for metacognition index, and 97.41 vs 124.00 for global executive composite, respectively). Attention was the only domain in which we did not observe any significant variation between groups in terms of post

  13. Automatic feature-based grouping during multiple object tracking.

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Keane, Brian P; Mettler, Everett; Horowitz, Todd S; Kellman, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Contour interpolation automatically binds targets with distractors to impair multiple object tracking (Keane, Mettler, Tsoi, & Kellman, 2011). Is interpolation special in this regard or can other features produce the same effect? To address this question, we examined the influence of eight features on tracking: color, contrast polarity, orientation, size, shape, depth, interpolation, and a combination (shape, color, size). In each case, subjects tracked 4 of 8 objects that began as undifferentiated shapes, changed features as motion began (to enable grouping), and returned to their undifferentiated states before halting. We found that intertarget grouping improved performance for all feature types except orientation and interpolation (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Most importantly, target-distractor grouping impaired performance for color, size, shape, combination, and interpolation. The impairments were, at times, large (>15% decrement in accuracy) and occurred relative to a homogeneous condition in which all objects had the same features at each moment of a trial (Experiment 2), and relative to a "diversity" condition in which targets and distractors had different features at each moment (Experiment 3). We conclude that feature-based grouping occurs for a variety of features besides interpolation, even when irrelevant to task instructions and contrary to the task demands, suggesting that interpolation is not unique in promoting automatic grouping in tracking tasks. Our results also imply that various kinds of features are encoded automatically and in parallel during tracking.

  14. Hesitant Probabilistic Multiplicative Preference Relations in Group Decision Making

    Zia Bashir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The preference of one alternative over another is a useful way to express the opinion of the decision-maker. In the process of group decision-making, preference relations are used in preference modeling of the alternatives under given criteria. The probability is an important tool to deal with uncertainty and, in many scenarios of decision-making problems, the probabilities of different events affect the decision-making process directly. In order to deal with this issue, the hesitant probabilistic multiplicative preference relation (HPMPR is defined in this paper. Furthermore, consistency of the HPMPR and consensus among decision makers are studied here. In this respect, many algorithms are developed to achieve consistency of HPMPRs, reasonable consensus between decision-makers and a final algorithm is proposed comprehending all other algorithms, presenting a complete decision support model for group decision-making. Lastly, we present a case study with complete illustration of the proposed model and discuss the effects of probabilities on decision-making validating the importance of the introduction of probability in hesitant multiplicative preference relations.

  15. Sparse Group Penalized Integrative Analysis of Multiple Cancer Prognosis Datasets

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Xie, Yang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In cancer research, high-throughput profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with prognosis. Because of the “large d, small n” characteristic, results generated from the analysis of a single dataset can be unsatisfactory. Recent studies have shown that integrative analysis, which simultaneously analyzes multiple datasets, can be more effective than single-dataset analysis and classic meta-analysis. In most of existing integrative analysis, the homogeneity model has been assumed, which postulates that different datasets share the same set of markers. Several approaches have been designed to reinforce this assumption. In practice, different datasets may differ in terms of patient selection criteria, profiling techniques, and many other aspects. Such differences may make the homogeneity model too restricted. In this study, we assume the heterogeneity model, under which different datasets are allowed to have different sets of markers. With multiple cancer prognosis datasets, we adopt the AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. This model may have the lowest computational cost among popular semiparametric survival models. For marker selection, we adopt a sparse group MCP (minimax concave penalty) approach. This approach has an intuitive formulation and can be computed using an effective group coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation study shows that it outperforms the existing approaches under both the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. Data analysis further demonstrates the merit of heterogeneity model and proposed approach. PMID:23938111

  16. Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groups.

    Whiten, Andrew; Spiteri, Antoine; Horner, Victoria; Bonnie, Kristin E; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-06-19

    Field reports provide increasing evidence for local behavioral traditions among fish, birds, and mammals. These findings are significant for evolutionary biology because social learning affords faster adaptation than genetic change and has generated new (cultural) forms of evolution. Orangutan and chimpanzee field studies suggest that like humans, these apes are distinctive among animals in each exhibiting over 30 local traditions. However, direct evidence is lacking in apes and, with the exception of vocal dialects, in animals generally for the intergroup transmission that would allow innovations to spread widely and become evolutionarily significant phenomena. Here, we provide robust experimental evidence that alternative foraging techniques seeded in different groups of chimpanzees spread differentially not only within groups but serially across two further groups with substantial fidelity. Combining these results with those from recent social-diffusion studies in two larger groups offers the first experimental evidence that a nonhuman species can sustain unique local cultures, each constituted by multiple traditions. The convergence of these results with those from the wild implies a richness in chimpanzees' capacity for culture, a richness that parsimony suggests was shared with our common ancestor.

  17. Safeguards uses of confirmatory measurements

    Coulter, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the role of shipper and receiver measurements in safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) transferred from one facility to another, with emphasis on the case where the receiver requires an analytical accounting measurement of the transferred SNM and does not need the material for process purposes at the time of receipt. Seven possible diversion periods are considered, ranging from the interval between the shipper's final accounting measurement on the material and the time it is placed in the shipper's vault, through the actual transport of the material between facilities, to the time the material is removed from the receiver's vault and placed in the process. The detection power of various combinations of six possible shipper/receiver measurements for these diversion opportunities is then evaluated; the measurements considered include the shipper's and receiver's accounting measurements, the latter at two possible times, and various nondestructive assay (NDA) confirmatory measurements. It is concluded that all safeguards measurement objectives can be met by a combination of a shipper's accounting measurement at the time the material is removed from the process, an appropriate shipper's NDA confirmatory measurement either immediately after canning or immediately before shipping, an equivalent receiver's NDA confirmatory measurement immediately after the material is received, and a receiver's accounting measurement when the material is placed in the process. Furthermore, it is found that a receiver's analytical accounting measurement immediately after receipt when the material is not yet required for process has dubious safeguards value

  18. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire : A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that

  19. A multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration: Adaptation and validation into Italian and German languages.

    Vittadello, Fabio; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Wieser, Heike; Cavada, Luisa; Lochner, Lukas; Naletto, Carla; Fink, Verena; Reeves, Scott

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a study that aimed to validate a translation of a multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration (IPC). We used survey data gathered over a three month period as part of a mixed methods study that explored the nature of IPC in Northern Italy. Following a translation from English into Italian and German the survey was distributed online to over 5,000 health professionals (dieticians, nurses, occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists, speech therapists and psychologists) based in one regional health trust. In total, 2,238 different health professions completed the survey. Based on the original scale, three principal components were extracted and confirmed as relevant factors for IPC (communication, accommodation and isolation). A confirmatory analysis (3-factor model) was applied to the data of physicians and nurses by language group. In conclusion, the validation of the German and Italian IPC scale has provided an instrument of acceptable reliability and validity for the assessment of IPC involving physicians and nurses.

  20. The Multiplicative Group Generated by the Lehmer Numbers

    Luca, F.; Porubský, Štefan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2003), s. 122-132 ISSN 0015-0517 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Lehmer numbers * primitive prime divisor * multiplicative subgroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.180, year: 2003

  1. Multiple attachments and group psychotherapy: implications for college counseling centers.

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2009-10-01

    A large body of literature has supported the application of attachment theory to the understanding of college student development and the process of individual psychotherapy. Despite group treatment being one of the major methods of intervention in college counseling centers, there has been very little research guided by attachment theory that has been applied to the area of group psychotherapy. Many current assessment instruments used in college counseling centers can be supported with attachment theory, and many group therapy interventions are aimed at facilitating secure working models of self, other, and groups. This paper explores the importance of personal and group attachments in group psychotherapy and specifically addresses implications for clinical training and research in university counseling centers.

  2. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  3. Haemoglobins with multiple reactive sulfhydryl groups: reactions of ...

    The pH dependence profile of kapp for the slow phase resembles the titration curve of a monoprotic acid. Quantitative analysis indicates that the sulfhydryl group to which this phase may be attributed is linked to a single ionizable group with a pKa of 6.1 0.2. Examination of the structure of guinea pig haemoglobin near the ...

  4. Haemoglobins with multiple reactive sulfhydryl groups: reactions of ...

    The pH dependence profile of kapp, the apparent second-order rate constant, for the fast phase resembles the titration curve of a diprotic acid. Quantitative analysis indicates that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group to which this phase may be attributed is linked to two ionizable groups with pKas of 6.4 0.1 and 7.8 0.2.

  5. Network formation under heterogeneous costs: The multiple group model

    Kamphorst, J.J.A.; van der Laan, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the shape of networks influences both individual and aggregate behavior. This raises the question which types of networks are likely to arise. In this paper we investigate a model of network formation, where players are divided into groups and the costs of a link between

  6. Next-generation confirmatory disease diagnostics

    Lin, Robert; Gerver, Rachel; Karns, Kelly; Apori, Akwasi A.; Denisin, Aleksandra K.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-06-01

    Microfluidic tools are advancing capabilities in screening diagnostics for use in near-patient settings. Here, we review three case studies to illustrate the flexibility and analytical power offered by microanalytical tools. We first overview a near-patient tool for detection of protein markers found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a means to identify the presence of cerebrospinal fluid in nasal mucous - an indication that CSF is leaking into the nasal cavity. Microfluidic design allowed integration of several up-stream preparatory steps and rapid, specific completion of the human CSF protein assay. Second, we overview a tear fluid based assay for lactoferrin, a protein produced in the lacrimal gland, then secreted into tear fluid. Tear Lf is a putative biomarker for primary SS. A critical contribution of this and related work being measurement of Lf, even in light of well-known and significant matrix interactions and losses during the tear fluid collection and preparation. Lastly, we review a microfluidic barcode platform that enables rapid measurement of multiple infectious disease biomarkers in human sera. The assay presents a new approach to multiplexed biomarker detection, yet in a simple straight microchannel - thus providing a streamlined, simplified microanalytical platform, as is relevant to robust operation in diagnostic settings. We view microfluidic design and analytical chemistry as the basis for emerging, sophisticated assays that will advance not just screening diagnostic technology, but confirmatory assays, sample preparation and handling, and thus introduction and utilization of new biomarkers and assay formats.

  7. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  8. Teaching Group Processes through Multiple Group Leadership Opportunities in a Masters Level Counselor Education Program

    Bourgeois, Marc B.; Winters, Ryan C.; Esters, Irvin E.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing an experiential component in group work training is a prominent feature in Counselor Education programs. Although numerous models have been proposed, the vast majority offer limited explanations of incorporating the number of hours of group participation and observation recommended by the Professional Standards for the Training of Group…

  9. Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

    Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

  10. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  11. An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Composing Cooperative Learning Groups for Multiple Grouping Criteria

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Hwang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is known to be an effective educational strategy in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning efficacy. This is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve…

  12. Youth crowds and substance use: The impact of perceived group norm and multiple group identification

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Vries, de N.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of group identity on adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use was examined through a postal survey. The study included adolescents who identified with 1 subgroup (n = 1425) as well as adolescents who identified with 2 (n = 895) or 3 (n = 339) subgroups. The results showed that

  13. Group Positive Psychotherapy and Depression of Females Affected by Multiple Sclerosis

    Tayebeh Khayatan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most important and prevalent central nervous system diseases, causing disorders such as depression among affected patients. Positive psychotherapy is also a new approach that can be effective in reducing the depression of these people. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of group positive psychotherapy for decreasing the depression among females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. Methods: A samples of 30 females affected by Multiple Sclerosis with mild to moderate depression were participated, and were divided into two groups, intervention and control. Both groups completed Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II at the beginning, he intervention group received six sessions of positive psychotherapy. After the intervention both group completed the questionnaire again. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The result demonstrated that, the decline of depression was more in the intervention group than the control group. Moreover in the intervention group than control group, there was obtained significant reduction in both sub-scales of Beck Depression Inventory II. Discussion: Results of this study indicated that group positive psychotherapy is effective in reducing the depression of females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. This treatment can be widely used in the caring centers for treatment of people affected by Multiple Sclerosis and this can be justified because of its low cost and good efficiency.

  14. Altered expression patterns of group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in multiple sclerosis

    Geurts, J. J. G.; Wolswijk, G.; Bö, L.; van der Valk, P.; Polman, C. H.; Troost, D.; Aronica, E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a role for glutamate receptors in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we have focused specifically on the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in multiple sclerosis brain tissue. The expression of group I (mGluR1alpha and

  15. Historical perspective on confirmatory data gathering

    Budge, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Confirmatory earth science investigation in the nuclear power area began with the development of NRC siting standards. They arose from controversies stemming from nuclear power plant siting. The standards were intended to provide means for assessing the magnitude of a given hazard for earth scientists, and as a means to determine compliance for a regulator. They were developed for use in a quasi-legal format where technical disputes could be debated and resolved, and licensing actions brought to a conclusion satisfactory to industry, environmental groups, and professional scientists and engineers. Regulations (requirements mandated by law), regulatory guides (recommended procedures), and staff positions (statements of staff opinion) are the three basic types of NRC standards. As inherent quality of NRC's earth science standards is the recognition that an evaluation of the mutual relationships between descriptive observational data and the interpretive geologic assessment must take place; and that due to the nature of the earth science information base quantification and codification of data and conclusions are often impossible. Accordingly, siting assessment conclusions made in what is a rapidly evolving technology must frequently be reassessed and reconfirmed. In short, earth scientists and regulators dealing with the siting of nuclear facilities are working with living systems. Four major problem areas have existed in the nuclear power program. These areas deal with the development of an expanded sense of posterity, the need to more adequately scope the exact nature of a given problem, the adequacy of an existing design to envelop unforeseen concerns, and politics. These problem areas and those of the descriptive-interpretive aspects are directly transferable to waste disposal siting

  16. Confirmatory measurements of special nuclear materials

    Belew, W.L.; Williams, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmatory measurements have been considered to be interim measures until accountability measurements could be performed. When the objectives of the measurements are defined and, measurement techniques selected to attain these objectives, confirmatory type measurements can significantly increase the effectiveness of the safeguards system and in some cases may be preferred to accountability measurements for safeguards purposes. The use of fingerprint type confirmatory measurements can provide highly reliable data to ensure no diversion of SNM has occurred. These measurements can be made quickly to provide rapid assessments of SNM in shipping or storage containers. The use of fingerprint type measurements at SRP on enriched uranium shipments was shown to provide assurance at a high confidence level that no diversion of SNM could have occurred. The objective of the 10 day DOE requirement for accountability measurements is to provide a rapid assessment of SNM quantity for safeguards purposes. In cases where confirmatory or fingerprint measurements have provided assurance that no diversion has occurred, the safeguards system is not compromised by delay of the accountability measurements. The accountability measurements can then be performed for inventory purposes without undue time constraints in a more cost effective and efficient manner. 1 fig

  17. The structure of assertiveness : a confirmatory approach

    ARRINDELL, WA; SANDERMAN, R; VANDERMOLEN, H; VANDERENDE, J; MERSCH, PP

    1988-01-01

    By using confirmatory factor analysis, distress and performance factors of assertion identified previously in a sample of predomi- nantly agoraphobic club members (N = 703) employing the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SlB) - the factors being (I) Display of negative feelings; (II) Expression of

  18. Confirmatory research on the assessment of murderers.

    Piotrowski, C

    1997-12-01

    Prior research, from the psychodynamically oriented literature, characterizes homicidal offenders as impulsive, vulnerable to stress, with difficulties in emotional control, particularly anger. In 1995 Coram reported Rorschach data from a sample of murderers which tentatively support earlier findings. This paper argues that confirmatory data from measures which objectively assess emotional states and behaviors could elucidate this issue.

  19. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  20. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus......). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use...

  1. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of group I and group II metal complexes with Boc-hydroxylamine.

    Dain, Ryan P; Gresham, Gary; Groenewold, Gary S; Steill, Jeffrey D; Oomens, Jos; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2013-08-30

    Hydroxamates are essential growth factors for some microbes, acting primarily as siderophores that solubilize iron for transport into a cell. Here we determined the intrinsic structure of 1:1 complexes between Boc-protected hydroxylamine and group I ([M(L)](+)) and group II ([M(L-H)](+)) cations, where M and L are the cation and ligand, respectively, which are convenient models for the functional unit of hydroxamate siderphores. The relevant complex ions were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) and isolated and stored in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Infrared spectra of the isolated complexes were collected by monitoring (infrared) photodissociation yield as a function of photon energy. Experimental spectra were then compared to those predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra collected are in good agreement with those predicted to be lowest-energy by DFT. The spectra for the group I complexes contain six resolved absorptions that can be attributed to amide I and II type and hydroxylamine N-OH vibrations. Similar absorptions are observed for the group II cation complexes, with shifts of the amide I and amide II vibrations due to the change in structure with deprotonation of the hydroxylamine group. IRMPD spectroscopy unequivocally shows that the intrinsic binding mode for the group I cations involves the O atoms of the amide carbonyl and hydroxylamine groups of Boc-hydroxylamine. A similar binding mode is preferred for the group II cations, except that in this case the metal ion is coordinated by the O atom of the deprotonated hydroxylamine group. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Group-Sequential Strategies in Clinical Trials with Multiple Co-Primary Outcomes

    Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Asakura, Koko; Evans, Scott R; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Sozu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the decision-making frameworks for clinical trials with multiple co-primary endpoints in a group-sequential setting. The decision-making frameworks can account for flexibilities such as a varying number of analyses, equally or unequally spaced increments of information and fixed or adaptive Type I error allocation among endpoints. The frameworks can provide efficiency, i.e., potentially fewer trial participants, than the fixed sample size designs. We investigate the operating characteristics of the decision-making frameworks and provide guidance on constructing efficient group-sequential strategies in clinical trials with multiple co-primary endpoints. PMID:25844122

  3. Beyond Group: Multiple Person Tracking via Minimal Topology-Energy-Variation.

    Gao, Shan; Ye, Qixiang; Xing, Junliang; Kuijper, Arjan; Han, Zhenjun; Jiao, Jianbin; Ji, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    Tracking multiple persons is a challenging task when persons move in groups and occlude each other. Existing group-based methods have extensively investigated how to make group division more accurately in a tracking-by-detection framework; however, few of them quantify the group dynamics from the perspective of targets' spatial topology or consider the group in a dynamic view. Inspired by the sociological properties of pedestrians, we propose a novel socio-topology model with a topology-energy function to factor the group dynamics of moving persons and groups. In this model, minimizing the topology-energy-variance in a two-level energy form is expected to produce smooth topology transitions, stable group tracking, and accurate target association. To search for the strong minimum in energy variation, we design the discrete group-tracklet jump moves embedded in the gradient descent method, which ensures that the moves reduce the energy variation of group and trajectory alternately in the varying topology dimension. Experimental results on both RGB and RGB-D data sets show the superiority of our proposed model for multiple person tracking in crowd scenes.

  4. Post-hoc analysis of MCI186-17, the extension study to MCI186-16, the confirmatory double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of edaravone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Takahashi, Fumihiro; Takei, Koji; Tsuda, Kikumi; Palumbo, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    In the 24-week double-blind study of edaravone in ALS (MCI186-16), edaravone did not show a statistically significant difference versus placebo for the primary efficacy endpoint. For post-hoc analyses, two subpopulations were identified in which edaravone might be expected to show efficacy: the efficacy-expected subpopulation (EESP), defined by scores of ≥2 points on all 12 items of the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and a percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) ≥80% at baseline; and the definite/probable EESP 2 years (dpEESP2y) subpopulation which, in addition to EESP criteria, had definite or probable ALS diagnosed by El Escorial revised criteria, and disease duration of ≤2 years. In the 36-week extension study of MCI186-16, a 24-week double-blind comparison followed by 12 weeks of open-label edaravone (MCI186-17; NCT00424463), analyses of ALSFRS-R scores of the edaravone-edaravone group and edaravone-placebo group for the full analysis set (FAS) and EESP, as prospectively defined, were reported in a previous article. Here we additionally report results in patients who met dpEESP2y criteria at the baseline of MCI186-16. In the dpEESP2y, the difference in ALSFRS-R changes from 24 to 48 weeks between the edaravone-edaravone and edaravone-placebo groups was 2.79 (p = 0.0719), which was greater than the differences previously reported for the EESP and the FAS. The pattern of adverse events in the dpEESP2y did not show any additional safety findings to those from the earlier prospective study. In conclusion, this post-hoc analysis suggests a potential effect of edaravone between 24 and 48 weeks in patients meeting dpEESP2y criteria at baseline.

  5. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect o...

  6. A new achiral reagent for the incorporation of multiple amino groups into oligonucleotides

    Behrens, Carsten; Petersen, Kenneth H.; Egholm, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of a new functionalized achiral linker reagent (10) for the incorporation of multiple primary amino groups into oligonucleotides is described. The linker reagent is compatible with conventional DNA-synthesis following the phosphoramidite methodology, and the linker can be incorporated...

  7. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  8. Stepwise Analysis of Differential Item Functioning Based on Multiple-Group Partial Credit Model.

    Muraki, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    Extended an Item Response Theory (IRT) method for detection of differential item functioning to the partial credit model and applied the method to simulated data using a stepwise procedure. Then applied the stepwise DIF analysis based on the multiple-group partial credit model to writing trend data from the National Assessment of Educational…

  9. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties: Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…

  10. Competing failure analysis in phased-mission systems with multiple functional dependence groups

    Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Peng, Rui; Pan, Zhusheng

    2017-01-01

    A phased-mission system (PMS) involves multiple, consecutive, non-overlapping phases of operation. The system structure function and component failure behavior in a PMS can change from phase to phase, posing big challenges to the system reliability analysis. Further complicating the problem is the functional dependence (FDEP) behavior where the failure of certain component(s) causes other component(s) to become unusable or inaccessible or isolated. Previous studies have shown that FDEP can cause competitions between failure propagation and failure isolation in the time domain. While such competing failure effects have been well addressed in single-phase systems, only little work has focused on PMSs with a restrictive assumption that a single FDEP group exists in one phase of the mission. Many practical systems (e.g., computer systems and networks), however may involve multiple FDEP groups during the mission. Moreover, different FDEP groups can be dependent due to sharing some common components; they may appear in a single phase or multiple phases. This paper makes new contributions by modeling and analyzing reliability of PMSs subject to multiple FDEP groups through a Markov chain-based methodology. Propagated failures with both global and selective effects are considered. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method. - Highlights: • Reliability of phased-mission systems subject to competing failure propagation and isolation effects is modeled. • Multiple independent or dependent functional dependence groups are considered. • Propagated failures with global effects and selective effects are studied. • Four case studies demonstrate generality and application of the proposed Markov-based method.

  11. Exploring change in a group-based psychological intervention for multiple sclerosis patients.

    Borghi, Martina; Bonino, Silvia; Graziano, Federica; Calandri, Emanuela

    2018-07-01

    The study is focused on a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at promoting the quality of life and psychological well-being of multiple sclerosis patients. The study investigates how the group intervention promoted change among participants and fostered their adjustment to the illness. The intervention involved six groups of patients (a total of 41 patients) and included four consecutive sessions and a 6-month follow-up. To explore change, verbatim transcripts of the intervention sessions were analyzed using a mixed-methods content analysis with qualitative data combined with descriptive statistics. The categories of resistance and openness to change were used to describe the process of change. Resistance and openness to change coexisted during the intervention. Only in the first session did resistance prevail over openness to change; thereafter, openness to change gradually increased and stabilized over time, and openness to change was then always stronger than resistance. The study builds on previous research on the effectiveness of group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients and gives methodological and clinical suggestions to health care professionals working with multiple sclerosis patients. Implications for rehabilitation The study suggests that a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention for multiple sclerosis patients focused on the promotion of identity redefinition, a sense of coherence and self-efficacy in dealing with multiple sclerosis fosters the process of change and may be effective in promoting patients' adjustment to their illness. Health care professionals leading group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients should be aware that resistance and openness to change coexist in the process of change. The study suggests that the duration of the intervention is a crucial factor: a minimum of three sessions appears to be necessary for group participants to develop greater openness

  12. Promotion of Self-Transcendence in a Multiple Sclerosis Peer Support Groups

    Tahereh Ashktorab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-transcendence can organize the challenges of multiple sclerosis patients to achieve and maintain a constant state of well-being and sense of integrity in the disease process. As a research based on self-transcendence didn't done in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of peer groups on promoting selftranscendence level in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a before and after quasi-experimental study that was conducted on 33 patients with confirmed MS participated in three peer support groups: 10 men in male group, 11 women in female group and 12 men and women in mixed group. Eight weekly sessions and each session was 2 hours were held. Data collection tool was Self-Transcendence Scale (STS with 15 item and Cronbach's coefficient was 0.68 that after modifying, it increased to 0.81. Patients completed self administered questionnaires pre- and post of sessions. Results: Results showed that peer support groups promote the self-transcendence (p=0.001 with increases in mean self-transcendence scores in all 3 groups (men group: 0.008, women group 0.005 and mixed group: 0.003. Comparing scores before and after intervention demonstrated that self-transcendence increased equally in all groups. Conclusion: The results showed an improving in self-transcendence in peer support group participants at the end of the intervention. The results can be used in areas of nursing education and management. It is proposed that the self-transcendence assessment to be done in other chronic disease in order to evaluate its efficiency.

  13. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications.

    Md Selim Hossain

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM, which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance ([Formula: see text] and Area × Time × Energy (ATE product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature.

  14. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems

    Anosova, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis using Microsoft Excel.

    Miles, Jeremy N V

    2005-11-01

    This article presents a method for using Microsoft (MS) Excel for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). CFA is often seen as an impenetrable technique, and thus, when it is taught, there is frequently little explanation of the mechanisms or underlying calculations. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that this is not the case; it is relatively straightforward to produce a spreadsheet in MS Excel that can carry out simple CFA. It is possible, with few or no programming skills, to effectively program a CFA analysis and, thus, to gain insight into the workings of the procedure.

  16. Multi-Population Invariance with Dichotomous Measures: Combining Multi-Group and MIMIC Methodologies in Evaluating the General Aptitude Test in the Arabic Language

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al-harbi, Khaleel A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of measurement invariance by simultaneously estimating invariance across multiple populations in the dichotomous instrument case using multi-group confirmatory factor analytic and multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) methodologies. Using the Arabic version of the General Aptitude Test…

  17. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study.

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, Julie; Evers, Kris; de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-03-30

    Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age. In addition to its importance for typical development, these results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in this regard. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The origin of the Gestalt principles is still an ongoing debate: Are they innate, learned over time, or both? Developmental research has revealed how each Gestalt principle has its own trajectory and unique relationship to visual experience. Both connectedness and object-based grouping play an important role in object formation during childhood. What does this study add? The study identifies how sensitivity to connectedness and object-based grouping evolves in individuals, aged 9-21 years old. Using multiple-object tracking, results reveal that the ability to track multiple objects increases with age. These results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in different types of grouping. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  18. A Semiparametric Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Longitudinal Data from Multiple Related Groups.

    Das, Kiranmoy; Afriyie, Prince; Spirko, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Often the biological and/or clinical experiments result in longitudinal data from multiple related groups. The analysis of such data is quite challenging due to the fact that groups might have shared information on the mean and/or covariance functions. In this article, we consider a Bayesian semiparametric approach of modeling the mean trajectories for longitudinal response coming from multiple related groups. We consider matrix stick-breaking process priors on the group mean parameters which allows information sharing on the mean trajectories across the groups. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to the more traditional approaches. We analyze data from a one-year follow-up of nutrition education for hypercholesterolemic children with three different treatments where the children are from different age-groups. Our analysis provides more clinically useful information than the previous analysis of the same dataset. The proposed approach will be a very powerful tool for analyzing data from clinical trials and other medical experiments.

  19. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  20. NRC Confirmatory Testing Program for SBWR

    Han, J.T.; Bessette, D.E.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the NRC Confirmatory Testing Program for SBWR is to provide integral data for code assessment, which reasonably reproduce the important phenomena and processes expected in the SBWR under various loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and transient conditions. To achieve this objective, the Program consists of four coupled elements: (1) to design and construct an integral, carefully-scaled SBWR test facility at Purdue Univ., (2) to provide pre-construction RELAP5/CONTAIN predictions of the facility design, (3) to provide confirmatory data for code assessment, and (4) to assess the RELAP5/CONTAIN code with data. A description of the open-quotes preliminary designclose quotes of the Purdue test facility and test matrix is presented. The facility is scheduled to be built by December 1994. Approximately 50 tests will be performed from April 1995 through April 1996 and documented by interim data reports. A final and complete data report is scheduled to be published by July 31, 1996

  1. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). © FPI, Inc.

  2. A New Achiral Linker Reagent for the Incorporation of Multiple Amino Groups Into Oligonucleotides

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new functionalized achiral linker reagent for incorporating multiple primary amino groups or reporter groups into oligonucleotides following the phosphoramidite methodology. It is possible to substitute any ribodeoxynucleotide, deoxynucleotide, or nucleotide......-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine), TEMPO (N-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), dinitrophenyl, texas red, tetramethyl rhodamine, 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1-diazole (NBD), or pyrene. The present invention also relates to a solid phase support, e.g. a Controlled Pore Glass (CPG), immobilized linker reagent...

  3. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  4. Applying voting theory in natural resource management: a case of multiple-criteria group decision support.

    Laukkanen, Sanna; Kangas, Annika; Kangas, Jyrki

    2002-02-01

    Voting theory has a lot in common with utility theory, and especially with group decision-making. An expected-utility-maximising strategy exists in voting situations, as well as in decision-making situations. Therefore, it is natural to utilise the achievements of voting theory also in group decision-making. Most voting systems are based on a single criterion or holistic preference information on decision alternatives. However, a voting scheme called multicriteria approval is specially developed for decision-making situations with multiple criteria. This study considers the voting theory from the group decision support point of view and compares it with some other methods applied to similar purposes in natural resource management. A case study is presented, where the approval voting approach is introduced to natural resources planning and tested in a forestry group decision-making process. Applying multicriteria approval method was found to be a potential approach for handling some challenges typical for forestry group decision support. These challenges include (i) utilising ordinal information in the evaluation of decision alternatives, (ii) being readily understandable for and treating equally all the stakeholders in possession of different levels of knowledge on the subject considered, (iii) fast and cheap acquisition of preference information from several stakeholders, and (iv) dealing with multiple criteria.

  5. A Forward-secure Grouping-proof Protocol for Multiple RFID Tags

    Liu Ya-li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing secure and robust grouping-proof protocols based on RFID characteristics becomes a hotspot in the research of security in Internet of Things (IOT. The proposed grouping-proof protocols recently have security and/or privacy omission and these schemes afford order-dependence by relaying message among tags through an RFID reader. In consequence, aiming at enhancing the robustness, improving scalability, reducing the computation costs on resource-constrained devices, and meanwhile combing Computational Intelligence (CI with Secure Multi-party Communication (SMC, a Forward-Secure Grouping-Proof Protocol (FSGP for multiple RFID tags based on Shamir's (, secret sharing is proposed. In comparison with the previous grouping-proof protocols, FSGP has the characteristics of forward-security and order-independence addressing the scalability issue by avoiding relaying message. Our protocol provides security enhancement, performance improvement, and meanwhile controls the computation cost, which equilibrates both security and low cost requirements for RFID tags.

  6. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    Chen-Shu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS and group DSS (GDSS, emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria into consideration simultaneously. This study proposes a GDSS architecture named hybrid decision-making support model (HDMSM and integrated four decision approaches (Delphi, DEMATEL, ANP, and MDS to help decision maker to rank and select appropriate alternatives. The HDMSM consists of five steps, namely, criteria identification, criteria correlation calculation, criteria evaluation, critical criteria selection, and alternative rank and comparison. Finally, to validate the proposed feasibility of the proposed model, this study also conducts a case study to find out the important indexes of corporate social responsibility (CSR from multiple perspectives. As the case study demonstrates the proposed HDMSM enables a group of decision makers to implement the MCDM effectively and help them to analyze the relation and degree of mutual influence among different evaluation factors.

  8. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... and a Weakness factors and decision alternatives, as well as impossibility of ranking the decision alternatives. Thus, this research aims to overcome the drawbacks of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to support Local Action Group partnerships in the sustainability evaluation...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...

  9. Multiplicative surrogate standard deviation: a group metric for the glycemic variability of individual hospitalized patients.

    Braithwaite, Susan S; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    Group metrics are described to quantify blood glucose (BG) variability of hospitalized patients. The "multiplicative surrogate standard deviation" (MSSD) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the standard deviations (SDs) of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. The "geometric group mean" (GGM) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the means of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. Before reverse transformation is performed, the mean of means and mean of SDs each has its own SD, which becomes a multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) after reverse transformation. Statistical predictions and comparisons of parametric or nonparametric tests remain valid after reverse transformation. A subset of a previously published BG data set of 20 critically ill patients from the first 72 h of treatment under the SPRINT protocol was transformed logarithmically. After rank ordering according to the SD of the logarithmically transformed BG data of each patient, the cohort was divided into two equal groups, those having lower or higher variability. For the entire cohort, the GGM was 106 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, and MSSD was 1.24 (÷/× 1.07). For the subgroups having lower and higher variability, respectively, the GGM did not differ, 104 (÷/× 1.07) versus 109 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, but the MSSD differed, 1.17 (÷/× 1.03) versus 1.31 (÷/× 1.05), p = .00004. By using the MSSD with its MSD, groups can be characterized and compared according to glycemic variability of individual patient members. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Self-help group and the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis - Pilot study

    Anna Eliášová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal of the pilot study was to compare the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis in the Presov region with or without the support of a self-help group. Design: The character of this pilot study on patients with MS was related to the use of self-help groups and their impact on the assessment of the quality of life of the respondents, with the help of a questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF. Methods: The research was carried out in the Prešov region with the help of the standardized WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Ninety-one patients with MS participated in the pilot study (46 respondents attended a self-help group and 35 did not. Results: The groups, when compared, aided by the statistically evaluated WHOQOL-BREF domains, were found to show significant differences in their evaluation of quality of life in three domains: domain one: physical health; domain two: surviving; domain three: social relations. Better scores were achieved in these domains by those who attended a group. In the physical sphere, we noticed significant differences in sleep quality, and sexual satisfaction (p < 0.001, while in social and economic areas, there were significant differences in satisfaction with personal relationships (p < 0.001, and economic circumstances (p < 0.01, self-contentment (p < 0.01, and coping with negative feelings (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Patients with multiple sclerosis can live normal lives provided they are supported by their families, friends, health care professionals, and self-help groups.

  11. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. 75 FR 57532 - In the Matter of: Stone & Webster Construction, Inc.; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    2010-09-21

    ... Any person adversely affected by this Confirmatory Order, other than Shaw, may request a hearing... Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) and Safety Culture: At the parent company, The Shaw Group Inc... performance evaluations; Periodic independent culture surveys. For nuclear maintenance sites: A SCWE Procedure...

  13. Aggregation operators of neutrosophic linguistic numbers for multiple attribute group decision making.

    Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Based on the concept of neutrosophic linguistic numbers (NLNs) in symbolic neutrosophic theory presented by Smarandache in 2015, the paper firstly proposes basic operational laws of NLNs and the expected value of a NLN to rank NLNs. Then, we propose the NLN weighted arithmetic average (NLNWAA) and NLN weighted geometric average (NLNWGA) operators and discuss their properties. Further, we establish a multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) method by using the NLNWAA and NLNWGA operators under NLN environment. Finally, an illustrative example on a decision-making problem of manufacturing alternatives in the flexible manufacturing system is given to show the application of the proposed MAGDM method.

  14. VIKOR Method for Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Yu-Han Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will extend the VIKOR (VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje method to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM with interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs. Firstly, the basic concepts of INNs are briefly presented. The method first aggregates all individual decision-makers’ assessment information based on an interval neutrosophic weighted averaging (INWA operator, and then employs the extended classical VIKOR method to solve MAGDM problems with INNs. The validity and stability of this method are verified by example analysis and sensitivity analysis, and its superiority is illustrated by a comparison with the existing methods.

  15. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  17. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational

  18. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico

    Jose Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants.

  19. The effect of multiple sclerosis on the professional life of a group of Brazilian patients

    Yára Dadalti Fragoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS on the professional life of Brazilian patients. METHOD: One hundred MS patients were randomly selected from the database of the Brazilian Multiple Sclerosis Association (ABEM. An individual interview was carried out by telephone by a member of ABEM, who collected data on the patients' clinical status, educational level and professional lives. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained from 96 patients (27 males and 69 females aged 55.0±14.1 years, with average disease duration of 4.6±4.0 years. Eighty percent had eleven or more years of schooling. Among the whole group, 66% did not present limitations on walking. The longer the disease duration and the older the patient were, the higher the chances were that the patient was retired or receiving workers' compensation benefits. However, even among patients with MS for less than five years, the rate of non-participation in the workforce was 47.7%. Fatigue, paresthesia, cognitive dysfunction and pain were often cited as the motives for not working. CONCLUSION: MS patients presented high levels of unemployment, retirement and receipt of workers' compensation benefits, despite their high schooling levels. Age, disease duration and disability influenced these results for the whole group. However, even among younger patients with shorter disease duration and low disability, this finding remained.

  20. Are medical treatments for individuals and groups like single-play and multiple-play gambles?

    Michael L. DeKay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available People are often more likely to accept risky monetary gambles with positive expected values when the gambles will be played more than once. We investigated whether this distinction between single-play and multiple-play gambles extends to medical treatments for individual patients and groups of patients. Resident physicians and medical students (extit{n} = 69 and undergraduates (extit{n} = 99 ranked 9 different flu shots and a no-flu-shot option in 1 of 4 combinations of perspective (individual patient vs. group of 1000 patients and uncertainty frame (probability vs. frequency. The rank of the no-flu-shot option (a measure of preference for treatment vs. no treatment was not significantly related to perspective or participant population. The main effect of uncertainty frame and the interaction between perspective and uncertainty frame approached significance (0.1 {extgreater} extit{p} {extgreater} 0.05, with the no-flu-shot option faring particularly poorly (treatment faring particularly well when decisions about many patients were based on frequency information. Undergraduate participants believed that the no-flu-shot option would be less attractive (treatment would be more attractive in decisions about many patients, but these intuitions were inconsistent with the actual ranks. These results and those of other studies suggest that medical treatments for individuals and groups are not analogous to single-play and multiple-play monetary gambles, perhaps because many people are unwilling to aggregate treatment outcomes over patients in the same way that they would compute net gains or losses over monetary gambles.

  1. Dancing multiplicity states supported by a carboxylated group in dicopper structures bonded to O2

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-29

    The present study pretends to assign the correct multiplicity state to dinuclear copper complexes when interacting with free molecular oxygen. Recently, the formation of a bridge butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo dicopper core structure stabilized by the direct interaction of the counterion, a carboxylate group that allows the double bridge linking both metal-centre atoms, was characterized by crystallography. This system was assigned as a diradical singlet with Ms = 0. However, after new calculations it has turned out to be triplet (Ms = 1) despite the stabilization for this latter multiplicity state is not high. Here, the factors that contribute to make this structure display a multiplicity different with respect to the previously expected diradical singlet are described. In the present theoretical study, the roles of the αSp ligand constraints and the counterion are unravelled. On the other hand, the relative stability between the butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo structure and the isomeric bis(μ-oxo) species is also on discussion. Despite the relative stabilities of all these either structural or electronic isomeric species are supposed to depend on the computational method, which is a difficulty to reach a definite conclusion about the nature of the active species, all DFT methods using either pure or not pure DFT functionals here reach the same conclusion, favoring the triplet as the ground state for the butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo dicopper core structure, and the bis(μ-oxo) species when removing the benzoate counterion. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  2. Three-dimensional multiple reciprocity boundary element method for one-group neutron diffusion eigenvalue computations

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1996-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity method (MRM) in conjunction with the boundary element method has been employed to solve one-group eigenvalue problems described by the three-dimensional (3-D) neutron diffusion equation. The domain integral related to the fission source is transformed into a series of boundary-only integrals, with the aid of the higher order fundamental solutions based on the spherical and the modified spherical Bessel functions. Since each degree of the higher order fundamental solutions in the 3-D cases has a singularity of order (1/r), the above series of boundary integrals requires additional terms which do not appear in the 2-D MRM formulation. The critical eigenvalue itself can be also described using only boundary integrals. Test calculations show that Wielandt's spectral shift technique guarantees rapid and stable convergence of 3-D MRM computations. (author)

  3. Pen Branch fault: Confirmatory drilling results

    Stieve, A.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Confirmatory Drilling Project is the final investigation under the Pen Branch Fault Program initiated to determine the capability of the Pen Branch fault (PBF) to release seismic energy. This investigation focused on a small zone over the fault where previously collected seismic reflection data had indicated the fault deforms the subsurface at 150 msec (with reference to an 80 m reference datum). Eighteen drill holes, 2 to basement and the others to 300 ft, were arranged in a scatter pattern over the fault. To adequately define configuration of the layers deformed by the fault boreholes were spaced over a zone of 800 ft, north to south. The closely spaced data were to confirm or refute the existence of flat lying reflectors observed in seismic reflection data and to enable the authors to identify and correlate lithologic layers with seismic reflection data. Results suggest that deformation by the fault in sediments 300 ft deep ad shallower is subtle. Corroboration of the geologic interpretation with the seismic reflection profile is ongoing but preliminary results indicate that specific reflectors can be assigned to lithologic layers. A large amplitude package of reflections below a flat lying continuous reflection at 40 msec can be correlated with a lithology that corresponds to carbonate sediments in geologic cross-section. Further, data also show that a geologic layer as shallow as 30 ft can be traced on these seismic data over the same subsurface distance where geologic cross-section shows corresponding continuity. The subsurface structure is thus corroborated by both methods at this study site

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the female sexual function index.

    Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E; Milhausen, Robin R

    2013-01-01

    The Female Sexual Functioning Index (Rosen et al., 2000 ) was designed to assess the key dimensions of female sexual functioning using six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A full-scale score was proposed to represent women's overall sexual function. The fifth revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is currently underway and includes a proposal to combine desire and arousal problems. The objective of this article was to evaluate and compare four models of the Female Sexual Functioning Index: (a) single-factor model, (b) six-factor model, (c) second-order factor model, and (4) five-factor model combining the desire and arousal subscales. Cross-sectional and observational data from 85 women were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis on the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Local and global goodness-of-fit measures, the chi-square test of differences, squared multiple correlations, and regression weights were used. The single-factor model fit was not acceptable. The original six-factor model was confirmed, and good model fit was found for the second-order and five-factor models. Delta chi-square tests of differences supported best fit for the six-factor model validating usage of the six domains. However, when revisions are made to the DSM-5, the Female Sexual Functioning Index can adapt to reflect these changes and remain a valid assessment tool for women's sexual functioning, as the five-factor structure was also supported.

  5. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of group I and group II metal complexes with Boc-hydroxylamine

    Dain, R.P.; Gresham, G.; Groenewold, G.S.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.; van Stipdonk, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hydroxamates are essential growth factors for some microbes, acting primarily as siderophores that solubilize iron for transport into a cell. Here we determined the intrinsic structure of 1:1 complexes between Boc-protected hydroxylamine and group I ([M(L)](+)) and group II ([M(L-H)](+))

  6. The semantic category-based grouping in the Multiple Identity Tracking task.

    Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Zhen; Liu, Jingyao

    2018-01-01

    In the Multiple Identity Tracking (MIT) task, categorical distinctions between targets and distractors have been found to facilitate tracking (Wei, Zhang, Lyu, & Li in Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 589, 2016). The purpose of this study was to further investigate the reasons for the facilitation effect, through six experiments. The results of Experiments 1-3 excluded the potential explanations of visual distinctiveness, attentional distribution strategy, and a working memory mechanism, respectively. When objects' visual information was preserved and categorical information was removed, the facilitation effect disappeared, suggesting that the visual distinctiveness between targets and distractors was not the main reason for the facilitation effect. Moreover, the facilitation effect was not the result of strategically shifting the attentional distribution, because the targets received more attention than the distractors in all conditions. Additionally, the facilitation effect did not come about because the identities of targets were encoded and stored in visual working memory to assist in the recovery from tracking errors; when working memory was disturbed by the object identities changing during tracking, the facilitation effect still existed. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that observers grouped targets together and segregated them from distractors on the basis of their categorical information. By doing this, observers could largely avoid distractor interference with tracking and improve tracking performance. Finally, Experiment 6 indicated that category-based grouping is not an automatic, but a goal-directed and effortful, strategy. In summary, the present findings show that a semantic category-based target-grouping mechanism exists in the MIT task, which is likely to be the major reason for the tracking facilitation effect.

  7. Sustainable Manufacturing Practices in Malaysian Automotive Industry: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Habidin, Nurul Fadly; Zubir, Anis Fadzlin Mohd; Fuz, Nursyazwani Mohd; Latip, Nor Azrin Md; Azman, Mohamed Nor Azhari

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing practices (SMPs) have received enormous attention in current years as an effective solution to support the continuous growth and expansion of the automotive manufacturing industry. This reported study was conducted to examine confirmatory factor analysis for SMP such as manufacturing process, supply chain management, social responsibility, and environmental management based on automotive manufacturing industry. The results of confirmatory factor analysis show that fo...

  8. Pythagorean Fuzzy Muirhead Mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple-Criteria Group Decision-Making

    Jianghong Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS, a Pythagorean fuzzy set has more flexibility than IFS in expressing uncertainty and fuzziness in the process of multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM. Meanwhile, the prominent advantage of the Muirhead mean (MM operator is that it can reflect the relationships among the various input arguments through changing a parameter vector. Motivated by these primary characters, in this study, we introduced the MM operator into the Pythagorean fuzzy context to expand its applied fields. To do so, we presented the Pythagorean fuzzy MM (PFMM operators and Pythagorean fuzzy dual MM (PFDMM operator to fuse the Pythagorean fuzzy information. Then, we investigated their some properties and gave some special cases related to the parameter vector. In addition, based on the developed operators, two MCGDM methods under the Pythagorean fuzzy environment are proposed. An example is given to verify the validity and feasibility of our proposed methods, and a comparative analysis is provided to show their advantages.

  9. Efficient traffic grooming with dynamic ONU grouping for multiple-OLT-based access network

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Hongxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fast bandwidth growth urges large-scale high-density access scenarios, where the multiple Passive Optical Networking (PON) system clustered deployment can be adopted as an appropriate solution to fulfill the huge bandwidth demands, especially for a future 5G mobile network. However, the lack of interaction between different optical line terminals (OLTs) results in part of the bandwidth resources waste. To increase the bandwidth efficiency, as well as reduce bandwidth pressure at the edge of a network, we propose a centralized flexible PON architecture based on Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). It can provide flexible affiliation for optical network units (ONUs) and different OLTs to support access network traffic localization. Specifically, a dynamic ONU grouping algorithm (DGA) is provided to obtain the minimal OLT outbound traffic. Simulation results show that DGA obtains an average 25.23% traffic gain increment under different OLT numbers within a small ONU number situation, and the traffic gain will increase dramatically with the increment of the ONU number. As the DGA can be deployed easily as an application running above the centralized control plane, the proposed architecture can be helpful to improve the network efficiency for future traffic-intensive access scenarios.

  10. A novel QC-LDPC code based on the finite field multiplicative group for optical communications

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Xu, Liang; Tong, Qing-zhen

    2013-09-01

    A novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) code is proposed based on the finite field multiplicative group, which has easier construction, more flexible code-length code-rate adjustment and lower encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, a regular QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is constructed. The simulation results show that the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code can gain better error correction performance under the condition of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with iterative decoding sum-product algorithm (SPA). At the bit error rate (BER) of 10-6, the net coding gain (NCG) of the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is 1.8 dB, 0.9 dB and 0.2 dB more than that of the classic RS(255,239) code in ITU-T G.975, the LDPC(32640,30592) code in ITU-T G.975.1 and the SCG-LDPC(3969,3720) code constructed by the random method, respectively. So it is more suitable for optical communication systems.

  11. Management of relapsed multiple myeloma: recommendations of the International Myeloma Working Group.

    Laubach, J; Garderet, L; Mahindra, A; Gahrton, G; Caers, J; Sezer, O; Voorhees, P; Leleu, X; Johnsen, H E; Streetly, M; Jurczyszyn, A; Ludwig, H; Mellqvist, U-H; Chng, W-J; Pilarski, L; Einsele, H; Hou, J; Turesson, I; Zamagni, E; Chim, C S; Mazumder, A; Westin, J; Lu, J; Reiman, T; Kristinsson, S; Joshua, D; Roussel, M; O'Gorman, P; Terpos, E; McCarthy, P; Dimopoulos, M; Moreau, P; Orlowski, R Z; Miguel, J S; Anderson, K C; Palumbo, A; Kumar, S; Rajkumar, V; Durie, B; Richardson, P G

    2016-05-01

    The prognosis for patients multiple myeloma (MM) has improved substantially over the past decade with the development of new, more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens that possess a high level of anti-tumor activity. In spite of this important progress, however, nearly all MM patients ultimately relapse, even those who experience a complete response to initial therapy. Management of relapsed MM thus represents a vital aspect of the overall care for patients with MM and a critical area of ongoing scientific and clinical research. This comprehensive manuscript from the International Myeloma Working Group provides detailed recommendations on management of relapsed disease, with sections dedicated to diagnostic evaluation, determinants of therapy, and general approach to patients with specific disease characteristics. In addition, the manuscript provides a summary of evidence from clinical trials that have significantly impacted the field, including those evaluating conventional dose therapies, as well as both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Specific recommendations are offered for management of first and second relapse, relapsed and refractory disease, and both autologous and allogeneic transplant. Finally, perspective is provided regarding new agents and promising directions in management of relapsed MM.

  12. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group

    Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed to investigate personality traits and coping strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who were admitted to Sina hospital compared with healthy individuals. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and coping strategies between patients with MS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods The study sample included 55 patients with MS and 57 matched healthy control individuals. The data were gathered via a demographic form, the ways of coping questionnaire, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. Results No significant differences in personality characteristics were observed between patients and healthy controls (all P > 0.05. Only the coping strategy subscale of Distancing was significant between patients and healthy controls (P 0.05. Only the Neuroticism personality trait and the Distancing coping strategy were predictive of group membership (i.e., healthy or patient. Conclusions Our study suggests that the personality traits of patients with MS and healthy individuals are not significantly different. Patients with MS are likely to use the same coping strategies as healthy individuals, except in the subscale of Distancing.

  13. The Langer-Improved Wald Test for DIF Testing with Multiple Groups: Evaluation and Comparison to Two-Group IRT

    Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2]…

  14. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  15. The effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy on stress, anxiety, and depression of women with multiple sclerosis

    Saeid Pahlavanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the factors that could influence the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is usually overlooked, is its psychological aspects. Considering the increasing acceptance of complementary medicine in the health system, this study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of group cognitive therapy on the stress, anxiety, and depression of women suffering from multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 70 women suffering from multiple sclerosis who were referred to the health centers of Isfahan. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control, each containing 35 patients. The intervention group received cognitive behavioral therapy as 8 90-minute group sessions (a session per week, and the control group participated in 4 group sessions to express their feelings and experiences. Data were gathered using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-24. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean score of stress (P = 0.03, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 of the intervention and the control group immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. Least squares difference test showed that the mean score of stress (P = 0.02, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 immediately and 1 month after the intervention was significantly lower in the intervention group. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, cognitive behavioral therapy could decrease stress, anxiety, and depression in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

  16. Having a Lot of a Good Thing: Multiple Important Group Memberships as a Source of Self-Esteem

    Jetten, Jolanda; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Jones, Janelle M.; Cui, Lijuan; Dingle, Genevieve; Liu, James; Murphy, Sean; Thai, Anh; Walter, Zoe; Zhang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem. PMID:26017554

  17. Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem.

    Jolanda Jetten

    Full Text Available Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a, older adults (Study 1b, and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c. Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem.

  18. Group Targets Tracking Using Multiple Models GGIW-CPHD Based on Best-Fitting Gaussian Approximation and Strong Tracking Filter

    Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma Gaussian inverse Wishart cardinalized probability hypothesis density (GGIW-CPHD algorithm was always used to track group targets in the presence of cluttered measurements and missing detections. A multiple models GGIW-CPHD algorithm based on best-fitting Gaussian approximation method (BFG and strong tracking filter (STF is proposed aiming at the defect that the tracking error of GGIW-CPHD algorithm will increase when the group targets are maneuvering. The best-fitting Gaussian approximation method is proposed to implement the fusion of multiple models using the strong tracking filter to correct the predicted covariance matrix of the GGIW component. The corresponding likelihood functions are deduced to update the probability of multiple tracking models. From the simulation results we can see that the proposed tracking algorithm MM-GGIW-CPHD can effectively deal with the combination/spawning of groups and the tracking error of group targets in the maneuvering stage is decreased.

  19. Multiple Genes Cause Postmating Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation in the Drosophila virilis Group.

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H

    2016-12-07

    Understanding the genetic basis of speciation is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Studies of reproductive isolation have provided several insights into the genetic causes of speciation, especially in taxa that lend themselves to detailed genetic scrutiny. Reproductive barriers have usually been divided into those that occur before zygote formation (prezygotic) and after (postzygotic), with the latter receiving a great deal of attention over several decades. Reproductive barriers that occur after mating but before zygote formation [postmating prezygotic (PMPZ)] are especially understudied at the genetic level. Here, I present a phenotypic and genetic analysis of a PMPZ reproductive barrier between two species of the Drosophila virilis group: D. americana and D. virilis This species pair shows strong PMPZ isolation, especially when D. americana males mate with D. virilis females: ∼99% of eggs laid after these heterospecific copulations are not fertilized. Previous work has shown that the paternal loci contributing to this incompatibility reside on two chromosomes, one of which (chromosome 5) likely carries multiple factors. The other (chromosome 2) is fixed for a paracentric inversion that encompasses nearly half the chromosome. Here, I present two results. First, I show that PMPZ in this species cross is largely due to defective sperm storage in heterospecific copulations. Second, using advanced intercross and backcross mapping approaches, I identify genomic regions that carry genes capable of rescuing heterospecific fertilization. I conclude that paternal incompatibility between D. americana males and D. virilis females is underlain by four or more genes on chromosomes 2 and 5. Copyright © 2016 Ahmed-Braimah.

  20. Magnetic resonance appearance of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The GRI Study Group.

    Bellaïche, L; Laredo, J D; Lioté, F; Koeger, A C; Hamze, B; Ziza, J M; Pertuiset, E; Bardin, T; Tubiana, J M

    1997-11-01

    A prospective multicenter study. To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma has been studied extensively with magnetic resonance imaging, to the authors' knowledge, no study has evaluated the clinical interest of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The magnetic resonance examinations of the thoracolumbar spine in 24 patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were compared with those performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed nontreated multiple myeloma. All findings on magnetic resonance examination performed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were normal, whereas findings on 38 (86%) of the 44 magnetic resonance examinations performed in patients with multiple myeloma were abnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging can be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma, which may be helpful when routine criteria are not sufficient. An abnormal finding on magnetic resonance examination in a patient with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance should suggest the diagnosis of multiple myeloma after other causes of marrow signal abnormalities are excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging also may be proposed in the long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance when a new biologic or clinical event suggests the diagnosis of malignant monoclonal gammopathy.

  1. Experience with confirmatory measurements at the Savannah River Plant

    Deason, P.T.; Cadieux, J.R.; Denard, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    Confirmatory measurements are performed on all category I and II plutonium shipments to the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The primary technique employed has been neutron coincidence counting using three instruments; two slab counters, and a well counter. These measurements have provided the required safeguards features to support the physical security measures already in place for inter-site shipments of special nuclear material (SNM). Similar confirmatory measurements have also been performed on a variety of scrap mixed-oxide materials stored at SRP for later processing. The data handling and results for several categories of material will be examined in addition to planned uses of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP)/SRP Confirmatory Measurements Counter (CMC). 2 refs., 4 figs

  2. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  3. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  4. Different meaning of the p-value in exploratory and confirmatory hypothesis testing

    Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of clinical studies is often reduced to the statistical significance of results by indicating a p-value below the 5% significance level. Hypothesis testing and, through that, the p-value is commonly used, but their meaning is frequently misinterpreted in clinical research. The concept...... of hypothesis testing is explained and some pitfalls including those of multiple testing are given. The conceptual difference between exploratory and confirmatory hypothesis testing is discussed, and a better use of p-values, which includes presenting p-values with two or three decimals, is suggested....

  5. The impact of conservation management on the community composition of multiple organism groups in eutrophic interconnected man-made ponds

    Lemmens, P.; Mergeay, J.; Van Wichelen, J.; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, S.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative

  6. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET).

    Farris, Samantha G; DiBello, Angelo M; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Abrantes, Ana M

    2018-03-20

    The Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET; Adams et al. 2011) is a self-report measure designed to assess multiple reasons why and when smokers use cigarettes for appetite, weight, and shape management, that was initially developed and validated in young female smokers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SWEET measure among both male and female daily cigarette smokers. Participants (n = 577; M age  = 44.42; SD = 13.80; 52.7% female) were daily smokers recruited through Qualtrics Online Sample for an anonymous study on smoking and health. On average, participants reported smoking for 25.7 years (SD = 14.35), smoked 17.0 cigarettes per day (SD = 8.38), and had moderate levels of tobacco dependence. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the initial factor structure found in the original SWEET measure suggesting a four-factor structure fit the data well, but not a one-factor structure. Factors included using cigarettes for appetite suppression, using cigarettes to prevent overeating, smoking to cope with body dissatisfaction, and using cigarettes to cope with appetite-related withdrawal symptoms. Tests of measurement invariance revealed no significant differences when evaluating SWEET scores by participant sex. The SWEET factor scores evidenced internal consistency, known groups validity, convergent validity with related constructs (compensatory eating behaviors, tobacco dependence) and cessation-relevant variables (smoking abstinence expectancies, prior withdrawal symptoms), and discriminant validity with physical activity and sedentary behavior. The present study provides evidence in support of the validity and reliability of scores on the SWEET as a multidimensional measure of smoking for appetite, weight, and body-related concerns in male and female daily cigarette smokers.

  7. Defining hotspots of characteristic species for multiple taxonomic groups in the Netherlands

    Schouten, M.A.; Barendregt, A.; Verweij, P.A.; Kalkman, V.J.; Kleukers, R.J.M.C.; Lenders, H.J.R.; Siebel, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical zonation based on single taxa poses major limitations on planning for nature conservation. This paper identifies biogeographical patterns of multiple taxa in the Netherlands, where no endemics are present at species level, on the basis of characteristic species. We used occurrence

  8. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by maki...

  9. Assessing cross-cultural differences through use of multiple-group invariance analyses.

    Stein, Judith A; Lee, Jerry W; Jones, Patricia S

    2006-12-01

    The use of structural equation modeling in cross-cultural personality research has become a popular method for testing measurement invariance. In this report, we present an example of testing measurement invariance using the Sense of Coherence Scale of Antonovsky (1993) in 3 ethnic groups: Chinese, Japanese, and Whites. In a series of increasingly restrictive constraints on the measurement models of the 3 groups, we demonstrate how to assess differences among the groups. We also provide an example of construct validation.

  10. Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups

    Collins, Ann L.; Ma, Deqiong; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Martin, Eden R.; Wright, Harry H.; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hussman, John P.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of complex genetics, characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence, including alterations in levels of GABA and GABA receptors in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system, which is responsible for synaptic inhibition in the adult brain, may be involved in autism. Previous studies in our lab indicated association of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SN...

  11. Bayesian evaluation of constrained hypotheses on variances of multiple independent groups

    Böing-Messing, F.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Hofman, A.D.; Hoijtink, H.; Mulder, J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that independent groups often differ not only in their means, but also in their variances. Comparing and testing variances is therefore of crucial importance to understand the effect of a grouping variable on an outcome variable. Researchers may have specific expectations

  12. 75 FR 77675 - AREVA NP, Inc.; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    2010-12-13

    ... cause. VI Any person adversely affected by this Confirmatory Order, other than AREVA, may request a..., appropriate notification of regulatory authorities, safety culture and safety conscious work environment...., outside the global AREVA organization), safety culture assessment in accordance with an accepted nuclear...

  13. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Reilly's Role Overload Scale

    Thiagarajan, Palaniappan; Chakrabarty, Subhra; Taylor, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    In 1982, Reilly developed a 13-item scale to measure role overload. This scale has been widely used, but most studies did not assess the unidimensionality of the scale. Given the significance of unidimensionality in scale development, the current study reports a confirmatory factor analysis of the 13-item scale in two samples. Based on the…

  14. The impact of self-transcendence on physical health status promotion in multiple sclerosis patients attending peer support groups.

    JadidMilani, Maryam; Ashktorab, Tahereh; AbedSaeedi, Zhila; AlaviMajd, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-transcendence on the physical health of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients attending peer support groups. This study was a quasi-experimental before-and-after design including 33 MS patients in three groups: 10 men in the men-only group, 11 women in the women-only group, and 12 men and women in the mixed group. Participants were required to attend eight weekly sessions of 2 h each. Instruments included the physical health section of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. Peer support group attendance was found to have a significant positive effect on the physical health and self-transcendence of MS patients when comparing average scores before and after attendance. Regression analysis showed that improvement in self-transcendence predicted improvement in physical health. Results show the positive effects of peer support groups on self-transcendence and physical health in MS patients, and suggest that improvement in well-being can be gained by promoting self-transcendence and physical health. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of Pakistan

    Saira Bashir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the phylogenetic characterization of local clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. coli with respect to drug resistance. A total of 59 uropathogenic E. coli responsible for community acquired urinary tract infections were included in this study. A triplex PCR was employed to segregate each isolate into four different phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. Drug resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion method. The drugs used were ampicillin, aztreonam, cefixime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephradine among β-lactam group; amikacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin among aminoglycosides; nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from quinolones; trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, and tetracycline. Among 59 uropathogenic E. coli isolates majority belonged to phylogenetic group B2 (50% where as 19% each belonged to groups A and B1, and 12% to group D. All the isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR. Most effective drugs against Group A, B1, and B2 were gentamicin, amikacin and cefixime; ceftriaxone and quinolones; and ceftriaxone and amikacin, respectively. Group D isolates were found to be highly resistant to all drugs. Our results have shown emergence of MDR isolates among uropathogenic E. coli with dominance of phylogenetic group B2. However, it was found that group D isolates were though less frequent, more drug resistant as compared with group B2. Groups A and B1 were relatively uncommon. Amikacin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin were the most effective drugs in general.

  16. Integrative analysis of multiple diverse omics datasets by sparse group multitask regression

    Dongdong eLin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of high throughput genome-wide assays enable the exploration of genetic risk factors underlying complex traits. Although these studies have remarkable impact on identifying susceptible biomarkers, they suffer from issues such as limited sample size and low reproducibility. Combining individual studies of different genetic levels/platforms has the promise to improve the power and consistency of biomarker identification. In this paper, we propose a novel integrative method, namely sparse group multitask regression, for integrating diverse omics datasets, platforms and populations to identify risk genes/factors of complex diseases. This method combines multitask learning with sparse group regularization, which will: 1 treat the biomarker identification in each single study as a task and then combine them by multitask learning; 2 group variables from all studies for identifying significant genes; 3 enforce sparse constraint on groups of variables to overcome the ‘small sample, but large variables’ problem. We introduce two sparse group penalties: sparse group lasso and sparse group ridge in our multitask model, and provide an effective algorithm for each model. In addition, we propose a significance test for the identification of potential risk genes. Two simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance of our integrative method by comparing it with conventional meta-analysis method. The results show that our sparse group multitask method outperforms meta-analysis method significantly. In an application to our osteoporosis studies, 7 genes are identified as significant genes by our method and are found to have significant effects in other three independent studies for validation. The most significant gene SOD2 has been identified in our previous osteoporosis study involving the same expression dataset. Several other genes such as TREML2, HTR1E and GLO1 are shown to be novel susceptible genes for osteoporosis, as confirmed

  17. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Individual Development of Professionalism in Educational Peer Group Supervision: A Multiple Case Study of GPs

    Holge-Hazelton, B.; Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values of profe......Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values...

  19. Multiple Comparison of Age Groups in Bone Mineral Density under Heteroscedasticity

    Ahmet Sezer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a silent disease because individuals may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so fragile. Bone mineral density (BMD test helps to detect osteoporosis and determine the risk fractures. This study covers bone measurement data from total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons who participated in the 1996–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in USA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA method is known as the primary method for detecting osteoporosis because of its high precision and accuracy. Testing the equality of the means of normal populations when the variances are unknown and unequal is a fundamental problem in clinical trials and biomedical research. In this study we compare age groups based upon BMD in case of unequal variance being present among the groups. First we test equality of variances among the age groups by the Hartley test. And then Scott-Smith test is used to test equality of BMD means for the age groups. Finally, Tukey-Cramer confidence intervals are constructed to detect which groups start to differ from the reference group in which BMD reaches the peak level.

  20. Detecting and accounting for multiple sources of positional variance in peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping.

    Smelter, Andrey; Rouchka, Eric C; Moseley, Hunter N B

    2017-08-01

    Peak lists derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are commonly used as input data for a variety of computer assisted and automated analyses. These include automated protein resonance assignment and protein structure calculation software tools. Prior to these analyses, peak lists must be aligned to each other and sets of related peaks must be grouped based on common chemical shift dimensions. Even when programs can perform peak grouping, they require the user to provide uniform match tolerances or use default values. However, peak grouping is further complicated by multiple sources of variance in peak position limiting the effectiveness of grouping methods that utilize uniform match tolerances. In addition, no method currently exists for deriving peak positional variances from single peak lists for grouping peaks into spin systems, i.e. spin system grouping within a single peak list. Therefore, we developed a complementary pair of peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping algorithms designed to overcome these limitations. We have implemented these algorithms into an approach that can identify multiple dimension-specific positional variances that exist in a single peak list and group peaks from a single peak list into spin systems. The resulting software tools generate a variety of useful statistics on both a single peak list and pairwise peak list alignment, especially for quality assessment of peak list datasets. We used a range of low and high quality experimental solution NMR and solid-state NMR peak lists to assess performance of our registration analysis and grouping algorithms. Analyses show that an algorithm using a single iteration and uniform match tolerances approach is only able to recover from 50 to 80% of the spin systems due to the presence of multiple sources of variance. Our algorithm recovers additional spin systems by reevaluating match tolerances in multiple iterations. To facilitate evaluation of the

  1. Saturation flow mathematical model based on multiple combinations of lane groups

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    The ideal value of the traffic stream that can pass through an intersection is known as the saturation flow rate per hour on vehicle green time. The saturation flow is important in the understanding of the traffic light cycle and from there the understanding the Level of Service. The paper wishes to evaluate through a series of applied mathematical methods the effect of different lane grouping and critical lane group concept on the saturation flow rate. The importance of this method is that it creates a base for a signalized intersections timing plan. (Author)

  2. Matrix-type multiple reciprocity boundary element method for solving three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion equations

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1997-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity boundary element method has been applied to three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion problems. A matrix-type boundary integral equation has been derived to solve the first and the second group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously. The matrix-type fundamental solutions used here satisfy the equation which has a point source term and is adjoint to the neutron diffusion equations. A multiple reciprocity method has been employed to transform the matrix-type domain integral related to the fission source into an equivalent boundary one. The higher order fundamental solutions required for this formulation are composed of a series of two types of analytic functions. The eigenvalue itself is also calculated using only boundary integrals. Three-dimensional test calculations indicate that the present method provides stable and accurate solutions for criticality problems. (author)

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals a latent cognitive structure common to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and normal controls.

    Schretlen, David J; Peña, Javier; Aretouli, Eleni; Orue, Izaskun; Cascella, Nicola G; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Ojeda, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    We sought to determine whether a single hypothesized latent factor structure would characterize cognitive functioning in three distinct groups. We assessed 576 adults (340 community controls, 126 adults with bipolar disorder, and 110 adults with schizophrenia) using 15 measures derived from nine cognitive tests. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the fit of a hypothesized six-factor model. The hypothesized factors included attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, visual memory, ideational fluency, and executive functioning. The six-factor model provided an excellent fit for all three groups [for community controls, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) schizophrenia, RMSEA = 0.06 and CFI = 0.98]. Alternate models that combined fluency with processing speed or verbal and visual memory reduced the goodness of fit. Multi-group CFA results supported factor invariance across the three groups. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a single six-factor structure of cognitive functioning among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and community controls. While the three groups clearly differ in level of performance, they share a common underlying architecture of information processing abilities. These cognitive factors could provide useful targets for clinical trials of treatments that aim to enhance information processing in persons with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Determinants of species richness patterns in the Netherlands across multiple taxonomic groups

    Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Barendrecht, A.; Kleukers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the species richness patterns of five different species groups (mosses, reptiles and amphibians, grasshoppers and crickets, dragonflies, and hoverflies) in the Netherlands (41,500 km2) using sampling units of 5 × 5 km. We compared the spatial patterns of species richness of the five

  5. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    R.E.R. van der Hallen (Ruth); Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); L. de-Wit (Lee); J. Wagemans (Johan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based

  6. Multiple functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with carboxyl and amino groups

    Zhao, Zhiyuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Zhanhong, E-mail: zhongnan320@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Nonferrous Metals, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Youwang; Li, Jianping [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fan, Xinming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, carboxyl and amino groups have been introduced onto the surface of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the mixed acid treatment and the diazonium reaction, respectively. The presence of multifunctionality groups on the MWCNTs has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). The multifunctionalized carbon nanotubes were further utilized to react with acetyl chloride and ethylenediamine (EDA). The formation of the amide bond in the grafting reaction has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The result indicates that the further grafting is successful. The multifunctionalized MWCNTs can be a new versatile platform for many interesting applications.

  7. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users.

    Steadman, Jacqui; Pretorius, Chrisma

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease and there is little research on support networks for people with MS (PwMS). More specifically, most studies on online support groups focus on those who actively participate in the group, whereas the majority of those who utilise online support groups do so in a passive way. This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information) and social companionship (place of belonging). Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group) and social companionship (non-active status). These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important, the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  8. Examining Multiple Sources of Differential Item Functioning on the Clinician & Group CAHPS® Survey

    Rodriguez, Hector P; Crane, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate psychometric properties of a widely used patient experience survey. Data Sources English-language responses to the Clinician & Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CG-CAHPS®) survey (n = 12,244) from a 2008 quality improvement initiative involving eight southern California medical groups. Methods We used an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory differential item functioning (DIF) algorithm to identify items with DIF related to patient sociodemographic characteristics, duration of the physician–patient relationship, number of physician visits, and self-rated physical and mental health. We accounted for all sources of DIF and determined its cumulative impact. Principal Findings The upper end of the CG-CAHPS® performance range is measured with low precision. With sensitive settings, some items were found to have DIF. However, overall DIF impact was negligible, as 0.14 percent of participants had salient DIF impact. Latinos who spoke predominantly English at home had the highest prevalence of salient DIF impact at 0.26 percent. Conclusions The CG-CAHPS® functions similarly across commercially insured respondents from diverse backgrounds. Consequently, previously documented racial and ethnic group differences likely reflect true differences rather than measurement bias. The impact of low precision at the upper end of the scale should be clarified. PMID:22092021

  9. Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate

    Chow, Tina Kuo Fung [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25°C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB-, with all complexes containing only one NPB- per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH)4- (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of -OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB-) at higher concentrations. The -OH group on the NPB- which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two -OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA+ can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB-. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

  10. Effects of Multiple Cleaning and Disinfection Interventions on Infectious Diseases in Children: A Group Randomized Trial in China.

    Ban, Hai Qun; Li, Tao; Shen, Jin; Li, Jin; Peng, Pin Zhang; Ye, Heng Ping; Zhang, Liu Bo

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of multiple cleaning and disinfection interventions in the homes and kindergartens, in reducing gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses of children. From October 2010 to September 2011, we performed a prospective, controlled study in China. 408 children under 5 years old were recruited and group randomized into intervention and control groups. Families and kindergartens in the intervention group were provided with antibacterial products for hand hygiene and surface cleaning or disinfection for one year. Each child's illness symptoms and sick leave were recorded every day. A total of 393 children completed the study, with similar baseline demographics in each of the 2 groups. Except for abdominal pain, the odds of symptoms (fever, cough and expectoration, runny nose and nasal congestion, diarrhea), illness (acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal illness), and sick leave per person each month were significantly reduced by interventions. The rates of fever, diarrhea, acute respiratory illness, gastrointestinal illness and sick leave per person per year were significantly decreased as well. Not only the acute respiratory and gastrointestinal illness but the sick leave rate in children were significantly reduced by multiple interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. IMRT commissioning: Multiple institution planning and dosimetry comparisons, a report from AAPM Task Group 119

    Ezzell, Gary A.; Burmeister, Jay W.; Dogan, Nesrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, MCSB Concourse, Phoenix, Arizona 89054 (United States); and others

    2009-11-15

    AAPM Task Group 119 has produced quantitative confidence limits as baseline expectation values for IMRT commissioning. A set of test cases was developed to assess the overall accuracy of planning and delivery of IMRT treatments. Each test uses contours of targets and avoidance structures drawn within rectangular phantoms. These tests were planned, delivered, measured, and analyzed by nine facilities using a variety of IMRT planning and delivery systems. Each facility had passed the Radiological Physics Center credentialing tests for IMRT. The agreement between the planned and measured doses was determined using ion chamber dosimetry in high and low dose regions, film dosimetry on coronal planes in the phantom with all fields delivered, and planar dosimetry for each field measured perpendicular to the central axis. The planar dose distributions were assessed using gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm. The mean values and standard deviations were used to develop confidence limits for the test results using the concept confidence limit=|mean|+1.96{sigma}. Other facilities can use the test protocol and results as a basis for comparison to this group. Locally derived confidence limits that substantially exceed these baseline values may indicate the need for improved IMRT commissioning.

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis of the neck disability index in a whiplash population indicates a one-factor model is viable

    Gabel, Charles P.; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.; Barr, Sebastian; Winkeljohn Black, Stephanie; Osborne, Jason W.; Melloh, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The neck disability index (NDI) as a 10-item patient reported outcome (PRO) measure is the most commonly used whiplash associated disorders (WAD) assessment tool. However, statistical rigor and factor structure are not definitive. To date, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has not examined whether the factor structure generalizes across different groups (e.g., WAD versus non-WAD). This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the NDI in these population groups.

  13. A CONFIRMATORY APPROACH TO MEASURING RISKS IN SUPPLY CHAINS

    Constangioara Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Our proposed research methodology reveals the advantages of a confirmatory factor analysis over an exploratory principal component analysis in the context of risks management in supply chains. Moreover, as Sodhi and Tang (2012 reveals, more than half of papers in existing SCRM literature are either conceptual or qualitative empirical (case studies. Our proposed quantitative methodology contributes to reducing the above mentioned gap, providing results that can be used for statistical inferences and for enhancing the efficiency of the managerial decisional process.

  14. Multiple groups of endogenous epsilon-like retroviruses conserved across primates.

    Brown, Katherine; Emes, Richard D; Tarlinton, Rachael E

    2014-11-01

    Several types of cancer in fish are caused by retroviruses, including those responsible for major outbreaks of disease, such as walleye dermal sarcoma virus and salmon swim bladder sarcoma virus. These viruses form a phylogenetic group often described as the epsilonretrovirus genus. Epsilon-like retroviruses have become endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) on several occasions, integrating into germ line cells to become part of the host genome, and sections of fish and amphibian genomes are derived from epsilon-like retroviruses. However, epsilon-like ERVs have been identified in very few mammals. We have developed a pipeline to screen full genomes for ERVs, and using this pipeline, we have located over 800 endogenous epsilon-like ERV fragments in primate genomes. Genomes from 32 species of mammals and birds were screened, and epsilon-like ERV fragments were found in all primate and tree shrew genomes but no others. These viruses appear to have entered the genome of a common ancestor of Old and New World monkeys between 42 million and 65 million years ago. Based on these results, there is an ancient evolutionary relationship between epsilon-like retroviruses and primates. Clearly, these viruses had the potential to infect the ancestors of primates and were at some point a common pathogen in these hosts. Therefore, this result raises questions about the potential of epsilonretroviruses to infect humans and other primates and about the evolutionary history of these retroviruses. Epsilonretroviruses are a group of retroviruses that cause several important diseases in fish. Retroviruses have the ability to become a permanent part of the DNA of their host by entering the germ line as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), where they lose their infectivity over time but can be recognized as retroviruses for millions of years. Very few mammals are known to have epsilon-like ERVs; however, we have identified over 800 fragments of endogenous epsilon-like ERVs in the genomes of all major

  15. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same EBT...

  16. Paternity in horseshoe crabs when spawning in multiple-male groups.

    Brockmann; Nguyen; Potts

    2000-12-01

    Unpaired or satellite male horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are attracted to and often form a group around a pair (a female with an attached male) that is nesting in the high intertidal zone. These males are engaged in sperm competition. We observed nesting pairs and their associated satellites in the wild, collected and reared their eggs and used genetic markers to examine paternity. We found that the unpaired, satellite males are highly successful at fertilizing eggs; two satellites can leave the attached male with few fertilizations. Two satellites together are each as successful as one spawning with a pair. A satellite's location around the female greatly affects his success, and males compete for access to a position over the dorsal canal between the prosoma and opisthosoma of the female and under the front margin of the paired male where they are most likely to fertilize eggs. Although eggs and sperm retain their viability for some time after spawning, nearly all eggs are fertilized by the satellites that are around the nesting pair at the time of egg laying and by the attached male. A number of factors including beach current, female size and male behaviour affect the outcome of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Wellness and multiple sclerosis: The National MS Society establishes a Wellness Research Working Group and research priorities.

    Motl, Robert W; Mowry, Ellen M; Ehde, Dawn M; LaRocca, Nicholas G; Smith, Kathy E; Costello, Kathleen; Shinto, Lynne; Ng, Alexander V; Sullivan, Amy B; Giesser, Barbara; McCully, Kevin K; Fernhall, Bo; Bishop, Malachy; Plow, Matthew; Casaccia, Patrizia; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

    2018-03-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified "wellness" and associated behaviors as a high priority based on "social media listening" undertaken by the National MS Society (i.e. the Society). The Society recently convened a group that consisted of researchers with experience in MS and wellness-related research, Society staff members, and an individual with MS for developing recommendations regarding a wellness research agenda. The members of the group engaged in focal reviews and discussions involving the state of science within three approaches for promoting wellness in MS, namely diet, exercise, and emotional wellness. That process informed a group-mediated activity for developing and prioritizing research goals for wellness in MS. This served as a background for articulating the mission and objectives of the Society's Wellness Research Working Group. The primary mission of the Wellness Research Working Group is the provision of scientific evidence supporting the application of lifestyle, behavioral, and psychosocial approaches for promoting optimal health of mind, body, and spirit (i.e. wellness) in people with MS as well as managing the disease and its consequences.

  18. Confirmatory factory analysis of the Neck Disability Index in a general problematic neck population indicates a one-factor model.

    Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Osborne, Jason W; Burkett, Brendan; Melloh, Markus

    2014-08-01

    The Neck Disability Index frequently is used to measure outcomes of the neck. The statistical rigor of the Neck Disability Index has been assessed with conflicting outcomes. To date, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Neck Disability Index has not been reported for a suitably large population study. Because the Neck Disability Index is not a condition-specific measure of neck function, initial Confirmatory Factor Analysis should consider problematic neck patients as a homogenous group. We sought to analyze the factor structure of the Neck Disability Index through Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a symptomatic, homogeneous, neck population, with respect to pooled populations and gender subgroups. This was a secondary analysis of pooled data. A total of 1,278 symptomatic neck patients (67.5% female, median age 41 years), 803 nonspecific and 475 with whiplash-associated disorder. The Neck Disability Index was used to measure outcomes. We analyzed pooled baseline data from six independent studies of patients with neck problems who completed Neck Disability Index questionnaires at baseline. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis was considered in three scenarios: the full sample and separate sexes. Models were compared empirically for best fit. Two-factor models have good psychometric properties across both the pooled and sex subgroups. However, according to these analyses, the one-factor solution is preferable from both a statistical perspective and parsimony. The two-factor model was close to significant for the male subgroup (pfactor structure when analyzed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a pooled, homogenous sample of neck problem patients. However, a two-factor model did approach significance for male subjects where questions separated into constructs of mental and physical function. Further investigations in different conditions, subgroup and sex-specific populations are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medication withdrawal may be an option for a select group of patients in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the clinical and radiological evolution of a stable group of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that had their disease-modifying therapy (DMT withdrawn. Forty patients, which had made continuous use of one immunomodulator and had remained free of disease for at least 5 years, had their DMT withdrawn and were observed from 13 to 86 months. Out of the followed patients, 4 (10% patients presented with new attacks. In addition to these patients, 2 (5% patients had new lesions revealed by magnetic resonance imaging that did not correspond to clinical attacks. Despite these results, the difficult decision to withdraw medication requires careful analysis. Withdrawal, however, should not be viewed as simply the suspension of treatment because these patients should be evaluated periodically, and the immunomodulators should be readily reintroduced if new attacks occur. Nonetheless, medication withdrawal is an option for a select group of patients.

  20. Multiplicity dependence of matrix-induced frequency shifts for atomic transitions of the group 12 metals in rare gas solids

    Laursen, S.L.; Cartland, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic resonances of the group 12 metal atoms, Hg, Cd, and Zn, undergo frequency shifts from the gas phase atomic line when trapped in rare gas matrices of Ar, Kr, and Xe at 12 K. As expected, the shifts are approximately linear in polarizability of the rare gas, but the slope of this line depends on whether the transition in question is 1 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 or 3 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 . Thus the matrix-induced frequency shift is dependent on the singlet or triplet nature of the excited state as well as on the matrix material. This dependence on multiplicity is discussed in terms of interactions between the excited-state atomic orbitals and the matrix. The results are compared to matrix studies of other metals and to related gas-phase work on diatomic van der Waals complexes of group 12 metals with rare gases

  1. Historical events, groups and mentors: on agents of politicization and multiple ways of entering politics in Argentina

    Mariana Gené

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of politicization of the elites of the Interior Ministry in Argentina. Supported by in-depth interviews, archival material, journalistic records, and specific bibliography, the paper seeks to shed light on the centrality of historical events, militancy groups, and mentors in such paths. Firstly, we reflect on the role of political events understood as milestones of politicization, which then fuel a dispute over their interpretation and appropriation. Then we refer to the multiple character of the militancy groups and the theoretical and practical knowledge there harvested. Finally, we focus on the role played by mentors in facilitating experiences and contacts, fundamental rudiments for the political profession.

  2. Confirmatory simulation of safety and operational transients in LMFBR systems

    Guppy, J.G.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Operational and safety transients that may originate anywhere in an LMFBR system must be adequately simulated to assist in safety evaluation and plant design efforts. This paper describes an advanced thermohydraulic transient code, the Super System Code (SSC), that may be used for confirmatory safety evaluations of plant wide events, such as assurance of adequate decay heat removal capability under natural circulation conditions, and presents results obtained with SSC illustrating the degree of modelling detail present in the code as well as the computing efficiency. (author)

  3. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Delirium Symptoms in a Sample of Nursing Home Residents.

    Moyo, Patience; Huang, Ting-Ying; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Harrington, Donna

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the latent constructs of delirium symptoms among nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Cross-sectional NH assessment data (Minimum Data Set 2.0) from the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were used. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples of residents ≥65 years were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). There were 367 and 366 individuals in the EFA and CFA, respectively. Assessment of multiple model fit statistics in CFA indicated that the two-factor structure provided better fit for the data than a one-factor solution. The two factors represented cognitive and behavioral latent constructs as suggested by the related literature. A correlation of .72 between these constructs suggested moderate discriminant validity. This finding emphasizes the importance of health care providers to be attentive to both cognitive and behavioral symptoms when diagnosing, treating, and managing delirium.

  4. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    Luciana Cayres Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.

  5. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale

    Farahman Farrokhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. "nMethod: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. "nResults: As expected, the two-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than a single factor. Moreover, multi-group analyses showed that this two-factor structure was invariant across sex. Hence, AMAS provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. "nConclusions:  Brief AMAS demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The AMAS scores can be used to compare symptoms of math anxiety between male and female students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.

  6. Multiple Family Group Service Model for Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Child Outcomes at Post-Treatment.

    Chacko, Anil; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Dean-Assael, Kara; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Hoagwood, Kimberly; McKay, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of a multiple family group (MFG) service delivery model compared with services as usual (SAU) in improving the functioning of youth with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder in families residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Participants included 320 youth aged 7 to 11 and their families who were referred to participating outpatient clinics. Participants were assigned to the MFG or the SAU condition, with parent report of child oppositional behavior, social competence, and level of youth impairment as primary outcomes at post-treatment. Family engagement to MFG was measured by attendance to each group session. Caregivers of youth in the MFG service delivery model condition reported significant improvement in youth oppositional behavior and social competence compared with youth in the SAU condition. Impairment improved over time for both groups with no difference between treatment conditions. The MFG led to greater percentage of youth with clinically significant improvements in oppositional behavior. Attendance to the MFG was high, given the high-risk nature of the study population. The MFG service delivery model offers an efficient and engaging format to implement evidence-based approaches to improving functioning of youth with oppositional defiant and/or conduct disorder in families from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

  7. Confirmatory Survey Report for the Quehanna Decommissioning Project, Karthaus, PA

    W. C. Adams

    2007-01-01

    The survey activities consisted of visual inspections and radiological surveys including beta and gamma surface scans and surface beta activity measurements. The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to provide independent field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the NRC in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and FSS data. Additionally, this review provided assurance that the licensee adequately designed the FSS and fulfilled the commitments contained in the DP. ORISE has reviewed ESL's revised DP and revised FSSP for adequacy and appropriateness taking into account commitments contained in these documents that were approved by the NRC (ESL 2006a and b). These documents contain the release criteria for the site, along with the documentation on the derivation of the release criteria. The final survey data for the survey units (SU) to be evaluated were reviewed by ORISE prior to mobilization to the site and while at the site during confirmatory survey activities. ORISE reviewed and evaluated the radiological data, in accordance with the ORISE survey plan and other referenced documents, to ensure that FSS procedures and results adequately met site DP and FSSP commitments

  8. Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Methods Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Two-Dimensional Linguistic Partitioned Bonferroni Mean Aggregation Operators.

    Yin, Kedong; Yang, Benshuo; Li, Xuemei

    2018-01-24

    In this paper, we investigate multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems where decision makers represent their evaluation of alternatives by trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional uncertain linguistic variable. To begin with, we introduce the definition, properties, expectation, operational laws of trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic information. Then, to improve the accuracy of decision making in some case where there are a sort of interrelationship among the attributes, we analyze partition Bonferroni mean (PBM) operator in trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional variable environment and develop two operators: trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLPBM) aggregation operator and trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic weighted partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLWPBM) aggregation operator. Furthermore, we develop a novel method to solve MAGDM problems based on TF2DLWPBM aggregation operator. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method and analyses the impact of different parameters on the results of decision-making.

  9. Decomposing Multi‐Level Ethnic Segregation in Auckland, New Zealand, 2001–2013 : Segregation Intensity for Multiple Groups at Multiple Scales

    Manley, D.J.; Johnston, Ron; Jones, Kelvyn

    2018-01-01

    There has been a growing appreciation that the processes generating urban residential segregation operate at multiple scales, stimulating innovations into the measurement of their outcomes. This paper applies a multi‐level modelling approach to that issue to the situation in Auckland, where multiple

  10. Habitual caffeine consumption and its relation to memory, attention, planning capacity and psychomotor performance across multiple age groups.

    Hameleers, P. A. H. M; Van Boxtel, M. P. J; Hogervorst, E; Riedel, W. J; Houx, P. J; Buntinx, F; Jolles, J

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated the association between habitual caffeine intake via coffee and tea and cognitive performance. This was done as part of a larger research programme into the determinants of cognitive ageing (the Maastricht Aging Study: MAAS). Possible withdrawal effects that may have explained in part the positive association between performance and intake in an earlier study were controlled for. In addition, all cognitive tests in this study were administered under strict laboratory conditions. A group of 1875 healthy adults, stratified for age (range 24 - 81 years), sex, and general ability, were screened for habitual intake of coffee and tea and took part in extensive cognitive testing. Multiple regression analysis with control for age, sex, socio-demographic variables, and substance use showed that habitual caffeine consumption was significantly related to better long-term memory performance and faster locomotor speed. No relationships were found between habitual caffeine consumption and short-term memory, information processing, planning, and attention as measured with the Stroop Test. Moreover, no difference in sensitivity to caffeine intake between different age groups was found, suggesting that caffeine intake did not counteract age-related cognitive decline. Several recommendations are made to improve the design of future studies in this field. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparing Multiple-Group Multinomial Log-Linear Models for Multidimensional Skill Distributions in the General Diagnostic Model. Research Report. ETS RR-08-35

    Xu, Xueli; von Davier, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The general diagnostic model (GDM) utilizes located latent classes for modeling a multidimensional proficiency variable. In this paper, the GDM is extended by employing a log-linear model for multiple populations that assumes constraints on parameters across multiple groups. This constrained model is compared to log-linear models that assume…

  12. Psychometric evaluation of the Overexcitability Questionnaire-Two applying Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM and multiple-group BSEM-based alignment with approximate measurement invariance

    Niki eDe Bondt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Overexcitability Questionnaire-Two (OEQ-II measures the degree and nature of overexcitability, which assists in determining the developmental potential of an individual according to Dabrowski’s Theory of Positive Disintegration. Previous validation studies using frequentist confirmatory factor analysis, which postulates exact parameter constraints, led to model rejection and a long series of model modifications. Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM allows the application of zero-mean, small-variance priors for cross-loadings, residual covariances, and differences in measurement parameters across groups, better reflecting substantive theory and leading to better model fit and less overestimation of factor correlations. Our BSEM analysis with a sample of 516 students in higher education yields positive results regarding the factorial validity of the OEQ-II. Likewise, applying BSEM-based alignment with approximate measurement invariance, the absence of non-invariant factor loadings and intercepts across gender is supportive of the psychometric quality of the OEQ-II. Compared to males, females scored significantly higher on emotional and sensual overexcitability, and significantly lower on psychomotor overexcitability.

  13. Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory: Inquiry and Confirmatory Experiments

    Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments—reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.

  14. A confirmatory measurement technique for highly enriched uranium

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    This report describes a confirmatory measurement technique for measuring uranium items in their shipping containers. The measurement consists of a weight verification and the detection of three gamma rays. The weight can be determined very precisely, thus it severely constrains the options of the diverter who might want to imitate the gamma signal with a bogus item. The 185.7-keV gamma ray originates from 235 U, the 1001 keV originates from a daughter of 238 U, and the 2614 keV originates from a daughter of 232 U. These three gamma rays exhibit widely different attenuation properties, they correlate with enrichment and total uranium mass, and they rigorously discriminate against a likely diversion scenario (low-enriched uranium substitution). These four measured quantities, when combined, provide a signature that is very difficult to counterfeit

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Alternative: Free, Accessible CBID Software.

    Bott, Marjorie; Karanevich, Alex G; Garrard, Lili; Price, Larry R; Mudaranthakam, Dinesh Pal; Gajewski, Byron

    2018-02-01

    New software that performs Classical and Bayesian Instrument Development (CBID) is reported that seamlessly integrates expert (content validity) and participant data (construct validity) to produce entire reliability estimates with smaller sample requirements. The free CBID software can be accessed through a website and used by clinical investigators in new instrument development. Demonstrations are presented of the three approaches using the CBID software: (a) traditional confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), (b) Bayesian CFA using flat uninformative prior, and (c) Bayesian CFA using content expert data (informative prior). Outcomes of usability testing demonstrate the need to make the user-friendly, free CBID software available to interdisciplinary researchers. CBID has the potential to be a new and expeditious method for instrument development, adding to our current measurement toolbox. This allows for the development of new instruments for measuring determinants of health in smaller diverse populations or populations of rare diseases.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students

    Ronald D. Yockey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative fit of one- and two-factor models of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis on an ethnically diverse sample of 345 participants. The results indicated that although the two-factor model provided better fit to the data than the one-factor model, neither model provided optimal fit. However, a two-factor model which accounted for common item theme pairs used by Solomon and Rothblum in the creation of the scale provided good fit to the data. In addition, a significant difference by ethnicity was also found on the fear of failure subscale of the PASS, with Whites having significantly lower scores than Asian Americans or Latino/as. Implications of the results are discussed and recommendations made for future work with the scale.

  17. Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp / Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ –Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical issues were discussed.

  18. The structure of PTSD symptoms: a test of alternative models using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2007-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the structure of self-reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The analyses were based on responses from 1116 participants who had suffered whiplash injuries and screened for full or subclinical PTSD using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and arousal factors fitted the data very well. Correlations with criteria measures showed that these factors were associated with other trauma related variables in a theoretically predictable way and showed evidence of unique predictive utility. These results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings.

  19. Mosasauroid phylogeny under multiple phylogenetic methods provides new insights on the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the group.

    Tiago R Simões

    Full Text Available Mosasauroids were a successful lineage of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes that radiated during the Late Cretaceous (95-66 million years ago. They can be considered one of the few lineages in the evolutionary history of tetrapods to have acquired a fully aquatic lifestyle, similarly to whales, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a long history of research on this group, their phylogenetic relationships have only been tested so far using traditional (unweighted maximum parsimony. However, hypotheses of mosasauroid relationships and the recently proposed multiple origins of aquatically adapted pelvic and pedal features in this group can be more thoroughly tested by methods that take into account variation in branch lengths and evolutionary rates. In this study, we present the first mosasauroid phylogenetic analysis performed under different analytical methods, including maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and implied weighting maximum parsimony. The results indicate a lack of congruence in the topological position of halisaurines and Dallasaurus. Additionally, the genus Prognathodon is paraphyletic under all hypotheses. Interestingly, a number of traditional mosasauroid clades become weakly supported, or unresolved, under Bayesian analyses. The reduced resolutions in some consensus trees create ambiguities concerning the evolution of fully aquatic pelvic/pedal conditions under many analyses. However, when enough resolution was obtained, reversals of the pelvic/pedal conditions were favoured by parsimony and likelihood ancestral state reconstructions instead of independent origins of aquatic features in mosasauroids. It is concluded that most of the observed discrepancies among the results can be associated with different analytical procedures, but also due to limited postcranial data on halisaurines, yaguarasaurines and Dallasaurus.

  20. Mosasauroid phylogeny under multiple phylogenetic methods provides new insights on the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the group

    Vernygora, Oksana; Paparella, Ilaria; Jimenez-Huidobro, Paulina; Caldwell, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Mosasauroids were a successful lineage of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) that radiated during the Late Cretaceous (95–66 million years ago). They can be considered one of the few lineages in the evolutionary history of tetrapods to have acquired a fully aquatic lifestyle, similarly to whales, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a long history of research on this group, their phylogenetic relationships have only been tested so far using traditional (unweighted) maximum parsimony. However, hypotheses of mosasauroid relationships and the recently proposed multiple origins of aquatically adapted pelvic and pedal features in this group can be more thoroughly tested by methods that take into account variation in branch lengths and evolutionary rates. In this study, we present the first mosasauroid phylogenetic analysis performed under different analytical methods, including maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and implied weighting maximum parsimony. The results indicate a lack of congruence in the topological position of halisaurines and Dallasaurus. Additionally, the genus Prognathodon is paraphyletic under all hypotheses. Interestingly, a number of traditional mosasauroid clades become weakly supported, or unresolved, under Bayesian analyses. The reduced resolutions in some consensus trees create ambiguities concerning the evolution of fully aquatic pelvic/pedal conditions under many analyses. However, when enough resolution was obtained, reversals of the pelvic/pedal conditions were favoured by parsimony and likelihood ancestral state reconstructions instead of independent origins of aquatic features in mosasauroids. It is concluded that most of the observed discrepancies among the results can be associated with different analytical procedures, but also due to limited postcranial data on halisaurines, yaguarasaurines and Dallasaurus. PMID:28467456

  1. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in the TFT-LCD Industry

    Che-Wei Tsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need for environmental protection is increasing throughout the world. The focuses of green supplier selection are on considering environmental criteria and strengthening the competitiveness of the entire supply chain. The purpose of this study is to develop a green supplier selection procedure for the thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD industry using polarizer suppliers as an example. First, a decision framework for green supplier selection is developed based on literatures and the supplier audit forms provided by an anonymous flat panel display manufacturer in Taiwan. Then, a hybrid multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM method is proposed based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP, entropy, elimination and choice expressing the reality III (ELECTRE III, and the linear assignment method to assist the manufacturer in choosing among four polarizer suppliers. The final ranking results for green supplier selection and different opinions from each department are provided. An improvement report is suggested to enhance suppliers’ performance. For the evaluation procedure, most managers emphasize the importance of current capability and the capability of research and development. Furthermore, we found that the subsidiary supplier should improve quality control competence immediately to be considered as the potential candidate of primary supplier.

  2. The third spatial dimension risk approach for individual risk and group risk in multiple use of space

    Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam

  3. Public Transportation Hub Location with Stochastic Demand: An Improved Approach Based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Sen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transportation hubs are the key nodes of the public transportation system. The location of such hubs is a combinatorial problem. Many factors can affect the decision-making of location, including both quantitative and qualitative factors; however, most current research focuses solely on either the quantitative or the qualitative factors. Little has been done to combine these two approaches. To fulfill this gap in the research, this paper proposes a novel approach to the public transportation hub location problem, which takes both quantitative and qualitative factors into account. In this paper, an improved multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM method based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution and deviation is proposed to convert the qualitative factors of each hub into quantitative evaluation values. A location model with stochastic passenger flows is then established based on the above evaluation values. Finally, stochastic programming theory is applied to solve the model and to determine the location result. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  4. Construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on multiplicative group of finite field in optical communication

    Huang, Sheng; Ao, Xiang; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    In order to meet the needs of high-speed development of optical communication system, a construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes based on multiplicative group of finite field is proposed. The Tanner graph of parity check matrix of the code constructed by this method has no cycle of length 4, and it can make sure that the obtained code can get a good distance property. Simulation results show that when the bit error rate ( BER) is 10-6, in the same simulation environment, the net coding gain ( NCG) of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code with the code rate of 93.7% in this paper is improved by 2.18 dB and 1.6 dB respectively compared with those of the RS(255, 239) code in ITU-T G.975 and the LDPC(3 2640, 3 0592) code in ITU-T G.975.1. In addition, the NCG of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code is respectively 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB higher compared with those of the SG-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two different subgroups in finite field and the AS-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two arbitrary sets of a finite field. Thus, the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code in this paper can be well applied in optical communication systems.

  5. Web search behavior and information needs of people with multiple sclerosis: focus group study and analysis of online postings.

    Colombo, Cinzia; Mosconi, Paola; Confalonieri, Paolo; Baroni, Isabella; Traversa, Silvia; Hill, Sophie J; Synnot, Anneliese J; Oprandi, Nadia; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-07-24

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their family members increasingly seek health information on the Internet. There has been little exploration of how MS patients integrate health information with their needs, preferences, and values for decision making. The INtegrating and Deriving Evidence, Experiences, and Preferences (IN-DEEP) project is a collaboration between Italian and Australian researchers and MS patients, aimed to make high-quality evidence accessible and meaningful to MS patients and families, developing a Web-based resource of evidence-based information starting from their information needs. The objective of this study was to analyze MS patients and their family members' experience about the Web-based health information, to evaluate how they asses this information, and how they integrate health information with personal values. We organized 6 focus groups, 3 with MS patients and 3 with family members, in the Northern, Central, and Southern parts of Italy (April-June 2011). They included 40 MS patients aged between 18 and 60, diagnosed as having MS at least 3 months earlier, and 20 family members aged 18 and over, being relatives of a person with at least a 3-months MS diagnosis. The focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim (Atlas software, V 6.0). Data were analyzed from a conceptual point of view through a coding system. An online forum was hosted by the Italian MS society on its Web platform to widen the collection of information. Nine questions were posted covering searching behavior, use of Web-based information, truthfulness of Web information. At the end, posts were downloaded and transcribed. Information needs covered a comprehensive communication of diagnosis, prognosis, and adverse events of treatments, MS causes or risk factors, new drugs, practical, and lifestyle-related information. The Internet is considered useful by MS patients, however, at the beginning or in a later stage of the disease a refusal to actively search

  6. Ixazomib for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Review from an Evidence Review Group on a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Armoiry, Xavier; Connock, Martin; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Cummins, Ewen; Melendez-Torres, G J; Royle, Pam; Clarke, Aileen

    2018-03-26

    Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor used in combination with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (IXA-LEN-DEX) and licensed for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. As part of a single technology appraisal (ID807) undertaken by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, the Evidence Review Group, Warwick Evidence was invited to independently review the evidence submitted by the manufacturer of ixazomib, Takeda UK Ltd. The main source of clinical effectiveness data about IXA-LEN-DEX came from the Tourmaline-MM1 randomized controlled trial in which 771 patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma received either IXA-LEN-DEX or placebo-LEN-DEX as their second-, third-, or fourth-line treatment. Takeda estimated the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX using a de-novo partitioned-survival model with three health states (pre-progression, post-progression, and dead). In their first submission, this model was used to estimate the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BORT-DEX) in second-line treatment, and of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. LEN-DEX in third-line treatment. To estimate the relative clinical performance of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. BORT-DEX, Takeda conducted network meta-analyses for important outcomes. The network meta-analysis for overall survival was found to be flawed in several respects, but mainly because a hazard ratio input for one of the studies in the network had been inverted, resulting in a large inflation of the claimed superiority of IXA-LEN-DEX over BORT-DEX and a considerable overestimation of its cost effectiveness. In subsequent submissions, Takeda withdrew second-line treatment as an option for IXA-LEN-DEX. The manufacturer's first submission comparing IXA-LEN-DEX with LEN-DEX for third-line therapy employed Tourmaline-MM1 data from third- and fourth-line patients as proxy for a third-line population. The appraisal committee did not consider this reasonable because randomization in Tourmaline-MM1 was stratified

  7. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2.

    Lane, A M; Sewell, D F; Terry, P C; Bartram, D; Nesti, M S

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) using confirmatory factor analysis. Volunteer participants (n = 1213) completed the CSAI-2 approximately 1 h before competition and the data were analysed in two samples. The hypothesized model showed poor fit indices in both samples independently (Robust Comparative Fit Index: sample A = 0.82, sample B = 0.84) and simultaneously (Comparative Fit Index = 0.83), suggesting that the factor structure proposed by Martens et al. is flawed. Our findings suggest that a limitation of the Cognitive Anxiety scale derives from phrasing items around the word 'concerned' rather than 'worried'. We suggest that being concerned about an impending performance does not necessarily mean that an athlete is experiencing negative thoughts, but that the athlete is acknowledging the importance and difficulty of the challenge and is attempting to mobilize resources to cope. The present results question the use of the CSAI-2 as a valid measure of competitive state anxiety.

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the ISB - Burnout Syndrome Inventory

    Ana Maria T. Benevides-Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AimBurnout is a dysfunctional reaction to chronic occupational stress. The present study analysis the psychometric qualities of the Burnout Syndrome Inventory (ISB through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA.MethodEmpirical study in a multi-centre and multi-occupational sample (n = 701 using the ISB. The Part I assesses antecedent factors: Positive Organizational Conditions (PC and Negative Organizational Conditions (NC. The Part II assesses the syndrome: Emotional Exhaustion (EE, Dehumanization (DE, Emotional Distancing (ED and Personal Accomplishment (PA.ResultsThe highest means occurred in the positive scales CP (M = 23.29, SD = 5.89 and PA (M = 14.84, SD = 4.71. Negative conditions showed the greatest variability (SD = 6.03. Reliability indexes were reasonable, with the lowest rate at .77 for DE and the highest rate .91 for PA. The CFA revealed RMSEA = .057 and CFI = .90 with all scales regressions showing significant values (β = .73 until β = .92.ConclusionThe ISB showed a plausible instrument to evaluate burnout. The two sectors maintained the initial model and confirmed the theoretical presupposition. This instrument makes possible a more comprehensive idea of the labour context, and one or another part may be used separately according to the needs and the aims of the assessor.

  9. Workplace Innovation: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Construct Validation

    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace innovation enables the development and improvement of products, processes and services leading simultaneously to improvement in organisational performance. This study has the purpose of examining the factor structure of workplace innovation. Survey data, extracted from the 2014 APS employee census, comprising 3,125 engineering professionals in the Commonwealth of Australia’s departments were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 69.1% of the variance of the construct. CFA revealed that a two-factor structure was indicated as a validated model (GFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.08, RMR = 0.02, IFI = 0.98, NFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, and TLI = 0.96. Both factors showed good reliability of the scale (Individual creativity: α = 0.83, CR = 0.86, and AVE = 0.62; Team Innovation: α = 0.82, CR = 0.88, and AVE = 0.61. These results confirm that the two factors extracted for characterising workplace innovation included individual creativity and team innovation.

  10. CT findings as confirmatory criteria of brain death

    Shiogai, Toshiyuki; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    1983-01-01

    The absence of cerebral circulation and electrocerebral silence have served as an accurate index of irreversible brain death. It is proposed that computed tomography (CT) findings be evaluated as confirmatory criteria of brain death. To this end, CT evaluation of 14 patients satisfying the conventional criteria of brain death was performed. A CT finding of severe compression or dissappearance of the ventricular system, or so called ''brain tamponade'', was seen in 7 (50 %) of the 14 patients. Enhanced contrast CT, especially dynamic CT, usually distinctly reveals the cerebral vessels whenever the cerebral blood flow is preserved; conversely, the lack of enhanced brain structures, even comparing attenuation values, indicates the absence of cerebral blood flow. In 7 (70 %) of 10 patients, however, there was enhanced contrast of vascular brain structures, especially the circle of Willis, major cerebral arteries, choroid plexuses, and venous sinuses. It is suggested that this result is due to the improvement of demonstrability by CT. The usefulness of CT in the confirmation of brain death lies in visualization of the pathological changes associated with a dead brain, such as ''brain tamponade'', and the lack of enhanced contrast indicating the absence of cerebral blood flow. The latter point is still problematic as angiography revealed an extremely low cerebral blood flow in a few cases of ''dead brain'' patients. It is recommended that cerebral blood flow in brain death be evaluated by dynamic CT scanning and correlated with other methods of cerebral blood flow determination (e.g., intravenous digital subtraction angiography). (Author)

  11. Confirmatory simulation of safety and operational transients in LMFBR systems

    Guppy, J.G.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Operational and safety transients (anticipated, unlikely, or extremely unlikely) that may originate anywhere in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) system must be adequately simulated to assist in safety evaluation and plant design efforts. An advanced thermohydraulic transient code, the Super System Code (SSC), is described that may be used for confirmatory safety evaluations of plant-wide events, such as assurance of adequate decay heat removal capability under natural circulation conditions. Results obtained with SSC illustrating the degree of modeling detail present in the code as well as the computing efficiency are presented. A version of the SSC code, SSC-L, applicable to any loop-type LMFBR design, has been developed at Brookhaven. The scope of SSC-L is to enable the simulation of all plant-wide transients covered by Plant Protection System (PPS) action, including sodium pipe rupture and coastdown to natural circulation conditions. The computations are stopped when loss of core integrity (i.e., clad melting temperature exceeded) is indicated

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis applied to the Force Concept Inventory

    Eaton, Philip; Willoughby, Shannon D.

    2018-06-01

    In 1995, Huffman and Heller used exploratory factor analysis to draw into question the factors of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Since then several papers have been published examining the factors of the FCI on larger sets of student responses and understandable factors were extracted as a result. However, none of these proposed factor models have been verified to not be unique to their original sample through the use of independent sets of data. This paper seeks to confirm the factor models proposed by Scott et al. in 2012, and Hestenes et al. in 1992, as well as another expert model proposed within this study through the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a sample of 20 822 postinstruction student responses to the FCI. Upon application of CFA using the full sample, all three models were found to fit the data with acceptable global fit statistics. However, when CFA was performed using these models on smaller sample sizes the models proposed by Scott et al. and Eaton and Willoughby were found to be far more stable than the model proposed by Hestenes et al. The goodness of fit of these models to the data suggests that the FCI can be scored on factors that are not unique to a single class. These scores could then be used to comment on how instruction methods effect the performance of students along a single factor and more in-depth analyses of curriculum changes may be possible as a result.

  13. CT findings as confirmatory criteria of brain death

    Shiogai, Toshiyuki; Takeuchi, Kazuo (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-12-01

    The absence of cerebral circulation and electrocerebral silence have served as an accurate index of irreversible brain death. It is proposed that computed tomography (CT) findings be evaluated as confirmatory criteria of brain death. To this end, CT evaluation of 14 patients satisfying the conventional criteria of brain death was performed. A CT finding of severe compression or dissappearance of the ventricular system, or so called ''brain tamponade'', was seen in 7 (50 %) of the 14 patients. Enhanced contrast CT, especially dynamic CT, usually distinctly reveals the cerebral vessels whenever the cerebral blood flow is preserved; conversely, the lack of enhanced brain structures, even comparing attenuation values, indicates the absence of cerebral blood flow. In 7 (70 %) of 10 patients, however, there was enhanced contrast of vascular brain structures, especially the circle of Willis, major cerebral arteries, choroid plexuses, and venous sinuses. It is suggested that this result is due to the improvement of demonstrability by CT. The usefulness of CT in the confirmation of brain death lies in visualization of the pathological changes associated with a dead brain, such as ''brain tamponade'', and the lack of enhanced contrast indicating the absence of cerebral blood flow. The latter point is still problematic as angiography revealed an extremely low cerebral blood flow in a few cases of ''dead brain'' patients. It is recommended that cerebral blood flow in brain death be evaluated by dynamic CT scanning and correlated with other methods of cerebral blood flow determination (e.g., intravenous digital subtraction angiography).

  14. Worry About Caregiving Performance: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Ruijie Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI support the existence of a unique factor, worry about caregiving performance (WaP, beyond role and personal strain. Our current study aims to confirm the existence of WaP within the multidimensionality of ZBI and to determine if predictors of WaP differ from the role and personal strain. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA on 466 caregiver-patient dyads to compare between one-factor (total score, two-factor (role/personal strain, three-factor (role/personal strain and WaP, and four-factor models (role strain split into two factors. We conducted linear regression analyses to explore the relationships between different ZBI factors with socio-demographic and disease characteristics, and investigated the stage-dependent differences between WaP with role and personal strain by dyadic relationship. The four-factor structure that incorporated WaP and split role strain into two factors yielded the best fit. Linear regression analyses reveal that different variables significantly predict WaP (adult child caregiver and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q severity from role/personal strain (adult child caregiver, instrumental activities of daily living, and NPI-Q distress. Unlike other factors, WaP was significantly endorsed in early cognitive impairment. Among spouses, WaP remained low across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR stages until a sharp rise in CDR 3; adult child and sibling caregivers experience a gradual rise throughout the stages. Our results affirm the existence of WaP as a unique factor. Future research should explore the potential of WaP as a possible intervention target to improve self-efficacy in the milder stages of burden.

  15. Inventory of Pedagogy and Practice: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Multiple Facets of Teaching

    Yeung, Alexander S.; Taylor, Peter G.; McWilliam, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    Student perceptions of teaching have often been used in tertiary education for evaluation purposes. However, there is a paucity of research on the validity, reliability, and applicability of instruments that cover a wide range of student perceptions of pedagogies and practices in high school settings for descriptive purposes. The study attempts to…

  16. Examining Gender DIF on a Multiple-Choice Test of Mathematics: A Confirmatory Approach.

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Fan, Meichu

    1996-01-01

    Results for 3,244 female and 3,033 male junior high school students from the Second International Mathematics Study show that applied items in algebra, geometry, and computation were easier for males but arithmetic items were differentially easier for females. Implications of these findings for assessment and instruction are discussed. (SLD)

  17. The Nursing Performance Instrument: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses in Registered Nurses.

    Sagherian, Knar; Steege, Linsey M; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Harrington, Donna

    2018-04-01

    The optimal performance of nurses in healthcare settings plays a critical role in care quality and patient safety. Despite this importance, few measures are provided in the literature that evaluate nursing performance as an independent construct from competencies. The nine-item Nursing Performance Instrument (NPI) was developed to fill this gap. The aim of this study was to examine and confirm the underlying factor structure of the NPI in registered nurses. The design was cross-sectional, using secondary data collected between February 2008 and April 2009 for the "Fatigue in Nursing Survey" (N = 797). The sample was predominantly dayshift female nurses working in acute care settings. Using Mplus software, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the NPI data, which were divided into two equal subsamples. Multiple fit indices were used to evaluate the fit of the alternative models. The three-factor model was determined to fit the data adequately. The factors that were labeled as "physical/mental decrements," "consistent practice," and "behavioral change" were moderately to strongly intercorrelated, indicating good convergent validity. The reliability coefficients for the subscales were acceptable. The NPI consists of three latent constructs. This instrument has the potentialto be used as a self-monitoring instrument that addressesnurses' perceptions of performance while providing patient care.

  18. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

    Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

  19. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users

    Jacqui Steadman

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. Method: An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Results: Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease,informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information and social companionship (place of belonging. Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease, informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group and social companionship (non-active status. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important,the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Sport Emotion Questionnaire in organisational environments.

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David

    2015-01-01

    The Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) (Jones, M. V., Lane, A. M., Bray, S. R., Uphill, M., & Catlin, J. (2005). Development and validation of the SEQ. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 407-431) was developed and initially validated to assess sport performers' pre-competitive emotions. The purpose of this study was to test the factor structure of the SEQ in a different environment (viz. organisational) and at a different time point (viz. the past month). A further aim was to examine if the SEQ was invariant across different groups of sport performers. A diverse sample of athletes (n = 1277) completed the questionnaire. Fit indices from confirmatory factor analyses provided partial support for the hypothesised measurement model, with equal or better fit demonstrated than evident in initial validation. The comparative fit index values were above acceptable guidelines for all factors at subscale level. Evidence was also found for the invariance of the SEQ across different groups. Overall, the findings support the reliability and validity of the SEQ as a measure of the emotions experienced by sport performers in an organisational environment during the past month.

  1. Confirmatory evidence for a multidimensional model of racial-ethnic socialization for transracially adoptive families.

    Langrehr, Kimberly J; Thomas, Anita Jones; Morgan, Sydney K

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study is to test a recently established model of racial-ethnic socialization (Langrehr, 2014) among 2 samples of White transracially adoptive parents and to assess whether the proposed model functions similarly after accounting for adopted child race. Based on a modified version of the Racial Bias Preparation Scale (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000), confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the 3-factor model (i.e., Prejudice Awareness, Racial-Ethnic Pride, and Egalitarianism) among 172 White transracially adoptive parents with Asian children (Mage = 45.72) and 140 White transracially adoptive parents with Black children (Mage = 42.62). In addition, multigroup invariance testing was used to assess whether the proposed model functioned similarly across the 2 groups of parents. Results indicate that the proposed 3-factor model demonstrated partial measurement invariance such that the subconstruct of Egalitarianism functioned similarly across groups, whereas Racial-Ethnic Pride and Prejudice Awareness were deemed noninvariant. Findings are intended to help expand the concept of racial-ethnic socialization for transracially adoptive families and address the degree to which current research on racial-ethnic socialization can be applied to different transracially adoptive families. Results are intended to highlight ways that various social-cultural dimensions of family can culminate into different socialization experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Final Report - Independent Confirmatory Survey Summary and Results for the Hematite Decommissioning Project, Festus, Missouri

    Bailey, E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the confirmatory surveys were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the NRC in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and survey results.

  3. Web Search Behavior and Information Needs of People With Multiple Sclerosis: Focus Group Study and Analysis of Online Postings

    Colombo, Cinzia; Mosconi, Paola; Confalonieri, Paolo; Baroni, Isabella; Traversa, Silvia; Hill, Sophie J; Synnot, Anneliese J; Oprandi, Nadia; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their family members increasingly seek health information on the Internet. There has been little exploration of how MS patients integrate health information with their needs, preferences, and values for decision making. The INtegrating and Deriving Evidence, Experiences, and Preferences (IN-DEEP) project is a collaboration between Italian and Australian researchers and MS patients, aimed to make high-quality evidence accessible and meaningful to...

  4. Social Comparison, Multiple Reference Groups, and the Self-Concepts of Academically Handicapped Children Before and After Mainstreaming.

    Strang, Louise; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Predictions from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in two experiments assessing the impact of half-day mainstreaming upon the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. The results supported the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (Author/BH)

  5. Can Confirmatory Biopsy be Omitted in Patients with Prostate Cancer Favorable Diagnostic Features on Active Surveillance?

    Satasivam, Prassannah; Poon, Bing Ying; Ehdaie, Behfar; Vickers, Andrew J; Eastham, James A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated whether initial diagnostic parameters could predict the confirmatory biopsy result in patients initiating active surveillance for prostate cancer, to determine whether some men at low risk for disease reclassification could be spared unnecessary biopsy. The cohort included 392 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer on initial biopsy undergoing confirmatory biopsy. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess if high grade cancer (Gleason 7 or greater) on confirmatory biopsy could be predicted from initial diagnostic parameters (prostate specific antigen density, magnetic resonance imaging result, percent positive cores, percent cancer in positive cores and total tumor length). Median patient age was 62 years (IQR 56-66) and 47% of patients had a dominant or focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 392 patients 44 (11%) had high grade cancer on confirmatory biopsy, of whom 39 had Gleason 3+4, 1 had 4+3, 3 had Gleason 8 and 1 had Gleason 9 disease. All predictors were significantly associated with high grade cancer at confirmatory biopsy on univariate analysis. However, in the multivariable model only prostate specific antigen density and total tumor length were significantly associated (AUC 0.85). Using this model to select patients for confirmatory biopsy would generally provide a higher net benefit than performing confirmatory biopsy in all patients, across a wide range of threshold probabilities. If externally validated, a model based on initial diagnostic criteria could be used to avoid confirmatory biopsy in many patients initiating active surveillance. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Can Confirmatory Biopsy be Omitted in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Patients with Favorable Diagnostic Features?

    Satasivam, Prassannah; Poon, Bing Ying; Ehdaie, Behfar; Vickers, Andrew J.; Eastham, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated whether initial diagnostic parameters could predict the confirmatory biopsy result in patients initiating active surveillance for prostate cancer, to determine whether some men at low risk of reclassification could be spared unnecessary biopsy. Materials and Methods The cohort included 392 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer on initial biopsy undergoing confirmatory biopsy. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess if high-grade cancer (Gleason ≥ 7) on confirmatory biopsy could be predicted from initial diagnostic parameters (prostate-specific antigen density, magnetic resonance imaging result, percent positive cores, percent cancer in positive cores, and total tumor length). Results Median age was 62 years (IQR 56–66) and 47% of patients were found to have a dominant or focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 392 patients, 44 (11%) were found to have high-grade cancer on confirmatory biopsy, among whom 39 had 3+4, 1 had 4+3, 3 had Gleason 8, and 1 patient had Gleason 9 disease. All predictors were significantly associated with high-grade cancer at confirmatory biopsy on univariate analysis. However, in the multivariable model only prostate-specific antigen density and total tumor length were significantly associated (AUC of 0.85). Using this model to select patients for confirmatory biopsy would generally provide a higher net benefit than performing confirmatory biopsy in all patients, across a wide range of threshold probabilities. Conclusion If externally validated, a model based on initial diagnostic criteria could be used to avoid confirmatory biopsy in many patients initiating active surveillance. PMID:26192258

  7. Measuring group climate in prison

    Peer van der Helm PhD; P.H. van der Laan; G.J.J.M. Stams

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the construct validity and reliability of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) in a sample of 77 adolescents placed in a Dutch youth prison and 49 adult prisoners living in a Dutch psychiatric prison with a therapeutic living group structure. Confirmatory factor

  8. Specific emotions as mediators of the effect of intergroup contact on prejudice: findings across multiple participant and target groups.

    Seger, Charles R; Banerji, Ishani; Park, Sang Hee; Smith, Eliot R; Mackie, Diane M

    2017-08-01

    Emotions are increasingly being recognised as important aspects of prejudice and intergroup behaviour. Specifically, emotional mediators play a key role in the process by which intergroup contact reduces prejudice towards outgroups. However, which particular emotions are most important for prejudice reduction, as well as the consistency and generality of emotion-prejudice relations across different in-group-out-group relations, remain uncertain. To address these issues, in Study 1 we examined six distinct positive and negative emotions as mediators of the contact-prejudice relations using representative samples of U.S. White, Black, and Asian American respondents (N = 639). Admiration and anger (but not other emotions) were significant mediators of the effects of previous contact on prejudice, consistently across different perceiver and target ethnic groups. Study 2 examined the same relations with student participants and gay men as the out-group. Admiration and disgust mediated the effect of past contact on attitude. The findings confirm that not only negative emotions (anger or disgust, based on the specific types of threat perceived to be posed by an out-group), but also positive, status- and esteem-related emotions (admiration) mediate effects of contact on prejudice, robustly across several different respondent and target groups.

  9. Ready, set, go: a cross-sectional survey to understand priorities and preferences for multiple health behaviour change in a highly disadvantaged group.

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; Turon, Heidi; Turner, Nicole; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-09-13

    Socially disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Australians, tend to have a high prevalence of multiple lifestyle risk factors, increasing the risk of disease and underscoring the need for services to address multiple health behaviours. The aims of this study were to explore, among a socially disadvantaged group of people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS): a) readiness to change health behaviours; b) acceptability of addressing multiple risk factors sequentially or simultaneously; and c) preferred types of support services. People attending an ACCHS in regional New South Wales (NSW) completed a touchscreen survey while waiting for their appointment. The survey assessed participant health risk status, which health risks they would like to change, whether they preferred multiple health changes to be made together or separately, and the types of support they would use. Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 94 % reported multiple (two or more) health risks. There was a high willingness to change, with 69 % of current smokers wanting to cut down or quit, 51 % of overweight or obese participants wanting to lose weight and 44 % of those using drugs in the last 12 months wanting to stop or cut down. Of participants who wanted to make more than one health change, over half would be willing to make simultaneous or over-lapping health changes. The most popular types of support were help from a doctor or Health Worker and seeing a specialist, with less than a quarter of participants preferring telephone or electronic (internet or smart phone) forms of assistance. The importance of involving family members was also identified. Strategies addressing multiple health behaviour changes are likely to be acceptable for people attending an ACCHS, but may need to allow flexibility in the choice of initial target behaviour, timing of changes, and the format of support provided.

  10. Genetic educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: a focus group study with multiple perspectives

    van der Vleuten Cees

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available evidence suggests that improvements in genetics education are needed to prepare primary care providers for the impact of ongoing rapid advances in genomics. Postgraduate (physician training and master (midwifery training programmes in primary care and public health are failing to meet these perceived educational needs. The aim of this study was to explore the role of genetics in primary care (i.e. family medicine and midwifery care and the need for education in this area as perceived by primary care providers, patient advocacy groups and clinical genetics professionals. Methods Forty-four participants took part in three types of focus groups: mono-disciplinary groups of general practitioners and midwives, respectively and multidisciplinary groups composed of a diverse set of experts. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified. Results Four themes emerged regarding the educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: (1 genetics knowledge, (2 family history, (3 ethical dilemmas and psychosocial effects in relation to genetics and (4 insight into the organisation and role of clinical genetics services. These themes reflect a shift in the role of genetics in primary care with implications for education. Although all focus group participants acknowledged the importance of genetics education, general practitioners felt this need more urgently than midwives and more strongly emphasized their perceived knowledge deficiencies. Conclusion The responsibilities of primary care providers with regard to genetics require further study. The results of this study will help to develop effective genetics education strategies to improve primary care providers' competencies in this area. More research into the educational priorities in genetics is needed to design courses that are suitable for postgraduate and master programmes for

  11. The use of biochemical markers of bone remodeling in multiple myeloma: a report of the International Myeloma Working Group

    Terpos, E; Dimopoulos, M A; Sezer, O

    2010-01-01

    progression and overall survival. Bone markers have also been used for the early diagnosis of bone lesions. This International Myeloma Working Group report summarizes the existing data for the role of bone markers in assessing the extent of MM bone disease and in monitoring bone turnover during anti...

  12. Fixed capacity and variable member grouping assignment of orthogonal variable spreading factor code tree for code division multiple access networks

    Vipin Balyan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal variable spreading factor codes are used in the downlink to maintain the orthogonality between different channels and are used to handle new calls arriving in the system. A period of operation leads to fragmentation of vacant codes. This leads to code blocking problem. The assignment scheme proposed in this paper is not affected by fragmentation, as the fragmentation is generated by the scheme itself. In this scheme, the code tree is divided into groups whose capacity is fixed and numbers of members (codes are variable. A group with maximum number of busy members is used for assignment, this leads to fragmentation of busy groups around code tree and compactness within group. The proposed scheme is well evaluated and compared with other schemes using parameters like code blocking probability and call establishment delay. Through simulations it has been demonstrated that the proposed scheme not only adequately reduces code blocking probability, but also requires significantly less time before assignment to locate a vacant code for assignment, which makes it suitable for the real-time calls.

  13. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  14. Multiple group I introns in the small-subunit rDNA of Botryosphaeria dothidea: implication for intraspecific genetic diversity.

    Chao Xu

    Full Text Available Botryosphaeria dothidea is a widespread and economically important pathogen on various fruit trees, and it often causes die-back and canker on limbs and fruit rot. In characterizing intraspecies genetic variation within this fungus, group I introns, rich in rDNA of fungi, may provide a productive region for exploration. In this research, we analysed complete small subunit (SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequences of 37 B. dothidea strains, and found four insertions, designated Bdo.S943, Bdo.S1199-A, Bdo.S1199-B and Bdo.S1506, at three positions. Sequence analysis and structure prediction revealed that both Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 belonged to subgroup IC1 of group I introns, whereas Bdo.S1199-A and Bdo.S1199-B corresponded to group IE introns. Moreover, Bdo.S1199-A was found to host an open reading frame (ORF for encoding the homing endonuclease (HE, whereas Bdo.S1199-B, an evolutionary descendant of Bdo.S1199-A, included a degenerate HE. The above four introns were novel, and were the first group I introns observed and characterized in this species. Differential distribution of these introns revealed that all strains could be separated into four genotypes. Genotype III (no intron and genotype IV (Bdo.S1199-B were each found in only one strain, whereas genotype I (Bdo.S1199-A and genotype II (Bdo.S943 and Bdo.S1506 occurred in 95% of the strains. There is a correlation between B. dothidea genotypes and hosts or geographic locations. Thus, these newly discovered group I introns can help to advance understanding of genetic differentiation within B. dothidea.

  15. An application of multiple attribute group decision making in ranking investors’ concerns: A case study of Tehran Stock Exchange

    Amir Mohammadzadeh; Naser Hamidi; Sadegh Abedi; Fehimeh Jabari

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, stock exchange investors confront numerous problems in terms of legal, environmental issues, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important issues as barriers for investment in Tehran Stock Exchange. The study has categorized the issues into two groups of real world and legal issues. Since there are different issues involved as major barriers, the study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank them. The study extracts 18 important factors, wh...

  16. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  17. Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate. [1,2-propanediol

    Chow, Tina Kuo Fung.

    1992-05-01

    The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25{degree}C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB{sup {minus}}, with all complexes containing only one NPB{sup {minus}} per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of {minus}OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB{sup {minus}}) at higher concentrations. The {minus}OH group on the NPB{sup {minus}} which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two {minus}OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA{sup +} can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB{sup {minus}}. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

  18. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Yeon-Kyoung eWoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  19. The Use of Case Based Multiple Choice Questions for Assessing Large Group Teaching: Implications on Student's Learning

    Christina Donnelly

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of assessments in third level education is extremely important and a rarely disputed part of the university curriculum as a method to demonstrate a student’s learning. However, assessments to test a student’s knowledge and level of understanding are challenging to apply given recent trends which are showing that student numbers are increasing, student demographics are wide ranging and resources are being stretched. As a result of these emerging challenges, lecturers are required to develop a comprehensive assessment to effectively demonstrate student learning, whilst efficiently managing large class sizes. One form of assessment which has been used for efficient assessment is multiple choice questions (MCQs; however this method has been criticised for encouraging surface learning, in comparison to other methods such as essays or case studies. This research explores the impact of blended assessment methods on student learning. This study adopts a rigorous three-staged qualitative methodology to capture third level lecturers’ and students’ perception to (1 the level of learning when using MCQs; (2 the level of learning when blended assessment in the form of case based MCQs are used. The findings illuminate the positive impact of cased based MCQs as students and lecturers suggest that it leads to a higher level of learning and deeper information processing over that of MCQs without case studies. 2 The implications of this research is that this type of assessment contributes to the current thinking within literature on the use of assessments methods, as well as the blending of assessment methods to reach a higher level of learning. It further serves to reinforce the belief that assessments are the greatest influence on students’ learning, and the requirement for both universities and lecturers to reflect on the best form of assessment to test students’ level of understanding, whilst also balancing the real challenges of

  20. CoDuSe group exercise programme improves balance and reduces falls in people with multiple sclerosis: A multi-centre, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Carling, Anna; Forsberg, Anette; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2017-09-01

    Imbalance leading to falls is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). To evaluate the effects of a balance group exercise programme (CoDuSe) on balance and walking in PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, 4.0-7.5). A multi-centre, randomized, controlled single-blinded pilot study with random allocation to early or late start of exercise, with the latter group serving as control group for the physical function measures. In total, 14 supervised 60-minute exercise sessions were delivered over 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest analyses were conducted for self-reported near falls and falls in the group starting late. Primary outcome was Berg Balance Scale (BBS). A total of 51 participants were initially enrolled; three were lost to follow-up. Post-intervention, the exercise group showed statistically significant improvement ( p = 0.015) in BBS and borderline significant improvement in MS Walking Scale ( p = 0.051), both with large effect sizes (3.66; -2.89). No other significant differences were found between groups. In the group starting late, numbers of falls and near falls were statistically significantly reduced after exercise compared to before ( p balance and reduced perceived walking limitations, compared to no exercise. The intervention reduced falls and near falls frequency.

  1. The relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women: the structural equation modeling.

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women. This secondary analysis was conducted with the data from 980 midlife women that were collected from 2005 to 2013 using the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The model had the highest fit indices for Non-Hispanic (NH) White midlife women, and prominent racial/ethnic differences were observed in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms. In all racial/ethnic groups (except in Hispanic women), perceived health status was significantly associated positively with menopausal symptoms (β = -0.149 for NH African American; β = -0.207 for NH Asians; β = -0.162 for NH Whites). Body mass index was significantly positively associated with menopausal symptoms only in NH Asians (β = 0.118) and Hispanics (β = 0.210). The racial/ethnic differences in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms could have resulted from the different cultural contexts in which women undergo during their menopausal transitions. Further cultural studies on the associations of racial/ethnic-specific factors with menopausal symptoms would help in understanding possible causes for racial/ethnic differences in the factors significantly associated with menopausal symptoms.

  2. Depression, anxiety and loss of resilience after multiple traumas: an illustration of a mediated moderation model of sensitization in a group of children who survived the Nazi Holocaust.

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stephanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) have become a major public health problem. Multiple trauma is known to increase the risk of DAD through a sensitization mechanism. We investigate the hypothesis that resilience is a mediator of this mechanism. Former Hidden Children (FHC), the Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe, were compared with a control group. In each group, we measured the presence of multiple traumas, the resilience with the Resilience Scale for Adults, which has a six factors solution, and the DAD with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. We test a mediated moderation model with childhood trauma as the predictor; Later trauma as the moderator; Resilience as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results are consistent with a sensitization model of DAD mediated by resilience: confrontation with a primary trauma during childhood followed by secondary trauma(s) after childhood damages resilience, which, in turn, results in higher level of DAD. We are unable to differentiate if the sensitization process is a consequence of the nature of the trauma endured by FHC (long-standing exposure to extreme external events) or a consequence of the fact that this first trauma occurred during childhood. Resilience construct is multi-factorial and a limited damaging of some of the factors is sufficient to lead to DAD even if other factors remain unaltered. Resilience can be altered by multiple traumas and, therefore, needs to be bolstered in therapy sessions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The value of diagnostic information to patients with suspected multiple sclerosis. Rochester-Toronto MRI Study Group.

    Mushlin, A I; Mooney, C; Grow, V; Phelps, C E

    1994-01-01

    To determine the value of diagnostic information to patients with suspected multiple sclerosis (MS). Because treatment choices would be only minimally affected by earlier diagnosis for most patients with this clinical problem, this study assessed the "nondecisional" value of diagnosis. Prospective survey of patients before and after diagnostic workup, including imaging with magnetic resonance scanning. We assessed the effect of diagnostic information on patients' sense of well-being, as well as direct measures of the utility of information (using time trade-off and willingness-to-pay techniques). Patients referred from primary care practices for diagnostic workup for suspected MS to neurology clinics and practices. Sixty-eight individuals, mean age 37.5 years, 53 female and 15 male. Thirty-one patients were classified as having "probable MS," and 37 were classified as having "possible MS" by the examining neurologist before workup. Present and future health perception, uncertainty about diagnosis-prognosis, and level of anxiety. Willingness to pay for diagnostic information, quality of life as measured by the time trade-off technique, and psychological state of the patient before and after diagnosis. Diagnostic uncertainty fell significantly as a result of the diagnostic workup. Most patients (59/62) said that they were better off having received diagnostic information. Although anxiety seemed to be reduced by testing, overall anxiety levels did not decrease as much as anticipated. Patients also became less optimistic about their future health after testing. On average, patients were willing to forgo 4.5 quality-adjusted life days to receive an earlier diagnosis and their quality of life after diagnosis improved slightly. Subgroups of patients differed in their response to diagnostic information. Those in whom no definitive diagnosis emerged tend to be more anxious rather than being reassured by the "negative" workup. Individuals with "positive" workups became less

  4. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  5. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis.

    Salum, Giovanni A; DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Brietzke, Elisa; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Mari, Jair J; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM) comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM) was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880), fear disorders (n = 108), distress disorders (n = 76), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143) and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56). A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment) encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report) exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  6. Selective exposure to information: how different modes of decision making affect subsequent confirmatory information processing.

    Fischer, Peter; Fischer, Julia; Weisweiler, Silke; Frey, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    We investigated whether different modes of decision making (deliberate, intuitive, distracted) affect subsequent confirmatory processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information. Participants showed higher levels of confirmatory information processing when they made a deliberate or an intuitive decision versus a decision under distraction (Studies 1 and 2). As soon as participants have a cognitive (i.e., deliberate cognitive analysis) or affective (i.e., intuitive and gut feeling) reason for their decision, the subjective confidence in the validity of their decision increases, which results in increased levels of confirmatory information processing (Study 2). In contrast, when participants are distracted during decision making, they are less certain about the validity of their decision and thus are subsequently more balanced in the processing of decision-relevant information.

  7. Grupos sanguíneos ABO, RhD y esclerosis múltiple ABO and RhD blood groups in multiple sclerosis

    Leslie Pérez-Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La fisiopatología de la esclerosis múltiple es incierta; la hipótesis más fundada es la existencia de un proceso autoinmune en el que existe predisposición genética. El sistema de grupos sanguíneos está compuesto por antígenos fácilmente detectables, por lo que constituye excelente marcador genético. Para determinar frecuencia de distribución de los grupos sanguíneos en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple, se estudiaron 70 enfermos, de quienes se obtuvieron datos demográficos, clínicos y de escalas evolutivas. Se seleccionaron 180 controles al azar simple mediante muestreo multietápico del universo integrado por 4 747 donantes de sangre. Se determinaron los grupo sanguíneos ABO y RhD. Se calculó X² con precisión del 95 % e intervalo de confianza de las diferencias porcentuales. En ambos grupos fue más frecuente el RhD+ (85,7 % casos y 90 % controles. El grupo sanguíneo A estuvo en el 60 % de los pacientes y el grupo O predominó en los donantes (55 %, con diferencia significativa p=0,003 y OR=2,85. De acuerdo con este estudio, existe una asociación entre el grupo sanguíneo A con la esclerosis múltiple.The physiopathology of multiple sclerosis is uncertain. The best founded hypothesis is the existence of an autoimmune process in which genetic predisposition plays a role. The system of blood groups consists of easily detectable antigens; therefore, it is an excellent genetic marker. To determine the distribution frequency of blood groups in patients with multiple sclerosis, 70 ill persons were studied, about whom demographic, clinical and evolutionary scale data were obtained. 180 controls were selected by simple random multistage sampling of a universe of 4 747 blood donors. Blood groups ABO and RhD were determined. X² was calculated with a 95% accuracy and confidence interval of percent differences. RhD+ was more frequent in both groups (85.7 % cases and 90% controls. Blood group A was found in 60 % patients, whereas

  8. An application of multiple attribute group decision making in ranking investors’ concerns: A case study of Tehran Stock Exchange

    Amir Mohammadzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, stock exchange investors confront numerous problems in terms of legal, environmental issues, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important issues as barriers for investment in Tehran Stock Exchange. The study has categorized the issues into two groups of real world and legal issues. Since there are different issues involved as major barriers, the study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank them. The study extracts 18 important factors, which influence investors’ participation in Tehran Stock Exchange and using Borda method, prioritize them. The results of the survey indicate that in terms of real issues, Increase in quality of firms Financial Statement is number one priority followed by Increase stock exchange and agents’ proficiency and electronic equipment, Unchangeable investment market rules and bounding organization managers to flow them and Strict supervision on agents’ activities. In terms of legal issues, good supervision of provisions to force firms to reveal information correctly and restrict their secret bargaining is the most important factor followed by Using indirect investment guideline instead of direct investment, Increase in quality of firms’ Financial Statement and Investors’ training toward their rights.

  9. Grouping and the pitch of a mistuned fundamental component: Effects of applying simultaneous multiple mistunings to the other harmonics.

    Roberts, Brian; Holmes, Stephen D

    2006-12-01

    Mistuning a harmonic produces an exaggerated change in its pitch. This occurs because the component becomes inconsistent with the regular pattern that causes the other harmonics (constituting the spectral frame) to integrate perceptually. These pitch shifts were measured when the fundamental (F0) component of a complex tone (nominal F0 frequency = 200 Hz) was mistuned by +8% and -8%. The pitch-shift gradient was defined as the difference between these values and its magnitude was used as a measure of frame integration. An independent and random perturbation (spectral jitter) was applied simultaneously to most or all of the frame components. The gradient magnitude declined gradually as the degree of jitter increased from 0% to +/-40% of F0. The component adjacent to the mistuned target made the largest contribution to the gradient, but more distant components also contributed. The stimuli were passed through an auditory model, and the exponential height of the F0-period peak in the averaged summary autocorrelation function correlated well with the gradient magnitude. The fit improved when the weighting on more distant channels was attenuated by a factor of three per octave. The results are consistent with a grouping mechanism that computes a weighted average of periodicity strength across several components.

  10. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Bagheri, Parisa; Karimi, Negar; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and can cause problems for individuals in all aspects of life, including social and personal dimensions. To study the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of OCD symptoms in female participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted from May 2012 to December 2014. The participants included 75 patients with MS who suffered from OCD and were referred to the Loghman Hakim and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Thirty participants had been diagnosed through Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (Y-BOCS). The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Eleven sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy were provided for the experimental group. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Hypotheses were tested using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A significant reduction was found in the experimental group's obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral therapy (pcognitive-behavioral therapy could considerably reduce OCD symptoms in women with MS. The application of this method by therapists, especially Iranian clinicians, is recommended.

  11. Rapid Induction of Multiple Terpenoid Groups by Ponderosa Pine in Response to Bark Beetle-Associated Fungi.

    Keefover-Ring, Ken; Trowbridge, Amy; Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a major and widely distributed component of conifer biomes in western North America and provides substantial ecological and economic benefits. This tree is exposed to several tree-killing bark beetle-microbial complexes, including the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the phytopathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera that it vectors, which are among the most important. Induced responses play a crucial role in conifer defenses, yet these have not been reported in ponderosa pine. We compared concentrations of terpenes and a phenylpropanoid, two phytochemical classes with strong effects against bark beetles and their symbionts, in constitutive phloem tissue and in tissue following mechanical wounding or simulated D. ponderosae attack (mechanical wounding plus inoculation with G. clavigera). We also tested whether potential induced responses were localized or systemic. Ponderosa pines showed pronounced induced defenses to inoculation, increasing their total phloem concentrations of monoterpenes 22.3-fold, sesquiterpenes 56.7-fold, and diterpenes 34.8-fold within 17 days. In contrast, responses to mechanical wounding alone were only 5.2, 11.3, and 7.7-fold, respectively. Likewise, the phenylpropanoid estragole (4-allyanisole) rose to 19.1-fold constitutive levels after simulated attack but only 4.4-fold after mechanical wounding. Overall, we found no evidence of systemic induction after 17 days, which spans most of this herbivore's narrow peak attack period, as significant quantitative and compositional changes within and between terpenoid groups were localized to the wound site. Implications to the less frequent exploitation of ponderosa than lodgepole pine by D. ponderosae, and potential advantages of rapid localized over long-term systemic responses in this system, are discussed.

  12. Dangers of "confirmatory" cancer trials that fail to actually test the original hypothesis.

    Markman, Maurie

    2014-04-01

    The concept of "confirmatory" studies is a standard and important component of the overall clinical trials strategy in oncology. However, it is critical that such studies are similar enough in basic design and how they are conducted that they actually have the realistic potential to confirm, or refute, objectively the findings of the original study. In this commentary, two examples of clinical studies in the gynecologic oncology arena suggested by some to serve as "confirmatory" trials for the original reports demonstrate both the dangers and potential inappropriateness of such conclusions.

  13. Summary report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on nuclear data for neutron multiplication in fusion-reactor first-wall and blanket materials

    Muir, D.W.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1992-09-01

    The present Report contains the Summary of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Neutron Multiplication in Fusion-Reactor First-Wall and Blanket Materials, which was hosted by the Southwest Institute of Nuclear physics and Chemistry (SWINPC) at Chengdu, China and held from 19-21 November 1990. This AGM was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS), with the cooperation and assistance of local organizers at the SWINPC. The papers which the participants prepared for and presented at the meeting will be published as an INDC report. (author)

  14. The effect of group psycho-education program on the burden of family caregivers with multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan in 2013-2014.

    Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid; Dalvi-Isfahani, Fariba; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lack of adequate training and support of primary caregivers of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is the major factor in causing stress, anxiety, and increase of burden. Therefore, the treatment team members such as psychiatric nurses can help these vulnerable people overcome psychiatric pressures effectively not only through their care and referral role but also through their supportive characteristic, which helps the patients improve their clinical status, together with their social, familial, and work adaptation. Therefore, the researcher tried to identify the effect of a group psycho-education program on the burden family caregivers with MS patients. This is a two-group three-stage clinical trial. The researcher referred to the heads of neurology clinics to present the purpose of the study and to start the sampling. The neurology clinics of AL Zahra University Hospital, and also a Private Neurology Clinic were selected to collect the data of the study. The subjects were randomly selected, and then, assigned to two groups of study and control. Independent t-test showed a significant reduction in family caregivers' burden immediately after and 1-month after intervention in the study group, compared to control. Repeated measure ANOVA showed a significant reduction in caregivers' burden mean score in the study group (P family caregivers' burden, it is recommended to develop and design other programs for the family caregivers of the patients with MS.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing between Blacks and Whites of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale.

    LaNoue, Marianna; Harvey, Abby; Mautner, Dawn; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    The factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale remains in question. Additionally, research on health belief differences between Black and White respondents suggests that the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale may not be invariant. We reviewed the literature regarding the latent variable structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the three-factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and analyzed between-group differences in the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control structure and means across Black and White respondents. Our results indicate differences in means and structure, indicating more research is needed to inform decisions regarding whether and how to deploy the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control appropriately.

  16. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model of Servant Leader of School Director Under the Office of the Vocational Education Commission in Thailand

    Boonchan Sisan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop and examine the Goodness-of-Fit Index of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA in servant leader of school director under the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC. The result is based on the empirical data. The sample group consisted of 247 school directors under the OVEC. The samples were taken using Multi - Stage Sampling randomized technique. Research instrument was questionnaire which had 0.80 - 1.00 for item objective congruence, discriminative power with 0.46 - .80 , and reliability of .95. The data analysed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. The study shows the servant leader of school director under the OVEC consists of six factors: Appreciating of Others, Developing Others, Developing Community, moral Expressions, Supporting Leadership, and Using Leadership Together. The results of examination of the Goodness-of-Fit Index of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA found the model fit indexes based on the empirical data were =280.89; df=252; P-value=0.10204; Relative =1.11; RMSEA=0.022; NFI=0.98; RMR=0.016; SRMR=0.041; GFI=0.92; AGFI=0.89; NIF=0.98; IFI=1.00; CFI=1.00; CN=252.56. The factor loadings of six factors were from 0.73 – 0.94 and factor loadings of indicators were from -0.39 – 0.57.

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Version of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale

    Joséphine Chaix

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS, a measure specifically designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, was used to evaluate the presence of social anhedonia in patients as well as the general population. The first goal of this study was to validate the structure of the French version of the ACIPS. The second objective was to verify whether a one, two or three factor solution is most appropriate for the ACIPS scale. The French version of the ACIPS was tested on 263 French-speaking pre-graduate students or professional volunteers. For the confirmatory factor analysis, data were treated as categorical ordinal and all the models were estimated using a robust weighted least squares estimator with adjustments for the mean and variance. Three models were estimated. A one-factor model representing a general undifferentiated “pleasure” latent construct was first tested on the 17 ACIPS items. A two-factor model distinguishing anticipatory-pleasure and consummatory-pleasure was tested next. Finally, a three-factor model including subdomains of intimate social interactions, group social interactions, and social bonding was tested. The one and two-factor models showed a somewhat poor fit to the data. However, the goodness of fit of the three factor model was adequate. These results suggest that individuals who enjoyed interaction in one of these three subdomains were more likely to enjoy doing so in the two other domains. However, on the basis of the comparison between the one and three factor models, these three types of interactions may not be considered as indistinguishable. Rather, they represent distinct and theoretically meaningful dimensions. These results show the French version of the ACIPS is a useful and valid scale to measure the capacity of savoring different kinds of social relationships.

  18. Confirmatory factors analysis of science teacher leadership in the Thailand world-class standard schools

    Thawinkarn, Dawruwan

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to analyze factors of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools. The research instrument was a five scale rating questionnaire with reliability 0.986. The sample group included 500 science teachers from World-Class Standard Schools who had been selected by using the stratified random sampling technique. Factor analysis of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools was conducted by using M plus for Windows. The results are as follows: The results of confirmatory factor analysis on science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools revealed that the model significantly correlated with the empirical data. The consistency index value was x2 = 105.655, df = 88, P-Value = 0.086, TLI = 0.997, CFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.022, and SRMR = 0.019. The value of factor loading of science teacher leadership was positive, with statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The value of six factors was between 0.880-0.996. The highest factor loading was the professional learning community, followed by child-centered instruction, participation in development, the role model in teaching, transformational leaders, and self-development with factor loading at 0.996, 0.928, 0.911, 0.907, 0.901, and 0.871, respectively. The reliability of each factor was 99.1%, 86.0%, 83.0%, 82.2%, 81.0%, and 75.8%, respectively.

  19. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study.

    Tacchella, Andrea; Romano, Silvia; Ferraldeschi, Michela; Salvetti, Marco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR) phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP) form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm) forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients.

  20. [Body image dissatisfaction as a mediator of the association between BMI, self-esteem and mental health in early adolescents: a multiple-group path analysis across gender].

    Jang, Mi Heui; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2013-04-01

    This study was done to examine not only the relationships between body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, body image dissatisfaction (BID) and mental health, according to gender, but the mediating role of BID on mental health in relation to BMI and self-esteem among early adolescents. Data from 576 (296 boys and 280 girls) elementary school students in grades 5 to 6 were collected. A multiple-group path analysis was utilized to examine the relationships between BMI, self-esteem, BID and mental health by gender. In the path analysis for all students, poor mental health was related directly to BID, while it was indirectly related to BMI and self-esteem. In the multiple-group path analysis of both genders, BID was found to have a significant direct and indirect effect on mental health for girls alone. The findings suggested that BID should be examined early to prevent poor mental health in early adolescent girls. This study helps to elucidate the role of early adolescent BID on mental health and provides insight for further prevention and intervention programs in school and community mental health settings.

  1. [Association between Emotional Labor, Emotional Dissonance, Burnout and Turnover Intention in Clinical Nurses: A Multiple-Group Path Analysis across Job Satisfaction].

    Back, Chi Yun; Hyun, Dae Sung; Chang, Sei Jin

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of emotional labor, emotional dissonance, and burnout on nurse's turnover intention and examine the effect of job satisfaction on the relationships among emotional labor, emotional dissonance, burnout, and turnover intention. The sample consisted of 350 nurses recruited from 6 general hospitals in 2 cities in Korea. A multiple-group analysis was utilized. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistics 23 and AMOS 20. In the path analysis, turnover intention was directly related to burnout in clinical nurses who had a high job satisfaction (β=.24, p=.003), while it was indirectly related to emotional dissonance (β=.13, p=.002). In the multiple-group path analysis, turnover intention was directly related to emotional dissonance (β=.18, p=.033) and burnout (β=.26, p=.002) for nurses with low job satisfaction. These results indicate that manuals and guidelines to alleviate the negative effects of emotional labor, emotional dissonance, and burnout, and to increase job satisfaction are strongly required to reduce turnover intention in nurses at the organizational level as well as at the individual level. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of the Student Authorship Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Ballantine, Joan; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research provides new insights into the measurement of students' authorial identity and its potential for minimising the incidence of unintentional plagiarism by providing evidence about the psychometric properties of the Student Authorship Questionnaire (SAQ). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) are employed to…

  3. Subgroup analyses in confirmatory clinical trials: time to be specific about their purposes

    Tanniou, J.; Tweel, I. van der; Teerenstra, S.; Roes, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that treatment effects may not be homogeneous across the study population. Subgroup analyses constitute a fundamental step in the assessment of evidence from confirmatory (Phase III) clinical trials, where conclusions for the overall study population might not hold.

  4. Collinear Latent Variables in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis : A Comparison of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Estimation

    Can, Seda; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Hox, Joop|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073351431

    2015-01-01

    Because variables may be correlated in the social and behavioral sciences, multicollinearity might be problematic. This study investigates the effect of collinearity manipulated in within and between levels of a two-level confirmatory factor analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the

  5. Psychometric Properties and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills

    Brigman, Greg; Wells, Craig; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Carey, John C.; Harrington, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the confirmatory factor analysis of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills (SESSS) instrument. The results of this study confirm that the SESSS has potential to be a useful self-report measure of elementary students' use of strategies and skills associated with enhanced academic learning and achievement.

  6. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the WISC-IV with Gifted Students

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Dandridge, Jessica; Pawlush, Alexandra; Thompson, Dawna F.; Ferrier, David E.

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigated the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) with exploratory factor analysis (EFA; Study 1) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; Study 2) among 2 independent samples of gifted students. The EFA sample consisted of 225 children who were referred for a…

  7. The Two- and Three-Dimensional Models of the HK-WISC: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    Chan, David W.; Lin, Wen-Ying

    1996-01-01

    Confirmatory analyses on the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC) provided support for composite score interpretation based on the two- and three-dimensional models across age levels. Test sample was comprised of 1,100 children, ranging in age from 5 to 15 years at all 11 age levels specified by the HK-WISC. (KW)

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WISC-III with Child Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Tupa, David J.; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Fristad, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Factor models of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) for one, two, three, and four factors were tested using confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 177 child psychiatric inpatients. The four-factor model proposed in the WISC-III manual provided the best fit to the data. (SLD)

  9. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  10. A Confirmatory Approach to Examining the Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

    Niclasen, Janni; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a Structural Confirmatory Factor Analytic approach. The Danish translation of the SDQ was distributed to 71,840 parents and teachers of 5-7 and 10-12-year-old boys and girls from ...

  11. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Factorial Invariance

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…

  12. Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form

    Villares, Elizabeth; Mariani, Melissa; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data from elementary teachers (N = 233) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form. Supporting previous psychometric research, confirmatory factor analyses findings supported the factorial validity of the hypothesized five-factor solution. Internal reliability estimates were…

  13. 49 CFR 192.931 - How may Confirmatory Direct Assessment (CDA) be used?

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.931 How may Confirmatory Direct Assessment (CDA) be used? An...

  14. Comparison of four techniques for the confirmatory identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Jacobs, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have compared four assay techniques for the confirmatory identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. On of these is a radiometric assay, based on the measurement of liberated radiolabelled CO 2 from metabolized carbohydrates which have been tagged with 14 C. The assay uses glucose, maltose and fructose as its differentiating sugars, plus the ONPG reaction, and can be read in three hours. (Auth.)

  15. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    Edwards, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis has a rich tradition in both the structural equation modeling and item response theory frameworks. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel combination of various Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation routines to estimate parameters of a wide variety of confirmatory item factor analysis models. Further, I show…

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Persian Adaptation of Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS)

    Hatami, Gissou; Motamed, Niloofar; Ashrafzadeh, Mahshid

    2010-01-01

    Validity and reliability of Persian adaptation of MSLSS in the 12-18 years, middle and high school students (430 students in grades 6-12 in Bushehr port, Iran) using confirmatory factor analysis by means of LISREL statistical package were checked. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's coefficient [alpha]) were all above the…

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WISC-IV in a Hospital Referral Sample

    Devena, Sarah E.; Gay, Catherine E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) scores of 297 children referred to a children's hospital in the Southwestern United States. Results support previous findings that indicate the WISC-IV is best represented by a direct hierarchical…

  18. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Academic Motivation Scale with Black College Students

    Cokley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.

  19. The Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG): Child-reported Physical Activity Parenting in African American and Non-Hispanic White Families.

    Lampard, Amy M; Nishi, Akihiro; Baskin, Monica L; Carson, Tiffany L; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a child-report, multidimensional measure of physical activity (PA) parenting, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), in African American and non-Hispanic white families. The ACTS-MG was administered to children aged 5 to 12 years. A three factor model of PA parenting (Modeling of PA, Logistic Support, and Restricting Access to Screen-based Activities) was tested separately for mother's and fathers' PA parenting. The proposed three-factor structure was supported in both racial groups for mothers' PA parenting and in the African American sample for fathers' PA parenting. Factorial invariance between racial groups was demonstrated for mother's PA parenting. Building on a previous study examining the ACTS-MG parent-report, this study supports the use of the ACTS-MG child-report for mothers' PA parenting. However, further research is required to investigate the measurement of fathers' PA parenting across racial groups.

  20. Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multiple-dose study.

    Boulton, Craig; Meiser, Karin; David, Olivier J; Schmouder, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0.5-mg dose. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation. The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group, 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg, or to placebo. The authors compared T-cell dependent and independent responses to the neoantigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine (PPV-23), respectively, and additionally recall antigen response (tetanus toxoid [TT]) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to KLH, TT, and Candida albicans. Fingolimod caused mild to moderate decreases in anti-KLH and anti-PPV-23 IgG and IgM levels versus placebo. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0.5-mg groups for anti-KLH IgG (both > 90%) and comparable for anti-PPV-23 IgG (55% and 41%, respectively). Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.5-mg groups. Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

  1. How do wild baboons (Papio ursinus) plan their routes? Travel among multiple high-quality food sources with inter-group competition.

    Noser, Rahel; Byrne, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    How do humans and animals travel between multiple destinations on a given foraging trip? This question is of theoretical and practical interest, yet few empirical data exist to date. We examined how a group of wild chacma baboons travelled among multiple, simultaneously fruiting mountain fig trees (Ficus glumosa). In the course of a 16-month study, this highly preferred fruit was available during a 3-week period, from relatively few sites, which were also utilized by four larger baboon groups. We used directness of route and travel speed of 13 days of observation, and approach rates of 31 days of observation to differentiate between purposeful and opportunistic encounters with 50 fig trees. The study group visited a total of 30 fig trees overall, but only 8 trees per day on average. Each morning, they travelled along a highly repetitive route on all days of observation, thereby visiting 2-4 fig trees. They approached these trees rapidly along highly directed paths without intermittently exploiting other food sources that were available in large quantities. Then, they abruptly changed behaviour, switching to lower travel speed and less directed routes as they foraged on a variety of foods. They approached additional fig trees later in the day, but approach rates were similar to those at times of year when fruit of this fig species was unavailable; this suggested that encounters with trees after the behavioural switch were not planned. Comparing visits to purposefully and opportunistically encountered trees, we found no difference in the average time spent feeding or frequency of feeding supplants, suggesting that purposefully and opportunistically visited trees had similar values. We conclude that when foraging for mountain fig fruit the baboons' cognitive maps either contain information on relatively few trees or of only a single route along which several trees are situated, leading to very limited planning abilities.

  2. Threat and Selective Exposure: The Moderating Role of Threat and Decision Context on Confirmatory Information Search after Decisions

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Fischer, Julia; Frey, Dieter; Crelley, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of perceived threat on confirmatory information search (selective exposure) in the context of decision making have yielded mixed results. Some studies have suggested that confirmatory information search is reduced, yet others have found contradictory effects. The present series of 5 studies consistently found that…

  3. A confirmatory factor analysis of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: an examination of sex and racial/ethnic differences

    Gurka Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of clinical indices that signals increased risk for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. The diagnosis of MetS is typically based on cut-off points for various components, e.g. waist circumference and blood pressure. Because current MetS criteria result in racial/ethnic discrepancies, our goal was to use confirmatory factor analysis to delineate differential contributions to MetS by sub-group. Research Design and Methods Using 1999–2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a single MetS factor that allowed differential loadings across sex and race/ethnicity, resulting in a continuous MetS risk score that is sex and race/ethnicity-specific. Results Loadings to the MetS score differed by racial/ethnic and gender subgroup with respect to triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. ROC-curve analysis revealed high area-under-the-curve concordance with MetS by traditional criteria (0.96, and with elevations in MetS-associated risk markers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.71, uric acid (0.75 and fasting insulin (0.82. Using a cut off for this score derived from ROC-curve analysis, the MetS risk score exhibited increased sensitivity for predicting elevations in ≥2 of these risk markers as compared with traditional pediatric MetS criteria. Conclusions The equations from this sex- and race/ethnicity-specific analysis provide a clinically-accessible and interpretable continuous measure of MetS that can be used to identify children at higher risk for developing adult diseases related to MetS, who could then be targeted for intervention. These equations also provide a powerful new outcome for use in childhood obesity and MetS research.

  4. Students' motivation to study dentistry in Malaysia: an analysis using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Musa, Muhd Firdaus Che; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2015-06-12

    Malaysia has experienced a significant expansion of dental schools over the past decade. Research into students' motivation may inform recruitment and retention of the future dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore students' motivation to study dentistry and whether that motivation varied by students' and school characteristics. All 530 final-year students in 11 dental schools (6 public and 5 private) in Malaysia were invited to participate at the end of 2013. The self-administered questionnaire, developed at King's College London, collected information on students' motivation to study dentistry and demographic background. Responses on students' motivation were collected using five-point ordinal scales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the underlying structure of students' motivation to study dentistry. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare factor scores for overall motivation and sub-domains by students' and school characteristics. Three hundred and fifty-six final-year students in eight schools (all public and two private) participated in the survey, representing an 83% response rate for these schools and 67% of all final-year students nationally. The majority of participants were 24 years old (47%), female (70%), Malay (56%) and from middle-income families (41%) and public schools (78%). CFA supported a model with five first-order factors (professional job, healthcare and people, academic, careers advising and family and friends) which were linked to a single second-order factor representing overall students' motivation. Academic factors and healthcare and people had the highest standardized factor loadings (0.90 and 0.71, respectively), suggesting they were the main motivation to study dentistry. MANOVA showed that students from private schools had higher scores for healthcare and people than those in public schools whereas Malay students had lower scores for family and friends than those

  5. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  6. A novel construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on the subgroup of the finite field multiplicative group for optical transmission systems

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Zhou, Guang-xiang; Gao, Wen-chun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Jin-zhao; Pang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    According to the requirements of the increasing development for optical transmission systems, a novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes based on the subgroup of the finite field multiplicative group is proposed. Furthermore, this construction method can effectively avoid the girth-4 phenomena and has the advantages such as simpler construction, easier implementation, lower encoding/decoding complexity, better girth properties and more flexible adjustment for the code length and code rate. The simulation results show that the error correction performance of the QC-LDPC(3 780,3 540) code with the code rate of 93.7% constructed by this proposed method is excellent, its net coding gain is respectively 0.3 dB, 0.55 dB, 1.4 dB and 1.98 dB higher than those of the QC-LDPC(5 334,4 962) code constructed by the method based on the inverse element characteristics in the finite field multiplicative group, the SCG-LDPC(3 969,3 720) code constructed by the systematically constructed Gallager (SCG) random construction method, the LDPC(32 640,30 592) code in ITU-T G.975.1 and the classic RS(255,239) code which is widely used in optical transmission systems in ITU-T G.975 at the bit error rate ( BER) of 10-7. Therefore, the constructed QC-LDPC(3 780,3 540) code is more suitable for optical transmission systems.

  7. Collaborative leadership and the implementation of community-based fall prevention initiatives: a multiple case study of public health practice within community groups.

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati

    2017-02-16

    Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working

  8. Identification and Prioritization of Important Attributes of Disease-Modifying Drugs in Decision Making among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Nominal Group Technique and Best-Worst Scaling.

    Kremer, Ingrid E H; Evers, Silvia M A A; Jongen, Peter J; van der Weijden, Trudy; van de Kolk, Ilona; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for disease-modifying drugs and involving these patients in clinical decision making can improve the concordance between medical decisions and patient values and may, subsequently, improve adherence to disease-modifying drugs. This study aims first to identify which characteristics-or attributes-of disease-modifying drugs influence patients´ decisions about these treatments and second to quantify the attributes' relative importance among patients. First, three focus groups of relapsing-remitting MS patients were formed to compile a preliminary list of attributes using a nominal group technique. Based on this qualitative research, a survey with several choice tasks (best-worst scaling) was developed to prioritize attributes, asking a larger patient group to choose the most and least important attributes. The attributes' mean relative importance scores (RIS) were calculated. Nineteen patients reported 34 attributes during the focus groups and 185 patients evaluated the importance of the attributes in the survey. The effect on disease progression received the highest RIS (RIS = 9.64, 95% confidence interval: [9.48-9.81]), followed by quality of life (RIS = 9.21 [9.00-9.42]), relapse rate (RIS = 7.76 [7.39-8.13]), severity of side effects (RIS = 7.63 [7.33-7.94]) and relapse severity (RIS = 7.39 [7.06-7.73]). Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in preference of patients. For example, side effect-related attributes were statistically more important for patients who had no experience in using disease-modifying drugs compared to experienced patients (p decision making would be needed and requires eliciting individual preferences.

  9. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  10. From fused aromatics to graphene-like nanoribbons: The effects of multiple terminal groups, length and symmetric pathways on charge transport

    Bilić, Ante

    2011-11-17

    A class of molecular ribbons, with almost-ideal charge transmission, that is weakly dependent on the anchoring structure or electrode crystalline orientation and easy to synthesize has been identified. Charge transport through two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based on the pyrene and perylene motifs, has been investigated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. The effects of wire length and multiple terminal thiolate groups at the junction with gold leads have been examined. For the oligopyrene series, an exponential drop in the conductance with the increase of the wire length is found. In contrast, the oligoperylene series of nanoribbons, with dual thiolate groups, exhibits no visible length dependence, indicating that the contacts are the principal source of the resistance. Between the Au(001) leads, the transmission spectra of the oligoperylenes display a continuum of highly conducting channels and the resulting conductance is nearly independent of the bias. The predictions are robust against artefacts from the exchange-correlation potential, as evidenced from the self-interaction corrected calculations. Therefore, oligoperylene nanoribbons show the potential to be the almost-ideal wires for molecular circuitry. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  11. From fused aromatics to graphene-like nanoribbons: The effects of multiple terminal groups, length and symmetric pathways on charge transport

    Bilić, Ante; Gale, Julian D.; Sanvito, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    A class of molecular ribbons, with almost-ideal charge transmission, that is weakly dependent on the anchoring structure or electrode crystalline orientation and easy to synthesize has been identified. Charge transport through two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based on the pyrene and perylene motifs, has been investigated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The effects of wire length and multiple terminal thiolate groups at the junction with gold leads have been examined. For the oligopyrene series, an exponential drop in the conductance with the increase of the wire length is found. In contrast, the oligoperylene series of nanoribbons, with dual thiolate groups, exhibits no visible length dependence, indicating that the contacts are the principal source of the resistance. Between the Au(001) leads, the transmission spectra of the oligoperylenes display a continuum of highly conducting channels and the resulting conductance is nearly independent of the bias. The predictions are robust against artefacts from the exchange-correlation potential, as evidenced from the self-interaction corrected calculations. Therefore, oligoperylene nanoribbons show the potential to be the almost-ideal wires for molecular circuitry. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  12. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  13. Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade, a validade factorial e a invariância (por sexo da versão portuguesa do TEOSQ (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Integraram a amostra 1010 estudantes com uma média de idade de 15,42 anos. A análise factorial e da invariância foi avaliada através da análise factorial confirmatória. Os resultados corroboram a proposta de uma estrutura de duas subescalas (tarefa e ego. Com base nos índices de modificação e justificação teórica, o TEOSQ p foi reduzido a 12-itens, com melhores índices de adequação para o modelo oblíquo. Os resultados relativos à invariância por sexo não apresentaram apoio empírico total para a assumpção de equivalência multi-grupo, sugerindo que o TEOSQ p não parece avaliar as orientações cognitivas do mesmo modo, para os indivíduos do sexo masculino (modelo ortogonal e feminino (modelo oblíquo. Face aos resultados obtidos, foram discutidas as implicações conceptuais, empíricas, assim como os aspectos de carácter aplicado.The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ -Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical

  14. Dementia knowledge assessment scale (DKAS): confirmatory factor analysis and comparative subscale scores among an international cohort.

    Annear, Michael J; Toye, Chris; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; McInerney, Frances; Eccleston, Claire; Robinson, Andrew

    2017-07-31

    Dementia is a life-limiting condition that is increasing in global prevalence in line with population ageing. In this context, it is necessary to accurately measure dementia knowledge across a spectrum of health professional and lay populations with the aim of informing targeted educational interventions and improving literacy, care, and support. Building on prior exploratory analysis, which informed the development of the preliminarily valid and reliable version of the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKAS), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to affirm construct validity and proposed subscales to further increase the measure's utility for academics and educators. A large, de novo sample of 3649 volunteer respondents to a dementia-related online course was recruited to evaluate the performance of the DKAS and its proposed subscales. Respondents represented diverse cohorts, including health professionals, students, and members of the general public. Analyses included CFA (using structural equation modelling), measures of internal consistency (α), and non-parametric tests of subscale correlation (Spearman Correlation) and score differences between cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance). Findings of the CFA supported a 25-item, four-factor model for the DKAS with two items removed due to poor performance and one item moved between factors. The resultant model exhibited good reliability (α = .85; ω h  = .87; overall scale), with acceptable subscale internal consistency (α ≥ .65; subscales). Subscales showed acceptable correlation without any indication of redundancy. Finally, total and DKAS subscale scores showed good discrimination between cohorts of respondents who would be anticipated to hold different levels of knowledge on the basis of education or experience related to dementia. The DKAS has been confirmed as a reliable and valid measure of dementia knowledge for diverse populations that is capable of elucidating

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Statistics Anxiety Measure: An Examination of Four Alternative Models

    Hossein Bevrani, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Statistics Anxiety Measure (SAM, proposed by Earp.Method: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian adaptation of SAM.Results: As expected, the second order model provided a better fit to the data than the three alternative models. Conclusions: Hence, SAM provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.

  17. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  18. Development of LC-MS/MS confirmatory method for the determination of testosterone in bovine serum

    Woźniak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the European Union the use of steroid growth promoters is prohibited under Council Directive 96/22/EC. For effective control of illegal use of natural steroids, highly sensitive analytical methods are required, because sex hormones can be present in very low concentrations in biological samples. The aim of the study was to develop a confirmatory method for the detection of testosterone in bovine serum at ppt level.

  19. Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations.

  20. Evaluation of pulsing magnetic field effects on paresthesia in multiple sclerosis patients, a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial.

    Afshari, Daryoush; Moradian, Nasrin; Khalili, Majid; Razazian, Nazanin; Bostani, Arash; Hoseini, Jamal; Moradian, Mohamad; Ghiasian, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is mounting that magnet therapy could alleviate the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was performed to test the effects of the pulsing magnetic fields on the paresthesia in MS patients. This study has been conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial during the April 2012 to October 2013. The subjects were selected among patients referred to MS clinic of Imam Reza Hospital; affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Sixty three patients with MS were included in the study and randomly were divided into two groups, 35 patients were exposed to a magnetic pulsing field of 4mT intensity and 15-Hz frequency sinusoidal wave for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions and 28 patients was exposed to a magnetically inactive field (placebo) for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions. The severity of paresthesia was measured by the numerical rating scale (NRS) at 30, 60days. The study primary end point was NRS change between baseline and 60days. The secondary outcome was NRS change between baseline and 30days. Patients exposing to magnetic field showed significant paresthesia improvement compared with the group of patients exposing to placebo. According to our results pulsed magnetic therapy could alleviate paresthesia in MS patients .But trials with more patients and longer duration are mandatory to describe long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring Women's Empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Ibitola O. Asaolu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's status and empowerment influence health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women and their children. Despite its benefits, however, research on women's empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is limited in scope and geography. Empowerment is variably defined and data for comparison across regions is often limited. The objective of the current study was to identify domains of empowerment from a widely available data source, Demographic and Health Surveys, across multiple regions in SSA.Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys from nineteen countries representing four African regions were used for the analysis. A total of 26 indicators across different dimensions (economic, socio-cultural, education, and health were used to characterize women's empowerment. Pooled data from all countries were randomly divided into two datasets—one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the other for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA—to verify the factor structure hypothesized during EFA.Results: Four factors including attitudes toward violence, labor force participation, education, and access to healthcare were found to define women's empowerment in Central, Southern, and West Africa. However, in East Africa, only three factors were relevant: attitudes toward violence, access to healthcare ranking, and labor force participation. There was limited evidence to support household decision-making, life course, or legal status domains as components of women's empowerment.Conclusion: This foremost study advances scholarship on women's empowerment by providing a validated measure of women's empowerment for researchers and other stakeholders in health and development.

  2. Botulinum toxin therapy for treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: review and recommendations of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders task force.

    Dressler, Dirk; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Bohlega, Saeed; Chahidi, Abderrahmane; Chung, Tae Mo; Ebke, Markus; Jacinto, L Jorge; Kaji, Ryuji; Koçer, Serdar; Kanovsky, Petr; Micheli, Federico; Orlova, Olga; Paus, Sebastian; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Relja, Maja; Rosales, Raymond L; Sagástegui-Rodríguez, José Alberto; Schoenle, Paul W; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Timerbaeva, Sofia; Walter, Uwe; Saberi, Fereshte Adib

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is an established treatment of spasticity due to stroke. For multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity this is not the case. IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders formed a task force to explore the use of BT therapy for treatment of MS spasticity. A formalised PubMed literature search produced 55 publications (3 randomised controlled trials, 3 interventional studies, 11 observational studies, 2 case studies, 35 reviews, 1 guideline) all unanimously favouring the use of BT therapy for MS spasticity. There is no reason to believe that BT should be less effective and safe in MS spasticity than it is in stroke spasticity. Recommendations include an update of the current prevalence of MS spasticity and its clinical features according to classifications used in movement disorders. Immunological data on MS patients already treated should be analysed with respect to frequencies of MS relapses and BT antibody formation. Registration authorities should expand registration of BT therapy for spasticity regardless of its aetiology. MS specialists should consider BT therapy for symptomatic treatment of spasticity.

  3. Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group.

    Fukuda, M; Meshi, T; Okada, Y; Otsuki, Y; Takebe, I

    1981-07-01

    The initiation site for reconstitution on genome RNA was determined by electron microscopic serology for a watermelon strain of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-W), which is chemically and serologically related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initiation site was located at the same position as that of the cowpea strain, a virus that produces short rods of encapsidated subgenomic messenger RNA for the coat protein (a two-component TMV), being about 320 nucleotides away from the 3' terminus, and hence within the coat protein cistron. Although CGMMV-W was until now believed to be a single-component TMV, the location of the initiation site indicated the presence of short rods containing coat protein messenger RNA in CGMMV-W-infected tissue, as in the case for the cowpea strain. We found such short rods in CGMMV-W-infected tissue. The results confirmed our previous hypothesis that the site of the initiation region for reconstitution determines the rod multiplicity of TMV. The finding of the second two-component TMV, CGMMV, indicates that the cowpea strain of TMV is not unique in being a two-component virus and that the location of the assembly initiation site on the genome RNA can be a criterion for grouping of viruses.

  4. Evaluation of a multiple-encounter in situ simulation for orientation of staff to a new paediatric emergency service: a single-group pretest/post-test study.

    Davison, Michelle; Kinnear, Frances B; Fulbrook, Paul

    2017-10-01

    To assess the utility of a multiple-encounter in-situ (MEIS) simulation as an orientation tool for multidisciplinary staff prior to opening a new paediatric emergency service. A single-group pretest/post-test study was conducted. During the MEIS simulation, multidisciplinary staff with participant or observer roles managed eight children (mannequins) who attended triage with their parent/guardians (clinical facilitators) for a range of emergency presentations (structured scenarios designed to represent the expected range of presentations plus test various clinical pathways/systems). Participants were debriefed to explore clinical, systems and crisis-resource management issues. Participants also completed a pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaire comprising statements about role confidence and orientation adequacy. Pre-test and post-test results were analysed using t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Eighty-nine staff participated in the MEIS simulation, with the majority completing the pre-simulation and post-simulation questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in post-intervention versus pre-intervention Likert scores for role confidence and orientation adequacy (p=0.001 and orientation adequacy. Nearly all scenarios resulted in significant increases in participants' confidence levels. The MEIS simulation was of utility in orientation of staff, at least with respect to self-reported role confidence and orientation adequacy. Its effectiveness in practice or compared with other orientation techniques was not assessed, but it did identify several flaws in planned systems allowing remediation prior to opening.

  5. Interrelationships Between Job Resources, Vigor, Exercise Habit, and Serum Lipids in Japanese Employees: a Multiple Group Path Analysis Using Medical Checkup Data.

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Inoue, Akiomi; Sakurai, Kenji; Ui, Akiko; Nakata, Akinori

    2016-08-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease. Job resources have been identified as determinants of employees' vigor and physical activity habits. Our first purpose was to comprehensively analyze the series of relationships of job resources, through vigor and exercise habit (i.e., one aspect of physical activity), to serum lipid levels in a sample of Japanese employees in a manufacturing company. Our second purpose was to investigate sex differences in these relationships using a multiple-group path analysis. Data were collected from 4543 employees (men = 4018, women = 525) during a medical checkup conducted in February and March 2012. Job resources (job control, skill utilization, suitable jobs, and meaningfulness of work), vigor, exercise habit, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured cross-sectionally. Job resources and vigor were positively associated with exercise habit in both sexes. Exercise habit was inversely associated with triglyceride (-0.03 in men and -0.01 in women, ps jobs and meaningfulness of work. Higher levels of job resources were associated with greater vigor, leading to exercise habit, which in turn, improved serum lipid levels. Longitudinal studies are required to demonstrate causality.

  6. A Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas

    Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a significant problem for ethnic minorities that remains understudied partly due to a lack of strong measures with established psychometric properties. One screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), which was developed for use in primary care has also gained popularity in research settings. The reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 has been well established among predominantly Caucasian samples, in addition to many minority groups. However, there is little evidence regarding its utility among Hispanic Americans, a large and growing cultural group in the United States. In this study, we investigated the reliability and structural validity of the PHQ-9 in Hispanic American women. A community sample of 479 Latina women from southern California completed the PHQ-9 in their preferred language of English or Spanish. Cronbach’s alphas suggested that there was good internal consistency for both the English- and Spanish-language versions. Structural validity was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results support a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas. These results suggest that the PHQ-9 can be used with confidence in both English and Spanish versions to screen Latinas for depression. PMID:21787063

  7. Preliminary Hazard Classification for the Remediation of the 100-B/C Area Remaining Sites (Confirmatory Sampling Effort)

    Routt, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the preliminary hazard classification for the sampling and characterization activities to be conducted at the 100-B/C confirmatory sampling effort sites in support of remedial design and eventual remediation of these sites

  8. Self-regulation and selective exposure: the impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing.

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2008-03-01

    In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.

  9. Confirmatory Survey Results for the Reactor Building Dome Upper Structural Surfaces, Rancho Saco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    Wade C. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Results from a confirmatory survey of the upper structural surfaces of the Reactor Building Dome at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station (RSNGS) performed by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the NRC. Also includes results of interlaboratory comparison analyses on several archived soil samples that would be provided by RSNGS personnel. The confirmatory surveys were performed on June 7 and 8, 2006

  10. Structural invariance of multiple intelligences, based on the level of execution.

    Almeida, Leandro S; Prieto, María Dolores; Ferreira, Arístides; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Hernández, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The independence of multiple intelligences (MI) of Gardner's theory has been debated since its conception. This article examines whether the one- factor structure of the MI theory tested in previous studies is invariant for low and high ability students. Two hundred ninety-four children (aged 5 to 7) participated in this study. A set of Gardner's Multiple Intelligence assessment tasks based on the Spectrum Project was used. To analyze the invariance of a general dimension of intelligence, the different models of behaviours were studied in samples of participants with different performance on the Spectrum Project tasks with Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA). Results suggest an absence of structural invariance in Gardner's tasks. Exploratory analyses suggest a three-factor structure for individuals with higher performance levels and a two-factor structure for individuals with lower performance levels.

  11. Clinical features, outcome, and prognostic factors for survival and evolution to multiple myeloma of solitary plasmacytomas: a report of the Greek myeloma study group in 97 patients.

    Katodritou, Eirini; Terpos, Evangelos; Symeonidis, Argiris S; Pouli, Anastasia; Kelaidi, Charikleia; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Delimpasi, Sosana; Christoforidou, Anna; Giannakoulas, Nikolaos; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Stefanoudaki, Ekaterini; Hadjiaggelidou, Christina; Christoulas, Dimitrios; Verrou, Evgenia; Gastari, Vassiliki; Papadaki, Sofia; Polychronidou, Genovefa; Papadopoulou, Athina; Giannopoulou, Evlambia; Kastritis, Efstathios; Kouraklis, Alexandra; Konstantinidou, Pavlina; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Zervas, Konstantinos; Dimopoulos, Meletios A

    2014-08-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma (SP) is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the presence of bone or extramedullary plasma cell tumors. The treatment of choice is local radiotherapy (R/T) ± surgical excision. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy (C/T) or novel agents (NA) is uncertain. Data related to prognostic factors are inconclusive. Herein, we describe the clinical features, survival and prognosis of 97 consecutive patients, 65 with bone SP (SBP), and 32 with extramedullary SP (SEP), diagnosed and treated in 12 Greek Myeloma Centers. Objective response rate (≥PR) and complete response (CR) was 91.8% and 61.9%, respectively, and did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, 38 patients relapsed or progressed to multiple myeloma (MM). After a median follow-up of 60 months, 5 and 10-year overall survival (OS) probability was 92% and 89% in SEP and 86% and 69% in SBP, respectively (P = 0.2). The 5- and 10-year MM-free survival (MMFS) probability was 90% and 70% for patients with SEP vs. 59% and 50% for patients with SBP, respectively (P = 0.054). Overall, the 5- and 10-year OS probability, plasmacytoma relapse-free survival (PRFS), progression-free survival and MMFS was 84% and 78%, 72% and 58%, 58% and 43%, and 70% and 59%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, prolonged PRFS and young age were positive predictors of OS. Achievement of CR was the only positive predictor of PRFS. Immunoparesis was the only negative predictor of progression to MM. The addition of C/T or NA-based treatment increased toxicity without offering any survival advantage over R/T. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Feasibility and Safety of a Powered Exoskeleton for Assisted Walking for Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: A Single-Group Preliminary Study.

    Kozlowski, Allan J; Fabian, Michelle; Lad, Dipan; Delgado, Andrew D

    2017-07-01

    To examine the feasibility, safety, and secondary benefit potential of exoskeleton-assisted walking with one device for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Single-group longitudinal preliminary study with 8-week baseline, 8-week intervention, and 4-week follow-up. Outpatient MS clinic, tertiary care hospital. Participants (N=13; age range, 38-62y) were mostly women with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores ranging from 5.5 to 7.0. Exoskeleton-assisted walk training. Primary outcomes were accessibility (enrollment/screen pass), tolerability (completion/dropout), learnability (time to event for standing, walking, and sitting with little or no assistance), acceptability (satisfaction on the device subscale of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology version 2), and safety (event rates standardized to person-time exposure in the powered exoskeleton). Secondary outcomes were walking without the device (timed 25-foot walk test and 6-minute walk test distance), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), and health-related quality of life (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement and Information System pain interference and Quality of Life in Neurological Conditions fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, and positive affect and well-being). The device was accessible to 11 and tolerated by 5 participants. Learnability was moderate, with 5 to 15 sessions required to walk with minimal assistance. Safety was good; the highest adverse event rate was for skin issues at 151 per 1000 hours' exposure. Acceptability ranged from not very satisfied to very satisfied. Participants who walked routinely improved qualitatively on sitting, standing, or walking posture. Two participants improved and 2 worsened on ≥1 quality of life domain. The pattern of spasticity scores may indicate potential benefit. The device appeared feasible and safe for about a third of our sample, for whom routine exoskeleton-assisted walking may offer secondary benefits. Copyright

  13. A homogeneous group of persons with multiple sclerosis seem to use different net joint power strategies to increase gait speed - a pilot study

    Brincks, John

    Background: Major symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis are muscle weakness, fatique and loss of limb coordination, all of which contribute to an unsafe gait. To improve gait function in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) it is essential to determine which problems underlie gait dysfunc...

  14. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students in a Chinese sample.

    Meng, Lina; Jin, Yi

    2017-02-01

    Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging students' engagement with course work. Educators are finding instruments to measure students' engagement in order to develop strategies to improve it. Little is known about the factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students among Chinese nursing students. The aim of this research was to examine the factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students via confirmatory factor analysis. The study used a cross-sectional design. A sample of 480 students from a nursing school in one Chinese university completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. Factor analysis was used to analyze the resulting data. The overall results of internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting the reliability and three-factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. The total internal consistency reliability coefficients were 0.91. Model comparison tests indicated that an oblique factors model that permitted correlations between pairs of error terms fitted the data better than other first-order models. In addition, due to the three strongly intercorrelated factors, a second-order model was found to fit the data well, providing support for the factorial structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. The findings of confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting the reliability and three-factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students when evaluated with a Chinese nursing student sample in this study. Thus, it is appropriate to use The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students in for assessing the engagement among Chinese nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis and recommendations for improvement of the Autonomy-Preference-Index (API).

    Simon, Daniela; Kriston, Levente; Loh, Andreas; Spies, Claudia; Scheibler, Fueloep; Wills, Celia; Härter, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Validation of the German version of the Autonomy-Preference-Index (API), a measure of patients' preferences for decision making and information seeking. Stepwise confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on a sample of patients (n = 1592) treated in primary care for depression (n = 186), surgical and internal medicine inpatients (n = 811) and patients with minor trauma treated in an emergency department (n = 595). An initial test of the model was done on calculation and validation halves of the sample. Both local and global indexes-of-fit suggested modifications to the scale. The scale was modified and re-tested in the calculation sample and confirmed in the validation sample. Subgroup analyses for age, gender and type of treatment setting were also performed. The confirmatory analysis led to a modified version of the API with better local and global indexes-of-fit for samples of German-speaking patients. Two items of the sub-scale, 'preference for decision-making', and one item of the sub-scale, 'preference for information seeking', showed very low reliability scores and were deleted. Thus, several global indexes-of-fit clearly improved significantly. The modified scale was confirmed on the validation sample with acceptable to good indices of fit. Results of subgroup analyses indicated that no adaptations were necessary. This first confirmatory analysis for a German-speaking population showed that the API was improved by the removal of several items. There were theoretically plausible explanations for this improvement suggesting that the modifications might also be appropriate in English and other language versions.

  16. Confirmatory Tests for the Diagnosis of Primary Aldosteronism: A Prospective Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Song, Ying; Yang, Shumin; He, Wenwen; Hu, Jinbo; Cheng, Qingfeng; Wang, Yue; Luo, Ting; Ma, Linqiang; Zhen, Qianna; Zhang, Suhua; Mei, Mei; Wang, Zhihong; Qing, Hua; Bruemmer, Dennis; Peng, Bin; Li, Qifu

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary aldosteronism typically requires at least one confirmatory test. The fludrocortisone suppression test is generally accepted as a reliable confirmatory test, but it is cumbersome. Evidence from accuracy studies of the saline infusion test (SIT) and the captopril challenge test (CCT) has provided conflicting results. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the SIT and CCT using fludrocortisone suppression test as the reference standard. One hundred thirty-five patients diagnosed with primary aldosteronism and 101 patients diagnosed with essential hypertension who completed the 3 confirmatory tests were included for the diagnostic accuracy analysis. The areas under the receiver-operator characteristics curves of the CCT and SIT were 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.98) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-0.98), respectively, using post-test plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) for diagnosis. However, the areas under the receiver-operator characteristics curves of the CCT decreased to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.77) when the PAC suppression percentage was used to diagnose primary aldosteronism. The optimal cutoff of PAC post-CCT was set at 11 ng/dL, resulting in a sensitivity of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95) and a specificity of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83-0.95), which were not significantly different from those of SIT (with PAC post-SIT set at 8 ng/dL, sensitivity: 0.85 [95% CI, 0.78-0.91], P =0.192; specificity: 0.92 [95% CI, 0.85-0.97], P =0.551). In conclusion, both CCT and SIT are accurate alternatives to the more complex fludrocortisone suppression test. Because CCT is safe and much easier to perform, it may serve as a more feasible alternative. When interpreting the results of CCT, PAC post-CCT is highly recommended. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. A CONFIRMATORY STUDY OF SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE AND COMPETITIVENESS OF INDIAN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS

    Amit Kumar Marwah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents finding of a study on Indian manufacturing organizations. A conceptual model is proposed based on a rigorous literature review. The model so developed undergoes through a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM approach. The paper highlights various factors responsible for supply chain performance (SCP, subsequently leading to competitiveness. The survey involves 361 manufacturing organizations across India and the data is gathered using 5-point Likert scale. The study a ttempts to integrate various factors contributing to SCP in a single study. It is proposed to further test the model using exploratory factor analysis (EFA.

  18. Comparison of Multispot EIA with Western blot for confirmatory serodiagnosis of HIV.

    Torian, Lucia V; Forgione, Lisa A; Punsalang, Amado E; Pirillo, Robert E; Oleszko, William R

    2011-12-01

    Recent improvements in the sensitivity of immunoassays (IA) used for HIV screening, coupled with increasing recognition of the importance of rapid point-of-care testing, have led to proposals to adjust the algorithm for serodiagnosis of HIV so that screening and confirmation can be performed using a dual or triple IA sequence that does not require Western blotting for confirmation. One IA that has been proposed as a second or confirmatory test is the Bio-Rad Multispot(®) Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 Test. This test would have the added advantage of differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. To compare the sensitivity and type-specificity of an algorithm combining a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Multispot with the conventional algorithm that combines a 3rd generation EIA (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA) followed by confirmatory Western blot (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1 WB). 8760 serum specimens submitted for HIV testing to the New York City Public Health Laboratory between May 22, 2007, and April 30, 2010, tested repeatedly positive on 3rd generation HIV-1-2+O EIA screening and received parallel confirmatory testing by WB and Multispot (MS). 8678/8760 (99.1%) specimens tested WB-positive; 82 (0.9%) tested WB-negative or indeterminate (IND). 8690/8760 specimens (99.2%) tested MS-positive, of which 14 (17.1%) had been classified as negative or IND by WB. Among the HIV-1 WB-positive specimens, MS classified 26 (0.29%) as HIV-2. Among the HIV-1 WB negative and IND, MS detected 12 HIV-2. MS detected an additional 14 HIV-1 infections among WB negative or IND specimens, differentiated 26 HIV-1 WB positives as HIV-2, and detected 12 additional HIV-2 infections among WB negative/IND. A dual 3rd generation EIA algorithm incorporating MS had equivalent HIV-1 sensitivity to the 3rd generation EIA-WB algorithm and had the added advantage of detecting 12 HIV-2 specimens that were not HIV-1 WB cross-reactors. In this series an algorithm using EIA

  19. The value of confirmatory testing in early infant HIV diagnosis programmes in South Africa: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Dunning, Lorna; Francke, Jordan A; Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Penazzato, Martina; Hou, Taige; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J; Walensky, Rochelle P; Leroy, Valériane; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is model, we simulated EID testing at age 6 weeks for HIV-exposed infants without and with confirmatory testing. We assumed a NAAT cost of US$25, NAAT specificity of 99.6%, NAAT sensitivity of 100% for infants infected in pregnancy or at least 4 weeks prior to testing, and a mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate at 12 months of 4.9%; we simulated guideline-concordant rates of testing uptake, result return, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (100%). After diagnosis, infants were linked to and retained in care for 10 years (false-positive) or lifelong (true-positive). All parameters were varied widely in sensitivity analyses. Outcomes included number of infants with false-positive diagnoses linked to ART per 1,000 ART initiations, life expectancy (LE, in years) and per-person lifetime HIV-related healthcare costs. Both without and with confirmatory testing, LE was 26.2 years for HIV-infected infants and 61.4 years for all HIV-exposed infants; clinical outcomes for truly infected infants did not differ by strategy. Without confirmatory testing, 128/1,000 ART initiations were false-positive diagnoses; with confirmatory testing, 1/1,000 ART initiations were false-positive diagnoses. Because confirmatory testing averted costly HIV care and ART in truly HIV-uninfected infants, it was cost-saving: total cost US$1,790/infant tested, compared to US$1,830/infant tested without confirmatory testing. Confirmatory testing remained cost-saving unless NAAT cost exceeded US$400 or the HIV-uninfected status of infants incorrectly identified as infected was ascertained and ART stopped within 3 months of starting. Limitations include uncertainty in the data used in the model, which we examined with sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. We also excluded clinical harms to HIV-uninfected infants incorrectly treated with ART after false-positive diagnosis (e

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of IT-based Competency Questionnaire in Information Science & Knowledge Studies, Based on Job Market Analysis

    Rahim Shahbazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present research is to evaluate the validity of an IT-based competency questionnaire in Information Science & Knowledge Studies. The Survey method has been used in the present research. A data collection tool has been a researcher-made questionnaire. Statistic samples, which are 315 people, have been chosen purposefully from among Iranian faculty members, Ph.D. students, and information center employees. The findings showed that by eliminating 17 items from the whole questionnaire and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the rest and rotating findings using the Varimax method, 8 Factors were revealed. The resulting components and also the items which had a high load factor with these components were considerably consistent with the classifications in the questionnaire and partly consistent with the findings of other researchers. 76 competency indicators (knowledge, skills, and attitudes were validated and grouped under 8 main categories: 1. “Computer Basics” 2. “Database Operating, Collection Development of Digital Resources, & Digital Library Management” 3. “Basics of Computer Networking” 4. “Basics of Programming & Database Designing” 5. “Web Designing & Web Content Analysis” 6. “Library Software & Computerized Organizing” 7. Archive of Digital Resources and 8. Attitudes.

  1. Validation of an instrument to measure tutor performance in promoting self-directed learning by using confirmatory factor analysis

    Genoveva Amador Fierros

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to validate and propose an instrument to measure the performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning in students involved in processes of problem-based learning. Methods. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was applied to validate the instrument composed of 60 items and six factors (self-assessment of learning gaps within the United Nations specific context: self-assessment, reflexion, critical thinking, administration of information, group skills, using a sample of 207 students from a total of 279, which comprise the student population of the Faculty of Nursing at Universidad de Colima in Mexico. (2007. Results. The CFA results demonstrated that the instrument is acceptable to measure performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning, given that all the indicators, variances, covariances, and thresholds are statistically significant. Conclusion. The instrument permits obtaining students' opinions on how much professors contribute for them to develop each of the 60 skills described in the scale. Lastly, the results could report if professors are placing more emphasis in some areas than in other areas they should address during the problem-based learning (PBL process, or if definitely their actions are removed from the premises of PBL, information that will be useful for school management in decision making on the direction of teaching as a whole.

  2. The independence of schizotypy from affective temperaments--a combined confirmatory factor analysis of SPQ and the short TEMPS-A.

    Preti, Antonio; Corrias, Irene; Gabbrielli, Mersia; Lai, Veronica; Muratore, Tamara; Pintus, Elisa; Pintus, Mirra; Sanna, Sara; Scanu, Rosanna; Tronci, Debora; Vellante, Marcello; Siddi, Sara; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-30

    Sparse evidence of a co-aggregation of the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder provides support for a shared but nonspecific genetic etiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Temperaments are conceptualized as trait sub-syndromic conditions of major pathologies. This study set out to test the hypothesis of a continuum between schizotypy and affective temperaments versus the alternative hypothesis of their independence based on a cross-sectional, survey design involving 649 (males: 47%) college students. The short 39-item TEMPS-A and the SPQ were used as measures of the affective temperaments and of schizotypy, respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses were applied to a unidimensional model, to a standard correlate traits model, to second-order representations of a common latent structure, and to a bifactor model. Confirmatory bifactor modeling provided evidence against a complete independence of the dimensions subsumed by the affective and the schizotypal traits. The best solution distinguished between two sub-domains grouping positive symptoms and negative symptoms as measured by the SPQ subscales, and a sub-domain related to the affective temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A. Limitations due to the use of subscales from two different tools should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Test of Gross Motor Development: expert validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-01-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motor development. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by experts and the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. A cross-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionals and 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls. Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated that the Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices of confirmatory factorial validity (÷2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tucker and Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. The Portuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  4. NRC confirmatory safety system testing in support of AP600 design review

    Rhee, G.S.; Bessette, D.E.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has submitted the Advanced Passive 600 MWe (AP600) nuclear power plant design to the NRC for design certification. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is proceeding to conduct confirmatory testing to help the NRC staff evaluate the AP600 safety system design. For confirmatory testing, it was determined that the cost-effective route was to modify an existing full-height, full-pressure test facility rather than build a new one. Thus, all the existing integral effects test facilities, both in the US and abroad, were screened to select the best candidate. As a result, the ROSA-V (Rig of Safety Assessment-V) test facility located in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was chosen. However, because of some differences in design between the existing ROSA-V facility and the AP600, the ROSA-V is being modified to conform to the AP600 safety system design. The modification work will be completed by the end of this year. A series of facility characterization tests will then be performed in January 1994 for the modified part of the facility before the main test series is initiated in February 1994. A total of 12 tests will be performed in 1994 under Phase I of this cooperative program with JAERI. Phase II testing is being considered to be conducted in 1995 mainly for beyond-design-basis accident evaluation

  5. Development Instruments Through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA in Appropriate Intensity Assessment

    Ari Saptono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to develop the valid and reliable measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention in vocational secondary school students. Multi stage random sampling was used as the technique to determine sample (300 respondents. The research method used research and development with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Result of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA at the second order with robust maximum likelihood method shows that valid and reliable instrument with the acquisition value of loading factor is more than 0.5 (> 0,5 and a significance value of t is more than 1,96 (> 1,96. Reliability test results shows that the value of the combined construct reliability (CR of 0.97and a variance value extract (VE to 0.52 is greater than the limit of acceptance CR ≥ 0.70 and VE ≥ 0.50. The conclusion of the measurement instruments of entrepreneurship intention with three dimensions and 31 items met the standards of validity and reliability in accordance with the instrument development process.

  6. The Leaders across Borders Certification Program—A Systemic Multiple Level Observation of Groups Analysis Approach to Measure Effective Leadership: A Case Study

    Ricardo Hirata-Okamoto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership measurement, feedback, and development have grown in importance for the field of management. The Mexico–US Border defined as the area of land within 100 km (62.5 miles north and south of the international boundary, shares common challenges, and requires the development of multicultural change agents who conduct binational actions toward the improvement of public health and quality of life of the population in the region. Leaders across Borders (LaB was established in 2010 as an advanced certified binational leadership development program aimed at building the capacity of public health, health care, and other community sector leaders working to improve the health of the communities in the Mexico–US Border region. Leadership as a social interaction process requires leader skills development to achieve goals promoting unity and reducing polarization to optimize interactions between all resources, thus improving teamwork. Therefore, measurement and feedback model of general values and beliefs that guide effective behavior, not only individual personality assessments need to drive a proactive learning and action plan development to improve interactions in a team, thus optimizing leadership. Starting 2014, we administered a new model named Systemic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG to measure the values and beliefs that guide the behavior of learners and team facilitators. We also evaluated the effectiveness of each team of the program and established benchmarks and action plans to optimize interactions and communication between all the learners during the 8-month program. This leads to a stronger systemic network upon graduation from the program. The SYMLOG approach measured initial and improved situations of individual leadership and team performance effectiveness because of the LaB Program training and skills development sessions. The SYMLOG also provided positive feedback to each participant, which had a direct impact

  7. Unmet needs, burden of treatment, and patient engagement in multiple sclerosis: A combined perspective from the MS in the 21st Century Steering Group.

    Rieckmann, Peter; Centonze, Diego; Elovaara, Irina; Giovannoni, Gavin; Havrdová, Eva; Kesselring, Jurg; Kobelt, Gisela; Langdon, Dawn; Morrow, Sarah A; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Schippling, Sven; Thalheim, Christoph; Thompson, Heidi; Vermersch, Patrick; Aston, Karen; Bauer, Birgit; Demory, Christy; Giambastiani, Maria Paz; Hlavacova, Jana; Nouvet-Gire, Jocelyne; Pepper, George; Pontaga, Maija; Rogan, Emma; Rogalski, Chrystal; van Galen, Pieter; Ben-Amor, Ali-Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Patient engagement is vital in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to optimise outcomes for patients, society and healthcare systems. It is essential to involve all stakeholders in potential solutions, working in a multidisciplinary way to ensure that people with MS (PwMS) are included in shared decision-making and disease management. To start this process, a collaborative, open environment between PwMS and healthcare professionals (HCPs) is required so that similarities and disparities in the perception of key areas in patient care and unmet needs can be identified. With this patient-centred approach in mind, in 2016 the MS in the 21st Century Steering Group formed a unique collaboration to include PwMS in the Steering Group to provide a platform for the patient voice. The MS in the 21st Century initiative set out to foster engagement through a series of open-forum joint workshops. The aims of these workshops were: to identify similarities and disparities in the perception and prioritisation in three key areas (unmet needs, the treatment burden in MS, and factors that impact patient engagement), and to provide practical advice on how the gaps in perception and understanding in these key areas could be bridged. Combined practical advice and direction are provided here as eight actions: 1. Improve communication to raise the quality of HCP-patient interaction and optimise the limited time available for consultations. 2. Heighten the awareness of 'hidden' disease symptoms and how these can be managed. 3. Improve the dialogue surrounding the benefit versus risk issues of therapies to help patients become fully informed and active participants in their healthcare decisions. 4. Provide accurate, lucid information in an easily accessible format from reliable sources. 5. Encourage HCPs and multidisciplinary teams to acquire and share new knowledge and information among their teams and with PwMS. 6. Foster greater understanding and awareness of challenges faced by PwMS and

  8. An Interactive Signed Distance Approach for Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Based on Simple Additive Weighting Method with Incomplete Preference Information Defined by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

    Ting-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Interval type-2 fuzzy sets (T2FSs) with interval membership grades are suitable for dealing with imprecision or uncertainties in many real-world problems. In the Interval type-2 fuzzy context, the aim of this paper is to develop an interactive signed distance-based simple additive weighting (SAW) method for solving multiple criteria group decision-making problems with linguistic ratings and incomplete preference information. This paper first formulates a group decision-making problem with unc...

  9. Group Therapy Goals: A Comparison of Group Therapy Providers and Male Inmates

    Morgan, Robert D.; Garland, J. Travis; Rozycki, Alicia T.; Reich, Darcy A.; Wilson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify important process and content goals from the perspective of inmates and compare these goals to the goals identified by group therapists in a previous study conducted by Winterowd, Morgan, and Ferrell (2001). Utilizing survey data from 156 incarcerated adult males, an initial confirmatory factor analysis…

  10. Reduced intensity-conditioned allogeneic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma relapsing or progressing after autologous transplantation: a study by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Auner, H.W.; Szydlo, R.; Biezen, A. van; Iacobelli, S.; Gahrton, G.; Milpied, N.; Volin, L.; Janssen, J.; Nguyen Quoc, S.; Michallet, M.; Schoemans, H.; Cheikh, J. El; Petersen, E.; Guilhot, F.; Schonland, S.; Ahlberg, L.; Morris, C.; Garderet, L.; Witte, T.J. de; Kroger, N.

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes and prognostic factors of reduced intensity-conditioned allo-SCT (RIC allo-SCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) relapsing or progressing after prior autologous (auto)-SCT are not well defined. We performed an analysis of 413 MM patients who received a related or unrelated RIC allo-SCT for the

  11. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Neisseria meningitidis yields groupings similar to those obtained by multilocus sequence typing.

    Schouls, Leo M; Ende, Arie van der; Damen, Marjolein; Pol, Ingrid van de

    2006-01-01

    We identified many variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in the genomes of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C and utilized a number of these loci to develop a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eighty-five N. meningitidis serogroup B and C isolates obtained

  12. Gruppenleistungen beim Review von Multiple-Choice-Fragen - Ein Vergleich von face-to-face und virtuellen Gruppen mit und ohne Moderation [Review of multiple-choice-questions and group performance - A comparison of face-to-face and virtual groups with and without facilitation

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are often used in exams of medical education and need careful quality management for example by the application of review committees. This study investigates whether groups communicating virtually by email are similar to face-to-face groups concerning their review process performance and whether a facilitator has positive effects.Methods: 16 small groups of students were examined, which had to evaluate and correct MCQs under four different conditions. In the second part of the investigation the changed questions were given to a new random sample for the judgement of the item quality.Results: There was no significant influence of the variables “form of review committee” and “facilitation”. However, face-to-face and virtual groups clearly differed in the required treatment times. The test condition “face to face without facilitation” was generally valued most positively concerning taking over responsibility, approach to work, sense of well-being, motivation and concentration on the task.Discussion: Face-to-face and virtual groups are equally effective in the review of MCQs but differ concerning their efficiency. The application of electronic review seems to be possible but is hardly recommendable because of the long process time and technical problems.[german] Einleitung: Multiple-Choice-Fragen (MCF werden in vielen Prüfungen der medizinischen Ausbildung verwendet und bedürfen aus diesem Grund einer sorgfältigen Qualitätssicherung, beispielsweise durch den Einsatz von Review-Komitees. Anhand der vorliegenden empirischen Studie soll erforscht werden, ob virtuell per E-Mail kommunizierende Review-Komitees vergleichbar sind mit face-to-face Review-Komitees hinsichtlich ihrer Leistung beim Review-Prozess und ob sich Moderation positiv auswirkt.Methodik: 16 Kleingruppen von Psychologie-Studenten hatten die Aufgabe unter vier verschiedenen Versuchsbedingungen MCF zu bewerten und zu

  13. Covariance among multiple health risk behaviors in adolescents.

    Kayla de la Haye

    Full Text Available In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related.The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics.Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.

  14. Dyadic confirmatory factor analysis of the inflammatory bowel disease family responsibility questionnaire.

    Greenley, Rachel Neff; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Blount, Ronald L; Wilson, Helen W

    2013-09-01

    Evaluate the factor structure of youth and maternal involvement ratings on the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire, a measure of family allocation of condition management responsibilities in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Participants included 251 youth aged 11-18 years with inflammatory bowel disease and their mothers. Item-level descriptive analyses, subscale internal consistency estimates, and confirmatory factor analyses of youth and maternal involvement were conducted using a dyadic data-analytic approach. Results supported the validity of 4 conceptually derived subscales including general health maintenance, social aspects, condition management tasks, and nutrition domains. Additionally, results indicated adequate support for the factor structure of a 21-item youth involvement measure and strong support for a 16-item maternal involvement measure. Additional empirical support for the validity of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire was provided. Future research to replicate current findings and to examine the measure's clinical utility is warranted.

  15. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part II: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-11-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.

  16. Structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Chinese undergraduate students: A confirmatory factor analysis

    Suran Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item use of sleep medicine was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor.

  17. "Just like EKGs!" Should EEGs undergo a confirmatory interpretation by a clinical neurophysiologist?

    Benbadis, Selim R

    2013-01-01

    The misdiagnosis of epilepsy is common and has serious consequences. A major contributor to the misdiagnosis of epilepsy is the tendency to overread normal EEGs as abnormal. In fact, the wrong diagnosis of seizures is sometimes based solely on the "abnormal" EEG. Reasons for the common overinterpretation of normal EEGs are mostly related to the lack of standards or mandatory training in EEG, and the erroneous assumption that all neurologists are trained to read EEGs. The most common overread pattern consists of benign, nonspecific, sharply contoured temporal transients. In particular, there is a common misconception that "phase reversals" are indicative of abnormality. Potential solutions include defining and ensuring EEG competency of neurologists who read EEGs, and perhaps providing a confirmatory reading by an electroencephalographer, as is done for EKGs.

  18. More than a memory: Confirmatory visual search is not caused by remembering a visual feature.

    Rajsic, Jason; Pratt, Jay

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a preference for positive over negative information in visual search; asking whether a target object is green biases search towards green objects, even when this entails more perceptual processing than searching non-green objects. The present study investigated whether this confirmatory search bias is due to the presence of one particular (e.g., green) color in memory during search. Across two experiments, we show that this is not the critical factor in generating a confirmation bias in search. Search slowed proportionally to the number of stimuli whose color matched the color held in memory only when the color was remembered as part of the search instructions. These results suggest that biased search for information is due to a particular attentional selection strategy, and not to memory-driven attentional biases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Latent structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a confirmatory factor analytic study.

    Greve, Kevin W; Stickle, Timothy R; Love, Jeffrey M; Bianchini, Kevin J; Stanford, Matthew S

    2005-05-01

    The present study represents the first large scale confirmatory factor analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The results generally support the three factor solutions reported in the exploratory factor analysis literature. However, only the first factor, which reflects general executive functioning, is statistically sound. The secondary factors, while likely reflecting meaningful cognitive abilities, are less stable except when all subjects complete all 128 cards. It is likely that having two discontinuation rules for the WCST has contributed to the varied factor analytic solutions reported in the literature and early discontinuation may result in some loss of useful information. Continued multivariate research will be necessary to better clarify the processes underlying WCST performance and their relationships to one another.

  20. Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Social Work Sample

    Karen Rice

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ. The 24-item EBPQ was developed to measure health professionals’ attitudes toward, knowledge of, and use of evidence-based practice (EBP. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the EBPQ given to a random sample of National Association of Social Work members (N = 167. The coefficient alpha of the EBPQ was .93. The study supported a 23-item 3-factor model with acceptable model fit indices (χ² = 469.04; RMSEA = .081; SRMR = .068; CFI = .900. This study suggests a slightly modified EBPQ may be a useful tool to assess social workers’ attitudes toward, knowledge of, and use of EBP.

  1. Well-Being at Work Scale: Exploratory and Confirmatory Validation in the USA

    Gisela Demo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given the lack of instruments to measure both affective and cognitive elements of well-being at work, the objective of this study is to look for evidence of validity in the US regarding the well-being at work scale, which was first validated in Brazil to measure employee well-being perceptions. Two studies using two different American samples of 809 participants in total were conducted for the exploratory and confirmatory validation of the scale. Construct validity was determined using convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity, which was assessed using a structural equation model to determine a correlation between well-being at work and human resources management practices. This research provides a comprehensive and operationally valid measure of well-being in work settings. The three-factor model can be used as a diagnostic tool for managers who wish to identify and improve the well-being of their work teams.

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms in sexually harassed women.

    Palmieri, Patrick A; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2005-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) factor analytic research to date has not provided a clear consensus on the structure of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Seven hypothesized factor structures were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, a paper-and-pencil measure of posttraumatic stress symptom severity, in a sample of 1,218 women who experienced a broad range of workplace sexual harassment. The model specifying correlated re-experiencing, effortful avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal factors provided the best fit to the data. Virtually no support was obtained for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) three-factor model of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal factors. Different patterns of correlations with external variables were found for the avoidance and emotional numbing factors, providing further validation of the supported model.

  3. Draft evaluation of the frequency for gas sampling for the high burnup confirmatory data project

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802041, “Draft Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burn-up Storage Demonstration Project” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations. Gas sampling will provide information on the presence of residual water (and byproducts associated with its reactions and decomposition) and breach of cladding, which could inform the decision of when to open the project cask.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of teaching and learning guiding principles instrument among teacher educators in higher education institutions

    Masuwai, Azwani; Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and establish the validity and reliability of an instrument to generate teaching and learning guiding principles using Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles Instrument (TLGPI). Participants consisted of 171 Malaysian teacher educators. It is an essential instrument to reflect in generating the teaching and learning guiding principles in higher education level in Malaysia. Confirmatory Factor Analysis has validated all 19 items of TLGPI whereby all items indicated high reliability and internal consistency. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis also confirmed that a single factor model was used to generate teaching and learning guiding principles.

  5. Confirmatory spirometry for adults hospitalized with a diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation

    2012-01-01

    Background Objective measurement of airflow obstruction by spirometry is an essential part of the diagnosis of asthma or COPD. During exacerbations, the feasibility and utility of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unclear. Addressing these gaps in knowledge may help define the need for confirmatory testing in clinical care and quality improvement efforts. This study was designed to determine the feasibility of spirometry and to determine its utility to confirm the diagnosis in patients hospitalized with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Methods Multi-center study of four academic healthcare institutions. Spirometry was performed in 113 adults admitted to general medicine wards with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Two board-certified pulmonologists evaluated the spirometry tracings to determine the proportion of patients able to produce adequate quality spirometry data. Findings were interpreted to evaluate the utility of spirometry to confirm the presence of obstructive lung disease, according to the 2005 European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations. Results There was an almost perfect agreement for acceptability (κ = 0.92) and reproducibility (κ =0.93) of spirometry tracings. Three-quarters (73%) of the tests were interpreted by both pulmonologists as being of adequate quality. Of these adequate quality tests, 22% did not present objective evidence of obstructive lung disease. Obese patients (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were more likely to produce spirometry tracings with no evidence of obstructive lung disease, compared to non-obese patients (33% vs. 8%, p = 0.007). Conclusions Adequate quality spirometry can be obtained in most hospitalized adults with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Confirmatory spirometry could be a useful tool to help reduce overdiagnosis of obstructive lung disease, especially among obese

  6. A Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ - 12

    Velikova Galina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ - 12 was designed as a short questionnaire to assess psychiatric morbidity. Despite the fact that studies have suggested a number of competing multidimensional factor structures, it continues to be largely used as a unidimensional instrument. This may have an impact on the identification of psychiatric morbidity in target populations. The aim of this study was to explore the dimensionality of the GHQ-12 and to evaluate a number of alternative models for the instrument. Methods The data were drawn from a large heterogeneous sample of cancer patients. The Partial Credit Model (Rasch was applied to the 12-item GHQ. Item misfit (infit mean square ≥ 1.3 was identified, misfitting items removed and unidimensionality and differential item functioning (age, gender, and treatment aims were assessed. The factor structures of the various alternative models proposed in the literature were explored and optimum model fit evaluated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results The Rasch analysis of the 12-item GHQ identified six misfitting items. Removal of these items produced a six-item instrument which was not unidimensional. The Rasch analysis of an 8-item GHQ demonstrated two unidimensional structures corresponding to Anxiety/Depression and Social Dysfunction. No significant differential item functioning was observed by age, gender and treatment aims for the six- and eight-item GHQ. Two models competed for best fit from the confirmatory factor analysis, namely the GHQ-8 and Hankin's (2008 unidimensional model, however, the GHQ-8 produced the best overall fit statistics. Conclusions The results are consistent with the evidence that the GHQ-12 is a multi-dimensional instrument. Use of the summated scores for the GHQ-12 could potentially lead to an incorrect assessment of patients' psychiatric morbidity. Further evaluation of the GHQ-12 with different target populations is warranted.

  7. "INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE FORD NUCLEAR REACTOR, REVISION 1, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-08-01

    At the NRC's request, ORAU conducted confirmatory surveys of the FNR during the period of December 4 through 6, 2012. The survey activities included visual inspections and measurement and sampling activities. Confirmatory activities also included the review and assessment of UM's project documentation and methodologies. Surface scans identified elevated activity in two areas. The first area was on a wall outside of Room 3103 and the second area was in the southwest section on the first floor. The first area was remediated to background levels. However, the second area was due to gamma shine from a neighboring source storage area. A retrospective analysis of UM's FSS data shows that for the SUs investigated by the ORAU survey team, UM met the survey requirements set forth in the FSSP. The total mean surface activity values were directly compared with the mean total surface activity reported by UM. Mean surface activity values determined by UM were within two standard deviations of the mean determined by ORAU. Additionally, all surface activity values were less than the corresponding gross beta DCGL{sub W}. Laboratory analysis of the soil showed that COC concentrations were less than the respective DCGL{sub W} values. For the inter-lab comparison, the DER was above 3 for only one sample. However, since the sum of fractions for each of the soil samples was below 1, thus none of the samples would fail to meet release guidelines. Based on the findings of the side-by-side direct measurements, and after discussion with the NRC and ORAU, UM decided to use a more appropriate source efficiency in their direct measurement calculations and changed their source efficiency from 0.37 to 0.25.

  8. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE FORD NUCLEAR REACTOR, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-07-25

    At the NRC's request, ORAU conducted confirmatory surveys of the FNR during the period of December 4 through 6, 2012. The survey activities included visual inspections and measurement and sampling activities. Confirmatory activities also included the review and assessment of UM's project documentation and methodologies. Surface scans identified elevated activity in two areas. The first area was on a wall outside of Room 3103 and the second area was in the southwest section on the first floor. The first area was remediated to background levels. However, the second area was due to gamma shine from a neighboring source storage area. A retrospective analysis of UM's FSS data shows that for the SUs investigated by the ORAU survey team, UM met the survey requirements set forth in the FSSP. The total mean surface activity values were directly compared with the mean total surface activity reported by UM. Mean surface activity values determined by UM were within two standard deviations of the mean determined by ORAU. Additionally, all surface activity values were less than the corresponding gross beta DCGLW. Laboratory analysis of the soil showed that COC concentrations were less than the respective DCGLW values. For the inter-lab comparison, the DER was above 3 for only one sample. However, since the sum of fractions for each of the soil samples was below 1, thus none of the samples would fail to meet release guidelines. Based on the findings of the side-by-side direct measurements, and after discussion with the NRC and ORAU, UM decided to use a more appropriate source efficiency in their direct measurement calculations and changed their source efficiency from 0.37 to 0.25.

  9. The value of confirmatory testing in early infant HIV diagnosis programmes in South Africa: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Lorna Dunning

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs used for early infant diagnosis (EID of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa.Using the Cost-effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC-Pediatric model, we simulated EID testing at age 6 weeks for HIV-exposed infants without and with confirmatory testing. We assumed a NAAT cost of US$25, NAAT specificity of 99.6%, NAAT sensitivity of 100% for infants infected in pregnancy or at least 4 weeks prior to testing, and a mother-to-child transmission (MTCT rate at 12 months of 4.9%; we simulated guideline-concordant rates of testing uptake, result return, and antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation (100%. After diagnosis, infants were linked to and retained in care for 10 years (false-positive or lifelong (true-positive. All parameters were varied widely in sensitivity analyses. Outcomes included number of infants with false-positive diagnoses linked to ART per 1,000 ART initiations, life expectancy (LE, in years and per-person lifetime HIV-related healthcare costs. Both without and with confirmatory testing, LE was 26.2 years for HIV-infected infants and 61.4 years for all HIV-exposed infants; clinical outcomes for truly infected infants did not differ by strategy. Without confirmatory testing, 128/1,000 ART initiations were false-positive diagnoses; with confirmatory testing, 1/1,000 ART initiations were false-positive diagnoses. Because confirmatory testing averted costly HIV care and ART in truly HIV-uninfected infants, it was cost-saving: total cost US$1,790/infant tested, compared to US$1,830/infant tested without confirmatory testing

  10. Hoarding symptoms among psychiatric outpatients: confirmatory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Saving Inventory – Revised (SI-R

    Siau Pheng Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in problematic hoarding as an independent clinical condition has led to the development of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R to assess hoarding phenomenology. The SI-R is one of the most widely used instruments to measure hoarding symptoms; however, it lacks validation in non-Western samples. Methods The current study examined the construct, convergent, and discriminant validity of the SI-R among 500 outpatients at a psychiatric hospital in Singapore. The three-factor structure solution of the SI-R was fitted in a confirmatory factor analysis. Results The final model achieved mediocre fit (χ2 = 1026.02, df = 186; RMSEA = 0.095, SRMR = 0.06; CFI = 0.86; NNFI = 0.85. Two reverse-coded items (items 2 and 4 were removed due to insufficient factor loadings, resulting in the modified 21-item SI-R (SIR-21. Our findings indicate the need to further examine the construct validity of the SI-R, particularly in non-Western samples. Nonetheless, correlations with other hoarding-related constructs, such as anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the SIR-21 in our sample. Conclusions Findings in our current majority Chinese sample were consistent with previous observations from other Chinese samples. Implications were discussed from a cross-cultural perspective, such as cultural emphasis on saving for future use and overlap between the concepts of discarding and acquiring in Chinese samples. Future studies should also examine differences among other ethnic groups (e.g., Malay, Indian.

  11. Intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of cancer perception: a confirmatory factor analysis of the cancer experience and efficacy scale (CEES).

    Hou, Wai Kai

    2010-05-01

    Sociocultural factors influence psychological adjustment to cancer in Asian patients in two major ways: prioritization of relationships over individual orientations and belief in the efficacy of interpersonal cooperation. We derived and validated among Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients an instrument assessing cancer perceptions to enable the study of the sociocultural processes. Qualitative interviews (n = 16) derived 15 items addressing interpersonal experience in Chinese CRC patients' adjustment. These 15 items and 18 corresponding self-referent items were administered to 166 Chinese CRC survivors and subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to establish the initial scale structure and reliability. The final 29 items, together with other psychometric measures, were administered to a second cohort of 215 CRC patients and subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA (63.35% of the total variance) extracted six factors: personal strain, socioeconomic strain, emotional strain, personal efficacy, collective efficacy, and proxy efficacy. CFA confirmed the psychometric structure [chi (2)(df) = 702.91(368); Comparative Fit Index = 0.95; Nonnormed Fit Index = 0.94; Incremental Fit Index = 0.95; standardized root mean square residual = 0.08] of the six factors by using a model with two latent factors: experience and efficacy. All subscales were reliable (alpha = 0.76-0.92). Appropriate correlations with adjustment outcomes (symptom distress, psychological morbidity, and subjective well-being), optimistic personalities, and social relational quality indicated its convergent and divergent validity. Known group comparisons (i.e., age, active treatment, and colostomy) showed its clinical utility. The cancer experience and efficacy scale is a valid multidimensional instrument for assessing intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of cancer experience in Asian patients, potentiating existing patient-reported outcome measures.

  12. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  13. Testing Measurement Invariance across Groups of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Applications for Word Recognition and Spelling Tasks.

    Lúcio, Patrícia S; Salum, Giovanni; Swardfager, Walter; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Pan, Pedro M; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis A; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform significantly lower than controls on word recognition and spelling tests, such studies rely on the assumption that those groups are comparable in these measures. This study investigates comparability of word recognition and spelling tests based on diagnostic status for ADHD through measurement invariance methods. The participants ( n = 1,935; 47% female; 11% ADHD) were children aged 6-15 with normal IQ (≥70). Measurement invariance was investigated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes models. Measurement invariance was attested in both methods, demonstrating the direct comparability of the groups. Children with ADHD were 0.51 SD lower in word recognition and 0.33 SD lower in spelling tests than controls. Results suggest that differences in performance on word recognition and spelling tests are related to true mean differences based on ADHD diagnostic status. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Dutch Version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.; Kerkmeer, M.C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The latent factor structure of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) was examined with a series of confirmatory factor analyses. As part of the Dutch standardization, 1,188 healthy participants completed the WMS-IV-NL. Four models were tested for the Adult Battery

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition in an Australian Clinical Sample

    Cockshott, Felicity C.; Marsh, Nigel V.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; D. Wechsler, 1991) with a sample of 579 Australian children referred for assessment because of academic difficulties in the classroom. The children were administered the WISC-III as part of the initial eligibility determination…

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Trinity Inventory of Precursors to Suicide (TIPS) and Its Relationship to Hopelessness and Depression

    Smyth, Caroline L.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Numerous existing measures assess attitudes toward suicide yet fail to account for contextual factors. The Trinity Inventory of Precursors to Suicide (TIPS) is presented as an alternative, with implications for the development of prevention programs. Having previously reported exploratory analysis of the TIPS; confirmatory factor analysis and…

  17. 76 FR 55711 - Confirmatory Order Modifying License No. SNM-2001 for the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Parks...

    2011-09-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-8907; NRC-2011-0193] Confirmatory Order Modifying License No. SNM-2001 for the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Parks Township, Armstrong County, PA; Notice of... (SNM), pursuant to the terms and conditions of the aforementioned License, at the Shallow Land Disposal...

  18. Role of prostate specific antigen and immediate confirmatory biopsy in predicting progression during active surveillance for low risk prostate cancer.

    Adamy, Ari; Yee, David S; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Maschino, Alexandra; Cronin, Angel; Vickers, Andrew; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated predictors of progression after starting active surveillance, especially the role of prostate specific antigen and immediate confirmatory prostate biopsy. A total of 238 men with prostate cancer met active surveillance eligibility criteria and were analyzed for progression with time. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate predictors of progression. Progression was evaluated using 2 definitions, including no longer meeting 1) full and 2) modified criteria, excluding prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml as a criterion. Using full criteria 61 patients progressed during followup. The 2 and 5-year progression-free probability was 80% and 60%, respectively. With prostate specific antigen included in progression criteria prostate specific antigen at confirmatory biopsy (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.14-1.46, p <0.0005) and positive confirmatory biopsy (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.01-3.04, p = 0.047) were independent predictors of progression. Of the 61 cases 34 failed due to increased prostate specific antigen, including only 5 with subsequent progression by biopsy criteria. When prostate specific antigen was excluded from progression criteria, only 32 cases progressed, and 2 and 5-year progression-free probability was 91% and 76%, respectively. Using modified criteria as an end point positive confirmatory biopsy was the only independent predictor of progression (HR 3.16, 95% CI 1.41-7.09, p = 0.005). Active surveillance is feasible in patients with low risk prostate cancer and most patients show little evidence of progression within 5 years. There is no clear justification for treating patients in whom prostate specific antigen increases above 10 ng/ml in the absence of other indications of tumor progression. Patients considering active surveillance should undergo confirmatory biopsy to better assess the risk of progression. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthcare professionals' and parents' experiences of the confirmatory testing period: a qualitative study of the UK expanded newborn screening pilot.

    Moody, Louise; Atkinson, Lou; Kehal, Isher; Bonham, James R

    2017-05-08

    With further expansion of the number of conditions for which newborn screening can be undertaken, it is timely to consider the impact of positive screening results and the confirmatory testing period on the families involved. This study was undertaken as part of a larger programme of work to evaluate the Expanded Newborn Screening (ENBS) programme in the United Kingdom (UK). It was aimed to determine the views and experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and parents on communication and interaction during the period of confirmatory testing following a positive screening result. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents of children who had received a positive ENBS result and HCPs who had been involved with the diagnosis and support of parents. Ten parents and 11 healthcare professionals took part in the in-depth interviews. Questions considered the journey from the positive screening result through confirmatory testing to a confirmed diagnosis and the communication and interaction between the parents and HCPs that they had been experienced. Key themes were identified through thematic analysis. The results point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to improve the experience. These include the way in which the results are communicated to parents, rapid turnaround of results, offering a consistent approach, exploring interventions to support family relationships and reviewing the workload and scheduling implications for healthcare professionals. As technology enables newborn screening of a larger number of conditions, there is an increasing need to consider and mediate the potentially negative effects on families. The findings from this study point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to benefit the family experience.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1847-01 - Manufacturer in-use verification and in-use confirmatory testing; submittal of information and...

    2010-07-01

    ... laboratory equipment calibrations and verifications as prescribed by subpart B of this part or by good... in-use confirmatory testing; submittal of information and maintenance of records. 86.1847-01 Section... confirmatory testing; submittal of information and maintenance of records. (a) The manufacturer who conducts or...

  1. Subgroup analyses in confirmatory clinical trials: time to be specific about their purposes

    Julien Tanniou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well recognized that treatment effects may not be homogeneous across the study population. Subgroup analyses constitute a fundamental step in the assessment of evidence from confirmatory (Phase III clinical trials, where conclusions for the overall study population might not hold. Subgroup analyses can have different and distinct purposes, requiring specific design and analysis solutions. It is relevant to evaluate methodological developments in subgroup analyses against these purposes to guide health care professionals and regulators as well as to identify gaps in current methodology. Methods We defined four purposes for subgroup analyses: (1 Investigate the consistency of treatment effects across subgroups of clinical importance, (2 Explore the treatment effect across different subgroups within an overall non-significant trial, (3 Evaluate safety profiles limited to one or a few subgroup(s, (4 Establish efficacy in the targeted subgroup when included in a confirmatory testing strategy of a single trial. We reviewed the methodology in line with this “purpose-based” framework. The review covered papers published between January 2005 and April 2015 and aimed to classify them in none, one or more of the aforementioned purposes. Results In total 1857 potentially eligible papers were identified. Forty-eight papers were selected and 20 additional relevant papers were identified from their references, leading to 68 papers in total. Nineteen were dedicated to purpose 1, 16 to purpose 4, one to purpose 2 and none to purpose 3. Seven papers were dedicated to more than one purpose, the 25 remaining could not be classified unambiguously. Purposes of the methods were often not specifically indicated, methods for subgroup analysis for safety purposes were almost absent and a multitude of diverse methods were developed for purpose (1. Conclusions It is important that researchers developing methodology for subgroup analysis

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire in Latino families.

    Wood, Charles T; Perreira, Krista M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan M; Bentley, Margaret E; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Thompson, Amanda L

    2016-05-01

    Parent feeding practices affect risk of obesity in children. Latino children are at higher risk of obesity than the general population, yet valid measure of feeding practices, one of which is the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire (IFSQ), have not been formally validated in Spanish. To validate the IFSQ among Latino families, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis of pressuring, restrictive, and responsive feeding constructs from the IFSQ. The IFSQ was administered at the 12-month visit in the Greenlight study, a multi-center cluster randomized trial to prevent obesity. Parents were included if they were of Latino origin (n = 303) and completed an English or Spanish language modified IFSQ (without the indulgence construct). Scores from nine sub-constructs of the IFSQ were compared between English and Spanish language versions. We tested reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients and performed confirmatory factor analysis to examine factor loadings and goodness of fit characteristics, modifying constructs to achieve best fit. Of 303 parents completing the IFSQ, 84% were born outside the US, and 74% completed the IFSQ in Spanish. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.28 to 0.61 for the laissez-faire sub-constructs and from 0.58 to 0.83 for the pressuring, restrictive, and responsive sub-constructs. Results for all coefficients were similar between participants responding to an English and Spanish version of the IFSQ. Goodness of fit indices ranged from CFI 0.82-1 and RMSEA 0.00-0.31, and the model performed best in pressuring-soothing (CFI 1.0, RMSEA 0.00) and restrictive-amount (CFI 0.98, RMSEA 0.1) sub-constructs. In a sample of Latino families, pressuring, restrictive, and responsive constructs performed well. The modified IFSQ in both English and Spanish-speaking Latino families may be used to assess parenting behaviors related to early obesity risk in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A confirmatory factor analytic study of a self-leadership measure in South Africa

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Self-leadership is considered to be essential for effective individual functioning in occupational and academic contexts. The revised self-leadership questionnaire (RSLQ is widely utilised for measuring self-leadership, but its psychometric properties have not been established on a South African sample. By implication, important questions also exist about the theoretical structure of self-leadership in the South African context. Research purpose: The research aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and factorial validity of the revised self-leadership questionnaire on a South African sample. In doing so, the results of the research would also provide valuable insights into the latent factor structure of the self-leadership construct. Motivation for the study: On a practical level, the research sought internal validity evidence for the use of the RSLQ in the South African context. On a theoretical level, questions remain about the best conceptual representation of self-leadership as a construct. Research design, approach and method: The revised self-leadership questionnaire was administered to a non-probability sample of 375 South African young adults. The first and second-order factor structure underlying contemporary models of self-leadership using confirmatory factor analytic techniques was tested. Main findings: Results showed that the RSLQ measured self-leadership with suitable reliability and internal validity. All eight subscales had high internal consistency coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA of the first and second-order models conclusively demonstrated good factorial validity. Practical/managerial implications: The study found that the RSLQ has good measurement properties for a South African context. Academics, practitioners and managers are urged to use the measure in its present form for applications such as leadership development and promoting self-management. Contribution/value-addition: The

  4. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Mohr, David C; Meterko, Mark; Sales, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional

  5. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis.

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.

  6. Academic Leadership: Management of Groups or Leadership of Teams? A Multiple-Case Study on Designing and Implementing a Team-Based Development Programme for Academic Leadership

    Söderhjelm, Teresa; Björklund, Christina; Sandahl, Christer; Bolander-Laksov, Klara

    2018-01-01

    Demands on academic leadership are increasing, which raises the need for leadership training. This article describes development and implementation of a group training intervention in academic leadership at a departmental level. Little systematic research has addressed the question of what forms of leadership training are associated with…

  7. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple intravenous bolus doses of diclofenac sodium compared with oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg: A randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in healthy subjects.

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Okumu, Franklin; McDowell, James; Allenby, Kent

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, parallel-group, single-center study in 42 healthy adults, the safety and pharmacokinetic parameters of an intravenous formulation of 18.75 and 37.5 mg diclofenac sodium (DFP-08) following single- and multiple-dose bolus administration were compared with diclofenac potassium 50 mg oral tablets. Mean AUC0-inf values for a 50-mg oral tablet and an 18.75-mg intravenous formulation were similar (1308.9 [393.0]) vs 1232.4 [147.6]). As measured by the AUC, DFP-08 18.75 mg and 37.5 mg demonstrated dose proportionality for extent of exposure. One subject in each of the placebo and DFP-08 18.75-mg groups and 2 subjects in the DFP-08 37.5-mg group reported adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to the study drug. All were mild in intensity and did not require treatment. Two subjects in the placebo group and 1 subject in the DFP-08 18.75-mg group reported grade 1 thrombophlebitis; no subjects reported higher than grade 1 thrombophlebitis after receiving a single intravenous dose. The 18.75- and 37.5-mg doses of intravenous diclofenac (single and multiple) were well tolerated for 7 days. Additional efficacy and safety studies are required to fully characterize the product. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Using Multiple Control Groups and Matching to Address Unobserved Biases in Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Observational Study of the Effectiveness of Mental Health Parity.

    Yoon, Frank B; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Alisa B; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2011-06-21

    Studies of large policy interventions typically do not involve randomization. Adjustments, such as matching, can remove the bias due to observed covariates, but residual confounding remains a concern. In this paper we introduce two analytical strategies to bolster inferences of the effectiveness of policy interventions based on observational data. First, we identify how study groups may differ and then select a second comparison group on this source of difference. Second, we match subjects using a strategy that finely balances the distributions of key categorical covariates and stochastically balances on other covariates. An observational study of the effect of parity on the severely ill subjects enrolled in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program illustrates our methods.

  9. Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Gisela Demo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the strategic relevance of Human Resources Management (HRM in organizations and the lack of scientific instruments to measure employees’ perceptions about policies and practices of HRM, this study aimed to validate the Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method. The study has a quantitative design, but also included qualitative analysis required for the development of a scale. Employees from various organizations composed a sample of 632 people. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Jöreskog’s rho. A sixfactor model was generated showing high-reliability and good fit. Construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The factors were consistent with the literature review and explained about 58% of the construct’s total variance. This study contributes to the scientific production in the area of Human Resources Management since HRMPPS can be used not only in relational studies but also as an evaluation instrument by managers who wish to improve their employees’ well-being as well as organizational outcomes.

  10. Test of Gross Motor Development : Expert Validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motordevelopment. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by expertsand the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. Across-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionalsand 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls.Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated thatthe Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices ofconfirmatory factorial validity (χ2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tuckerand Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. ThePortuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  11. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    Kercel, S.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

  12. A confirmatory factor analytical study of a servant leadership measure in South Africa

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-09-01

    Research purpose: The goal of the study was to validate the Servant Leadership Questionnaire(SLQ, which Barbuto and Wheeler developed, on a South African sample. Motivation for the study: The literature is replete with evidence of the role of follower focused leadership practices in improving team effectiveness, employee engagement and organisational success. We need to complement these efforts with psychometrically sound measuring instruments. Research design, approach and method: The authors drew a convenience sample of 288 school teachers from schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. They used the SLQ that Barbuto and Wheeler developed to measure servant leadership. Main findings: The authors found high levels of reliability for the sub-scales of the latent variables. They found good fit with the data for the measurement model of the five latent servant leadership dimensions (altruistic calling, persuasive mapping, emotional healing, wisdom and organisational stewardship through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. They obtained reasonable fit for the first- and second-order servant leadership CFA. The authors concluded that the SLQ shows reasonable fit. Practical/managerial implications: The SLQ showed evidence of reliability and construct validity. It can contribute to the scientific selection and development of education leaders in South African schools. Contribution/value add: Servant leadership incorporates a service ethic that fosters participatory management, teacher development and team building. The department of education should increase team effectiveness in schools by selecting and developing servant leadership.

  13. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Attitude Scale of Constructivist Approach for Science Teachers

    E. Evrekli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Underlining the importance of teachers for the constructivist approach, the present study attempts to develop “Attitude Scale of Construc¬tivist Approach for Science Teachers (ASCAST”. The pre-applications of the scale were administered to a total of 210 science teachers; however, the data obtained from 5 teachers were excluded from the analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the pre-applications, it was found that the scale could have a single factor structure, which was tested using the confir¬matory factor analysis. As a result of the initial confirmatory factor analysis, the values of fit were examined and found to be low. Subsequently, by exam¬ining the modification indices, error covariance was added between items 23 and 24 and the model was tested once again. The added error covariance led to a significant improvement in the model, producing values of fit suitable for limit values. Thus, it was concluded that the scale could be employed with a single factor. The explained variance value for the scale developed with a sin¬gle factor structure was calculated to be 50.43% and its reliability was found to be .93. The results obtained suggest that the scale possesses reliable-valid characteristics and could be used in further studies.

  14. A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model using a categorical estimator.

    de Beer, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Pienaar, Jaco

    2012-10-01

    A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model was conducted with alternative methods, in a sample of 15,633 working adults aggregated from various economic sectors. The proposed model is in line with job demands-resources theory and assumes two psychological processes at work which are collectively coined "the dual process." The first process, the energetic, presents that job demands lead to ill-health outcomes due to burnout. The second process, the motivational, indicates that job resources lead to organizational commitment due to work engagement. Structural equation modelling analyses were implemented with a categorical estimator. Mediation analyses of each of the processes included bootstrapped indirect effects and kappa-squared values to apply qualitative labels to effect sizes. The relationship between job resources and organizational commitment was mediated by engagement with a large effect. The relationship between job demands and ill-health was mediated by burnout with a medium effect. The implications of the results for theory and practice were discussed.

  15. Quinn’s Leadership Roles: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Study in Portuguese Health Services

    Pedro Parreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the psychometric properties of Quinn’s leadership questionnaire (CFV questionnaire; 1988 in Portuguese health services. Design: Cross-sectional study, using Quinn’s leadership questionnaire, administered to registered nurses and physicians in Portuguese health services (N = 687. Method: Self-administered survey applied to two samples. In the first sample (convenience; N = 249 Portuguese health professionals, exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed to the CFV questionnaire. In the second sample (stratified; N = 50 surgical units of 33 Portuguese hospitals, confirmatory factor analyses were performed using LISREL 8.80. Findings: In the first sample, an eight-factor solution emerged accounting for 65.46% of the total variance, in an interpretable factor structure (loadings> .50, with Cronbach’s α greater than .79. This factor structure, replicated in the second sample, showed reasonable goodness-of-fit of the model to each of the leadership roles, that is, to the eight quadrants and global model. Overall, the models showed nomological validity, with scores between good and acceptable (.235 < x2/df < 2.055 and .00 < RMSEA < .077. Conclusions: Quinn’s leadership questionnaire showed good reliability and validity for the eight leadership roles, proving to be suitable for use in health care/hospital settings.

  16. Nursing students' attitudes towards information and communication technology: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences. Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter statistically significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards technology, the validity is questionable and few studies have been developed to test the attitudes of nursing students, in particular. A cross-sectional survey design was performed. The Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health was used to collect data from October 2012-December 2012. A panel of experts reviewed the content of the instrument and a pilot study was conducted. Following this, a total of 508 nursing students, who were engaged in clinical placements, were recruited from six universities in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and reliability and construct validity were assessed. The resulting instrument consisted of 19 items across four factors. Reliability of the four factors was acceptable and the validity was supported. The instrument was shown to be both valid and reliable for measuring nursing students' attitudes towards technology, thus aiding in the current understandings of this aspect. Through these measurements and understandings, nursing educators and students are able to be more reflexive of their attitudes and can thus seek to develop them positively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis untuk Mengetahui Pemanfaatan Multimedia Learning pada Perguruan Tinggi Swasta di Kota Semarang

    Achmad Solechan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dominant indicator of the use of multimedia in learning needs to be studied using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis. This study aims to determine the most dominant factor affecting the use of multimedia in learning, this study uses the Technology Acceptance Modelling theory. This study uses the technique of Judgment Sampling Area or a sampling technique that is based on the determination of the research area. Determination of the study area are four private universities in Semarang, namely USM, Udinus, STMIK Provisi and Unisbank, so the overall number of respondents as many as 200 students. This study shows that: 1-the greatest contribution value of the Perceived Usefulness latent variable that is multimedia learning increase the effectiveness of learning in the classroom, 2-the greatest contribution value of the Confirmation latent variable, that is Lecturer Services using multimedia learning is preferred, 3-the greatest contribution value of the Perceived Ease of Use latent variable that is teaching materials using multimedia learning is something that is easy for students to understand. This study also shows that : 4-the greatest contribution value of the Satisfaction latent variable that is multimedia learning used by Lecturer in teaching and learning in the classroom is able to provide information in accordance with the information that students need, and 5-the greatest contribution value of the Continued IT Usage Intention latent variable that is students interested in understanding the material, which is taught by Lecturer, if Lecturer teaching using multimedia based than conventional models

  18. An Evaluation on Factors Influencing Decision making for Malaysia Disaster Management: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.

  19. Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children with Epilepsy: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Şerife Tutar Güven

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the past few years, the concept of self-efficacy in children with epilepsy has become increasingly important. This study aimed to analyze the psychometric aspects of the Turkish version of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey. The study data were collected using the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Child Introduction Form. The study sample included 166 children who were between 9 and 17 years of age. The authors assessed the reliability and construct validity of the study data using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. Results: The original model was not confirmed by the CFA. The analysis tool included 15 items in two factors. Reliability analysis showed that the two factors were acceptable and valid. The tool was valid and reliable for measuring the self-efficacy of epileptic children. The factor structure was derived from and confirmed by the original tool. It was found that the Turkish version of the modified Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children had excellent satisfactory psychometric aspects for a Turkish population. Conclusion: Health professionals can present a more effective drug process and nursing care by identifying and assessing seizure self-efficacy levels in children with epilepsy, and they can make a positive contribution to disease management and the way the child deals with the disease.

  20. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    Kercel, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

  1. Construct Validity of the Korean Dental Licensing Examination using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Mi Kyoung Yim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Confirmatory factor analysis based on a measurement model of a structural equation model was used to test the construct validity of 13 subjects in the Korean Dental Licensing Examination (KDLE. The results of 1,086 examinees who wrote the KDLE in 2004 were analyzed. The thirteen subjects were classified into 62 major categories and 122 intermediate categories. There were 364 items. A hierarchical model was constructed, including major and intermediate categories. The impact of the variables was determined by the standardized regression coefficient that related latent and measured variables in the measurement model. The KDLE showed a high goodness-of-fit with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.030 and a non-normed fit index of 0.998. When the latent variables for the major and intermediate categories were analyzed, the standardized regression coefficients of all of the subjects, with the exception of Health and Medical Legislation, were significant. From the result, we concluded that the 13 subjects showed constructive validity. In addition, the study model and data were very compatible. The subject Health and Medical Legislation had a low explanatory impact with respect to testing the ability of dentists to perform their jobs. This study suggests that similar psychometric studies are needed before integrating or deleting subjects on the KDLE, and to improve item development.

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Heart Disease Knowledge Scale: Evidence from Item and Confirmatory Factor Analyses.

    Lim, Bee Chiu; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Arifin, Wan Nor; Ng, Kok Huan

    2016-07-01

    Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context. A cross-sectional, survey design was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted English version of the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ). Using proportionate cluster sampling, 788 undergraduate students at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited and completed the HDKQ. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for the psychometric evaluation. Construct validity of the measurement model was included. Most of the students were Malay (48%), female (71%), and from the field of science (51%). An acceptable range was obtained with respect to both the difficulty and discrimination indices in the item analysis results. The difficulty index ranged from 0.12-0.91 and a discrimination index of ≥ 0.20 were reported for the final retained 23 items. The final CFA model showed an adequate fit to the data, yielding a 23-item, one-factor model [weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted scaled chi-square difference = 1.22, degrees of freedom = 2, P-value = 0.544, the root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 (90% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.04); close-fit P-value = > 0.950]. Adequate psychometric values were obtained for Malaysian undergraduate university students using the 23-item, one-factor model of the adapted HDKQ.

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a Questionnaire Measure of Managerial Stigma Towards Employee Depression.

    Martin, Angela J; Giallo, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    Managers' attitudes play a key role in how organizations respond to employees with depression. We examine the measurement properties of a questionnaire designed to assess managerial stigma towards employees with depression. Using data from a sample of 469 Australian managers representing a wide range of industries and work settings, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to assess three proposed subscales representing affective, cognitive and behavioural forms of stigma. Results were equivocal indicating acceptable fit for two-factor (affective and cognitive + behavioural), three-factor (affective, cognitive and behavioural) and higher order models. Failure to demonstrate the discriminant validity of the cognitive and behavioural dimensions, even though they are theoretically distinct, suggests that further work on the scale is warranted. These results provide an extension to the psychometric profile of this measure (exploratory factor analysis; Martin, ). Development of strategies to operationalize this construct will benefit occupational health research and practice, particularly in interventions that aim to reduce the stigma of mental health issues in the workplace or where managers' attitudes are a key mechanism in intervention efficacy. We encourage future research on this measure pertaining in particular to further enhancing all aspects of its construct validity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory Among Medical Students in Malaysia

    Wan Nor Arifin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i is a Malay-language emotional intelligence (EI inventory that was based on a mixed-model approach of EI. It was specifically developed and validated for use among medical course applicants. However, evidence to support its use among medical students is inadequate. This study aims to provide further construct validity evidence for the USMEQ-i among medical students through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 479 medical students in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. After a preliminary analysis, data from only 317 respondents were found suitable for inclusion in CFA. CFA was performed using the maximum likelihood estimation method with bootstrapping due to the nonnormality of items at the multivariate level. The results of the analysis support the two-factor model of the EI component and the one-factor model of the faking component. However, the USMEQ-i should be administered with caution until further cross-validation studies are conducted among students in other medical schools in Malaysia.

  5. Analyzing Mathematics Beliefs of Pre-Service Teachers Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Mazlini Adnan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics beliefs play an important role in enhancing the quality and the effectiveness of teaching and learning. This study analyzes the mathematics beliefs of 317 pre-service teachers from six Higher Education Institutions (HEIs (Government Public Universities who were randomly selected to participate in this study. Questionnaires consisting of twenty three items were given to the respondents during the data collection process. The validation of the items was done by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. In order to obtain a model fit for the measurement model of mathematics beliefs, several fit index tests such as CMINDF, GFI, AGFI, IFI, NFI, CFI, TLI and RMSEA were used. Constructivist beliefs and traditional beliefs were identified as the contributing factors in the model. The analysis also revealed that mathematics beliefs consist of structures of two hidden variables. The correlation between the two variables (constructivist beliefs and traditional beliefs is at a moderate level. Hence, pre-service teachers should be able to recognize their type of mathematics beliefs in order to become effective mathematics teachers.

  6. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area.

  7. On the nature of the electronic effect of multiple hydroxyl groups in the 6-membered ring - the effects are additive but steric hindrance plays a role too

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Bols, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Research during the last two decades has shown a remarkable directional component of the substituent effects of hydroxy groups, which has a profound effect on the properties of hydroxylated compounds such as carbohydrates. While the epimerisation of a single hydroxyl function is well studied...... synthesized and their pKa and conformation were studied. The results show that the large difference in the electronic effect between the axial and equatorial hydroxyls is partially cancelled by counteracting steric hindrance from 1,3-diaxial interactions. Hydrogen bonding does not appear to play any role...

  8. Lack of survival improvement with novel anti-myeloma agents for patients with multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: the Greek Myeloma Study Group experience.

    Katodritou, Eirini; Terpos, Evangelos; Kastritis, Efstathios; Delimpasis, Sossana; Symeonidis, Argiris S; Repousis, Panagiotis; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Vadikolia, Chrysa; Michalis, Eurydiki; Polychronidou, Genovefa; Michael, Michael; Papadaki, Sofia; Papathanasiou, Maria; Kokoviadou, Kyriaki; Kioumi, Anna; Vlachaki, Eythimia; Hadjiaggelidou, Christina; Kouraklis, Alexandra; Patsias, Ioannis; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Verrou, Evgenia; Gastari, Vasiliki; Christoulas, Dimitrios; Giannopoulou, Evlambia; Pouli, Anastasia; Konstantinidou, Pavlina; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios

    2015-12-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare complication of multiple myeloma (MM). Herein, we have described the incidence, characteristics, prognostic factors for post CNS-MM survival, and outcome of CNS-MM and explored the efficacy of novel agents (NA) (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide) in this setting. Between 2000 and 2013, 31 (0.9 %) out of 3408 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients, consecutively diagnosed and treated during the same period in 12 Greek centers, developed CNS-MM (M/F 15/16, median age 59 years, range 20-96 years; newly diagnosed/relapsed-refractory 2/29; median time to CNS-MM diagnosis 29 months). Clinical and laboratory characteristics were retrospectively recorded. Twenty-six percent of patients had circulating plasma cells (PCs) or plasma cell leukemia (PCL) at CNS-MM and 39 % had skull-derived plasmacytomas, suggesting hematological and contiguous spread. Treatment for CNS-MM was offered in 29/31 patients and 11/29 responded (NA 18/29, additional radiotherapy 9/28, intrathecal chemotherapy 13/29). The median post CNS-MM survival was 3 months (95 % CI 1.9-4.1) and did not differ between patients treated with NA and/or radiotherapy vs. others. In the multivariate analysis, prior treatment of MM with NA, extramedullary disease (EMD) during MM course (i.e., plasmacytomas, circulating PCs, or documented PCL) and abnormally high LDH at MM diagnosis were independent prognostic factors, whereas treatment of CNS-MM with NA did not predict for post CNS-MM survival. Despite the relatively limited number of patients due to the rarity of CNS-MM, our results suggest that NA do not seem to improve post CNS-MM survival. Patients with EMD display shortened post CNS-MM survival and should be followed thoroughly.

  9. Automatic anatomy partitioning of the torso region on CT images by using multiple organ localizations with a group-wise calibration technique

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Morita, Syoichi; Zhou, Xinxin; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an automatic approach for anatomy partitioning on three-dimensional (3D) computedtomography (CT) images that divide the human torso into several volume-of-interesting (VOI) images based on anatomical definition. The proposed approach combines several individual detections of organ-location with a groupwise organ-location calibration and correction to achieve an automatic and robust multiple-organ localization task. The essence of the proposed method is to jointly detect the 3D minimum bounding box for each type of organ shown on CT images based on intra-organ-image-textures and inter-organ-spatial-relationship in the anatomy. Machine-learning-based template matching and generalized Hough transform-based point-distribution estimation are used in the detection and calibration processes. We apply this approach to the automatic partitioning of a torso region on CT images, which are divided into 35 VOIs presenting major organ regions and tissues required by routine diagnosis in clinical medicine. A database containing 4,300 patient cases of high-resolution 3D torso CT images is used for training and performance evaluations. We confirmed that the proposed method was successful in target organ localization on more than 95% of CT cases. Only two organs (gallbladder and pancreas) showed a lower success rate: 71 and 78% respectively. In addition, we applied this approach to another database that included 287 patient cases of whole-body CT images scanned for positron emission tomography (PET) studies and used for additional performance evaluation. The experimental results showed that no significant difference between the anatomy partitioning results from those two databases except regarding the spleen. All experimental results showed that the proposed approach was efficient and useful in accomplishing localization tasks for major organs and tissues on CT images scanned using different protocols.

  10. Gene-based association identifies SPATA13-AS1 as a pharmacogenomic predictor of inhaled short-acting beta-agonist response in multiple population groups.

    Padhukasahasram, B; Yang, J J; Levin, A M; Yang, M; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R; Kwok, P-Y; Seibold, M A; Lanfear, D E; Williams, L K

    2014-08-01

    Inhaled short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) medication is commonly used in asthma patients to rapidly reverse airway obstruction and improve acute symptoms. We performed a genome-wide association study of SABA medication response using gene-based association tests. A linear mixed model approach was first used for single-nucleotide polymorphism associations, and the results were later combined using GATES to generate gene-based associations. Our results identified SPATA13-AS1 as being significantly associated with SABA bronchodilator response in 328 healthy African Americans. In replication, this gene was associated with SABA response among the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=1073, P=0.011 and n=1968, P=0.014), 149 healthy African Americans (P=0.003) and 556 European Americans with asthma (P=0.041). SPATA13-AS1 was also associated with longitudinal SABA medication usage in the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=658, P=0.047 and n=1968, P=0.025). Future studies are needed to delineate the precise mechanism by which SPATA13-AS1 may influence SABA response.

  11. Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Considering Symmetry with Regards to the Positive and Negative Ideal Solutions via the Pythagorean Normal Cloud Model for Application to Economic Decisions

    Jinming Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pythagorean fuzzy sets are highly appealing in dealing with uncertainty as they allow for greater flexibility in regards to the membership and non-membership degrees by extending the set of possible values. In this paper, we propose a multi-criteria group decision-making approach based on the Pythagorean normal cloud. Some cloud aggregation operators are presented in this paper to facilitate the appraisal of the underlying utilities of the alternatives under consideration. The concept and properties of the Pythagorean normal cloud and its backward generation algorithm, aggregation operators and distance measurement are outlined. The proposed approach resembles the TOPSIS technique, which, indeed, considers the symmetry of the distances to the positive and negative ideal solutions. Furthermore, an example from e-commerce is presented to demonstrate and validate the proposed decision-making approach. Finally, the comparative analysis is implemented to check the robustness of the results when the aggregation rules are changed.

  12. Let's Talk about Children Evaluation (LTCE) study in northern Finland: a multiple group ecological study of children's health promotion activities with a municipal and time-trend design.

    Kujala, Veikko; Jokinen, Jaana; Ebeling, Hanna; Pohjola, Anneli

    2017-07-13

    Making change towards child and family-based and coordinated services is critical to improve quality, outcomes and value. The Let's Talk about Children (LTC) approach, which consists of brief psychoeducational discussions with parents of kindergarten-aged and school-aged children, has been launched as a municipality-specific programme in the Council of Oulu Region. The aim of this paper is to present a protocol of an ecological study evaluating the group-specific effects of an intervention about LTC activities in a geographically defined population. The programme is designed to promote children's socioemotional well-being. A quasi-experimental ecological study protocol is implemented to evaluate whether systematic LTC practices improve children's well-being. A multi-informant setting covers 30 municipalities in northern Finland and involves all the municipal teachers, social and healthcare workers. In each municipality, a Local Management Team is responsible for implementing the LTC programme and collecting the annual data of LTC discussions and network meetings. The outcome data are retrieved from child welfare statistics and hospital registers. The population data, child welfare statistics and referrals to hospitals was retrieved at baseline (2014), and will be retrieved annually. Furthermore, the annual data of LTC discussions and network meetings will be collected of the years 2015-2018. The study design has been approved by the management of the Oulu University Hospital in accordance with the guidelines given by The Regional Ethics Committee of the Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District in Oulu, Finland. All data are treated and implemented according to national data security laws. Study findings will be disseminated to provincial and municipal partners, collaborative community groups and the research and development community. The Let's Talk about Children Evaluation study databases will guide future regional development action and policies. © Article

  13. Deriving a preference-based utility measure for cancer patients from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer's Quality of Life Questionnaire C30: a confirmatory versus exploratory approach

    Costa DSJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Daniel SJ Costa,1 Neil K Aaronson,2 Peter M Fayers,3,4 Peter S Grimison,5,6 Monika Janda,7 Julie F Pallant,8 Donna Rowen,9 Galina Velikova,10 Rosalie Viney,11 Tracey A Young,9 Madeleine T King1On behalf of the MAUCa Consortium1Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 4Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 5Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, 6Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 7School of Public Health, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, 8Rural Health Academic Centre, University of Melbourne, Shepparton, VIC, Australia; 9School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield; 10University of Leeds, St James's Institute of Oncology, Leeds, UK; 11Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Multi attribute utility instruments (MAUIs are preference-based measures that comprise a health state classification system (HSCS and a scoring algorithm that assigns a utility value to each health state in the HSCS. When developing a MAUI from a health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaire, first a HSCS must be derived. This typically involves selecting a subset of domains and items because HRQOL questionnaires typically have too many items to be amendable to the valuation task required to develop the scoring algorithm for a MAUI. Currently, exploratory factor analysis (EFA followed by Rasch analysis is recommended for deriving a MAUI from a HRQOL measure.Aim: To determine whether confirmatory factor analysis (CFA is more appropriate and efficient than EFA to derive a HSCS

  14. Comparing different versions of the Rahim EI questionnaire in a South African context: A confirmatory factor analysis approach

    Petrus Nel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Given the interest in the importance of emotional intelligence in employees and leaders with regard to performance of their jobs, it is imperative to use reliable and validinstruments to operationalise emotional intelligence. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of three different versions of the Rahim emotional intelligence index (EQI, specifically withregard to its factor structure and reliability, using two different samples. otivation for the study: No previous study has investigated which version of the Rahim EQI is the most appropriate for conducting research within South African organisations. Inaddition, the question of whether the Rahim EQI measures a strong general factor has notbeen answered. Research approach, design, and method: A cross-sectional quantitative research design wasused. Two samples were used (n = 470 and n = 308. The first sample completed the 40-itemversion of the Rahim EQI, whilst the second sample completed the 30-item version of the Rahim EQI. The measurement model, representing the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI, was also fitted to both these samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare thedifferent versions, as well as conceptualisations, of the Rahim EQI. Main findings: The 22-item version of the Rahim EQI exhibited better model fit than the 40-item and 30-item versions. In addition, the bifactor model suggested that the Rahim EQIseems to measure a strong general factor (emotional intelligence with very little evidence ofthe presence of unique group factors (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. Practical/managerial implications: Both the reliability and factor structure of the 22-item version of the Rahim EQI have been confirmed. The bifactor structure should inform researchers and practitioners that, in order to understand emotional intelligence, it is better to conceptualise it as a unidimensional

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Malay version comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire tested among mothers of primary school children in Malaysia.

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Wei, Wong Yoke; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School-Based Assessment Evaluation Scale Among Teachers

    Nor Hasnida Che Md. Ghazali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The school-based assessment (SBA system is a holistic assessment system that is conducted in schools by subject teachers in assessing the students cognitive (intellect, affective (emotional and spiritual and psychomotor (physical aspects. It is in line with the National Philosophy of Education and the Standards-based School Curriculum in Malaysia. In order to evaluate the implementation of SBA, a measurement scale was validated. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. 776 primary and secondary school teachers were selected as respondents using stratified random sampling. The data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS version 18. The aim of this paper was to explore different factor structures of the SBA evaluation scale by using the second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results indicated that the SBA evaluation model was a valid and reliable scale. The input measurement model was validated with two factors (personnel qualifications and physical infrastructure, process measurement model was validated with six factors (‘attitude’, ‘understanding’, ‘skills’, ‘challenges’, ‘moderation’ and ‘monitoring’ and product measurement model was validated with two factors (‘students’ attitude’ and ‘students’ motivation’. This study provides support for using a valid instrument in evaluating the implementation of SBA in schools. Furthermore, the CFA procedures used supported the conceptual framework set out earlier. Thus, it presents clearly the importance of the evaluation process of any education system to follow all the dimensions outlined in the evaluation model proposed by Daniel Stufflebeam.       Sistem Penilaian Berbasis Sekolah (SBA adalah sistem penilaian holistik yang dilakukan di sekolah-sekolah oleh guru mata pelajaran dalam menilai kognitif (kecerdasan, afektif (emosional dan spiritual dan psikomotorik (fisik siswa. Hal ini sejalan dengan Filsafat Pendidikan Nasional dan Kurikulum

  17. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation.

    Karacan, C Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A

    2013-08-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  18. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  19. Confirmatory factor analysis and sample invariance of the Chinese version of Somatosensory Amplification Scale (ChSAS) among Chinese adolescents

    Tam, B. K.; Wong, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Chinese version of Somatosensory Amplification Scale (ChSAS) in a sample of Chinese adolescents across different grade levels using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods: A total of 1991 Chinese adolescents completed the ChSAS. CFA assessed the fit of the one-factor model to the entire sample. Factorial invariance of the ChSAS was also examined across grade levels using multigroup CFA. Results: Results of CFA confirmed ...

  20. "CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS FOR THE ABB COMBUSTION ENGINEERING SITE WINDSOR, CONNECTICUT DCN 5158-SR-02-2

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2013-03-25

    The objectives of the confirmatory activities were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the NRC in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the contractor's procedures and FSS results. ORAU reviewed ABB CE's decommissioning plan, final status survey plan, and the applicable soil DCGLs, which were developed based on an NRC-approved radiation dose assessment. The surveys include gamma surface scans, gamma direct measurements, and soil sampling.

  1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher o...

  2. Validity of a four-factor modelunderlying the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities a confirmatory factor analysis

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Solera Martinez, M; Rodriguez Moya, Alejandro; Perez, Y; Martinez Vizcaino, V

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test whether a four factor might explain the clustering of the components of the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities (FID). Relevance: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are significantly weaker than individuals without ID at all stages of life. These subjects might be particularly susceptible to loss of basic function because of poor physical fitness. Participants: We studied 267 adults with intellectual...

  3. Final Report For Independent Confirmatory Survey Summary And Results For The Hematite Decommissioning Project, Festus, Missouri

    Bailey, Erika N.; Lee, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    ORAU conducted confirmatory surveys of the Hematite site during the period of June 12 through June 13, 2012. The survey activities included in-process inspections, document review, walkover surveys, sampling activities, and laboratory analysis of split samples. WEC was forthcoming with information relating to practices, procedures, and surface scan results. Scans performed by the WEC technician were extremely thorough and methodical. The WEC and ORAU technicians identified the same areas of elevated activity with comparable detector responses. WEC sampling of re-use soils, waste soils, sediments, and groundwater were conducted under ORAU observation. The sampling efforts observed by ORAU were performed in accordance with site-specific procedures and in a manner sufficient to provide quality supporting data. Three observations were made during groundwater sampling activities. First, the water level indicator was re-used without submitting rinse blank. Second, bubbles created during tubing extraction could indicate the presence of volatilized organic compounds. Third, samplers did not use a photo ionization detector prior to sample collection to indicate the presence of volatile organic vapors. Results of split samples indicated a high level of comparability between the WEC and ORAU/ORISE radiological laboratories. Analytical practices and procedures appear to be sufficient in providing quality radiochemical data. All concentrations from the Soil Re-Use Area and sediment samples are below Uniform radionuclide-specific derived concentration guideline level (DCGL W ) limits; thus, comparisons to the less conservative stratified geometry were not required. Results were compared to individual DCGLs and using the sum of fractions approach. Both composite soil samples collected from the Waste Handling Area (Bins 1 and 4) were well below the prescribed USEI waste acceptance criteria

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale in the South African context

    Chantal Olckers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Empathy is a core competency in aiding individuals to address the challenges of social living. An indicator of emotional intelligence, it is useful in a globalising and cosmopolitan world. Moreover, managing staff, stakeholders and conflict in many social settings relies on communicative skills, of which empathy forms a large part. Empathy plays a pivotal role in negotiating, persuading and influencing behaviour. The skill of being able to empathise thus enables the possessor to attune to the needs of clients and employees and provides opportunities to become responsive to these needs. Research purpose: This study attempted to determine the construct validity of the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale within the South African context. Motivation for the study: In South Africa, a large number of psychometrical instruments have been adopted directly from abroad. Studies determining the construct validity of several of these imported instruments, however, have shown that these instruments are not suited for use in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a quantitative research method with a survey design. A convenience sample of 212 respondents completed the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale. The constructs explored were Suffering, Positive Sharing, Responsive Crying, Emotional Attention, a Feel for Others and Emotional Contagion. The statistical procedure used was a confirmatory factor analysis. Main findings: The study showed that, from a South African perspective, the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale lacks sufficient construct validity. Practical/managerial implications: Further refinement of the model would provide valuable information that would aid people to be more appreciative of individual contributions, to meet client needs and to understand the motivations of others. Contribution/value-add: From a South African perspective, the findings of this study are

  5. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised.

    Stacciarini, Thaís Santos Guerra; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-01-30

    to analyze the factor structure of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), adapted for Brazil. methodological study conducted with 150 individuals with diabetes mellitus cared for by the Family Health Strategy, most of whom are elderly with low educational levels. The test of the hypothesis concerning the confirmatory factor composition of the ASAS-R was performed using latent variables structural equations. the model's goodness-of-fit indexes were satisfactory (χ2 = 259.19; χ2/g.l = 2.97, p Estrategia Salud de la Familia. El test de hipótesis de la composición factorial confirmatoria de la escala ASAS-R fue realizado por medio del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para variables latentes. los valores de los índices de ajuste del modelo fueron satisfactorios (χ2 de 259,19; χ2/g.l de 2,97, p < 0,001; GFI = 0,85; RMR = 0,07; RMSEA = 0,09), las cargas factoriales fueron superiores a 0,40, la mayoría de las correlaciones ítem y factor varió de moderada a fuerte magnitud (0,34 la 0,58); valores de alfa total de 0,74 y de los tres factores de 0,69, 0,38 y 0,69, respectivamente. la estructura factorial de la escala obtuvo resultados satisfactorios de validez y de confiabilidad, excepto uno de sus factores. Es deseable que esa escala sea aplicada en muestras de la población general, para fortalecer los análisis de consistencia interna y de dimensionalidad de la estructura factorial; y se espera que este estudio pueda contribuir para avanzar en nuevas investigaciones que vengan a trabajar con el constructo de capacidad de autocuidado y con el desarrollo de la escala ASAS-R.

  6. A Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised for Nurses.

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Shafipour, Vida; Allen, Kelly-Ann; Heidari, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid; Zareiyan, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Moral distress is a growing problem for healthcare professionals that may lead to dissatisfaction, resignation, or occupational burnout if left unattended, and nurses experience different levels of this phenomenon. This study aims to investigate the factor structure of the Persian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised in intensive care and general nurses. This methodological research was conducted with 771 nurses from eight hospitals in the Mazandaran Province of Iran in 2017. Participants completed the Moral Distress Scale-Revised, data collected, and factor structure assessed using the construct, convergent, and divergent validity methods. The reliability of the scale was assessed using internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, Theta, and McDonald's omega coefficients) and construct reliability. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The exploratory factor analysis ( N = 380) showed that the Moral Distress Scale-Revised has five factors: lack of professional competence at work, ignoring ethical issues and patient conditions, futile care, carrying out the physician's orders without question and unsafe care, and providing care under personal and organizational pressures, which explained 56.62% of the overall variance. The confirmatory factor analysis ( N = 391) supported the five-factor solution and the second-order latent factor model. The first-order model did not show a favorable convergent and divergent validity. Ultimately, the Moral Distress Scale-Revised was found to have a favorable internal consistency and construct reliability. The Moral Distress Scale-Revised was found to be a multidimensional construct. The data obtained confirmed the hypothesis of the factor structure model with a latent second-order variable. Since the convergent and divergent validity of the scale were not confirmed in this study, further assessment is necessary in future studies.

  7. Independent Confirmatory Survey Summary and Results for the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Sandusky OH

    Bailey, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (later known as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities. After successfully completing the objective of landing humans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth, NASA was faced with budget reductions from Congress in 1973. These budgetary constraints caused NASA to cease operations at several research facilities across the country, including those at Plum Brook Station. The major test facilities at Plum Brook were maintained in a standby mode, capable of being reactivated for future use. The Plum Brook Reactor Facility (PBRF) was shut down January 5, 1973 and all of the nuclear fuel was eventually removed and shipped off site to a U.S. Department of Energy facility in Idaho for disposal or reuse. Decommissioning activities are currently underway at the PBRF (NASA 1999). The objectives of the confirmatory survey activities were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and final status survey (FSS) results

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) in adults.

    Wellman, Robert J; DiFranza, Joseph R; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS), a 12-item self-administered questionnaire, was designed to measure autonomy in three correlated lower-order symptom domains: withdrawal, psychological dependence, and cue-induced craving. The factor structure of the AUTOS remains an open question; confirmatory analyses in adolescents supported the hierarchical structure, while exploratory analyses in adolescents and adults yield single-factor solutions. Here we seek to determine whether the hypothesized hierarchical structure is valid in adult smokers. The AUTOS was administered to two independent convenience samples of adult current smokers: a calibration sample recruited in the US for online studies, and a confirmation sample drawn from the prospective Nicotine Dependence in Teens study in Montreal. We tested competing hierarchical and single-factor models using the robust weighted least-squares (WLSMV) estimation method. A single-factor model that allowed correlated error variances between theoretically related items fit well in the calibration sample (n = 434), χ(2)SB(52) = 165.71; χ(2)/df = 3.19; SRMR = 0.03; CFI = 0.96; NNFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was high (ωB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate. In the confirmation sample (n = 335), a similar model fit well:χ(2)SB(53) = 126.94; χ(2)/df = 2.44; SRMR = 0.04; CFI = 0.95; NNFI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was again high (ωB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate. The AUTOS is unidimensional in adult smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Constructing the Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey: Confirmatory factor analysis.

    Tsubakita, Takashi; Shimazaki, Kazuyo

    2016-01-01

    To examine the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, using a sample of 2061 Japanese university students majoring in the medical and natural sciences (67.9% male, 31.8% female; Mage  = 19.6 years, standard deviation = 1.5). The back-translated scale used unreversed items to assess inefficacy. The inventory's descriptive properties and Cronbach's alphas were calculated using SPSS software. The present authors compared fit indices of the null, one factor, and default three factor models via confirmatory factor analysis with maximum-likelihood estimation using AMOS software, version 21.0. Intercorrelations between exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy were relatively higher than in prior studies. Cronbach's alphas were 0.76, 0.85, and 0.78, respectively. Although fit indices of the hypothesized three factor model did not meet the respective criteria, the model demonstrated better fit than did the null and one factor models. The present authors added four paths between error variables within items, but the modified model did not show satisfactory fit. Subsequent analysis revealed that a bi-factor model fit the data better than did the hypothesized or modified three factor models. The Japanese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey needs minor changes to improve the fit of its three factor model, but the scale as a whole can be used to adequately assess overall academic burnout in Japanese university students. Although the scale was back-translated, two items measuring exhaustion whose expressions overlapped should be modified, and all items measuring inefficacy should be reversed in order to statistically clarify the factorial difference between the scale's three factors. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. Weighing up the weighted case mix tool (WCMT): a psychometric investigation using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Duane, B G; Humphris, G; Richards, D; Okeefe, E J; Gordon, K; Freeman, R

    2014-12-01

    To assess the use of the WCMT in two Scottish health boards and to consider the impact of simplifying the tool to improve efficient use. A retrospective analysis of routine WCMT data (47,276 cases). Public Dental Service (PDS) within NHS Lothian and Highland. The WCMT consists of six criteria. Each criterion is measured independently on a four-point scale to assess patient complexity and the dental care for the disabled/impaired patient. Psychometric analyses on the data-set were conducted. Conventional internal consistency coefficients were calculated. Latent variable modelling was performed to assess the 'fit' of the raw data to a pre-specified measurement model. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test three potential changes to the existing WCMT that included, the removal of the oral risk factor question, the removal of original weightings for scoring the Tool, and collapsing the 4-point rating scale to three categories. The removal of the oral risk factor question had little impact on the reliability of the proposed simplified CMT to discriminate between levels of patient complexity. The removal of weighting and collapsing each item's rating scale to three categories had limited impact on reliability of the revised tool. The CFA analysis provided strong evidence that a new, proposed simplified Case Mix Tool (sCMT) would operate closely to the pre-specified measurement model (the WMCT). A modified sCMT can demonstrate, without reducing reliability, a useful measure of the complexity of patient care. The proposed sCMT may be implemented within primary care dentistry to record patient complexity as part of an oral health assessment.

  11. University student depression inventory (USDI): confirmatory factor analysis and review of psychometric properties.

    Romaniuk, Madeline; Khawaja, Nigar G

    2013-09-25

    The 30-item USDI is a self-report measure that assesses depressive symptoms among university students. It consists of three correlated three factors: lethargy, cognitive-emotional and academic motivation. The current research used confirmatory factor analysis to asses construct validity and determine whether the original factor structure would be replicated in a different sample. Psychometric properties were also examined. Participants were 1148 students (mean age 22.84 years, SD=6.85) across all faculties from a large Australian metropolitan university. Students completed a questionnaire comprising of the USDI, the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) and Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). The three correlated factor model was shown to be an acceptable fit to the data, indicating sound construct validity. Internal consistency of the scale was also demonstrated to be sound, with high Cronbach alpha values. Temporal stability of the scale was also shown to be strong through test-retest analysis. Finally, concurrent and discriminant validity was examined with correlations between the USDI and DASS subscales as well as the LSS, with sound results further supporting the construct validity of the scale. Cut-off points were also developed to aid total score interpretation. Response rates are unclear. In addition, the representativeness of the sample could be improved potentially through targeted recruitment (i.e. reviewing the online sample statistics during data collection, examining the representativeness trends and addressing particular faculties within the university that were underrepresented). The USDI provides a valid and reliable method of assessing depressive symptoms found among university students. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Finnish Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ in 590 Professional Musicians

    Heidi Vastamäki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. Objective: To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%.The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Results: Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the “job demand” construct, the “conflicting demands” (question 5 explained most of the total variance in this construct (79% demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of “job control,” “repetitive work” (question 10 demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items “little decision freedom” (question 14 and “allows own decisions” (question 6 showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. Conclusion: The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The “conflicting demands,” “repetitive work,” “little decision freedom,” and “allows own decisions” items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Finnish Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) in 590 Professional Musicians.

    Vastamäki, Heidi; Vastamäki, Martti; Laimi, Katri; Saltychev, Michail

    2017-07-01

    Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%).The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the "job demand" construct, the "conflicting demands" (question 5) explained most of the total variance in this construct (79%) demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of "job control," "opinions influential" (question 10) demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items "little decision freedom" (question 14) and "allows own decisions" (question 6) showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The "conflicting demands," "opinions influential," "little decision freedom," and "allows own decisions" items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.

  14. Emotional Intelligence and Nurse Recruitment: Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire short form.

    Snowden, Austyn; Watson, Roger; Stenhouse, Rosie; Hale, Claire

    2015-12-01

    To examine the construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Emotional intelligence involves the identification and regulation of our own emotions and the emotions of others. It is therefore a potentially useful construct in the investigation of recruitment and retention in nursing and many questionnaires have been constructed to measure it. Secondary analysis of existing dataset of responses to Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form using concurrent application of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. First year undergraduate nursing and computing students completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form in September 2013. Responses were analysed by synthesising results of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Participants (N = 938) completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Rasch analysis showed the majority of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form items made a unique contribution to the latent trait of emotional intelligence. Five items did not fit the model and differential item functioning (gender) accounted for this misfit. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure consisting of: self-confidence, empathy, uncertainty and social connection. All five misfitting items from the Rasch analysis belonged to the 'social connection' factor. The concurrent use of Rasch and factor analysis allowed for novel interpretation of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Much of the response variation in Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form can be accounted for by the social connection factor. Implications for practice are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  16. Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF): development, confirmatory factor analytic investigation of structure, and measurement invariance across gender.

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Rankin, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The current study reports the development from the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R; Levant, Rankin, Williams, Hasan, & Smalley, 2010) of the 21-item MRNI-Short Form (MRNI-SF). Confirmatory factor analysis of MRNI-SF responses from a sample of 1,017 undergraduate participants (549 men, 468 women) indicated that the best fitting "bifactor" model incorporated the hypothesized 7-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general traditional masculinity ideology factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 7 hypothesized traditional masculinity ideology norms. The bifactor model was assessed for measurement invariance across gender groups, with findings of full configural invariance and partial metric invariance, such that factor loadings were equivalent across the gender groups for the 7 specific factors but not for the general traditional masculinity ideology factor. Theoretical explanations for this latter result include the potential that men's sense of self or identity may be engaged when responding to questions asking to what extent they agree or disagree with normative statements about their behavior, a possibility that could be investigated in future research by examining the associations of the general and specific factors with measures of masculine identity. Additional exploratory invariance analyses demonstrated latent mean differences between men and women on 4 of the 8 factors, and equivocal results for invariance of item intercepts, item uniquenesses, and factor variances-covariances.

  17. Improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer at the beginning of the survivorship period: a randomized clinical trial comparing the benefits of single-component and multiple-component group interventions.

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Lewis, Florence; Delevallez, France; Herman, Sophie; Caillier, Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Libert, Yves; Liénard, Aurore; Nogaret, Jean-Marie; Ogez, David; Scalliet, Pierre; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Van Houtte, Paul; Razavi, Darius

    2017-08-01

    To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multiple-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87). Anxiety regulation was assessed, before and after group interventions, through an anxiety regulation task designed to assess their ability to regulate anxiety psychologically (anxiety levels) and physiologically (heart rates). Questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, everyday anxiety regulation, and fear of recurrence. Group allocation was computer generated and concealed till baseline completion. Compared with patients in the SGI group (n = 77), patients attending the MGI group (n = 82) showed significantly reduced anxiety after a self-relaxation exercise (P = .006) and after exposure to anxiety triggers (P = .013) and reduced heart rates at different time points throughout the task (P = .001 to P = .047). The MGI participants also reported better everyday anxiety regulation (P = .005), greater use of fear of recurrence-related coping strategies (P = .022), and greater reduction in fear of recurrence-related psychological distress (P = .017) compared with the SGI group. This study shows that an MGI combining support with cognitive-behavioral techniques and hypnosis is more effective than an SGI based only on support in improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Regulatory issues with multiplicity in drug approval: Principles and controversies in a changing landscape.

    Benda, Norbert; Brandt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Recently, new draft guidelines on multiplicity issues in clinical trials have been issued by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Multiplicity is an issue in clinical trials, if the probability of a false-positive decision is increased by insufficiently accounting for testing multiple hypotheses. We outline the regulatory principles related to multiplicity issues in confirmatory clinical trials intended to support a marketing authorization application in the EU, describe the reasons for an increasing complexity regarding multiple hypotheses testing and discuss the specific multiplicity issues emerging within the regulatory context and being relevant for drug approval.

  19. Collaboration between a human group and artificial intelligence can improve prediction of multiple sclerosis course: a proof-of-principle study [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Andrea Tacchella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis has an extremely variable natural course. In most patients, disease starts with a relapsing-remitting (RR phase, which proceeds to a secondary progressive (SP form. The duration of the RR phase is hard to predict, and to date predictions on the rate of disease progression remain suboptimal. This limits the opportunity to tailor therapy on an individual patient's prognosis, in spite of the choice of several therapeutic options. Approaches to improve clinical decisions, such as collective intelligence of human groups and machine learning algorithms are widely investigated. Methods: Medical students and a machine learning algorithm predicted the course of disease on the basis of randomly chosen clinical records of patients that attended at the Multiple Sclerosis service of Sant'Andrea hospital in Rome. Results: A significant improvement of predictive ability was obtained when predictions were combined with a weight that depends on the consistence of human (or algorithm forecasts on a given clinical record. Conclusions: In this work we present proof-of-principle that human-machine hybrid predictions yield better prognoses than machine learning algorithms or groups of humans alone. To strengthen this preliminary result, we propose a crowdsourcing initiative to collect prognoses by physicians on an expanded set of patients.

  20. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Mackellar, Duncan A; Ethridge, Steven F; Zhu, Julia H; Owen, S Michele; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2008-02-06

    Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (ptest [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)]. Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant results. Because of the lower sensitivity of oral fluid WBs, confirmatory testing following a reactive rapid test should be conducted using serum or plasma, when possible.

  1. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  2. Structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Confirmatory factor analyses with the 16 primary and secondary subtests.

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W; Dombrowski, Stefan C

    2017-04-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample (N = 2,200) was examined using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) with maximum likelihood estimation for all reported models from the WISC-V Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Additionally, alternative bifactor models were examined and variance estimates and model-based reliability estimates (ω coefficients) were provided. Results from analyses of the 16 primary and secondary WISC-V subtests found that all higher-order CFA models with 5 group factors (VC, VS, FR, WM, and PS) produced model specification errors where the Fluid Reasoning factor produced negative variance and were thus judged inadequate. Of the 16 models tested, the bifactor model containing 4 group factors (VC, PR, WM, and PS) produced the best fit. Results from analyses of the 10 primary WISC-V subtests also found the bifactor model with 4 group factors (VC, PR, WM, and PS) produced the best fit. Variance estimates from both 16 and 10 subtest based bifactor models found dominance of general intelligence (g) in accounting for subtest variance (except for PS subtests) and large ω-hierarchical coefficients supporting general intelligence interpretation. The small portions of variance uniquely captured by the 4 group factors and low ω-hierarchical subscale coefficients likely render the group factors of questionable interpretive value independent of g (except perhaps for PS). Present CFA results confirm the EFA results reported by Canivez, Watkins, and Dombrowski (2015); Dombrowski, Canivez, Watkins, and Beaujean (2015); and Canivez, Dombrowski, and Watkins (2015). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  4. The rationale and cost-effectiveness of a confirmatory mapping tool for lymphatic filariasis: Examples from Ethiopia and Tanzania.

    Gass, Katherine M; Sime, Heven; Mwingira, Upendo J; Nshala, Andreas; Chikawe, Maria; Pelletreau, Sonia; Barbre, Kira A; Deming, Michael S; Rebollo, Maria P

    2017-10-01

    Endemicity mapping is required to determining whether a district requires mass drug administration (MDA). Current guidelines for mapping LF require that two sites be selected per district and within each site a convenience sample of 100 adults be tested for antigenemia or microfilaremia. One or more confirmed positive tests in either site is interpreted as an indicator of potential transmission, prompting MDA at the district-level. While this mapping strategy has worked well in high-prevalence settings, imperfect diagnostics and the transmission potential of a single positive adult have raised concerns about the strategy's use in low-prevalence settings. In response to these limitations, a statistically rigorous confirmatory mapping strategy was designed as a complement to the current strategy when LF endemicity is uncertain. Under the new strategy, schools are selected by either systematic or cluster sampling, depending on population size, and within each selected school, children 9-14 years are sampled systematically. All selected children are tested and the number of positive results is compared against a critical value to determine, with known probabilities of error, whether the average prevalence of LF infection is likely below a threshold of 2%. This confirmatory mapping strategy was applied to 45 districts in Ethiopia and 10 in Tanzania, where initial mapping results were considered uncertain. In 42 Ethiopian districts, and all 10 of the Tanzanian districts, the number of antigenemic children was below the critical cutoff, suggesting that these districts do not require MDA. Only three Ethiopian districts exceeded the critical cutoff of positive results. Whereas the current World Health Organization guidelines would have recommended MDA in all 55 districts, the present results suggest that only three of these districts requires MDA. By avoiding unnecessary MDA in 52 districts, the confirmatory mapping strategy is estimated to have saved a total of $9,293,219.

  5. The Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III and the Fear of Pain Questionnaire-Short Form: a confirmatory factor analysis

    Vambheim, Sara M.; Lyby, Peter Solvoll; Aslaksen, Per M.

    2017-01-01

    .Aims and methods: The purpose of the study was to investigate the model fit, reliability and validity of the FPQ-III and the FPQ-SF in a Norwegian nonclinical sample, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The second aim was to explore the model fit of the two scales in male and female subgroups separately...... the questionnaires, the model fit, validity and reliability were compared across sex using CFA.Results: The results revealed that both models' original factor structures had poor fit. However, the FPQ-SF had a better fit overall, compared to the FPQ-III. The model fit of the two models differed across sex...

  6. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia Based on High-performance Liquid Chromatography Confirmatory Technique in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran (2007–2015

    Ali Abbaskhanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys, 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937. In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease.

  7. Incidence of Neonatal Hyperphenylalaninemia Based on High-performance Liquid Chromatography Confirmatory Technique in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran (2007–2015)

    Abbaskhanian, Ali; Zamanfar, Daniel; Afshar, Parvaneh; Asadpoor, Einollah; Rouhanizadeh, Hamed; Jafarnia, Ali; Shokzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Classic phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess epidemiological factors of PKU phenotypes in a neonatal screening program for Mazandaran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-retrospective study from 2007 to 2015, neonates PKU level was conducted by phenylalanine level based on a biochemical technique by ELISA and then by confirmatory methods high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Of the 407,244 screened newborns (48.7% girls and 51.3% boys), 14 girls and 13 boys were diagnosed definitely from 465 suspicious cases of PKU. The incidence of PKU was 0.66 in 10,000, which was noted in different severity (severe PKU - 1:67,874, mild PKU - 1:45,249, and HPA - 1:33,937). In addition, we did not detect any cases of nonclassic PKU. Conclusions: Although the consanguineous marriage pattern is a major cause of hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) particularly in Iranian, there was no significant difference between groups in this study. Now, screening should be executed for all of the family that they have the familial history of PKU in Iran. According to varies actual of prevalence and incidence rate of PKU reported a real patient and taking PKU with mild PKU and HPA, it is recommended, the will provide the PKU reports based on the severity of the disease. PMID:29184644

  8. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multiple sclerosis

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  10. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

    He W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wenxin He, Qiming Zheng, Yutian Ji, Chanchan Shen, Qisha Zhu, Wei Wang Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods: We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion: The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, body image, factor analysis, questionnaire development

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Version Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire Tested among Mothers of Primary School Children in Malaysia

    Shamarina Shohaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397 in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P<0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058. The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.

  12. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Student Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (S-EBPQ) in an Australian sample.

    Beccaria, Lisa; Beccaria, Gavin; McCosker, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    It is crucial that nursing students develop skills and confidence in using Evidence-Based Practice principles early in their education. This should be assessed with valid tools however, to date, few measures have been developed and applied to the student population. To examine the structural validity of the Student Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (S-EBPQ), with an Australian online nursing student cohort. A cross-sectional study for constructing validity. Three hundred and forty-five undergraduate nursing students from an Australian regional university were recruited across two semesters. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to examine the structural validity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was applied which resulted in a good fitting model, based on a revised 20-item tool. The S-EBPQ tool remains a psychometrically robust measure of evidence-based practice use, attitudes, and knowledge and skills and can be applied in an online Australian student context. The findings of this study provided further evidence of the reliability and four factor structure of the S-EBPQ. Opportunities for further refinement of the tool may result in improvements in structural validity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a modified 16-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS): Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.

    Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Jowsey, Tanisha; Henning, Marcus

    2018-04-18

    The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was developed to assess undergraduate readiness for engaging in interprofessional education (IPE). It has become an accepted and commonly used instrument. To determine utility of a modified 16-item RIPLS instrument, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Data used were collected from a pre- and post-intervention study involving 360 New Zealand undergraduate students from one university. Just over half of the participants were enrolled in medicine (51%) while the remainder were in pharmacy (27%) and nursing (22%). The intervention was a two-day simulation-based IPE course focused on managing unplanned acute medical problems in hospital wards ("ward calls"). Immediately prior to the course, 288 RIPLS were collected and immediately afterwards, 322 (response rates 80% and 89%, respectively). Exploratory factor analysis involving principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation method was conducted using pre-course data. The scree plot suggested a three-factor solution over two- and four-factor solutions. Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis performed using post-course data demonstrated partial goodness-of-fit for this suggested three-factor model. Based on these findings, further robust psychometric testing of the RIPLS or modified versions of it is recommended before embarking on its use in evaluative research in various healthcare education settings.

  14. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage using confirmatory testing and with BMI-specific GH cut-off levels.

    Gardner, Chris J; Javadpour, Mohsen; Stoneley, Catherine; Purthuran, Mani; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Daousi, Christina; MacFarlane, Ian A; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    Hypopituitarism following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has been reported to be a frequent occurrence. However, there is considerable heterogeneity between studies with differing patient populations and treatment modalities and most importantly employing differing endocrine protocols and (normal) reference ranges of GH. We aimed to examine prospectively a cohort of SAH survivors for development of hypopituitarism post-SAH using rigorous endocrine testing and compare GH response to glucagon stimulation with a cohort of healthy controls of a similar BMI. Sixty-four patients were investigated for evidence of hypopituitarism 3 months post-SAH with 50 patients tested again at 12 months. Glucagon stimulation testing (GST), with confirmation of deficiencies by GHRH/arginine testing for GH deficiency (GHD) and short synacthen testing for ACTH deficiency, was used. Basal testing of other hormonal axes was undertaken. Mean age of patients was 53±11.7 years and mean BMI was 27.5±5.7 kg/m(2). After confirmatory testing, the prevalence of hypopituitarism was 12% (GHD 10%, asymptomatic hypocortisolaemia 2%). There was no association between hypopituitarism and post-SAH vasospasm, presence of cerebral infarction, Fisher grade, or clinical grading at presentation. There was a significant correlation between BMI and peak GH to glucagon stimulation in both patients and controls. Identification of 'true' GHD after SAH requires confirmatory testing with an alternative stimulation test and application of BMI-specific cut-offs. Using such stringent criteria, we found a prevalence of hypopituitarism of 12% in our population.

  15. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  16. Evaluating WAIS-IV structure through a different psychometric lens: structural causal model discovery as an alternative to confirmatory factor analysis.

    van Dijk, Marjolein J A M; Claassen, Tom; Suwartono, Christiany; van der Veld, William M; van der Heijden, Paul T; Hendriks, Marc P H

    Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis. WAIS-IV-NL profiles of two clinical samples of 202 patients (i.e. patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a mixed psychiatric outpatient group) were analyzed and contrasted with a matched control group (N = 202) selected from the Dutch standardization sample of the WAIS-IV-NL to investigate internal structure by means of CFA and BCCD. With CFA, the four-factor structure as proposed by Wechsler demonstrates acceptable fit in all three subsamples. However, BCCD revealed three consistent clusters (verbal comprehension, visual processing, and processing speed) in all three subsamples. The combination of Arithmetic and Digit Span as a coherent working memory factor could not be verified, and Matrix Reasoning appeared to be isolated. With BCCD, some discrepancies from the proposed four-factor structure are exemplified. Furthermore, these results fit CHC theory of intelligence more clearly. Consistent clustering patterns indicate these results are robust. The structural causal discovery approach may be helpful in better interpreting existing tests, the development of new tests, and aid in diagnostic instruments.

  17. Analisis Hubungan antara Berbagai Model Gabungan Proksi Investment Opportunity Set dan Real Growth dengan Menggunakan Pendekatan Confirmatory Factor Analysis”

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and makes composite observed variables from individual Investment Opportunity Set (IOS proxies into one latent variable using structural equation models with a confirmatory factor analysis approach. Six composite investment opportunity set proxies are then created based on some individual proxies, namely price related IOS and investment related IOS. These composite IOS proxies are correlated with the real growth to prove that the model has consistency and ability to predict the real growth. A confirmatory factor analysis results in all observed variables that make latent variables for each model show different result in every model. At model 1, the CFA result show   that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 2, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 2 have significant measurement model fit, except for one proxies named Rasio Capital Expenditure to Total Book Asset (RACTE. At model 3, the CFA result show that every price related IOS proxies at model 2 have significant measurement model fit, except for one proxies named Book Value of Property, Plant and Equipment to Book Value of Asset(BVPPEBVA. At model 4, the CFA result show   that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 5, the CFA result show   that every price related IOS proxies at model 1 have significant measurement model fit. At model 6, the CFA result show that there is no significant measurement model fit for every investment related IOS proxies. Correlation test for all models show almost different result in every models. At model 1, the correlation test show that there is a weak, not significant-positive correlation between price related IOS proxies as latent variable, and real growth proxies. At model 2, the correlation test shows that there is a weak, significant negative correlation between price

  18. Groups – Additive Notation

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  19. Groups – Additive Notation

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  20. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Arndt, Stephan; Sahker, Ethan; Hedden, Suzy

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker's congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41-0.52) suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93), accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains.

  1. Absence of Doppler signal in transcranial color-coded ultrasonography may be confirmatory for brain death: A case report

    Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD is a valuable tool for demonstrating cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA in the setting of brain death. Complete reversal of diastolic flow (to-and-fro flow and systolic spikes in bilateral terminal internal carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar circulation are considered as specific sonogram configurations supporting the diagnosis of CCA. Because of the possibility of sonic bone window impermeability, absence of any waveform in TCD is not confirmatory for CCA unless there is documentation of disappearance of a previously well detected signal by the same recording settings. Transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS with B-mode imaging can reliably detect adequacy of bone windows with clarity contralateral skull and ipsilateral planum temporale visualization. Therefore, absence of detectable intracranial Doppler signal along with available ultrasound window in TCCS can confirm clinical diagnosis of brain death. We herein discuss this entity from the frame of a representative case.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF MEASUREMENT ITEMS OF DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR LEAN AND AGILE SUPPLY CHAIN-CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS

    D.Venkata Ramana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the construct validity, convergent validity, construct reliability and internal consistency of the items of strategic design requirements. The design requirements includes use of information technology, sourcing procedures, new product development, flexible manufacturing functions and demand management supply chain net work design, management, commitment and inventory management policies among manufacturers of volatile and unforeseeable products in Andhraadesh, India. This study suggested that the seven factor model with 20 items of the leagile supply chain design requirements had a good fit. Further, the study showed a val id and reliable measurement to identify critical items among the design requirements of leagile supply chains.

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed. PMID:28210232

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model.

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants ( N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed.

  5. A Monte Carlo study comparing PIV, ULS and DWLS in the estimation of dichotomous confirmatory factor analysis.

    Nestler, Steffen

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a Monte Carlo study to investigate the performance of the polychoric instrumental variable estimator (PIV) in comparison to unweighted least squares (ULS) and diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) in the estimation of a confirmatory factor analysis model with dichotomous indicators. The simulation involved 144 conditions (1,000 replications per condition) that were defined by a combination of (a) two types of latent factor models, (b) four sample sizes (100, 250, 500, 1,000), (c) three factor loadings (low, moderate, strong), (d) three levels of non-normality (normal, moderately, and extremely non-normal), and (e) whether the factor model was correctly specified or misspecified. The results showed that when the model was correctly specified, PIV produced estimates that were as accurate as ULS and DWLS. Furthermore, the simulation showed that PIV was more robust to structural misspecifications than ULS and DWLS. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  6. On Which Abilities Are Category Fluency and Letter Fluency Grounded A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of 53 Alzheimer's Dementia Patients

    Ilaria Bizzozero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In Alzheimer's dementia (AD, letter fluency is less impaired than category fluency. To check whether category fluency and letter fluency depend differently on semantics and attention, 53 mild AD patients were given animal and letter fluency tasks, two semantic tests (the Verbal Semantic Questionnaire and the BORB Association Match test, and two attentional tests (the Stroop Colour-Word Interference test and the Digit Cancellation test. Methods: We conducted a LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to check the extent to which category fluency and letter fluency tasks were related to semantics and attention, viewed as latent variables. Results: Both types of fluency tasks were related to the latent variable Semantics but not to the latent variable Attention. Conclusions: Our findings warn against interpreting the disproportionate impairment of AD patients on category and letter fluency as a contrast between semantics and attention.

  7. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Laura G Wesolowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for

  8. Prospective Evaluation of Quality of Life and Neurocognitive Effects in Patients With Multiple Brain Metastases Receiving Whole-Brain Radiotherapy With or Without Thalidomide on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0118

    Corn, Benjamin W.; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Fox, Sherry W.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Curran, Walter J.; Robins, H. Ian; Brachman, David G.; Henderson, Randal H.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0118 randomized patients with multiple brain metastases to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) ± thalidomide. This secondary analysis of 156 patients examined neurocognitive and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. Methods and Materials: Quality of life was determined with the Spitzer Quality of Life Index (SQLI). The Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) assessed neurocognitive function. SQLI and MMSE were administered at baseline and at 2-month intervals. MMSE was scored with a threshold value associated with neurocognitive functioning (absolute cutoff level of 23) and with the use of corrections for age and educational level. Results: Baseline SQLI predicted survival. Patients with SQLI of 7-10 vs. <7 had median survival time (MST) of 4.8 vs. 3.1 months, p = 0.05. Both arms showed steady neurocognitive declines, but SQLI scores remained stable. Higher levels of neurocognitive decline were observed with age and education-level corrections. Of patients considered baseline age/educational level neurocognitive failures, 32% died of intracranial progression. Conclusions: Quality of life and neuropsychological testing can be prospectively administered on a Phase III cooperative group trial. The MMSE should be evaluated with adjustments for age and educational level. Baseline SQLI is predictive of survival. Despite neurocognitive declines, QOL remained stable during treatment and follow-up. Poor neurocognitive function may predict clinical deterioration. Lack of an untreated control arm makes it difficult to determine the contribution of the respective interventions (i.e., WBRT, thalidomide) to neurocognitive decline. The RTOG has developed a trial to study the role of preventative strategies aimed at forestalling neurocognitive decline in this population

  9. Psychometric properties of the revised Malay version Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey using confirmatory factor analysis among postpartum mothers.

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Aniza, Abd Aziz; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Azman, Mohd Yacob

    2015-12-01

    Social support is an essential component for the physical and emotional well-being of postpartum mothers. The objective of this study is to determine the psychometric properties of the revised Malay version Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey using a confirmatory validity approach. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 144 postpartum mothers attending Obstetric and Gynecology Clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital. Construct validity and internal consistency assessment was performed after the translation, content validity and face validity process. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and AMOS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The original questionnaire consists of four domains (emotional/informational support, tangible support, affectionate support and positive social interaction) and 19 items. Affectionate support domain with three items only was treated as a separate construct and was not included in the factor analysis. The final confirmatory model with three constructs and 13 items demonstrated acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation and best fit; (χ2[df]=1.665 [61]; P-value=0.001; Tucker-Lewis Index=0.944; comparative fit index=0.956; root mean square error of approximation=0.068). Composite reliability, average variance extracted and Cronbach's α of the domains ranged from 0.649 to 0.903; 0.390 to 0.699; 0.616 to 0.902, respectively. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 16 items (including one separate factor of affectionate) of the revised Malay version MOS Social Support Survey was acceptable to be used to measure social support after childbirth because it is valid, reliable and simple. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Multiple sclerosis

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  11. The Oswestry Disability Index, confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 35,263 verifies a one-factor structure but practicality issues remain.

    Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Qian, Meihua; Vengust, Rok; Berlemann, Ulrich; Aghayev, Emin; Melloh, Markus

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the factor structure of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large symptomatic low back pain (LBP) population using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Analysis of pooled baseline ODI LBP patient data from the international Spine Tango registry of EUROSPINE, the Spine Society of Europe. The sample, with n = 35,263 (55.2% female; age 15-99, median 59 years), included 76.1% of patients with a degenerative disease, and 23.9% of the patients with various other spinal conditions. The initial EFA provided a hypothetical construct for consideration. Subsequent CFA was considered in three scenarios: the full sample and separate genders. Models were compared empirically for best fit. The EFA indicated a one-factor solution accounting for 54% of the total variance. The CFA analysis based on the full sample confirmed this one-factor structure. Sub-group analyses by gender achieved good model fit for configural and partial metric invariance, but not scalar invariance. A possible two-construct model solution as outlined by previous researchers: dynamic-activities (personal care, lifting, walking, sex and social) and static-activities (pain, sleep, standing, travelling and sitting) was not preferred. The ODI demonstrated a one-factor structure in a large LBP sample. A potential two-factor model was considered, but not found appropriate for constructs of dynamic and static activity. The use of the single summary score for the ODI is psychometrically supported. However, practicality limitations were reported for use in the clinical and research settings. Researchers are encouraged to consider a shift towards newer, more sensitive and robustly developed instruments.

  12. Dietary Patterns Derived Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are Stable and Generalizable Across Race, Region, and Gender Subgroups in the REGARDS Study

    Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129

  13. Dietary patterns derived using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis are stable and generalizable across race, region, and gender subgroups in the REGARDS study

    Suzanne E Judd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups.Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study who completed the Block98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the Convenience pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the Plant-based pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the Sweets/Fats pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the Southern pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the Alcohol/Salads pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusions: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts.

  14. Improving hysterosalpingogram confirmatory test follow-up after Essure hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Guiahi, Maryam; Goldman, Kara N; McElhinney, Margaret M; Olson, Christopher G

    2010-06-01

    Given the need for a 90-day post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) to confirm proper tubal placement and occlusion, we examined the impact of dedicating a staff nurse to schedule HSG appointments, call with appointment reminders and track HSG compliance for patients who had Essure. We performed a retrospective chart review for patients who underwent Essure sterilization between October 2003 and January 2009. We compared rates of HSG compliance and confirmed tubal occlusion for patients before February 2008 with rates after the protocol change occurred. Seventy-eight percent of preintervention patients were compliant with at least one HSG following Essure placement compared to 90.9% in the post-intervention group (p value=.033). Tubal occlusion was confirmed by postprocedure HSGs for 123/173 patients (71.1%) in the preintervention group and 48/55 patients (87.3%) in the postintervention group. Patients followed by our staff after our protocol change were more likely to undergo post-Essure compliance (Odds ratio= 2.7, confidence interval = 1.2-7.1, p=.01). Dedicating a staff nurse to track patients' HSG follow-up as a multicheck system resulted in an improvement in HSG compliance and rates of confirmed tubal placement and occlusion.

  15. Multiple homicides.

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  16. Exploring sustainable behavior structure in higher education a socio-psychology confirmatory approach

    Juárez-Nájera, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a social-psychology model delineating the factors that may influence in an altruistic manner sustainable behaviour (SB) of students, faculty and administrators in four higher education institutions (HEI) with very different economic and social characteristics. It presents the areas where these individuals work (education and community management), and in which of them education for sustainability is promoted, focusing on four alternative methods of learning: play, art, group therapy, and personnel management. The book is intended for bachelors and graduated students, as well as researchers in social psychology, environmental psychology, conservation psychology, environmental education, education for sustainable development, cross-cultural psychology, and social sciences.

  17. Multiple Sclerosis

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  18. Multiple myeloma.

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  19. Multiple mononeuropathy

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  20. Confirmatory versus explorative endpoint analysis: Decision-making on the basis of evidence available from market authorization and early benefit assessment for oncology drugs.

    Niehaus, Ines; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2018-03-26

    The early benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany and their preceding market authorization pursue different objectives. This is reflected by the inclusion of varying confirmatory endpoints within the evaluation of oncology drugs in early benefit assessment versus market authorization, with both relying on the same evidence. Data from assessments up to July 2015 are used to estimate the impact of explorative in comparison to confirmatory endpoints on market authorization and early benefit assessment by contrasting the benefit-risk ratio of EMA and the benefit-harm balance of the HTA jurisdiction. Agreement between market authorization and early benefit assessment is examined by Cohen's kappa (k). 21 of 41 assessments were considered in the analysis. Market authorization is more confirmatory than early benefit assessment because it includes a higher proportion of primary endpoints. The latter implies a primary endpoint to be relevant for the benefit-harm balance in only 67% of cases (0.078). Explorative mortality endpoints reached the highest agreement regarding the mutual consideration for the risk-benefit ratio and the benefit-harm balance (0.000). For explorative morbidity endpoints (-0.600), quality of life (-0.600) and side effects (-0.949) no agreement is ascertainable. To warrant a broader confirmatory basis for decisions supported by HTA, closer inter-institutional cooperation of approval authorities and HTA jurisdictions by means of reliable joint advice for manufacturers regarding endpoint definition would be favorable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…

  2. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively

  3. A critical assessment of the performance criteria in confirmatory analysis for veterinary drug residue analysis using mass spectrometric detection in selected reaction monitoring mode

    Berendsen, Bjorn J.A.; Meijer, Thijs; Wegh, Robin; Mol, Hans G.J.; Smyth, Wesley G.; Armstrong Hewitt, S.; Ginkel, van Leen; Nielen, Michel W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Besides the identification point system to assure adequate set-up of instrumentation, European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC includes performance criteria regarding relative ion abundances in mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. In confirmatory analysis, the relative abundance

  4. Are there distinct cognitive and motivational sub-groups of children with ADHD?

    Lambek, Rikke; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Tannock, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    of scores on EF and DA tests were contrasted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). LPA was carried out based on factor scores from the CFA and sub-groups were compared in terms of odor identification and behavior. A model with one DA and two EF factors best fit the data. LPA resulted in four sub...

  5. Utilizing the Zero-One Linear Programming Constraints to Draw Multiple Sets of Matched Samples from a Non-Treatment Population as Control Groups for the Quasi-Experimental Design

    Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2005-01-01

    The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be…

  6. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptom Checklist.

    Tülek, Zeliha; Polat, Cansu; Kürtüncü, Murat; Eraksoy, Mefkure

    2017-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that causes different symptoms in each attack and has an individual-specific course. Detailed questioning and recording of MS symptoms is important for developing a management plan for individual-specific symptoms. The present study was planned to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of "Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptom Checklist" (MS-RS), which has been developed for patients to personally follow-up the symptoms they experience. The study was conducted in the outpatient MS clinic of the Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine between January and October 2013 and included a sample group of 148 patients who were aged >18 years, could easily communicate, had a definite diagnosis of MS, and had no other medical problems besides MS. The data were collected using patient information forms, including sociodemographic and MS-RS forms. To assess the linguistic validity, the Likert-type scale with 26 items was first applied to a group of 30 patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct validity. Furthermore, the correlation of the scale with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Mini-Mental Status Evaluation (MMSE) scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale-54 (MSQL-54) was evaluated. The scale comprised five factors with factor loading values between 0.39 and 0.86. The item-total correlation coefficients revealed values of 0.27-0.88. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the whole scale was determined to be 0.89 and for the subscales to be 0.60-0.85. The test-retest analysis revealed no difference between the scale and its subscales in terms of invariance with time (p>0.05). Moreover, MS-RS was significantly correlated with EDSS, HADS, MMSE, and MSQL-54. The Turkish version of MS-RS is a valid and reliable scale that can be used in the Turkish population.

  7. Multiple regression and beyond an introduction to multiple regression and structural equation modeling

    Keith, Timothy Z

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Regression and Beyond offers a conceptually oriented introduction to multiple regression (MR) analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), along with analyses that flow naturally from those methods. By focusing on the concepts and purposes of MR and related methods, rather than the derivation and calculation of formulae, this book introduces material to students more clearly, and in a less threatening way. In addition to illuminating content necessary for coursework, the accessibility of this approach means students are more likely to be able to conduct research using MR or SEM--and more likely to use the methods wisely. Covers both MR and SEM, while explaining their relevance to one another Also includes path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and latent growth modeling Figures and tables throughout provide examples and illustrate key concepts and techniques For additional resources, please visit: http://tzkeith.com/.

  8. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY AMBROSIA LAKE, NEW MEXICO

    Adams, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 10, Part 40, Appendix A. The DP presents the geographical site, pertinent background information and the design for surface reclamation of the Section 4 evaporation ponds sediment material which is considered byproduct material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. As per the CFR requirements, the DP addresses the disposal of the uranium mill tailings in a manner as to protect human health and the environment (NRC 2006). At the request of the NRC's Headquarters and Region IV Offices, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performed confirmatory radiological surveys of the Section 4 Area evaporation ponds at the RAM Ambrosia Lake facility in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to verify that remedial actions were effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately described the final radiological conditions of the RAM Ambrosia Lake, Section 4 Areas.

  9. Role of religion and spirituality in medical patients: Confirmatory results with the SpREUK questionnaire

    Ostermann Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirituality has become a subject of interest in health care as it is was recognized to have the potential to prevent, heal or cope with illness. There is less doubt that values and goals are important contributors to life satisfaction, physical and psychological health, and that goals are what gives meaning and purpose to people's lives. However, there is as yet but limited understanding of how patients themselves view the impact of spirituality on their health and well-being, and whether they are convinced that their illness may have "meaning" to them. To raise these questions and to more precisely survey the basic attitudes of patients with severe diseases towards spirituality/religiosity (SpR and their adjustment to their illness, we developed the SpREUK questionnaire. Methods In order to re-validate our previously described SpREUK instrument, reliability and factor analysis of the new inventory (Version 1.1 were performed according to the standard procedures. The test sample contained 257 German subjects (53.3 ± 13.4 years with cancer (51%, multiple sclerosis (24%, other chronic diseases (16% and patients with acute diseases (7%. Results As some items of the SpREUK construct require a positive attitude towards SpR, these items (item pool 2 were separated from the others (item pool 1. The reliability of the 15-item the construct derived from the item pool 1 respectively the 14-item construct which refers to the item pool 2 both had a good quality (Cronbach's alpha = 0.9065 resp. 0.9525. Factor analysis of item pool 1 resulted in a 3-factor solution (i.e. the 6-item sub-scale 1: "Search for meaningful support"; the 6-item sub-scale 2: "Positive interpretation of disease"; and the 3-item sub-scale 3: "Trust in external guidance" which explains 53.8% of variance. Factor analysis of item pool 2 pointed to a 2-factor solution (i.e. the 10-item sub-scale 4: "Support in relations with the External life through SpR" and the 4

  10. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  12. Effect of pamidronate 30 mg versus 90 mg on physical function in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Nordic Myeloma Study Group): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    Gimsing, Peter; Carlson, Kristina; Turesson, Ingemar

    2010-01-01

    Compared with placebo, prophylactic treatment with bisphosphonates reduces risk of skeletal events in patients with multiple myeloma. However, because of toxicity associated with long-term bisphosphonate treatment, establishing the lowest effective dose is important. This study compared the effec...

  13. Teaching Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Non-Statisticians: A Case Study for Estimating Composite Reliability of Psychometric Instruments

    Gajewski, Byron J.; Jiang, Yu; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Engelman, Kimberly; Teel, Cynthia; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2013-01-01

    Texts and software that we are currently using for teaching multivariate analysis to non-statisticians lack in the delivery of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The purpose of this paper is to provide educators with a complement to these resources that includes CFA and its computation. We focus on how to use CFA to estimate a “composite reliability” of a psychometric instrument. This paper provides guidance for introducing, via a case-study, the non-statistician to CFA. As a complement to our instruction about the more traditional SPSS, we successfully piloted the software R for estimating CFA on nine non-statisticians. This approach can be used with healthcare graduate students taking a multivariate course, as well as modified for community stakeholders of our Center for American Indian Community Health (e.g. community advisory boards, summer interns, & research team members). The placement of CFA at the end of the class is strategic and gives us an opportunity to do some innovative teaching: (1) build ideas for understanding the case study using previous course work (such as ANOVA); (2) incorporate multi-dimensional scaling (that students already learned) into the selection of a factor structure (new concept); (3) use interactive data from the students (active learning); (4) review matrix algebra and its importance to psychometric evaluation; (5) show students how to do the calculation on their own; and (6) give students access to an actual recent research project. PMID:24772373

  14. Understanding the contamination of food with mineral oil: the need for a confirmatory analytical and procedural approach.

    Spack, Lionel W; Leszczyk, Gabriela; Varela, Jesus; Simian, Hervé; Gude, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H

    2017-06-01

    The contamination of food by mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) found in packaging is a long-running concern. A main source of MOHs in foods is the migration of mineral oil from recycled board into the packed food products. Consequently, the majority of food manufacturers have taken protective measures, e.g., by using virgin board instead of recycled fibres and, where feasible, introducing functional barriers to mitigate migration. Despite these protective measures, MOHs may still be observed in low amounts in certain food products, albeit due to different entry points across the food supply chain. In this study, we successfully apply gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to demonstrate, through marker compounds and the profile of the hydrocarbon response, the possible source of contamination using mainly chocolate and cereals as food matrices. The conventional liquid chromatography-one-dimensional GC coupled to a flame ionisation detector (LC-GC-FID) is a useful screening method, but in cases of positive samples it must be complemented by a confirmatory method such as, for example, GC-MS, allowing a verification of mineral oil contamination. The procedural approach proposed in this study entails profile analysis, marker identification, and interpretation and final quantification.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis of the career decision-making self-efficacy scale among South African university students

    MB Watson

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for South African researchers to explore the potential utility of career decision-making self-efficacy in understanding the career behaviour of tertiary students. Given the lack of standardised measures for this construct, the responses of 364 South African university students to the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale : Short Form (CDMSE-SF were analysed using item statistics, Cronbachs alpha and confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether items supported the theorized subscales. Opsomming Dit is noodsaaklik vir Suid-Afrikaanse navorsers om die potensiele bruikbaarheid van loopbaanbesluitnemmgself-doeltreffendheid ("career decision-making self-efficacy" te ondersoek in n poging om die tersiere studente beter te begryp. Gegewe die gebrek aan gestandaardiseerde meetinstrumente vir hierdie konstruk, is response van 364 Suid-Afrikaanse universiteitstudente op die Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale: Short Form (CDMSE-SF met behulp van itemontleding, Cronbach se alpha en bevestigende faktorontleding ontleed, om te bepaal of die vraelys-items die teoretiese subskale ondersteun.

  16. German version of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire - Appearance Scales (MBSRQ-AS): confirmatory factor analysis and validation.

    Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Waldorf, Manuel; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bauer, Anika; Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja

    2014-06-01

    The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) is a widely used questionnaire that measures body image as a multidimensional construct. The Appearance Scales (AS) of the MBSRQ (Appearance Evaluation, Appearance Orientation, Body Areas Satisfaction, Overweight Preoccupation and Self-Classified Weight) are subscales which facilitate a parsimonious assessment of appearance-related aspects of body image. The current study tested the psychometric properties and factor structure of a German translation of the MBSRQ-AS. Participants were n=230 female patients with the SCID diagnosis of an eating disorder and n=293 female healthy controls. In a confirmatory factor analysis, convincing goodness-of-fit indices emerged. The subscales of the questionnaire yielded good reliability and convergent and discriminant validity coefficients, with most items showing excellent characteristics. Like the English version, the German adaptation of the questionnaire can be recommended for a multidimensional assessment of appearance-related aspects of body image in both research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Portuguese version of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)-I: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and reliability.

    Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2015-03-30

    The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) is a brief self-report instrument widely used to assess Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in war Veterans, according to DSM-IV. This study sought out to explore the factor structure and reliability of the Portuguese version of the PCL-M. A sample of 660 Portuguese Colonial War Veterans completed the PCL-M. Several Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to test different structures for PCL-M PTSD symptoms. Although the respecified first-order four-factor model based on King et al.'s model showed the best fit to the data, the respecified first and second-order models based on the DSM-IV symptom clusters also presented an acceptable fit. In addition, the PCL-M showed adequate reliability. The Portuguese version of the PCL-M is thus a valid and reliable measure to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms as described in DSM-IV. Its use with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans may ease screening of possible PTSD cases, promote more suitable treatment planning, and enable monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ideal, nonideal, and no-marker variables: The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) marker technique works when it matters.

    Williams, Larry J; O'Boyle, Ernest H

    2015-09-01

    A persistent concern in the management and applied psychology literature is the effect of common method variance on observed relations among variables. Recent work (i.e., Richardson, Simmering, & Sturman, 2009) evaluated 3 analytical approaches to controlling for common method variance, including the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) marker technique. Their findings indicated significant problems with this technique, especially with nonideal marker variables (those with theoretical relations with substantive variables). Based on their simulation results, Richardson et al. concluded that not correcting for method variance provides more accurate estimates than using the CFA marker technique. We reexamined the effects of using marker variables in a simulation study and found the degree of error in estimates of a substantive factor correlation was relatively small in most cases, and much smaller than error associated with making no correction. Further, in instances in which the error was large, the correlations between the marker and substantive scales were higher than that found in organizational research with marker variables. We conclude that in most practical settings, the CFA marker technique yields parameter estimates close to their true values, and the criticisms made by Richardson et al. are overstated. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  20. [A confirmatory diagnosis of antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi in donors referred by blood banks in Venezuela].

    Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Díaz-Villalobos, María; Mauriello, Luciano; Maekelt, Alberto; de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón

    2008-06-01

    To establish the confirmatory diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, at least two immunoserological tests (ELISA, Indirect hamaglutination, IH, Complement Fixation Test, CFT) were carried out in 254 donors, from public and private blood banks of Venezuela, during 48 months between 1997-1998 and 2003-2004, referred to the Immunology Section of the Tropical Medicine Institute in Caracas. Antibodies anti-T. cruzi were detected in 129/254 (50,79%) by ELISA-IgG or IH and CFT. The "artificial xenodiagnosis" was positive in 10/118 persons with positive confirmed serology. Of 129 donors found positive by the serological tests, 68 were living in the capital region and 61 in the interior of the country. Likewise 113 were born in the interior of the country, 8 in Caracas and 8 in Colombia. Of them, 12 individuals serologically confirmed declared to have donated blood in a minimum of 4 occasions before diagnosis. The present study emphasizes the importance of detection of antibodies against T. cruzi in the integral evaluation of blood donors, since many of them with antibodies anti-T. cruzi, have donated blood several times previous to diagnosis.

  1. Validation of the Spanish version of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) among males: Confirmatory factor analysis.

    Sepulveda, Ana R; Parks, Melissa; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Anastasiadou, Dimitra; Blanco, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    Drive for Muscularity (DM) has been shown to be a relevant construct for measuring and understanding male body image. For this reason, it is important to have reliable and valid instruments with which to measure DM, and to date no such instruments exist in Spain. This study analyzes the psychometric and structural properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) in a sample of Spanish adolescent males (N=212), with the aim of studying the structural validity of the scale by using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), as well as analyzing the internal consistency and construct (convergent and discriminant) and concurrent validity of the instrument. After testing three models, results indicated that the best structure was a two-dimensional model, with the factors of muscularity-oriented body image (MBI) and muscularity behavior (MB). The scale showed good internal consistency (α=.90) and adequate construct validity. Furthermore, significant associations were found between DM and increased difficulties in emotional regulation (rho=.37) and low self-esteem (rho=-.19). Findings suggest that the two-factor structure may be used when assessing drive for muscularity among adolescent males in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A conceptual model for the development process of confirmatory adaptive clinical trials within an emergency research network.

    Mawocha, Samkeliso C; Fetters, Michael D; Legocki, Laurie J; Guetterman, Timothy C; Frederiksen, Shirley; Barsan, William G; Lewis, Roger J; Berry, Donald A; Meurer, William J

    2017-06-01

    Adaptive clinical trials use accumulating data from enrolled subjects to alter trial conduct in pre-specified ways based on quantitative decision rules. In this research, we sought to characterize the perspectives of key stakeholders during the development process of confirmatory-phase adaptive clinical trials within an emergency clinical trials network and to build a model to guide future development of adaptive clinical trials. We used an ethnographic, qualitative approach to evaluate key stakeholders' views about the adaptive clinical trial development process. Stakeholders participated in a series of multidisciplinary meetings during the development of five adaptive clinical trials and completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats questionnaire. In the analysis, we elucidated overarching themes across the stakeholders' responses to develop a conceptual model. Four major overarching themes emerged during the analysis of stakeholders' responses to questioning: the perceived statistical complexity of adaptive clinical trials and the roles of collaboration, communication, and time during the development process. Frequent and open communication and collaboration were viewed by stakeholders as critical during the development process, as were the careful management of time and logistical issues related to the complexity of planning adaptive clinical trials. The Adaptive Design Development Model illustrates how statistical complexity, time, communication, and collaboration are moderating factors in the adaptive design development process. The intensity and iterative nature of this process underscores the need for funding mechanisms for the development of novel trial proposals in academic settings.

  3. A Solution to Modeling Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Data Obtained from Complex Survey Sampling to Avoid Conflated Parameter Estimates

    Jiun-Yu Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of equality in the between-and within-level structures in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA models has been influential for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates and statistical inferences. A commonly seen condition is the inequality of factor loadings under equal level-varying structures. With mathematical investigation and Monte Carlo simulation, this study compared the robustness of five statistical models including two model-based (a true and a mis-specified models, one design-based, and two maximum models (two models where the full rank of variance-covariance matrix is estimated in between level and within level, respectively in analyzing complex survey measurement data with level-varying factor loadings. The empirical data of 120 3rd graders' (from 40 classrooms perceived Harter competence scale were modeled using MCFA and the parameter estimates were used as true parameters to perform the Monte Carlo simulation study. Results showed maximum models was robust to unequal factor loadings while the design-based and the miss-specified model-based approaches produced conflated results and spurious statistical inferences. We recommend the use of maximum models if researchers have limited information about the pattern of factor loadings and measurement structures. Measurement models are key components of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; therefore, the findings can be generalized to multilevel SEM and CFA models. Mplus codes are provided for maximum models and other analytical models.

  4. Measuring implementation behaviour of menu guidelines in the childcare setting: confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical domains framework questionnaire (TDFQ).

    Seward, Kirsty; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Presseau, Justin; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2017-04-04

    While there are number of frameworks which focus on supporting the implementation of evidence based approaches, few psychometrically valid measures exist to assess constructs within these frameworks. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically assess a scale measuring each domain of the Theoretical Domains Framework for use in assessing the implementation of dietary guidelines within a non-health care setting (childcare services). A 75 item 14-domain Theoretical Domains Framework Questionnaire (TDFQ) was developed and administered via telephone interview to 202 centre based childcare service cooks who had a role in planning the service menu. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to assess the reliability, discriminant validity and goodness of fit of the 14-domain theoretical domain framework measure. For the CFA, five iterative processes of adjustment were undertaken where 14 items were removed, resulting in a final measure consisting of 14 domains and 61 items. For the final measure: the Chi-Square goodness of fit statistic was 3447.19; the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) was 0.070; the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.072; and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had a value of 0.78. While only one of the three indices support goodness of fit of the measurement model tested, a 14-domain model with 61 items showed good discriminant validity and internally consistent items. Future research should aim to assess the psychometric properties of the developed TDFQ in other community-based settings.

  5. The cognitive roles of behavioral variability: idiosyncratic acts as the foundation of identity and as transitional, preparatory, and confirmatory phases.

    Eilam, David

    2015-02-01

    Behavior in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), in habitual daily tasks, and in sport and cultural rituals is deconstructed into elemental acts and categorized into common acts, performed by all individuals completing a similar task, and idiosyncratic acts, not performed by all individuals. Never skipped, common acts establish the pragmatic part of motor tasks. Repetitive performance of a few common acts renders rituals a rigid form, whereby common acts may serve as memes for cultural transmission. While idiosyncratic acts are not pragmatically necessary for task completion, they fulfill important cognitive roles. They form a long preparatory phase in tasks that involve high stakes, and a long confirmatory phase in OCD rituals. Idiosyncratic acts also form transitional phases between motor tasks, and are involved in establishing identity and preserving the flexibility necessary for adapting to varying circumstances. Behavioral variability, as manifested in idiosyncrasy, thus does not seem to be a noise or by-product of motor activity, but an essential cognitive component that has been preserved in the evolution of behavioral patterns, similar to the genetic variability in biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trajectories of disposable income among people of working ages diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: a nationwide register-based cohort study in Sweden 7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis with a population-based reference group.

    Murley, Chantelle; Mogard, Olof; Wiberg, Michael; Alexanderson, Kristina; Karampampa, Korinna; Friberg, Emilie; Tinghög, Petter

    2018-05-09

    To describe how disposable income (DI) and three main components changed, and analyse whether DI development differed from working-aged people with multiple sclerosis (MS) to a reference group from 7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis in Sweden. Population-based cohort study, 12-year follow-up (7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis). Swedish working-age population with microdata linked from two nationwide registers. Residents diagnosed with MS in 2009 aged 25-59 years (n=785), and references without MS (n=7847) randomly selected with stratified matching (sex, age, education and country of birth). DI was defined as the annual after tax sum of incomes (earnings and benefits) to measure individual economic welfare. Three main components of DI were analysed as annual sums: earnings, sickness absence benefits and disability pension benefits. We found no differences in mean annual DI between people with and without MS by independent t-tests (p values between 0.15 and 0.96). Differences were found for all studied components of DI from diagnosis year by independent t-tests, for example, in the final study year (2013): earnings (-64 867 Swedish Krona (SEK); 95% CI-79 203 to -50 528); sickness absence benefits (13 330 SEK; 95% CI 10 042 to 16 500); and disability pension benefits (21 360 SEK; 95% CI 17 380 to 25 350). A generalised estimating equation evaluated DI trajectory development between people with and without MS to find both trajectories developed in parallel, both before (-4039 SEK; 95% CI -10 536 to 2458) and after (-781 SEK; 95% CI -6988 to 5360) diagnosis. The key finding of parallel DI trajectory development between working-aged MS and references suggests minimal economic impact within the first 4 years of diagnosis. The Swedish welfare system was responsive to the observed reductions in earnings around MS diagnosis through balancing DI with morbidity-related benefits. Future decreases in economic welfare may be experienced as the

  7. Multiple myeloma

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  9. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  10. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  12. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. Parenting Multiples

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  14. Validation of the Arabic Version of the Group Personality Projective Test among university students in Bahrain.

    Al-Musawi, Nu'man M

    2003-04-01

    Using confirmatory factor analytic techniques on data generated from 200 students enrolled at the University of Bahrain, we obtained some construct validity and reliability data for the Arabic Version of the 1961 Group Personality Projective Test by Cassel and Khan. In contrast to the 5-factor model proposed for the Group Personality Projective Test, a 6-factor solution appeared justified for the Arabic Version of this test, suggesting some variance between the cultural groups in the United States and in Bahrain.

  15. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  16. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  17. Factor structure and measurement invariance across various demographic groups and over time for the PHQ-9 in primary care patients in Spain.

    César González-Blanch

    Full Text Available The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 is a widely-used screening tool for depression in primary care settings. The purpose of the present study is to identify the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and to examine the measurement invariance of this instrument across different sociodemographic groups and over time in a sample of primary care patients in Spain. Data came from 836 primary care patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (PsicAP study and a subsample of 218 patients who participated in a follow-up assessment at 3 months. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test one- and two-factor structures identified in previous studies. Analyses of multiple-group invariance were conducted to determine the extent to which the factor structure is comparable across various demographic groups (i.e., gender, age, marital status, level of education, and employment situation and over time. Both one-factor and two-factor re-specified models met all the pre-established fit criteria. However, because the factors identified in the two-factor model were highly correlated (r = .86, the one-factor model was preferred for its parsimony. Multi-group CFA indicated measurement invariance across different demographic groups and across time. The present findings suggest that physicians in Spain can use the PHQ-9 to obtain a global score for depression severity in different demographic groups and to reliably monitor changes over time in the primary care setting.

  18. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  19. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  20. Determining the IgM and IgG antibody titer against CMV and helicobacter pylori in the serum of multiple sclerosis patients comparing to the control group in Hamadan.

    Salim, Masome Afiati; Eftekharian, Mohammad Mahdi; Taheri, Mohammad; Yousef Alikhani, Mohammad

    2017-07-19

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that disables central nervous system (CNS) system. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) probably has an important role in the MS pathology. The infection with helicobacter pylori also is recognized as a protective agent against MS in female. Serum samples were isolated and frozen at -70∘C. The earlier mentioned anti-virus antibodies and antibacterial antibodies were quantified by Elisa kit. The results showed that IgG antibody average value against cytomegalovirus in the blood of multiple sclerosis patients not only decreased but also was significant statistically (pmultiple sclerosis patients against helicobacter pylori shown a statistically significant decrease (pmultiple sclerosis patients.

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Monitoring My Multiple Sclerosis Scale.

    Polat, Cansu; Tülek, Zeliha; Kürtüncü, Murat; Eraksoy, Mefkure

    2017-06-01

    This research was conducted to adapt the Monitoring My Multiple Sclerosis (MMMS) scale, which is a scale used for self-evaluation by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of their own health and quality of life, to Turkish and to determine the psychometric properties of the scale. The methodological research was conducted in the outpatient MS clinic of a university hospital between January and September 2013. The sample in this study consisted of 140 patients aged above 18 who had a diagnosis of definite MS. Patients who experienced attacks in the previous month or had any serious medical problems other than MS were not included in the group. The linguistic validity of MMMS was tested by a backward-forward translation method and an expert panel. Reliability analysis was performed using test-retest correlations, item-total correlations, and internal consistency analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and concurrent validity were used to determine the construct validity. The Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 instrument was used to determine concurrent validity and the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mini Mental State Examination were used for further determination of the construct validity. We determined that the scale consisted of four factors with loadings ranging from 0.49 to 0.79. The correlation coefficients of the scale were determined to be between 0.47 and 0.76 for item-total score and between 0.60 and 0.81 for items and subscale scores. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was determined to be 0.94 for the entire scale and between 0.64 and 0.89 for the subscales. Test-retest correlations were significant. Correlations between MMMS and other scales were also found to be significant. The Turkish MMMS provides adequate validity and reliability for assessing the impact of MS on quality of life and health status in patients.

  3. Revised-Confirmatory Survey Report for Portions of the Auxiliary Building Structural Surfaces and Turbine Building Embedded Piping, Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Herald, California

    W. C. Adams

    2007-01-01

    During the period of October 15 and 18, 2007, ORISE performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included beta and gamma structural surface scans and beta activity direct measurements within the Auxiliary Building, beta or gamma scans within Turbine Building embedded piping, beta activity determinations within Turbine Building Drain 3-1-27, and gamma scans and the collection of a soil sample from the clay soils adjacent to the Lower Mixing Box

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Feeding Emotions Scale. A measure of parent emotions in the context of feeding.

    Frankel, Leslie; Fisher, Jennifer O; Power, Thomas G; Chen, Tzu-An; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-08-01

    Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent-child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent-child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools that assess parent affect in the context of feeding. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure parent affect specific to the feeding context and determine its validity and reliability. A brief instrument consisting of 20 items was developed that specifically asks how parents feel during the feeding process. This brief instrument draws on the structure of a well-validated general affect measure. A total of 296 Hispanic and Black Head Start parents of preschoolers completed the Feeding Emotions Scale along with other parent-report measures as part of a larger study designed to better understand feeding interactions during the dinner meal. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model with independent subscales of positive affect and negative affect (Cronbach's alphas of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). Concurrent and convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the subscales of the Feeding Emotions Scale with positive emotionality and negative emotionality from the Differential Emotions Scale - a measure of general adult emotions. Concurrent and convergent criterion validity was evaluated by testing mean differences in affect across parent feeding styles using ANOVA. A significant difference was found across maternal weight status for positive feeding affect. The resulting validated measure can be used to assess parent affect in studies of feeding to better understand how interactions during feeding may impact the development of child eating behaviors and possibly weight status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing organizational implementation context in the education sector: confirmatory factor analysis of measures of implementation leadership, climate, and citizenship.

    Lyon, Aaron R; Cook, Clayton R; Brown, Eric C; Locke, Jill; Davis, Chayna; Ehrhart, Mark; Aarons, Gregory A

    2018-01-08

    A substantial literature has established the role of the inner organizational setting on the implementation of evidence-based practices in community contexts, but very little of this research has been extended to the education sector, one of the most common settings for the delivery of mental and behavioral health services to children and adolescents. The current study examined the factor structure, psychometric properties, and interrelations of an adapted set of pragmatic organizational instruments measuring key aspects of the organizational implementation context in schools: (1) strategic implementation leadership, (2) strategic implementation climate, and (3) implementation citizenship behavior. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS), Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), and Implementation Citizenship Behavior Scale (ICBS) were adapted by a research team that included the original scale authors and experts in the implementation of evidence-based practices in schools. These instruments were then administered to a geographically representative sample (n = 196) of school-based mental/behavioral health consultants to assess the reliability and structural validity via a series of confirmatory factor analyses. Overall, the original factor structures for the ILS, ICS, and ICBS were confirmed in the current sample. The one exception was poor functioning of the Rewards subscale of the ICS, which was removed in the final ICS model. Correlations among the revised measures, evaluated as part of an overarching model of the organizational implementation context, indicated both unique and shared variance. The current analyses suggest strong applicability of the revised instruments to implementation of evidence-based mental and behavioral practices in the education sector. The one poorly functioning subscale (Rewards on the ICS) was attributed to typical educational policies that do not allow for individual financial incentives to personnel. Potential directions for

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Differential Relationships of the Two Subdomains of Negative Symptoms in Chronically Ill Psychotic Patients

    Stiekema, Annemarie P. M.; Liemburg, Edith J.; van der Meer, Lisette; Castelein, Stynke; Stewart, Roy; van Weeghel, Jaap; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests a two factor structure for negative symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders: social amotivation (SA) and expressive deficits (ED). Applying this two-factor structure in clinical settings may provide valuable information with regard to outcomes and to target treatments. We aimed to investigate 1) whether the factor structure is also supported in chronically ill patients with a psychotic disorder and 2) what the relationship is between these factors and functioning (overall functioning and living situation), depressive symptoms and quality of life. 1157 Patients with a psychotic disorder and a duration of illness of 5 years or more were included in the analysis (data selected from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring Outcome Survey; PHAMOUS). A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale that were previously identified to reflect negative symptoms (N1-4, N6, G5, G7, G13, G16). Subsequently, regression analysis was performed on outcomes. The results confirmed the distinction between SA (N2, N4, G16) and ED (N1, N3, N6, G5, G7, G13) in chronically ill patients. Both factors were related to worse overall functioning as measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, ED was uniquely associated with residential living status. Higher scores for SA were associated with more depressive symptoms and worse quality of life. Thus, SA is most strongly related to level of social-emotional functioning, while ED are more related to living situation and thereby are indicative of level of everyday functioning. This subdivision may be useful for research purposes and be a valuable additional tool in clinical practice and treatment development. PMID:26895203

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Differential Relationships of the Two Subdomains of Negative Symptoms in Chronically Ill Psychotic Patients.

    Annemarie P M Stiekema

    Full Text Available Research suggests a two factor structure for negative symptoms in patients with psychotic disorders: social amotivation (SA and expressive deficits (ED. Applying this two-factor structure in clinical settings may provide valuable information with regard to outcomes and to target treatments. We aimed to investigate 1 whether the factor structure is also supported in chronically ill patients with a psychotic disorder and 2 what the relationship is between these factors and functioning (overall functioning and living situation, depressive symptoms and quality of life. 1157 Patients with a psychotic disorder and a duration of illness of 5 years or more were included in the analysis (data selected from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring Outcome Survey; PHAMOUS. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale that were previously identified to reflect negative symptoms (N1-4, N6, G5, G7, G13, G16. Subsequently, regression analysis was performed on outcomes. The results confirmed the distinction between SA (N2, N4, G16 and ED (N1, N3, N6, G5, G7, G13 in chronically ill patients. Both factors were related to worse overall functioning as measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, ED was uniquely associated with residential living status. Higher scores for SA were associated with more depressive symptoms and worse quality of life. Thus, SA is most strongly related to level of social-emotional functioning, while ED are more related to living situation and thereby are indicative of level of everyday functioning. This subdivision may be useful for research purposes and be a valuable additional tool in clinical practice and treatment development.

  9. Confirmatory/release survey of the property at 71 Pearce Avenue (Former EAD Building) in Tonawanda, New York

    Salame-Alfie, A.; Alibozek, R. [New York Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    EAD Metallurgical, Inc., operated a facility in Tonawanda, New York, in which it utilized Americium 241 (Am-241) for the production of foil sources for use in smoke detectors. EAD was in operation between 1977 and 1983. By 1983, the company started losing money, and decided to relocate to Mexico. Before closing down its Tonawanda operation, however, it was required by the New York State Department of Labor (DOL) to decontaminate its facility to limits specified by DOL. No records of discharges to the sewer system were kept during this decontamination effort. Unsuccessful decontamination efforts by several EAD employees and contractors left the building contaminated, in particular the concrete floors and walls. To determine the scope of work for the decontamination project, staff from the New York State Departments of Health (DOH) and Environmental Conservation (DEC) conducted a Characterization Survey of the facility in 1993. This survey identified contamination levels of Am-241 in excess of release limits throughout the building, in the soil outside the facility, in pipes for sewage and interior drainage, and in an 8 x 8 x 11 foot sump pit in the building. DOH issued a request for proposals in early 1994 for the decontamination and subsequent decommissioning of the former EAD building, and NES/IES Inc. (NES) was awarded the contract to perform the remediation. DOH`s assignment was to provide an on-site presence to insure the completion of all agreed upon tasks, according to the terms of the contract and work plans submitted by NES. Additionally, the DOH staff acted as a liaison between NES, DOH, DEC and DOL central offices to review, comment and approve all changes or modifications to NES`s approach to the decontamination efforts. The assigned staff was also responsible for conducting confirmatory sampling and surveys of all areas deemed releasable to DOL and DEC criteria by NES.

  10. Complementary Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the French WISC-V: Analyses Based on the Standardization Sample.

    Lecerf, Thierry; Canivez, Gary L

    2017-12-28

    Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (French WISC-V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC-V factorial structure was established exclusively through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). However, as recommended by Carroll (1995); Reise (2012), and Brown (2015), factorial structure should derive from both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA. The first goal of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the French WISC-V using EFA. The 15 French WISC-V primary and secondary subtest scaled scores intercorrelation matrix was used and factor extraction criteria suggested from 1 to 4 factors. To disentangle the contribution of first- and second-order factors, the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization transformation (SLT) was applied. Overall, no EFA evidence for 5 factors was found. Results indicated that the g factor accounted for about 67% of the common variance and that the contributions of the first-order factors were weak (3.6 to 11.9%). CFA was used to test numerous alternative models. Results indicated that bifactor models produced better fit to these data than higher-order models. Consistent with previous studies, findings suggested dominance of the general intelligence factor and that users should thus emphasize the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when interpreting the French WISC-V. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Group X

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  12. Topological K-Kolmogorov groups

    Abd El-Sattar, A. Dabbour.

    1987-07-01

    The idea of the K-groups was used to define K-Kolmogorov homology and cohomology (over pairs of coefficient groups) which are descriptions of certain modifications of the Kolmogorov groups. The present work is devoted to the study of the topological properties of the K-Kolmogorov groups which lie at the root of the group duality based essentially upon Pontrjagin's concept of group multiplication. 14 refs

  13. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  14. Accounting for group differences in appraisals of social inequality: differential injustice standards.

    Miron, Anca M; Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2011-06-01

    We tested whether differential appraisals of inequality are a function of the injustice standards used by different groups. A confirmatory standard of injustice is defined as the amount of evidence needed to arrive at the conclusion that injustice has occurred. Consistent with a motivational shifting of standards view, we found that advantaged and disadvantaged group members set different standards of injustice when judging the magnitude of gender (Study 1) and racial (Study 2) wage inequality. In addition, because advantaged and disadvantaged group members formed - based on their differential standards - divergent appraisals of wage inequality, they experienced differential desire to restore inter-group justice. We discuss the implications of promoting low confirmatory standards for changing perceptions of social reality and for motivating justice-restorative behaviour. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Multiple inflation

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  16. Permutation groups

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  17. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Confirmatory Analysis of Simultaneous, Sequential, and Achievement Factors on the K-ABC at 11 Age Levels Ranging from 2 1/2 to 12 1/2 years.

    Willson, Victor L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents results of confirmatory factor analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children which is based on the underlying theoretical model of sequential, simultaneous, and achievement factors. Found support for the two-factor, simultaneous and sequential processing model. (MCF)

  19. Area 3 Support Buildings (A3SB) H5-0992, H5-0996 PRL 218 Confirmatory Sampling Report

    Mrdjenovich, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The Area 3 Support Buildings site (A3SB) consists of two separate areas located on the north side of Beach Road in the northern portion of Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC), outside the secured perimeter of KSC. The A3SB areas are approximately 0.6 miles apart, and were developed as Shiffler's Grocery Store and Service Station (west site) and as a residence (east site) prior to acquisition by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1963. Both areas were used by the Bendix Company in support of NASA as chemical laboratories from 1963 through 1969. Both of the buildings were demolished by 1987. The west portion of the site was used by the US Fish & Wildlife Service (F&W) in support of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for parking at the entrance to the Hammock Trails from 1969 to the present. The east portion of the site was used for intermittent suspect materials staging in the early 1990s and is still used as an apiary location, but is otherwise no longer active. In support of the NASA HSWA permit requirements, this site was identified as Potential Release Location (PRL) 218 and a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment (SA) was conducted in 2013. Confirmatory Sampling (CS) was recommended and approved by the KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT). Three locations of concern (LOCs) were identified and sampled at the site. The LOCs include two former chemical labs and a former suspect staging area. The CS was conducted in March of 2015 at three locations by means of Direct Push Technology (DPT) groundwater sampling and at one location for soil sampling. The samples were collected and analyzed in accordance with the approved CS Work Plan. There were no exceedances of criteria detected in any of the samples from the three LOCs. The results of this investigation indicate that past and/or present operations have not negatively impacted environmental media at the A3SB. Based upon no confirmed groundwater detections above GCTLs and no

  20. Group devaluation and group identification

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order