WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple environmental benefits

  1. Quantifying the multiple, environmental benefits of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Richard; Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh; Anderson, Karen; Cunliffe, Andrew; Elliott, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Beavers are ecological engineers with an ability to modify the structure and flow of fluvial systems and create complex wetland environments with dams, ponds and canals. Consequently, beaver activity has potential for river restoration, management and the provision of multiple environmental ecosystem services including biodiversity, flood risk mitigation, water quality and sustainable drinking water provision. With the current debate surrounding the reintroduction of beavers into the United Kingdom, it is critical to monitor the impact of beavers upon the environment. We have developed and implemented a monitoring strategy to quantify the impact of reintroducing the Eurasian Beaver on multiple environmental ecosystem services and river systems at a range of scales. First, the experimental design and preliminary results will be presented from the Mid-Devon Beaver Trial, where a family of beavers has been introduced to a 3 ha enclosure situated upon a first order tributary of the River Tamar. The site was instrumented to monitor the flow rate and quality of water entering and leaving the site. Additionally, the impacts of beavers upon riparian vegetation structure, water/carbon storage were investigated. Preliminary results indicate that beaver activity, particularly the building of ponds and dams, increases water storage within the landscape and moderates the river response to rainfall. Baseflow is enhanced during dry periods and storm flow is attenuated, potentially reducing the risk of flooding downstream. Initial analysis of water quality indicates that water entering the site (running off intensively managed grasslands upslope), has higher suspended sediment loads and nitrate levels, than that leaving the site, after moving through the series of beaver ponds. These results suggest beaver activity may also act as a means by which the negative impact of diffuse water pollution from agriculture can be mitigated thus providing cleaner water in rivers downstream

  2. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  3. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  4. Meeting multiple demands: Water transaction opportunities for environmental benefits promoting adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy

    2015-04-01

    In arid regions, the challenge of balancing water use among a diversity of sectors expands in lock step with conditions of water stress that are exacerbated by climate variability, prolonged drought, and growing water-use demands. The elusiveness of achieving a sustainable balance under conditions of environmental change in the southwestern United States is evidenced by reductions in both overall water availability and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as by recent projections of shortages on the Colorado River within the next five years. The water sustainability challenge in this region, as well as drylands throughout the world, can therefore be viewed through the lens of water stress, a condition wherein demands on land and water -- including the needs of freshwater ecosystems -- exceed reliable supplies, and the full range of water needs cannot be met without tradeoffs across multiple uses. Water stress influences not only ecosystems, but a region's economy, land management, quality of life, and cultural heritage -- each of which requires water to thrive. With respect to promoting successful adaptation to climate change, achieving full water sustainability would allow for water to be successfully divided among water users -- including municipalities, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems -- at a level that meets the goals of water users and the governing body. Over the last ten to fifteen years, the use of transactional approaches in the western U.S., Mexico, and Australia has proven to be a viable management tool for achieving stream flow and shallow aquifer restoration. By broad definition, environmental water transactions are an equitable and adaptable tool that brings diverse stakeholders to the table to facilitate a fair-market exchange of rights to use water in a manner that benefits both water users and the environment. This talk will present a basic framework of necessary stakeholder engagement, hydrologic conditions, enabling laws and policies

  5. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  6. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...

  7. Nuclear power: the environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.; Turner, W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many environmental benefits arising from the generation of electricity from nuclear power. These are accompanied by a minimal detrimental environmental impact, which is strictly regulated and monitored to a far greater degree than any other comparable industry. Because it does not produce greenhouse gases or acid rain emissions, the generation of electricity from nuclear energy is a vital component of a sustainable energy future for our planet. (Author)

  8. Nuclear power: the environmental benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, R.; Turner, W. (Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    There are many environmental benefits arising from the generation of electricity from nuclear power. These are accompanied by a minimal detrimental environmental impact, which is strictly regulated and monitored to a far greater degree than any other comparable industry. Because it does not produce greenhouse gases or acid rain emissions, the generation of electricity from nuclear energy is a vital component of a sustainable energy future for our planet. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  9. 7 CFR 1437.13 - Multiple benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 1437.13 Section 1437.13... General Provisions § 1437.13 Multiple benefits. (a) If a producer is eligible to receive payments under this part and benefits under any other program administered by the Secretary for the same crop loss...

  10. 7 CFR 783.8 - Multiple benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 783.8 Section 783.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS TREE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 783.8 Multiple benefits. Persons may not receive or retain...

  11. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    and Estonia, it was assumed that over 100 collected items 60 would be reused, 30 recycled in other ways and 10 go to final disposal Using these inputs, the LCA showed that the collection, processing and transport of second-hand clothing has insignificant impacts on the environment in comparison to the savings...... of establishing the net benefits from introducing clothes reuse. Indeed, it enables to take into consideration all the activities connected to reusing clothes, including, for instance, recycling and disposal of the collected clothes not suitable for reuse. In addition, the routes followed by the collected clothes....... Conclusions The results of the study show that clothes reuse can significantly contribute to reducing the environmental burden of clothing. Recommendations and perspectives It would be beneficial to apply other methods for estimating the avoided production of new clothes in order to check the validity...

  12. The benefits from environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental remediation projects inevitably take place against a backdrop of overall social goals and values. These goals can include, for example, full employment, preservation of the cultural, economic and archaeological resources, traditional patterns of land use, spiritual values, quality of life factors, biological diversity, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, protection of public health. Different countries will have different priorities, linked to the overall set of societal goals and the availability of resources, including funding, man-power and skills. These issues are embedded within both a national and local socio-cultural context, and will shape the way in which the remediation process is structured in any one country. The context will shape both the overall objectives of a remediation activity within the framework of competing societal goals, as well as generate constraints on the decision making process. Hence, the overall benefit of a remediation project is determined by its overall efficiency and effectiveness within the given legal, institutional, and governance framework, under the prevailing socio-economic boundary conditions, and balancing technology performance and risk reduction with fixed or limited budgetary resources, and is not simply the result of the technical remediation operation itself. (author)

  13. Benefit transfers and valuation of environmental improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Growing demand for analyses of the benefits of environmental improvements (or the costs of environmental damages) has increased interest in using estimates of such benefits in one setting to calculate benefits in another setting. At present, some types of these benefits (or costs) - which can be categorized as effects on health, output, economics assets, and environmental assets - are more amenable to such benefit transfers than others. Original studies that value health effects, for example, do not always lend themselves to benefit transfers. Most of the studies that value mortality risk address the risk of accidental death, which is an inappropriate context for valuing deaths from environmental causes. One way to make benefit transfers more feasible and reliable is to design original research with the purpose of obtaining results to be used in benefit transfers. As an example, one of the most successful benefit-transfer exercises to date involves the US Environmental Protection Agency's cost-benefit analysis of regulations for phasing down the lead content of gasoline. In this analysis, the agency used existing benefit studies to estimate the values of reducing premature deaths an of avoiding acute health effects by decreasing individuals exposure to lead in gasoline. On the basis of these and other estimates, EPA argued that the phasedown made economic sense

  14. Environmental benefits of poplar culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky.

    2001-01-01

    Poplars have important values above and beyond wood or fiber production. Poplars have been planted for environmental purposes for centuries. There are reports of poplar plantings dating back to early Chinese history and biblical times in the Middle East, When immigrants came to North America in the 18th and 19th century, they often brought cuttings of their favorite...

  15. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  16. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  17. The environmental benefits of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Three more or less reliable methods to determine the financial acceptance of the external effects of the use of wind energy are discussed. Attention is paid to the appreciation of external effects based on the environmental pollution or damage, appreciation based on prevented costs (implied valuation), and appreciation based on surveys, by which the willingness of the civilians to pay for a clean environment can be determined. A first indication of the environmental benefits of wind energy based on the above-mentioned methods is 0.04 to 0.08 DFl per kWh. For the total service life of a wind turbine this amounts to 800-1600 DFl per kW. The environmental benefits can be re-calculated in the form of subsidies, increasing the sellback prices or by means of an environmental levy on electric power generated by conventional power plants. 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  18. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.I.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  19. Environmentally based Cost-Benefit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnell, M.

    1993-11-01

    The fundamentals of the basic elements of a new comprehensive economic assessment, MILA, developed in Sweden with inspiration from the Total Cost Assessment-model are presented. The core of the MILA approach is an expanded cost and benefit inventory. But MILA also includes a complementary addition of an internal waste stream analysis, a tool for evaluation of environmental conflicts in monetary terms, an extended time horizon and direct allocation of costs and revenues to products and processes. However, MILA does not ensure profitability for environmentally sound projects. Essentially, MILA is an approach of refining investment and profitability analysis of a project, investment or product. 109 refs., 38 figs

  20. Benefits and limitations of imaging multiples: Mirror migration

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits and limitations of imaging multiples are reviewed for mirror migration. Synthetic and field data examples are used to characterize the effectiveness of migrating multiples relative to primary imaging.

  1. Benefits and limitations of imaging multiples: Mirror migration

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-07-01

    The benefits and limitations of imaging multiples are reviewed for mirror migration. Synthetic and field data examples are used to characterize the effectiveness of migrating multiples relative to primary imaging.

  2. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, P.; Kelly, B.; Passmore, J.

    1997-01-01

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO 2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  3. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance for state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers to identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energy initiatives.

  4. Benefits and limitations of imaging multiples: Interferometric and resonant migration

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Yu, Jianhua; Huang, Yunsong; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits and limitations of imaging multiples are reviewed for interferometric migration and resonant migration. Synthetic and field data examples are used to characterize the effectiveness of the methods.

  5. Benefits and limitations of imaging multiples: Interferometric and resonant migration

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-07-01

    The benefits and limitations of imaging multiples are reviewed for interferometric migration and resonant migration. Synthetic and field data examples are used to characterize the effectiveness of the methods.

  6. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jarvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS, and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds.

  7. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  8. The environmental benefits of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.J.; Ardern, S.

    1994-01-01

    The generation of electricity from nuclear energy is strictly regulated and monitored which internalises its environmental costs and means that it has minimal environmental impact. Nuclear power can thus play an important role in achieving a number of major targets. The following paper discusses why this is so and suggests how this could be beneficial to the competitiveness of nuclear power. (author)

  9. Multiple fitness benefits of polyandry in a cephalopod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe E Squires

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reproductive investment play a crucial role in sexual conflict. One intriguing aspect of sexual conflict is the evolution of female multiple mating (polyandry, particularly in systems where females receive no obvious direct benefits from males, and where mating is highly costly. Here, theory predicts that polyandrous females can increase their reproductive success by taking advantage of the genetic benefits of mating with multiple males. Cephalopods provide a model system for addressing this question, as all species mate multiply. Here we examine differences in reproductive success between monandrous, multiply mated (to the same male and polyandrous female dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica.We mated females in the laboratory with two different males (polyandrous; controlling for mating order, or with a single male (monandrous. To control for mating frequency, we mated monandrous females either once (monandrous 1, or with the same male twice (monandrous 2, and measured reproductive success for each of the three treatments (polyandrous, monandrous 1, monandrous 2. Females mated to two different males produced eggs faster and had larger hatchlings relative to egg mass than females mated once with a single male.The benefits of polyandry demonstrated here are the first, to our knowledge, in any cephalopod. These benefits may outweigh the significant costs associated with mating and help to explain how multiple mating has evolved (or is maintained in this group.

  10. Multiple function benefit - cost comparison of conservation buffer placement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Qiu; M.G. Dosskey

    2012-01-01

    Conservation buffers are considered to be effective practices for repairing impaired streams and restoring multiple ecosystem functions in degraded agricultural watersheds. Six different planning strategies for targeting their placement within watersheds were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness for environmental improvement in the 144 km² Neshanic River...

  11. Physical activity motivation and benefits in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasczewski, Kimberly S; Gill, Diane L; Rothberger, Sara M

    2018-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a degenerative neurological disease that affects 2.1 million people worldwide. There is no cure, but an expanding body of research supports the positive impact of physical activity and suggests physical activity has benefits for the individual's psychological and physical well-being. Using Self-Determination Theory as a framework, mixed methods with a focus on qualitative interviews were used to explore physical activity motivation and benefits with a sample of highly active people with multiple sclerosis (n = 15). Disability level ranged from not disabled to wheelchair bound with the majority of participants reporting minimal impact from multiple sclerosis. Survey data were collected using a number of open-ended questions along with measures of self-efficacy, self-determined motivation, physical activity, and quality of life. Additionally, eight individuals participated in semistructured telephone interviews focused on (a) motivation and strategies used to maintain physical activity and (b) the benefits and impact of physical activity in their lives. The main findings were consistent with Self-Determination Theory; participants described feelings of accomplishment and competence in both their physical activity and daily life, as well as a sense of independence and autonomy. Similarly, all participants cited benefits, and the main themes were enhanced satisfaction with life and an overall positive outlook on life. Results provide insight into the role of physical activity in a highly active sample and have implications for professionals working in physical activity settings with the multiple sclerosis population. Interventions aimed at increasing long-term physical activity adherence should focus on increasing autonomy and competence for physical activity in the individual and promoting potential increased quality of life outcomes from physical activity participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Multiple sclerosis is a chronic

  12. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  13. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems [it

  14. Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  15. Benefits of improved environmental cooperation on a joint DoD/DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, G.K.; Gibson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous Federal facilities within the US involve multiple government agencies that face overlapping environmental concerns. This paper highlights the benefits of looking beyond the strict letter of environmental regulations that might affect a single tenant or environmental site to cooperative environmental efforts that focus on the entire facility, consistent with the missions of participating agencies. Using Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) as a model, seven areas of Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cooperation are discussed that span technical, regulatory compliance, and administrative issues

  16. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  17. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2004-01-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO 2 and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gasses are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water system the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gasses are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future

  18. Dual discounting in cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, Erhun; Evans, David

    2011-01-01

    Discounting has been a long-established intertemporal efficiency tool in cost-benefit analysis which focuses on project selection at communal level with a view to maximising the social welfare. However, with the relentless growth in environmental stress that, in good parts, stems from investment projects the established criterion in discounting appears to be inadequate especially when environmental issues are taken into consideration. This paper looks at how dual focus on efficiency and sustainability can be achieved by using dual discounting, i.e. discounting environmental benefits separately and differently from other costs and benefits and applies this alternative criterion to an afforestation scheme in the United Kingdom which contains carbon sequestration in addition to timber benefits.

  19. Economic and environmental benefits of interconnected systems. The Spanish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, A.S.; Dios Alija, R. de

    1996-01-01

    The interconnected systems provide large technical and economic benefits which, evaluated and contrasted with the associated network investment cost, usually produce important net savings. There are continental electrical systems formed by many interconnected subsystems. The optimal size of an interconnection should be defined within an economic background. It is necessary to take into account the global environmental effects. The approach and results of studies carried out by Red Electrica is presented, in order to analyse both economic and environmental benefits resulting from an increase in the present Spanish interconnection capacities. From both economic and environmental points of view, the development of the interconnected systems is highly positive. (author)

  20. Multiplicity of effects and health benefits of resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Kuršvietienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is mainly found in grapes and red wine, also in some plants and fruits, such as peanuts, cranberries, pistachios, blueberries and bilberries. Moreover, nowadays this compound is available as purified preparation and dietary supplement. Resveratrol provides a wide range of benefits, including cardiovascular protective, antiplatelet, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, blood glucose-lowering and anticancer activities, hence it exhibits a complex mode of action. During the recent years, these properties have been widely studied in animal and human models, both in vitro and in vivo. This paper is intended to present information published during the recent years on the biological activities and multiple effects of resveratrol.

  1. Sodium intake and multiple sclerosis activity and progression in BENEFIT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Munger, Kassandra L; Hartung, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a high-salt diet, as measured by urinary sodium concentration, is associated with faster conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS activity and disability. METHODS: BENEFIT was a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus...... delayed interferon beta-1b treatment in 465 patients with a CIS. Each patient provided a median of 14 (interquartile range = 13-16) spot urine samples throughout the 5-year follow-up. We estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion level at each time point using the Tanaka equations, and assessed whether...... in T2 lesion volume: -0.11, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.04; change in EDSS: -0.01, 95% CI = -0.09 to 0.08; relapse rate: HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.56-1.07). Results were similar in categorical analyses using quintiles. INTERPRETATION: Our results, based on multiple assessments of urine sodium excretion over 5...

  2. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. C. Cox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover of nature exposure and (b health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  3. Multiple benefits of alloparental care in a fluctuating environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Although cooperatively breeding vertebrates occur disproportionately in unpredictable environments, the underlying mechanism shaping this biogeographic pattern remains unclear. Cooperative breeding may buffer against harsh conditions (hard life hypothesis), or additionally allow for sustained breeding under benign conditions (temporal variability hypothesis). To distinguish between the hard life and temporal variability hypotheses, we investigated whether the number of alloparents at a nest increased reproductive success or load-lightening in superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus), and whether these two types of benefits varied in harsh and benign years. We found that mothers experienced both types of benefits consistent with the temporal variability hypothesis, as larger contingents of alloparents increased the number of young fledged while simultaneously allowing mothers to reduce their provisioning rates under both harsh and benign rainfall conditions. By contrast, fathers experienced load-lightening only under benign rainfall conditions, suggesting that cooperative breeding may serve to take advantage of unpredictable benign breeding seasons when they do occur. Cooperative breeding in unpredictable environments may thus promote flexibility in offspring care behaviour, which could mitigate variability in the cost of raising young. Our results highlight the importance of considering how offspring care decisions vary among breeding roles and across fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:29515910

  4. Multiple benefits of alloparental care in a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindre-Parker, Sarah; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2018-02-01

    Although cooperatively breeding vertebrates occur disproportionately in unpredictable environments, the underlying mechanism shaping this biogeographic pattern remains unclear. Cooperative breeding may buffer against harsh conditions (hard life hypothesis), or additionally allow for sustained breeding under benign conditions (temporal variability hypothesis). To distinguish between the hard life and temporal variability hypotheses, we investigated whether the number of alloparents at a nest increased reproductive success or load-lightening in superb starlings ( Lamprotornis superbus ), and whether these two types of benefits varied in harsh and benign years. We found that mothers experienced both types of benefits consistent with the temporal variability hypothesis, as larger contingents of alloparents increased the number of young fledged while simultaneously allowing mothers to reduce their provisioning rates under both harsh and benign rainfall conditions. By contrast, fathers experienced load-lightening only under benign rainfall conditions, suggesting that cooperative breeding may serve to take advantage of unpredictable benign breeding seasons when they do occur. Cooperative breeding in unpredictable environments may thus promote flexibility in offspring care behaviour, which could mitigate variability in the cost of raising young. Our results highlight the importance of considering how offspring care decisions vary among breeding roles and across fluctuating environmental conditions.

  5. The economic and environmental benefits of reprocessing and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1977-01-01

    Recently published reports and papers on the economic, environmental and resource conservation benefits of reprocessing and the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors provide an important background to the essentially political discussions in the United States on non-proliferation. Some of the main arguments and conclusions are presented. (author)

  6. Environmental cost/benefit analysis for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-11-01

    This document presents a cost/benefit analysis of use of fusion power plants early in the 21st century. The first section describes the general formulation of the analysis. Included are the selection of the alternatives to the fusion reactor, selection of the power system cases to be compared, and a general comparison of the environmental effects of the selected alternatives. The second section compares the cumulative environmental effects from 2010 to 2040 for the primary cases of the power system with and without fusion reactors. The third section briefly illustrates the potential economic benefits if fusion reactors produce electricity at a lower unit cost than LMFBRs can. The fourth section summarizes the cost/benefit analysis

  7. Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment

  9. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  10. Environmental benefits of DSM externalities and resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempchin, R.S.; Goldsmith, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, political and regulatory initiatives have prompted the expansion of demand-side management (DSM) programs as a means of realizing environmental and economic benefits for both consumers and electric utilities. The Edison Electric Institute sponsored two recent studies to examine the effectiveness of this effort. A national survey of DSM program activity was conducted to determine the resultant air emissions reductions. Due to pervasive inconsistencies in data measurement and reporting, coupled with the number and degree of assumptions necessary to quantify state-by-state energy savings, scientifically verifiable estimates of these emissions reductions could not be developed. The second study, a review of the development and application of monetized environmental externalities, found that the current state regulatory practice of assigned monetary values to the environmental impacts of resource options is based on imcomplete data and applied in an imbalanced manner. Due to the complexity of assessing the direct impact costs of power generation, shadow prices derived from cost conditions have been developed to assign a dollar value per pound of pollutant. These alternative measures of cost, which vary by as much as 300,000 percent from direct impact costs, are applied only to electricity. This singluar focus placed a potential financial disincentive on electricity use, precludes a balanced assessment of all potential fuel choices and excludes any valuation of the considerable environmental and economic benefits of electric technologies

  11. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  12. Environmental benefits of distributed generation with and without emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsikalakis, A.G.; Hatziargyriou, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    The need for improving energy efficiency and reducing CO 2 emissions and other pollutants, as well as the restructuring of energy markets has favoured the increase of distributed energy resources (DER). The co-ordinated control of these sources comprising renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed generators (DG) characterised by higher efficiencies and lower emissions compared to central thermal generation, when based on coal or oil provide several environmental benefits. These benefits can be quantified based on DER participation in the CO 2 emission trading market. This paper provides a method to calculate emissions savings achieved by the marginal operation of DER in liberalised market conditions using available emissions data. The participation of DER in emissions trading markets is also studied, with respect to profits, pollutants decrease and change in operating schedules. It is shown that the operation of DER can significantly reduce pollutants, provided sufficient remuneration from CO 2 emission trading market participation is provided. Moreover, it is shown that using average emissions values to calculate the environmental benefits of DER might provide misleading results. (author)

  13. Community Gardens as Environmental Health Interventions: Benefits Versus Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, W K; Webb, M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle. Community gardens are not limited to developed countries. They also exist in developing low-income countries but usually serve a different purpose of food security. Despite their benefits, community gardens can become a source of environmental toxicants from the soil of mostly empty lands that might have been contaminated by toxicants in the past. Therefore, caution should be taken about gardening practices and the types of foods to be grown on such soil if there was evidence of contamination. We present community gardens as additional solutions to the epidemic of chronic diseases in low-income urban communities and how it can have a positive physical, mental and social impact among participants. On balance, the benefits of engaging in community gardens are likely to outweigh the potential risk that can be remedied. Quantitative population studies are needed to provide evidence of the benefits and health impacts versus potential harms from community gardens.

  14. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  15. Guidebook in using Cost Benefit Analysis and strategic environmental assessment for environmental planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Environmental planning in China may benefit from greater use of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) methodologies. We provide guidance on using these methodologies. Part I and II show the principles behind the methodologies as well as their theoretical structure. Part III demonstrates the methodologies in action in a range of different good practice examples. The case studies and theoretical expositions are intended to teach by way of example as well as by understanding the principles, and to help planners use the methodologies as correctly as possible.(auth)

  16. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  17. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  18. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Environmental benefits from RF post-baking drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saoud, A. [Southern California Edison Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of industrial microwaves and their environmental benefits in the Los Angeles Basin. The objective of the project was to assess the use of radio frequency (RF) post baking dryers to reduce the emissions per pound of output from a biscuit manufacturer and to determine the net savings in fuel consumed. Emissions measurements and energy consumption measurements were made prior to modifications to have a baseline for data for comparison. Results showed that the bakery used 17% less fuel and productivity increased by 25% after installation of the RF units. It was estimated that NOx emissions would be reduced 15-20%. The addition of RF post baking dryers provided a significant reduction in the emission problem in Los Angeles. 1 fig.

  20. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  1. Multiple antibiotics resistant among environmental isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we assessed the functionality of integrons, melanin-like pigment and biofilm formation on multidrug resistance among environmental isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Marked resistances were noted against aztreonam (60%), cefepime (68%), ceftazidime (77%), ciprofloxacin (72%), gentamicin (65%), ...

  2. Increasing Benefit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyhtinen, J.; Karttunen, A.; Tikkakoski, T. [Radiologian Klinikka, Oulu (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an essential tool of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and has opened up completely new prospects in MS research and treatment trials. It is a sensitive method that gives direct evidence of tissue pathology and has greatly increased our knowledge of MS. In clinical work, MRI is used to confirm and exclude the diagnosis of MS. The international recommendation is that every suspected MS patient should undergo at least one brain MRI. T2-weighted images are the standard tool in clinical work, and functional imaging methods are mainly used in MS research. The subtypes and the course of the disease cause variation in MRI findings. Here, we present a general overview of MR findings in MS. Brain, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord.

  3. Increasing Benefit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyhtinen, J.; Karttunen, A.; Tikkakoski, T.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as an essential tool of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and has opened up completely new prospects in MS research and treatment trials. It is a sensitive method that gives direct evidence of tissue pathology and has greatly increased our knowledge of MS. In clinical work, MRI is used to confirm and exclude the diagnosis of MS. The international recommendation is that every suspected MS patient should undergo at least one brain MRI. T2-weighted images are the standard tool in clinical work, and functional imaging methods are mainly used in MS research. The subtypes and the course of the disease cause variation in MRI findings. Here, we present a general overview of MR findings in MS. Brain, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord

  4. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  5. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  6. Environmental benefits of electrification and end-use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMenamin, J.S.; Monforte, F.A.; Sioshansi, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants can be achieved through continued substitution of clean, efficient electrotechnologies for fossil fuel-based technologies. Continued improvements in the efficiency of electrical appliances already in use will further increase the environmental benefits of electricity. Over the last several decades, electricity use in the US has grown strongly. Over a 35 year period 1960-95, electric utility sales increased more than fourfold, from under 700 billion kWh (BkWh) to almost 3,000 BkWh. This increase was due, in part, to a growing economy, but it also reflects the increasingly broad application of electricity to provide comfort, convenience, entertainment, safety and productivity. Reflecting this expanding role, energy used for electricity generation by utilities has nearly doubled, increasing from 19 percent of US primary energy use in 1960 to about 36 percent in 1995. Environmental factors have also provided support to policies that promote improved end-use efficiency. More efficient end-use equipment allows consumers to obtain the same level of end-use services with less electricity. Reduced electricity consumption levels imply reduced generation requirements and therefore, lower levels of emissions associated with generation. Beginning in the mid-1970's, and stimulated by abrupt increases in fossil fuel prices, both government and utility policies began to emphasize end-use efficiency

  7. Nature exposure sufficiency and insufficiency: The benefits of environmental preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, John R; Durante, Salvatore B

    2018-01-01

    Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI). Insufficiency includes impoverished environments (e.g., slums and prisons) where nature exposure is very limited. Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) is an optimal amount of exposure to nature where many benefits such as reinvigoration can be obtained by everyone. NES also has several benefits for individuals with various health conditions such as arthritis, dementia, or depression. The benefits of NE are not just derivable from parks, forests, and other natural settings. Interiors of buildings and homes can be enhanced with plants and even pictures or objects from nature. Additionally, there is abundant evidence indicating that virtual and artificial environments depicting nature can provide substantial NE and therefore contribute to general wellbeing. Besides the difficulty in achieving cooperation amongst nations, corporations, and other collectives in developing and implementing long range plans to deal with climate change, there is also sometimes an aversion at the individual level whereby people are unwilling to experience nature due to insects and other discomforts. Such individuals are often averse to supplanting the comforts of home, even temporarily, with inadequate facilities that are seemingly less pleasant than their typical dwellings. We propose using the term Nature Exposure Aversion

  8. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  9. Potential Environmental Benefits from Increased Use of Bioenergy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 × 108 metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 × 108 metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 × 108 t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 × 108 t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 × 108 t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 × 108 t/y of coal and 3.75 × 106 t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO2 by 11.6 × 106 t/y, NOX by 1.48 × 106 t/y, CO2 by 1.07 × 109 t/y, and CH4 by 50 × 106 t/y. The reduced SO2 emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  10. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO 2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO 2 -eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A comprehensive

  11. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso, E-mail: alaranda@unizar.es; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO{sub 2}-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A

  12. Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) offer significant environmental benefits over competing technologies and hence the environment is a strong driving force behind the development of FC systems for transport and stationary applications. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of FC and competing systems, and points out strengths and weaknesses of the different FC systems, suggesting areas for improvement. The results presented build on earlier work [D. Hart, G. Hoermandinger, Initial assessment of the environmental characteristics of fuel cells and competing technologies, ETSU F/02/00111/REP/1, ETSU, Harwell, UK, 1997.] and provide a detailed analysis of a wider range of systems, The analysis takes the form of a model, which compares system emissions (global, regional and local pollutants) and energy consumption on a full fuel cycle basis. It considers a variety of primary energy sources, intermediate fuel supply steps and FC systems for transport and stationary end-uses. These are compared with alternative systems for transport and stationary applications. Energy and pollutant emission reductions of FC systems compared to alternative vehicle technology vary considerably, though all FC technologies show reduction in energy use and CO 2 emissions of at least 20%; as well as reductions of several orders of magnitude in regulated pollutants compared to the base-case vehicle. The location of emissions is also of importance, with most emissions in the case of FC vehicles occurring in the fuel supply stage. The energy, CO 2 and regulated emissions advantages of FC systems for distributed and baseload electricity are more consistent than for transport applications, with reductions in regulated pollutants generally larger than one order of magnitude compared to competing technologies. For CHP applications, the advantages of FC systems with regard to regulated pollutants remain large. However, energy and CO 2 emission advantages are reduced, depending largely on the assumptions made

  13. Implications for environmental health of multiple stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose effects of ionising radiation have revealed that similar mechanisms can be induced by chemical stressors in the environment. This means that interactions between radiation and chemicals are likely and that the outcomes following mixed exposures to radiation and chemicals may not be predictable for human health, by consideration of single agent effects. Our understanding of the biological effects of low dose exposure has undergone a major paradigm shift. We now possess technologies which can detect very subtle changes in cells due to small exposures to radiation or other pollutants. We also understand much more now about cell communication, systems biology and the need to consider effects of low dose exposure at different hierarchical levels of organisation from molecules up to and including ecosystems. Furthermore we understand, at least in part, some of the mechanisms which drive low dose effects and which perpetuate these not only in the exposed organism but also in its progeny and in certain cases, its kin. This means that previously held views about safe doses or lack of harmful effects cannot be sustained. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and all national radiation and environmental protection organisations have always accepted a theoretical risk and have applied the precautionary principle and the LNT (linear-non-threshold) model which basically says that there is no safe dose of radiation. Therefore even in the absence of visible effects, exposure of people to radiation is strictly limited. This review will consider the historical context and the new discoveries and will focus on evidence for emergent effects after mixed exposures to combined stressors which include ionising radiation. The implications for regulation of low dose exposures to protect human health and environmental security will be discussed.

  14. Spatial Evaluation of Multiple Benefits to Encourage Multi-Functional Design of Sustainable Drainage in Blue-Green Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fenner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban drainage systems that incorporate elements of green infrastructure (SuDS/GI are central features in Blue-Green and Sponge Cities. Such approaches provide effective control of stormwater management whilst generating a range of other benefits. However these benefits often occur coincidentally and are not developed or maximised in the original design. Of all the benefits that may accrue, the relevant dominant benefits relating to specific locations and socio-environmental circumstances need to be established, so that flood management functions can be co-designed with these wider benefits to ensure both are achieved during system operation. The paper reviews a number of tools which can evaluate the multiple benefits of SuDS/GI interventions in a variety of ways and introduces new concepts of benefit intensity and benefit profile. Examples of how these concepts can be applied is provided in a case study of proposed SuDS/GI assets in the central area of Newcastle; UK. Ways in which SuDS/GI features can be actively extended to develop desired relevant dominant benefits are discussed; e.g., by (i careful consideration of tree and vegetation planting to trap air pollution; (ii extending linear SuDS systems such as swales to enhance urban connectivity of green space; and (iii managing green roofs for the effective attenuation of noise or carbon sequestration. The paper concludes that more pro-active development of multiple benefits is possible through careful co-design to achieve the full extent of urban enhancement SuDS/GI schemes can offer.

  15. Biodecontamination of concrete surfaces: Occupational and environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Rogers, R.; Hamilton, M.; Nelson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Managers and engineers around the globe are presently challenged by high estimated costs for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities which are no longer needed or are abandoned. It has been estimated that more than 73 Km 2 of contaminated concrete currently exists in the USDOE complex and is increased many fold when similar facilities are accounted for in other countries. Needs for the decontamination of concrete have been identified as: more cost effective decontamination methods, reduction of secondary wastes, minimized worker radiation exposures and, contaminant containment. Recently environmental microbes have been harnessed to remove the surface of concrete as a technique for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This biodecontamination technology has been tested by INEL and BNFL scientists and engineers in both US and United Kingdom nuclear facilities. Biodecontamination field tests at a shutdown nuclear reactor facility (EBR-I) have shown radioactively contaminated surface removed at rates of 4--8 mm/yr, thus validating the feasibility of this technology. Engineering economic analyses indicate two attractive benefits embedded in this approach to concrete D and D: (1) due to the passive nature of the technique, a cost savings of more than an order of magnitude is projected compared to the current labor intensive physical decontamination techniques; and (2) the exposure to humans and the natural environment is greatly reduced due to the unattended, highly contained biodecontamination process

  16. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different

  17. Itinerary implementation of an environmental management system and its benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I; Martinescu (Oprea), Dana Maria/G

    2010-01-01

    This article treats the problem of environmental management system starting from definition and objectives stipulated according to ISO 14001. The success of implementation of the environmental management system consists in respecting its principles. It is described the role of employers' organizations in promoting environmental management systems. Also, there are described the implementation stages of an environmental management system in Romania. Each unrolled stage is synthesized and argued...

  18. A Benefit-Risk Analysis Approach to Capture Regulatory Decision-Making: Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G K; Gurumurthi, Karthik; Domike, Reuben; Kazandjian, Dickran; Landgren, Ola; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Farrell, Ann; Pazdur, Richard; Woodcock, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Drug regulators around the world make decisions about drug approvability based on qualitative benefit-risk analysis. In this work, a quantitative benefit-risk analysis approach captures regulatory decision-making about new drugs to treat multiple myeloma (MM). MM assessments have been based on endpoints such as time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rate (ORR) which are different than benefit-risk analysis based on overall survival (OS). Twenty-three FDA decisions on MM drugs submitted to FDA between 2003 and 2016 were identified and analyzed. The benefits and risks were quantified relative to comparators (typically the control arm of the clinical trial) to estimate whether the median benefit-risk was positive or negative. A sensitivity analysis was demonstrated using ixazomib to explore the magnitude of uncertainty. FDA approval decision outcomes were consistent and logical using this benefit-risk framework. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  19. Environmental and health benefits of adopting food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    . Compared to frozen products the chilled stored products are better in textural and sensory qualities, and found to be favored by consumers. Millions of tones of commodities are stored each year in cold storages around the world. In many countries, cold storage facilities find it difficult to maintain the required temperatures, and power cuts and temperature abuse are common. Radiation technology can help reduce the energy requirements considerably, while providing safe products for the market. As the countries do away with the fumigants, and liberally adopt this technology, there would be a tremendous increase in the volume of food commodities to be irradiated. This would necessitate deployment of accelerator based systems, which are high throughput machines, suitable for bulk irradiation at low doses, for example, grain and grain products, and delivering high doses in very short time to commodities requiring higher doses, for example, microbial decontamination of meat and seafood at low temperatures. It is therefore necessary that the stakeholders realize these benefits of food irradiation and help reduce the environmental impact of conventional technologies. (author)

  20. BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Archibald, Sandra O.

    1998-01-01

    As the number and cost of environmental regulations have increased over the last thirty years, the regulated community, taxpayers, and policy makers have begun to demand that the benefits of regulations justify their costs. The use of benefit-cost analysis as an integral part of developing new regulations is increasing and the demands and expectations being placed on the method have expanded. Although benefit-cost analysis is expected to play an even greater role in environmental decision mak...

  1. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study...... is transferred into economic impacts demonstrating a substantial saving for the society when purchasing the eco-labelled service....

  2. A benefit-cost methodology for developing environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiter, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using benefit-cost analysis in developing generally applicable environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal. Several disposal alternatives were selected which consist of different combinations of control measures. The resulting cost and benefit estimations allow the calculation of the incremental cost of obtaining incremental benefits of radiation protection. The overall benefit of a disposal alternative is expressed in terms of an index which is based on weighting factors assigned to individual benefits. The results show that some disposal alternatives have higher costs while providing no additional benefit than other alternatives. These alternatives should be eliminated from consideration in developing standards

  3. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs

  4. Lower Bounds on the Maximum Energy Benefit of Network Coding for Wireless Multiple Unicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goseling, J.; Matsumoto, R.; Uyematsu, T.; Weber, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the energy savings that can be obtained by employing network coding instead of plain routing in wireless multiple unicast problems. We establish lower bounds on the benefit of network coding, defined as the maximum of the ratio of the minimum energy required by routing and network coding

  5. Lower bounds on the maximum energy benefit of network coding for wireless multiple unicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goseling, Jasper; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Uyematsu, Tomohiko; Weber, Jos H.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the energy savings that can be obtained by employing network coding instead of plain routing in wireless multiple unicast problems. We establish lower bounds on the benefit of network coding, defined as the maximum of the ratio of the minimum energy required by routing and network coding

  6. Biomass feedstock production systems: economic and environmental benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    The time is ripe for expanding bioenergy production capacity and developing a bio-based economy. Modern society has created unprecedented demands for energy and chemical products that are predominately based on geologic sources. However, there is a growing consensus that constraints on the supply of petroleum and the negative environmental consequences of burning...

  7. Shore Side Electricity in Europe: Potential and environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, R.; Weddige, U.; Johnsen, D.; Hoen, V.; Papaefthimiou, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of reducing emissions from the transport sector, the EU Commission envisions a strong modal shift to energy efficient modes including maritime shipping and inland shipping, as an alternative for road transport. In view of the expected growth of the sector, the emissions from waterborne transport are a key concern. When at berth, ships typically use their auxiliary engines to generate electrical power for communications, lighting, ventilation and other on-board equipment. The extended use of vessels’ auxiliary engines augments greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution in the adjacent ports, which are typically located in or near densely populated areas, thus leading to dangerous health and environmental effects. Shore Side Electricity (SSE) is an option for reducing the unwanted environmental impacts of ships at berth, i.e. GHG emissions, other air pollutants (NO_x, SO_x, PM) and noise of ships using their auxiliary engines. This paper quantifies the economic and environmental potential for SSE in Europe, through detailed estimation of in-port ships’ emissions and relevant energy demand, providing an insight of the expected barriers for implementation and formulating recommendations on policy actions that could accelerate the implementation of SSE in European harbors. - Highlights: • We model Shore Side Electricity (SSE) options for ports in the European region. • The economic and environmental potential for SSE in Europe is quantified. • The expected barriers for wide implementation of SSE are depicted. • We recommend policy actions that could accelerate SSE implementation.

  8. Risks and benefits of multiple sexual partnerships: beliefs of rural Nigerian adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke Otutubikey; Nwabuawele Modo, Felicia

    2007-09-01

    Drawing on interview data from rural Nigeria, the article explores male youth perceptions of the risks and benefits of multiple sexual partnerships. Participants associated having multiple sexual partners with several harmful health and nonhealth outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections, and frequently confirmed that the practice also bolsters their sense of maleness and boosts their acceptance and ranking among peers. Young males' involvement in multiple sexual partnerships should not be seen as always consequent on their ignorance of and/or indifference to the risks inherent in the behavior. It could also result from the integrality of the behavior to the social processes through which male youths validate their masculinity, mark their transition from boyhood to malehood, and configure their identities to gain acceptance into a local male peer community. Sexuality education curricula that ignore adolescents' understandings of the benefits of their sexual practices may not deliver expected objectives.

  9. Environmental impact and benefit from hydro-energy: Bulgarian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesselinov, V.; Iotova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The present hydro energy system in Bulgaria has been constructed mainly in the period 1950-1965. The currently utilized hydro-power potential, only 33% of the estimated technical potential, includes 87 HPP operating in 1991. A complex assessment of the environmental impact of the hydro energy objects as well as a comparative analysis of all energy sources in Bulgaria is made in the framework of Bulgarian Case Study of the DECADES Inter-Agency Project. The main types of environmental impact related to HPP operation are presented in 7 specific categories: land requirements, changes in the landscape, hydrological changes, micro-climatic changes, geodynamic changes, risk from man-made activities; generation of new ecosystems. A technique of expertise in ball is proposed as a suitable quantitative approach for more precise assessment of impact on climate factors from different energy sources. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  10. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...

  11. Demolish or refurbish – Environmental benefits of housing conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ding

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and energy efficiency are some of the most pressing issues facing China today. With its economic growth since 1978, the government has struggled to contain environmental damages and social unrest related to the economy’s rapid transformation. With the rapid growth in population and urbanization the demand for housing has escalated and traditional housing has been under threat of demolition to make way for new construction. Traditional housing is generally considered wasteful in its use of land and/or energy, and is often demolished for more intensive and more energy-efficient housing, despite the resulting loss of embodied energy and urban amenity. A research project was undertaken to study the environmental performance of traditional housing in Hangzhou. The project looks into analyzing and comparing embodied energy and CO2 for seven dwellings. In addition indoor climate data were recorded and collected in the form of hourly temperature and humidity readings for one year in six local houses and in a modern unit as a control for one year. The research results reveal that there is little difference in environmental performance between traditional and conventional modern construction and the value of conservation rather than demolition as a strategic development for the construction industry.

  12. Development of a Framework for the Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of Controlled Traffic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mounem Mouazen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although controlled traffic farming (CTF is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG, conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser use efficiency. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the European Commission Soil Framework Directive, the choice of and the weighting of the impact of each of the environmental benefits were made. The framework was validated using data from three selected farms. For Colworth farm (Unilever, UK, the framework predicted the largest overall environmental benefit of 59.3% of the theoretically maximum achievable benefits (100%, as compared to the other two farms in Scotland (52% and Australia (47.3%. This overall benefit could be broken down into: reducing soil compaction (24%, tillage energy requirement (10% and GHG emissions (3%, enhancing soil biodiversity (7% and erosion control (6%, conserving organic matter (6%, and improving fertiliser use efficiency (3%. Similar evaluation can be performed for any farm worldwide, providing that data on soil properties, topography, machinery, and weather are available.

  13. Multiple account benefit-cost evaluation of the Burrard Thermal Generating Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The government of British Columbia commissioned a multiple account benefit-cost analysis of the Burrard Thermal Generating Plant to ensure that the power production is in the economic and environmental interest of the province. The power plant consists of 6 natural gas-fired generating units with a combined capacity of 950 MW. It has been updated in recent years to reduce local emissions and to increase plant availability and reliability. Burrard has contributed in a major way to BC Hydro's net revenues, but there have been concerns that BC Hydro's purchases of natural gas for the power plant have contributed to the sharp increases in natural gas prices in 2001. There have also been concerns about air emissions from Burrard, including greenhouse gases and nitrous oxides. Historically, the plant has been beneficial, but this report will determine if it is in the provincial interest to continue operation of Burrard or to turn to alternative scenarios. The alternatives include constraining Burrard's output, or shutting it down and replacing it with other resources and repowering the plant with more efficient combined cycle gas turbine technology. In the constrained scenario, Burrard output and net exports are reduced. In the repowering scenario, investment and output at Burrard is increased. The financial consequences of these impacts are measured by their effect on the net system costs of meeting BC Hydro's load. The report demonstrated that it would not be in the overall interest of the province to constrain the operation of Burrard or shut it down. It was recommended that BC Hydro should review in detail the repowering option for Burrard, and that the government should consider imposing an emission charge reflecting the estimated damage costs associated with local pollutants generated at Burrard. The revenues would be used to fund offset measures in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed. 29 refs., 29 tabs., 3 appendices

  14. Consumer’s Intention to Purchase Green Brands: the Roles of Environmental Concern, Environmental Knowledge and Self Expressive Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Anees Ahmad; K. S. Thyagaraj

    2015-01-01

    Companies are striving to minimize environmental impact through sustainable business practices. Consumers have become more aware of environmental issues and many companies have recognized the relevance of green marketing in gaining competitive advantage. As a part of green marketing strategy, companies are developing green brands. This paper focuses on the effect of consumer’s concern for environment, environmental knowledge and self expressive benefits on attitude and intention to purchase g...

  15. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-07-16

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region.

  16. Environmental Psychology” the mental benefits of physical activities in natural settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Practicing sports and physical activities has a huge positive impact on physiological and psychological wellbeing of individuals. Drawing from Environmental and Positive psychology, the idea presented in this paper highlight the even stronger psychological benefits related to training, exercising...

  17. Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.B.; Rosa, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50 TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power generation and conservation, energy use requires discussions on the feasibility of each energy supply option, and comparison between alternatives available on the market. Power conservation is compared to projects implemented by the Federal Government, while power generation is rated against thermo-power plants fired by natural gas running on a combined cycle system. Although the operating costs of selective garbage collection for energy generation are higher than current levels, the net operating revenues of this scheme reach some US$ 4 billion/year. This underpins the feasibility of garbage management being underwritten by energy uses and avoided environmental costs. The suggested optimization of the technical, economic, social and environmental sustainability of the expansion of Brazil's power sector consists of compatibilizing the use of fossil and renewable fuels, which is particularly relevant for hybrid thermo-power plants with null account on greenhouse gases emissions

  18. Payment for multiple forest benefits alters the effect of tree disease on optimal forest rotation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Morag F; Kleczkowski, Adam; Healey, John R; Hanley, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Forests deliver multiple benefits both to their owners and to wider society. However, a wave of forest pests and pathogens is threatening this worldwide. In this paper we examine the effect of disease on the optimal rotation length of a single-aged, single rotation forest when a payment for non-timber benefits, which is offered to private forest owners to partly internalise the social values of forest management, is included. Using a generalisable bioeconomic framework we show how this payment counteracts the negative economic effect of disease by increasing the optimal rotation length, and under some restrictive conditions, even makes it optimal to never harvest the forest. The analysis shows a range of complex interactions between factors including the rate of spread of infection and the impact of disease on the value of harvested timber and non-timber benefits. A key result is that the effect of disease on the optimal rotation length is dependent on whether the disease affects the timber benefit only compared to when it affects both timber and non-timber benefits. Our framework can be extended to incorporate multiple ecosystem services delivered by forests and details of how disease can affect their production, thus facilitating a wide range of applications.

  19. The Benefits and Challenges of Multiple Health Behavior Change in Research and in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Spring, Bonnie; Velicer, Wayne F.; Prochaska, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The major chronic diseases are caused by multiple risks, yet the science of multiple health behavior change (MHBC) is at an early stage, and factors that facilitate or impede scientists’ involvement in MHBC research are unknown. Benefits and challenges of MHBC interventions were investigated to strengthen researchers’ commitment and prepare them for challenges. Method An online anonymous survey was emailed to listservs of the Society of Behavioral Medicine between May 2006 and 2007. Respondents (N = 69) were 83% female; 94% held a doctoral degree; 64% were psychologists, 24% were in public health; 83% targeted MHBC in their work. Results A sample majority rated 23 of the 24 benefits, but only 1 of 31 challenge items, as very-to-extremely important. Those engaged in MHBC rated the total benefits significantly higher than respondents focused on single behaviors, F(1,69) = 4.21, pbehaviors do not fully appreciate the benefits that impress MHBC researchers; it is not that substantial barriers are holding them back. Benefits of MHBC interventions need emphasizing more broadly to advance this research area. PMID:19948184

  20. Portuguese consumers’ Interest in seafood production and consumption : insights considering benefits, risks and their environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Ana Pinto de; Cunha, Luís Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Considering food choice, individuals base their decisions on assessments of risks and benefits. For seafood products, consumers may balance between perceived benefits and risks from consuming fish in order to get the health benefits without exceeding tolerable intakes of chemical contaminants. Moreover, consumers may balance between the potential environmental impacts of farmed fish and the thought of fish farming as a way to help save the wild fish stocks from over exploration. The aim of th...

  1. Benefits of Mobile Phone Technology for Personal Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Valentín, Antònia; de Nazelle, Audrey; Ambros, Albert; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-11-10

    Tracking individuals in environmental epidemiological studies using novel mobile phone technologies can provide valuable information on geolocation and physical activity, which will improve our understanding of environmental exposures. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of one of the least expensive mobile phones on the market to track people's travel-activity pattern. Adults living and working in Barcelona (72/162 bicycle commuters) carried simultaneously a mobile phone and a Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker and filled in a travel-activity diary (TAD) for 1 week (N=162). The CalFit app for mobile phones was used to log participants' geographical location and physical activity. The geographical location data were assigned to different microenvironments (home, work or school, in transit, others) with a newly developed spatiotemporal map-matching algorithm. The tracking performance of the mobile phones was compared with that of the GPS trackers using chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. The minute agreement across all microenvironments between the TAD and the algorithm was compared using the Gwet agreement coefficient (AC1). The mobile phone acquired locations for 905 (29.2%) more trips reported in travel diaries than the GPS tracker (Pmobile phones running the CalFit app provides better information on which microenvironments people spend their time in than previous approaches based only on GPS trackers. The improvements of mobile phone technology in microenvironment determination are because the mobile phones are faster at identifying first locations and capable of getting location in challenging environments thanks to the combination of assisted-GPS technology and network positioning systems. Moreover, collecting location information from mobile phones, which are already carried by individuals, allows monitoring more people with a cheaper and less burdensome method than deploying GPS trackers. ©David Donaire-Gonzalez, Ant

  2. Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, B.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder the import of crude oil from neighbouring countries and of the fact that Jordan has limited fossil fuel resources, strategies to meet energy demand are being addressed and examined together with their consequences and the ways in which they could be utilised. This paper assesses for the first time, the potential of using alternative energy technologies in Jordan, including the utilisation of solar energy for water heating, for wind towers in rural areas and also for biogas production from waste. Approximately 2% of unconventional renewable energy resources are being utilised. The data and scenarios of this study were presented in a manner that would assist decision makers, funding agencies, researchers and other related parties to establish programmes that will be helpful in meeting the energy demand, while preserving the environment and maintaining sustainability. (author)

  3. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  4. Lower Bounds on the Maximum Energy Benefit of Network Coding for Wireless Multiple Unicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Ryutaroh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the energy savings that can be obtained by employing network coding instead of plain routing in wireless multiple unicast problems. We establish lower bounds on the benefit of network coding, defined as the maximum of the ratio of the minimum energy required by routing and network coding solutions, where the maximum is over all configurations. It is shown that if coding and routing solutions are using the same transmission range, the benefit in d-dimensional networks is at least . Moreover, it is shown that if the transmission range can be optimized for routing and coding individually, the benefit in 2-dimensional networks is at least 3. Our results imply that codes following a decode-and-recombine strategy are not always optimal regarding energy efficiency.

  5. The perceived benefits and barriers to exercise participation in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nicole; Minahan, Clare; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise participation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). A cross-sectional postal survey comprised of 93 adults with MS was conducted. Participants completed the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS), Spinal Cord Injury Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale, Disease Steps Scale and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Forty-three percent of the participants were classified as exercising individuals (EX group) as compared with non-exercising individuals (non-EX group). Participants in the EX group reported significantly higher scores on the EBBS and EXSE. Items related to physical performance and personal accomplishment were cited as the greatest perceived benefits to exercise participation and those items related to physical exertion as the greatest perceived barriers to both the EX and non-EX groups. When compared with previous studies conducted in the general population, the participants in the present study reported different perceived barriers to exercise participation. Furthermore, awareness of the benefits of physical activity is not sufficient to promote exercise participation in persons with MS. Perceived exercise self-efficacy is shown to play an important role in promoting exercise participation in persons with MS.

  6. Environmental benefit analysis of strategies for potable water savings in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoski, Ana Kelly; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini; Ghisi, Enedir

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental benefit of using rainwater, greywater, water-efficient appliances and their combinations in low-income houses. The study was conducted surveying twenty households located in southern Brazil, which resulted in water end-uses estimation. Then, embodied energy, potential for potable water savings and sewage reduction when using the different strategies were estimated. The environmental benefit analysis of these strategies was performed using an indicator that includes embodied energy, potable water savings, reduction of sewage and energy consumption in the water utility, and sewage production during the life cycle of the system. The results indicated that the strategy with the greatest environmental benefit is the use of water-efficient appliances, which resulted in substantial water savings and reduction of sewage, causing low environmental impact due to lower embodied energy over the life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding how environmental enhancement and conservation activities may benefit health and wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Rebecca; Husk, Kerryn; Cooper, Chris; Stahl-Timmins, Will; Garside, Ruth

    2015-09-07

    Action taken to enhance or conserve outdoor environments may benefit health and wellbeing through the process of participation but also through improving the environment. There is interest, amongst both health and environmental organisations, in using such activities as health promotion interventions. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the health and wellbeing impacts of participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities and to understand how these activities may be beneficial, to whom and in what circumstances or contexts. A theory-led mixed-method systematic review was used to assess evidence of effect and to identify pathways to change (protocol: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1002/14651858.CD010351/full ). Due to the multi-disciplinary, dispersed and disparate body of evidence an extensive multi-stage search strategy was devised and undertaken. Twenty-seven databases and multiple sources of grey literature were searched and over 200 relevant organisations were contacted. The heterogenous evidence was synthesised using a narrative approach and a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the mechanisms of effect. Due to the limited nature of the evidence additional higher order evidence was sought to assess the plausibility of the proposed mechanisms of effect through which health and wellbeing may accrue. The majority of the quantitative evidence (13 studies; all poor quality and lower-order study designs) was inconclusive, though a small number of positive and negative associations were observed. The qualitative evidence (13 studies; 10 poor quality, 3 good) indicated that the activities were perceived to have value to health and wellbeing through a number of key mechanisms; including exposure to natural environments, achievement, enjoyment and social contact. Additional high level evidence indicated that these pathways were plausible. Despite interest in the use of environmental enhancement activities as a

  8. Game Theory of Tumor–Stroma Interactions in Multiple Myeloma: Effect of Nonlinear Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Salimi Sartakhti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells and stromal cells often exchange growth factors with paracrine effects that promote cell growth: a form of cooperation that can be studied by evolutionary game theory. Previous models have assumed that interactions between cells are pairwise or that the benefit of a growth factor is a linear function of its concentration. Diffusible factors, however, affect multiple cells and generally have nonlinear effects, and these differences are known to have important consequences for evolutionary dynamics. Here, we study tumor–stroma paracrine signaling using a model with multiplayer collective interactions in which growth factors have nonlinear effects. We use multiple myeloma as an example, modelling interactions between malignant plasma cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Nonlinear benefits can lead to results not observed in linear models, including internal mixed stable equilibria and cyclical dynamics. Models with linear effects, therefore, do not lead to a meaningful characterization of the dynamics of tumor–stroma interactions. To understand the dynamics and the effect of therapies it is necessary to estimate the shape of the benefit functions experimentally and parametrize models based on these functions.

  9. The cost and benefits of employment: a qualitative study of experiences of persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kurt L; Yorkston, Kathryn M; Klasner, Estelle R; Kuehn, Carrie M; Johnson, Erica; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2004-02-01

    To attain a better understanding of the benefits and barriers faced by persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the workplace. Qualitative research methodology comprising a series of semistructured interviews. Community-based setting. Fourteen women and 2 men with MS living in the community who were employed or recently employed at the time of interviews. Not applicable. Accounts of personal experiences related to employment. Four themes emerged: the cost-benefit economy of working; fatigue and cognitive changes; stress in the workplace; and accommodations made to address barriers. Although participants valued work highly, they were also aware of the cost of being employed. The consequences of unemployment or changing jobs were considered negative and appeared stressful. For persons with MS, employment had both costs and significant benefits. Accommodations in the workplace and modifications of roles and responsibilities at home made it possible for individuals to continue working. Health care providers must consider the complexity and timing of decisions by people with MS to continue or leave employment before recommending either action. Identifying critical periods of intervention to stabilize this cost-benefit balance is a critical next step for understanding issues of employment and MS.

  10. Environmental Benefits of Using Wind Generation to Power Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As alternatives to conventional vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs running off electricity stored in batteries could decrease oil consumption and reduce carbon emissions. By using electricity derived from clean energy sources, even greater environmental benefits are obtainable. This study examines the potential benefits arising from the widespread adoption of PHEVs in light of Alberta’s growing interest in wind power. It also investigates PHEVs’ capacity to mitigate natural fluctuations in wind power generation.

  11. Valuing financial, health and environmental benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kouser, Shahzad; Qaim, Matin

    2012-01-01

    Data from a farm survey and choice experiment are used to value the benefits of Bt cotton in Pakistan. Unlike previous research on the economic impacts of Bt, which mostly concentrated on financial benefits in terms of gross margins, we also quantify and monetize positive externalities associated with technology adoption. Due to lower chemical pesticide use on Bt cotton plots, there are significant health advantages in terms of reduced incidence of acute pesticide poisoning, and environmental...

  12. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental-economic benefits and trade-offs on sustainably certified coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Jeremy; Soto, Gabriela; Casanoves, Fernando; de Melo Virginio, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Coffee with diverse shade trees is recognized as conserving greater biodiversity than more intensive production methods. Sustainable certification has been proposed as an incentive to conserve shade grown coffee. With 40% of global coffee production certified as sustainable, evidence is needed to demonstrate whether certification supports the environmental benefits of shade coffee. Environmen-tal and economic data were taken from 278 coffee farms in Nicaragua divided between non-certified and...

  14. Exploratory benefit-cost analysis of environmental controls on hydrothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; King, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    A study of the value of environmental benefits generated by environmental regulation of hydrothermal sites was initiated to compare these benefits with the estimated costs of regulation. Primary objectives were to 1) evaluate the environmental damages caused by unregulated hydrothermal resource development, 2) use existing environmental and economic data to estimate the dollar value of preventing expected environmental damages at two sites, and 3) compare the benefits and costs of preventing the damages. The sites chosen for analyses were in the Imperial Valley at Heber and Niland, California. Reasons for this choice were 1) there is a high level of commercial interest in developing the Heber known geothermal resource area (KGRA) and the Salton Sea KGRA; 2) the potential for environmental damage is high; 3) existing data bases for these two sites are more comprehensive than at other sites. The primary impacts analyzed were those related to hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions and those related to disposal of spent hydrothermal brine. (MHR)

  15. Scenario and multiple criteria decision analysis for energy and environmental security of military and industrial installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvetski, Christopher W; Lambert, James H; Linkov, Igor

    2011-04-01

    Military and industrial facilities need secure and reliable power generation. Grid outages can result in cascading infrastructure failures as well as security breaches and should be avoided. Adding redundancy and increasing reliability can require additional environmental, financial, logistical, and other considerations and resources. Uncertain scenarios consisting of emergent environmental conditions, regulatory changes, growth of regional energy demands, and other concerns result in further complications. Decisions on selecting energy alternatives are made on an ad hoc basis. The present work integrates scenario analysis and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify combinations of impactful emergent conditions and to perform a preliminary benefits analysis of energy and environmental security investments for industrial and military installations. Application of a traditional MCDA approach would require significant stakeholder elicitations under multiple uncertain scenarios. The approach proposed in this study develops and iteratively adjusts a scoring function for investment alternatives to find the scenarios with the most significant impacts on installation security. A robust prioritization of investment alternatives can be achieved by integrating stakeholder preferences and focusing modeling and decision-analytical tools on a few key emergent conditions and scenarios. The approach is described and demonstrated for a campus of several dozen interconnected industrial buildings within a major installation. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  16. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced.

  17. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M. Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-01-01

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. Depending on location, we estimate that the combined health, environmental, and climate benefits from wind or solar range from $10/MWh to $100/MWh, and the sites with the highest energy output do not yield the greatest social benefits in many cases. We estimate that the social benefits from existing wind farms are roughly 60% higher than the cost of the Production Tax Credit, an important federal subsidy for wind energy. However, that same investment could achieve greater health, environmental, and climate benefits if it were differentiated by region. PMID:23798431

  18. Making the Case for Green Building: Cataloging the Benefits of Environmentally Responsible Design & Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex

    2008-01-01

    To those entrenched in the green building world, the benefits seem obvious. Why would anyone choose to build in a way that isn't comfortable, healthy, energy efficient, and environmentally responsible? Even within a single college or university project, different team members often have different reasons for promoting a green agenda. Architects…

  19. Environmental benefits of compost use on land through LCA – a review of the current gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazcano, Cristina; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2014-01-01

    The use of biowaste compost on land can have beneficial effects on the plant–soil system. While the environmental impacts associated with compost production have been successfully assessed in previous studies, the assessment of the benefits of compost on plant and soil has been only partially inc...

  20. Environmental Psychology” the mental benefits of physical activities in natural settings

    OpenAIRE

    De Dominicis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Practicing sports and physical activities has a huge positive impact on physiological and psychological wellbeing of individuals. Drawing from Environmental and Positive psychology, the idea presented in this paper highlight the even stronger psychological benefits related to training, exercising and playing sports in natural environments. Specifically, given their intrinsic characteristics, such contexts are more prone then urban environments to foster positive emotions, controlled cognition...

  1. A Bottom-up Approach to Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carolus, Johannes Friedrich; Hanley, Nick; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    with the underlying environmental problem, and then assesses costs and benefits of various strategies and solutions suggested by local and directly affected stakeholders. For empirical case studies concerning two river catchments in Sweden and Latvia, the bottom-up CBA approach utilises local knowledge, assesses......Cost-Benefit Analysis is a method to assess the effects of policies and projects on social welfare. CBAs are usually applied in a top-down approach, in the sense that a decision-making body first decides on which policies or projects are to be considered, and then applies a set of uniform criteria...... plans which are not only developed for local conditions but are also likely to be more acceptable to local society, and sheds additional light on possible distributional effects. By not only benefitting from, but also supporting participative environmental planning, bottom-up CBA is in line...

  2. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.; Baumann, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined--including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies--and the limitations of the analysis are outlined

  3. The potential economic and environmental impact of a Public Benefit Fund in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.; Baumann, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Public Benefit Fund programs are one approach to provide energy assistance to low-income households placed at risk in a competitive electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential economic and environmental impact of a proposed Public Benefit Fund for the state of Louisiana. The 'best available' model to estimate the relationship between the cost of Public Benefit Fund programs and the benefits delivered by its implementation would be based on an evaluation of existent energy conservation and weatherization programs in the state, but unfortunately, such an evaluation has not been previously performed and so the 'next best' analytic model was employed. The impact of a Public Benefit Fund on energy savings and environmental consequences is assessed through a simulation model and input-output analysis. The model developed is based on publicly available data and infer results under a reasonable assumption set. The model structure and system assumptions of the Public Benefit Fund program are described, realistic policy alternatives are examined, including cost-ceiling, variable funding, and target group strategies, and the limitations of the analysis are outlined. (Author)

  4. A model for evaluating the environmental benefits of elementary school facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Kwangbok; Leigh, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a model that is capable of evaluating the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility was developed. The model is composed of three steps: (i) retrieval of elementary school facilities having similar characteristics as the new elementary school facility using case-based reasoning; (ii) creation of energy consumption and material data for the benchmark elementary school facility using the retrieved similar elementary school facilities; and (iii) evaluation of the environmental benefits of the new elementary school facility by assessing and comparing the environmental impact of the new and created benchmark elementary school facility using life cycle assessment. The developed model can present the environmental benefits of a new elementary school facility in terms of monetary values using Environmental Priority Strategy 2000, a damage-oriented life cycle impact assessment method. The developed model can be used for the following: (i) as criteria for a green-building rating system; (ii) as criteria for setting the support plan and size, such as the government's incentives for promoting green-building projects; and (iii) as criteria for determining the feasibility of green building projects in key business sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise for recently treated patients with multiple myeloma: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craike, Melinda J; Hose, Kaye; Courneya, Kerry S; Harrison, Simon J; Livingston, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the physical activity experiences of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is essential to inform the development of evidence-based interventions and to quantify the benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity for patients with MM. This was a qualitative study that used a grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Victoria, Australia by telephone from December 2011-February 2012 with patients who had been treated for MM within the preceding 2-12 months. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparison coding method to reduce the data to themes. Gender differences and differences between treatment groups were explored. Twenty-four interviews were completed. The sample comprised 13 females (54%), with a mean age of 62 years (SD = 8.8). Sixteen (67%) participants had received an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). All participants currently engaged in a range of light to moderate intensity physical activity; walking and gardening were the most common activities. Recovery from the symptoms of MM and side effects of therapy, psychological benefits, social factors and enjoyment were important benefits of physical activity. Barriers to physical activity predominately related to the symptoms of MM and side effects of therapy, including pain, fatigue, and fear of infection. Low self- motivation was also a barrier. Women participated in a more diverse range of physical activities than men and there were gender differences in preferred type of physical activity. Women were more likely to report psychological and social benefits; whereas men reported physical activity as a way to keep busy and self-motivation was a barrier. Patients treated with an ASCT more often reported affective benefits of participation in physical activity and fatigue as a barrier. Patients

  6. Environmental benefits of parking-integrated photovoltaics: A 222kWp experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    integration (in this case parking integration) have been quantified using a standard methodology for the calculation of several environmental parameters. Finally, the environmental benefits of renewable energy generation because of the savings of producing the same amount of electricity by the Spanish grid...... in the system, the energy payback time, and the energy return factor of the facility have been obtained and are 6.31TJ equivalent primary energy, 2.06 and 12.16years, respectively. The average performance ratio is 0.8 with a slight monthly variation. Additionally, the environmental benefits of the architectural......The life cycle assessment of a grid-connected, parking integrated, 222kWp cadmium telluride photovoltaic system has been performed. The system was built at the University of Murcia and has been monitored for 2.5years (sampling data every 5min). The detailed material inventory, the energy embedded...

  7. A cost benefit review of applying quality assurance principles to project management of environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows the cost/benefit mechanism used for applying the theory and practical aspects of QA principles as a management tool to project management of environmental cleanup projects. This includes reviewing and guidelines and requirements to determine the practical aspects of applying these requirements to environmental project management. Thus, there is a feedback loop for comparison of the cost/benefits of application of each stage of the project. The project's major stages include planning, environmental sampling, analysis of data samples, data/information management to include reporting, and follow- up, post-cleanup sampling with continued data management. A comparison is also made of the theory with the practical aspects of each of these stages

  8. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  9. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant.

  10. Benefits, safety, and prescription of exercise in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W

    2014-12-01

    Exercise represents a behavioral approach for the restoration of function and management of symptoms among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The current paper provides a review on the topic of exercise in MS and is separated into four sections. The first section defines exercise and related constructs. The second section summarizes evidence for the benefits of exercise in MS based on literature reviews and meta-analyses. The third section focuses on the safety of exercise in MS based on the reporting of relapses and other adverse events, and the last section describes guidelines for exercise. The paper concludes with a discussion of major limitations with the existing body of research and highlights some of the pressing areas for future research on exercise in MS.

  11. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  12. Co-enrolment of Participants into Multiple Cancer Trials: Benefits and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafferty, F H; Coyle, C; Rowley, S; Berkman, L; MacKensie, M; Langley, R E

    2017-07-01

    Opportunities to enter patients into more than one clinical trial are not routinely considered in cancer research and experiences with co-enrolment are rarely reported. Potential benefits of allowing appropriate co-enrolment have been identified in other settings but there is a lack of evidence base or guidance to inform these decisions in oncology. Here, we discuss the benefits and challenges associated with co-enrolment based on experiences in the Add-Aspirin trial - a large, multicentre trial recruiting across a number of tumour types, where opportunities to co-enrol patients have been proactively explored and managed. The potential benefits of co-enrolment include: improving recruitment feasibility; increased opportunities for patients to participate in trials; and collection of robust data on combinations of interventions, which will ensure the ongoing relevance of individual trials and provide more cohesive evidence to guide the management of future patients. There are a number of perceived barriers to co-enrolment in terms of scientific, safety and ethical issues, which warrant consideration on a trial-by-trial basis. In many cases, any potential effect on the results of the trials will be negligible - limited by a number of factors, including the overlap in trial cohorts. Participant representatives stress the importance of autonomy to decide about trial enrolment, providing a compelling argument for offering co-enrolment where there are multiple trials that are relevant to a patient and no concerns regarding safety or the integrity of the trials. A number of measures are proposed for managing and monitoring co-enrolment. Ensuring acceptability to (potential) participants is paramount. Opportunities to enter patients into more than one cancer trial should be considered more routinely. Where planned and managed appropriately, co-enrolment can offer a number of benefits in terms of both scientific value and efficiency of study conduct, and will increase the

  13. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  14. Investigating preferences for dynamic electricity tariffs: The effect of environmental and system benefit disclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buryk, Stephen; Mead, Doug; Mourato, Susana; Torriti, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic electricity pricing can produce efficiency gains in the electricity sector and help achieve energy policy goals such as increasing electric system reliability and supporting renewable energy deployment. Retail electric companies can offer dynamic pricing to residential electricity customers via smart meter-enabled tariffs that proxy the cost to procure electricity on the wholesale market. Current investments in the smart metering necessary to implement dynamic tariffs show policy makers’ resolve for enabling responsive demand and realizing its benefits. However, despite these benefits and the potential bill savings these tariffs can offer, adoption among residential customers remains at low levels. Using a choice experiment approach, this paper seeks to determine whether disclosing the environmental and system benefits of dynamic tariffs to residential customers can increase adoption. Although sampling and design issues preclude wide generalization, we found that our environmentally conscious respondents reduced their required discount to switch to dynamic tariffs around 10% in response to higher awareness of environmental and system benefits. The perception that shifting usage is easy to do also had a significant impact, indicating the potential importance of enabling technology. Perhaps the targeted communication strategy employed by this study is one way to increase adoption and achieve policy goals. - Highlights: • We evaluate preferences for domestic dynamic electricity tariffs in the US and EU. • We use an online choice experiment approach with two dynamic tariff options. • People are more likely to switch if shown environmental and system benefits. • People are more likely to switch if they find shifting demand easy to do. • Our results imply the importance of targeted communication and enabling technology

  15. Energy conservation and environmental benefits that may be realized from Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) technology which has the capability to significantly improve electrical system operations within electric utility systems. This has been demonstrated by Bonneville Power Administration in a 30-MJ SMES demonstration unit. Savings in utility operations from improved system efficiency, increased reliability, and reduced maintenance requirements contribute to the economic justification of SMES. Beyond these benefits, there are additional benefits which in the long run may significantly outweigh the electrical operational benefits. These benefits are the energy conservation and environmental benefits. Since SMES can uncouple generation from load, it can shift generation around, thereby changing the operational characteristics of the system. The technology has the capability of reducing fuel consumption which can in turn reduce emissions. In a regional setting it can potentially shift emissions both in volumes and in physical areas to avoid problem situations. With its capability to strategically shift generation and significantly affect emissions and air quality it can stretch clean energy generation options. With these attributes, SMES can be recognized as an energy and environmental management technology and tool

  16. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered......When considering the environmental benefits from converting to renewable energy sources, the rebound effect is often omitted. In this study, the aim is to investigate greenhouse gas emission reduction inclusive of the rebound effect. We use Iceland as a case study where alternative consumption...

  17. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Condit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country.

  18. Cost analysis and ecological benefits of environmental recovery methodologies in bauxite mining

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,João Carlos Costa; Barros,Dalmo Arantes de; Pereira,José Aldo Alves; Silva,Rossi Allan; Oliveira,Antonio Donizette de; Borges,Luís Antônio Coimbra

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzed and compared three methods of environmental recovery in bauxite mining commonly used in Poços de Caldas Plateau, MG, by means of recovery costs and ecological benefits. Earnings and costs data of environmental recovery activities were obtained for the areas that belonged to the Companhia Geral de Minas – CGM, on properties sited in the city of Poços de Caldas, MG. The amount of costs of these activities was used to compare the recovery methods by updating them monetarily to...

  19. Risk-benefit considerations in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugaresi A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Lugaresi,1 Maria di Ioia,1 Daniela Travaglini,1 Erika Pietrolongo,1 Eugenio Pucci,2 Marco Onofrj11Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University “G d’Annunzio”, Chieti, 2Operative Unit Neurologia ASUR Marche Area Vasta 3, Macerata, ItalyAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and mainly affects young adults. Its natural history has changed in recent years with the advent of disease-modifying drugs, which have been available since the early 1990s. The increasing number of first-line and second-line treatment options, together with the variable course of the disease and patient lifestyles and expectations, makes the therapeutic decision a real challenge. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the main present and some future drugs for relapsing-remitting MS, including risk-benefit considerations, to enable readers to draw their own conclusions regarding the risk-benefit assessment of personalized treatment strategies, taking into account not only treatment-related but also disease-related risks. We performed a Medline literature search to identify studies on the treatment of MS with risk stratification and risk-benefit considerations. We focused our attention on studies of disease-modifying, immunomodulating, and immunosuppressive drugs, including monoclonal antibodies. Here we offer personal considerations, stemming from long-term experience in the treatment of MS and thorough discussions with other neurologists closely involved in the care of patients with the disease. MS specialists need to know not only the specific risks and benefits of single drugs, but also about drug interactions, either in simultaneous or serial combination therapy, and patient comorbidities, preferences, and fears. This has to be put into perspective, considering also the risks of untreated disease in patients with different clinical and radiological characteristics

  20. Mediterranean food consumption patterns: low environmental impacts and significant health-nutrition benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussaleh, Y; Capone, R; Bilali, H El

    2017-11-01

    The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species. This review paper aims at highlighting the nutrition-health benefits of the MD and analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that the MD has significant health-nutrition benefits and low environmental footprints, so there is urgent need to reverse the ongoing erosion of the MD heritage and to promote it as a sustainable diets model.

  1. Measuring the environmental benefits of hydrogen transportation fuel cycles under uncertainty about external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, Liliya; Gulli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ('oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine') in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ('natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell'). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove this ambiguity highlighting that the hydrogen pathway provides significant environmental benefits ,especially in densely populated areas, assuming 100% city driving.

  2. Environmental assessment and planning theory: four short stories about power, multiple rationality, and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This paper engages with recent debates in the environmental assessment (EA) literature about the lessons that can be learned from planning theory. It argues that the current communicative turn in EA, echoing a similar shift in planning thought in the 1990s, has failed to benefit from this earlier experience. Instead of following this trend, the paper examines EA from a perspective which is more closely aligned with some of the critics of the communicative approach, and which combines concepts of power, rationality, value and ethics in a different way. First, the paper briefly sets out how planning theory has engaged with these concepts. It then argues that EA needs to engage with competing multiple rationalities, and the inescapable presence of value conflicts within EA. It then turns to recent debates in EA to show how the question of value has become a very difficult issue for EA theorists. These issues are then explored by looking at four cases where environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) become dramatic sites of struggle, in very different ways: where the boundaries between facts, boundaries, and opinions are defined through power struggles; where SEA is used as a process of brokerage between a fragile coalition of interests; where power defines rationality in the construction of an SEA instrument; and where EIA is challenged from the outside by civil society. The paper closes by discussing how EA practitioners can operate reflexively and ethically in a world of contested rationality

  3. Representing inequities in the distribution of socio-economic benefits and environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Garric E; Magpili, Luna M

    2002-10-01

    There is currently no standard method for analyzing claims of environmental inequity. Neither is there a database of statistics on the extent of relationship between regional indicators of environmental quality, likely sources of pollution, and the demographic characteristics of affected populations. The resolution of environmental disputes is often hampered by inadequate communication between stakeholder groups about their perceptions and prioritization of the issues in dispute and by differential access to information about the issues by each stakeholder group. This paper describes a web-based tool, ICEP, that uses multi-layered GIS maps to establish a standard method for analyzing claims of environmental inequity and establish a database of correlation coefficients between environmental indicators, industry type by SIC code, and demographic characteristics of the population in proximity to noxious facilities. The maps are generated from stakeholder reports of environmental quality and are designed to be accessible via the Internet. This provides stakeholders with direct access to graphical displays of the perceptions of their co-stakeholders and provides all groups with links to relevant information sources about the issues in dispute. ICEP enhances existing community environmental websites like Scorecard and Envirofacts by providing displays of median household income as a measure of the distribution of benefits accrued within an area.

  4. Delivering environmental benefit from the use of Environmental Quality Standards: why we need to focus on implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrington, Graham; Peters, Adam; Whitehouse, Paul; Clarke, Robin; Merckel, Dan

    2018-02-01

    The UK has adopted a broader approach to the introduction of Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for the aquatic environment than many other jurisdictions around the world, with a greater focus on the implementation of scientifically derived standards. This follows the publication of a report by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution in 1998 which drew attention to the need to recognise that whilst an EQS is often just viewed as a numerical value, it also has other important characteristics that need to be recognised if it is to be a practical and effective regulatory tool. One of the aspects that has not always been recognised was that of implementation assessment, i.e. the steps needed to ensure that a standard actually delivers environmental benefit or improvements. In many jurisdictions, there is considerable technical and sometimes political emphasis on the numerical value of the EQS (e.g. the critical concentration in an environmental matrix like water), including the method of derivation, the scrutiny of the reliability and relevance of the ecotoxicity test data and extensive deliberations of unquantified uncertainties in relation to the choice of assessment factor. The regulatory value of an EQS only comes through a comparison against a measured environmental concentration, yet only relatively limited regulatory effort has historically been expended on this component of the classic environmental risk assessment paradigm. For example, there needs to be an acceptable (i.e. small) uncertainty in the EQS, an appropriate analytical method and detection limit in the correct matrix, a method to deliver a comparison with the EQS and a robust statistical method to draw unbiased conclusions about environmental risk. In addition, we argue that there is a case for checking the consequences of introducing a standard against field data, wherever possible. This validation of the EQS rarely happens currently. We explain what implementation assessment is and why

  5. Environmental and socioeconomic benefits and limitations of water harvesting techniques in semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Asunción Romero-Díaz, María; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Under climate change, sustainable management of soil and water resources is increasingly important, especially in rainfed agroecosystems of semiarid environments. Water harvesting refers to a range of techniques for the collection and management of flood or rainwater for domestic and agricultural use and for water retention in natural ecosystems. Water harvesting represents a good example of sustainable management of water resources that contribute to water and food security. However, there are often environmental and socioeconomic constraints for implementation of water harvesting techniques, so each condition asks for a specific solution. Here we aim to highlight the environmental and socioeconomic benefits, requirements and limitations of different water harvesting techniques and to characterize their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We reviewed 62 water harvesting techniques for semiarid regions extracted from the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. We discuss aspects related to: i) human and environmental characteristics, ii) cost-benefit ratio during implementation and maintenance phases, iii) socioeconomic and environmental impacts at local and regional scales, and, iv) impacts on ecosystem services. Our review reveals that water harvesting represents very diverse methods of collecting and managing floodwaters and surface runoff. We grouped techniques as 'floodwater harvesting', 'macro-catchment water harvesting', 'micro-catchment water harvesting', and 'rooftop and courtyard' water harvesting. Almost half of all technologies originates from traditional knowledge. The implementation of water harvesting is generally positive on the short-term, to very positive on the long-term, while its maintenance is very positive at short and long-term. However, perception depends on the type of water harvesting and local conditions. Most relevant socioeconomic benefits from

  6. MEDITERRANEAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANT HEALTH AND NUTRITION BENEFITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbilali, H.; Capone, R.; Lamaddalena, N.; Lamberti, L.; Elferchichi, A.; Aboussaleh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nutrition is central in the prevention of food-related non-communicable diseases representing an important health risk factor and an enormous socio-economic burden for Mediterranean societies. Nevertheless, assessment of food systems and diets sustainability should take into account not only their health benefits but also their environmental impacts. This work aims at analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns (MFCPs) and at highlighting their nutrition and health benefits. The paper provides a review on nutrition and health benefits of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) as well as on water and land resources and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. FAO food consumption statistics and standard footprint data were used to characterise the MFCP and to calculate and discuss environmental impacts, i.e. water, carbon and ecological footprints. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2,300 plant species. The share of plant-based energy in the diet is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe and America. Peoples adhering to the Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrients intakes. The MD was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. During the last decades, the ecological footprint (EF) per capita in the Mediterranean increased while the biocapacity decreased thus the ecological deficit increased. The carbon footprint alone is generally higher than the biocapacity. MENA region has a lower EF than North America. Food consumption represents the highest share of water footprint of consumption (WFC) in the Mediterranean. WFC is lower in Mediterranean countries, especially MENA ones, than in North America. The traditional MD offers considerable health benefits and has lower environmental impacts than Northern

  7. Regional variations in the health, environmental, and climate benefits of wind and solar generation

    OpenAIRE

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M. Granger; Apt, Jay

    2013-01-01

    When wind or solar energy displace conventional generation, the reduction in emissions varies dramatically across the United States. Although the Southwest has the greatest solar resource, a solar panel in New Jersey displaces significantly more sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter than a panel in Arizona, resulting in 15 times more health and environmental benefits. A wind turbine in West Virginia displaces twice as much carbon dioxide as the same turbine in California. De...

  8. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  9. Dark tourism. The Effects of Motivation and Environmental Attitudes on the Benefits of Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Te-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the experience model for visitors participating in Dark Tourism. The Hsiaolin Village relics, which were destroyed by the 2009 typhoon in Taiwan, are selected as the research subject. A total of 341 visitors to Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park were interviewed through a survey questionnaire. Structural equation models (SEMs) were utilized to verify the causal relationship among the visitors ’Dark Tourism motivation, environmental attitudes, and benefits of experience ...

  10. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  12. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  13. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.; Narita, Daiju

    2015-01-01

    Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost−benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost−benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost−benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  14. Dialium seed coprophagy in wild western gorillas: Multiple nutritional benefits and toxicity reduction hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Breuer, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Unraveling the relationship between the unusual feeding behaviors and the nutritional intake of endangered species may provide crucial information for understanding species response to habitat unpredictable changes. Primates occasionally re-ingest fruit seeds alongside ingestion of feces, a behavior called coprophagy. The nutritional benefit is one of the several non-mutual exclusive hypotheses proposed to explain this behavior. We investigated the ecological correlates of coprophagy in wild western gorillas. We tested whether coprophagy occurred during periods of lower fruit availability and whether it led to higher nutrient intake in comparison to the other food. Data integrated phenological, fecal and nutritional analyses of gorilla food with behavioral observations collected at two sites in Central Africa (Mbeli Bai: ad libitum observations on 15 groups/solitary males, October 2002-November 2005; Bai Hokou: 5-min scan on a habituated group, December 2004-December 2005). Coprophagy occurred at the end of the high-fruiting season in association of two Dialium species. Coprophagy correlated positively with the occurrence of Dialium spp. fruit in gorilla feces and in the feeding scans, and showed a positive trend with Dialium availability but not with total fruit availability. Nutritional comparison of Dialium seeds with other important gorilla food showed higher fat and mineral content, particularly of Mg, but also of phenols and tannins in Dialium seeds. We discuss how the effect of gut processing and gut heat via coprophagy may act as cooking-like effect: increasing the ability to maximize nutrient intake by concurrently softening fibers and decreasing the toxic effect of antifeedants, like in human traditional cooking. Our results support both the multiple nutritional benefit hypothesis and the toxicity reduction hypothesis. Since Dialium is precious timber, the importance of this tree for the critically endangered western gorillas should be taken with high

  15. An assessment of the environmental benefits of demand management for the province of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagiannakos, T.; Fordyce, A.; Boone, C.; Gooder, B.; Camacho, F.

    1993-01-01

    This study focused on the environmental impacts of fossil-fired generation that is expected to be displaced by electrical efficiency improvement programs and higher efficiency standards in the province on Ontario by the year 2000. Air emission dispersions were modelled by generating station. The impacts of air emission reductions on human mortality, human morbidity, building materials, agricultural crops, forests and lakes and fisheries were quantified using dose-response functions taken from the literature or estimated for the province of Ontario. Environmental impacts were monetized using cost data specific to Ontario. The final outcome was an estimate of the environmental benefits associated with emission reductions in fossil-fuelled power plants due to efficiency improvements in electricity use in the province of Ontario. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Tai chi for health benefits in patients with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Zou

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Tai chi, which is critical to provide guidelines for clinicians to improve symptomatic management in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. After performing electronic and manual searches of many sources, ten relevant peer-reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved. The existing evidence supports the effectiveness of Tai chi on improving quality of life (QOL and functional balance in MS patients. A small number of these studies also reported the positive effect of Tai chi on flexibility, leg strength, gait, and pain. The effect of Tai chi on fatigue is inconsistent across studies. Although the findings demonstrate beneficial effects on improving outcome measures, especially for functional balance and QOL improvements, a conclusive claim should be made carefully for reasons such as methodological flaws, small sample size, lack of specific-disease instruments, unclear description of Tai chi protocol, unreported safety of Tai chi, and insufficient follow-up as documented by the existing literature. Future research should recruit a larger number of participants and utilize the experimental design with a long-term follow-up to ascertain the benefits of Tai chi for MS patients.

  17. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  18. Dark tourism. The Effects of Motivation and Environmental Attitudes on the Benefits of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang, Te-Yi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the experience model for visitors participating in Dark Tourism. The Hsiaolin Village relics, which were destroyed by the 2009 typhoon in Taiwan, are selected as the research subject. A total of 341 visitors to Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park were interviewed through a survey questionnaire. Structural equation models (SEMs were utilized to verify the causal relationship among the visitors ’Dark Tourism motivation, environmental attitudes, and benefits of experience in Dark Tourism relics. The benefits of experience in Dark Tourism are divided into social benefits, learning benefits, and pressure relief for psychological benefits in this study. The empirical results show that the higher Dark Tourism motivation could enhance the visitors’ environmental attitudes towards Dark relics and further affect the acquired benefits of experience. Moreover, the stronger Dark Tourism motivation could directly influence the psychological benefits of experience such as emotional and pressure relief. The direct effects of learning and social benefits are not as strong where the benefits of experience are affected by the emotional perception of environmental attitudes. In other words, environmental attitudes present partial mediating effects. The research results provide useful reference information for the planning of Dark Tourism relics and the development of tourism activities.El objetivo de este estudio consiste en discutir el modelo de experiencia de los visitantes que participan en actividades de turismo negro. Como objeto de estudio se han seleccionado las ruinas del pueblo de Hsiaolin, Taiwán, destruido en 2009 por un tifón. Se realizaron entrevistas mediante cuestionario a 341 visitantes del Hsiaolin Village Memorial Park. Para comprobar la relación causal entre las motivaciones de los visitantes que realizan actividades de turismo negro, sus actitudes medioambientales y los beneficios de la experiencia en la ruinas de

  19. Environmental benefits of cropland conversion to hybrid poplar: economic and policy considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updegraff, K.; Baughman, M.J.; Taff, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate environmental benefits that might accrue from conversion of farmland to short-rotation woody crops (SRWC), a hypothetical conversion of 10%, 20% and 30% of cropland was modeled in a watershed of the Lower Minnesota River. The analysis synthesized output from a watershed model (ADAPT) with literature-based estimates of productivity and economic values for water quality, forest conservation and carbon sequestration. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to estimate ranges of environmental benefit values for cropland conversion to SRWCS. The summed average net benefits justified annual public subsidies ranging from $44 to 596 ha -1 , depending on market scenario and conversion level. Cropland conversion to SRWCs reduced cumulative annual stream flows, sediment and nitrogen loadings by up to 9%, 28% and 15%, respectively. Reduced sediment loads resulted in potential average annual public savings on culvert and ditch maintenance costs of $9.37 Mg -1 of sediment not delivered to the watershed outlet. Hybrid poplars over a 5-year rotation produced an estimated annual economic value due to carbon sequestration of $13-15 ha -1 when used for bioenergy and $29-33 ha -1 (depending on conversion rate) when converted to wood products. If hybrid poplars are substituted for aspen traditionally harvested from natural woodlands, the poplars create annual forest preservation values of $4.79-5.44 ha -1 . (author)

  20. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  1. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains ∼650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontić, Branko; Dermol, Urška

    2015-01-01

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects

  3. Confronting reality in strategic environmental assessment in Slovenia — Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontić, Branko, E-mail: branko.kontic@ijs.si; Dermol, Urška, E-mail: urska.dermol@gmail.com

    2015-01-15

    We enlarge on the viewpoint published in the Environmental Impact Assessment Review in 2012 — A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments. Additional alerts concerning the procedural ineffectiveness of the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) process from the cost–benefit point of view are advanced. The major contribution to the long lasting, costly SEA processes, comes from ultraistic treatment of Natura 2000. The case study deals with a plan for constructing a traffic bypass around Škofljica, a town near Ljubljana. Based on their conclusions the authors propose that the following elements of the SEA procedure should be improved and optimised: –CBA for SEA should become a regular component when measuring its effectiveness. –Concretisation of expected SEA inputs to the plan should clarify its role at the earliest stage of the process. –SEA should contribute interactively to the optimisation of alternatives; cost–benefit analysis of the SEA process could support this process. –Nature protection interest should be confronted and balanced with wider development interests as formulated in the plan and should not be applied in absolute terms (e.g. Natura 2000). - Highlights: • SEA in Slovenia is ineffective and costly • SEA serves fundamentalism of nature protection through the Natura 2000 system • SEA does not support optimization and improvement of development projects.

  4. Recent advances in biochar applications in agricultural soils: Benefits and environmental implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gang; Lv, Yingchun [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai (China); Sun, Junna; Wei, Linlin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai (China); Shao, Hongbo [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute of Life Sciences,Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai (China)

    2012-10-15

    Biochar, a by-product of biomass pyrolysis, has been suggested as a mean to combat climate change, and at the same time to achieve agricultural and environmental benefits. As one possible source of the components with high aromatic structure in soil humus, biochar is of great importance in increasing soil carbon storage and improving soil nutrient retention and nutrient availability, and in maintaining the balance of soil ecosystem. This paper briefly reviewed and synthesized recent findings and discussions regarding the production and characteristics of biochar, its effects on global climate change and particularly in relation to the environmental effects of biochar in soils. Agronomic benefits of biochar application are critically highlighted because researches show that biochar had varied effects on crop productivity thorough the different bio-physical interactions between the biochar and the soils, which are deserved for further investigations. Potential pitfalls and knowledge gaps were briefly discussed on the environmental behavior and the effects of biochar in agricultural ecosystem. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Prospective of Societal and Environmental Benefits of Piezoelectric Technology in Road Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road energy harvesting is an ingenious horizon for clean and renewable energy production. The concept is very compatible with current traffic trends and the ongoing depletion of natural resources. Yet, the idea of harvesting roadway energy is still in its genesis, and only a few real-time implementation projects have been reported in the literature. This review article summarizes the current state of the art in road energy harvesting technology, with a focus on piezoelectric systems, including an analysis of the impact of the technology from social and environmental standpoints. Based on an extensive desktop review study, this article provides a comprehensive insight into roadway energy harvesting technologies. Specifically, the article discusses the societal and environmental benefits of road energy harvesting technologies, as well as the challenges. The study outlined the meaningful benefits that positively align with the concept of sustainability. Overall, the literature findings indicate that the expansion of the roadway energy harvesting technology to a large practical scale is feasible, but such an undertaking should be wisely weighed from broader perspectives. Ultimately, the article provides a positive outlook of the potential contributions of road energy harvesting technologies to the ongoing energy and environmental challenges of human society.

  6. CERCLA-linked environmental impact and benefit analysis: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amanda D; Fitzpatrick, Anne G; Mirchandani, Sera; Salmon, Matthew; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    This analysis focused on evaluating the environmental consequences of remediation, providing indicators for the environmental quality pillar of 3 "pillars" of the Portland Harbor Sustainability Project (PHSP) framework (the other 2 pillars are economic viability and social equity). The project an environmental impact and benefit analysis (EIBA) and an EIBA-based cost-benefit analysis. Metrics developed in the EIBA were used to quantify and compare remedial alternatives' environmental benefits and impacts in the human and ecological domains, as a result of remedial actions (relative to no action). The cost-benefit results were used to evaluate whether remediation costs were proportionate or disproportionate to the environmental benefits. Alternatives B and D had the highest overall benefit scores, and Alternative F was disproportionately costly relative to its achieved benefits when compared to the other remedial alternatives. Indeed, the costlier alternatives with larger remedial footprints had lower overall EIBA benefit scores-because of substantially more air emissions, noise, and light impacts, and more disturbance to business, recreational access, and habitat during construction-compared to the less costly and smaller alternatives. Put another way, the adverse effects during construction tended to outweigh the long-term benefits, and the net environmental impacts of the larger remedial alternatives far outweighed their small incremental improvements in risk reduction. Results of this Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-linked environmental analysis were integrated with indicators of economic and social impacts of remediation in a stakeholder values-based sustainability framework. These tools (EIBA, EIBA-based cost-benefit analysis, economic impact assessment, and the stakeholder values-based integration) provide transparent and quantitative evaluations of the benefits and impacts associated with remedial alternatives

  7. Lenalidomide in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma disease: feasibility and benefits of long-term treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Manola; Oehrlein, Katharina; Rendl, Corinna; Hahn-Ast, Corinna; Kanz, Lothar; Weisel, Katja

    2014-12-01

    Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone is an effective and well-established treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (rrMM) disease. Due to the scarcity of reports assessing benefit and risk of long-term lenalidomide treatment in non-selected rrMM patients, we retrospectively analysed the long-term outcome in patients with rrMM treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Sixty-seven patients (pts) who were treated with lenalidomide/dexamethasone for rrMM in the approved indication from 2007 to 2011 were included in this retrospective, single-centre analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were compared between total population, patients on lenalidomide for more than 12 months (mo) and patients discontinuing therapy earlier than 12 months. Median overall survival (OS) of the total patient population was 33.2 mo. OS of pts treated beyond 12 mo was 42.9 mo compared to 20.2 mo (p = 0.027) for pts stopping lenalidomide earlier than 12 mo for other reasons than progression disease (PD). OS of pts >12 mo on lenalidomide treatment did not significantly differ between pts who had received previous autologous transplantation, allogeneic transplantation or conventional therapy. Main non-hematologic toxicities were infections of grade 3/4 in 25 % and thrombembolic events of all grades in 18 % of patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on feasibility and efficacy of long-term lenalidomide treatment in a non-selected patient cohort. OS of pts >12 mo on lenalidomide is superior when compared to pts discontinued earlier for reasons other than PD. Our data confirm the current use of lenalidomide as a continuous long-term treatment strategy.

  8. The rationale for energy efficiency policy: Assessing the recognition of the multiple benefits of energy efficiency retrofit policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Niall; Gouldson, Andy; Barrett, John

    2017-01-01

    The rationale for energy efficiency policy can be framed in terms of a variety of different benefits. This paper considers how different benefits have been used within the overall rationale for energy efficient retrofit policy in different contexts. We posit that different rationales may be used for the same policy response, and that the form of rationale used may affect the design, delivery or the level of policy support, with different rationales making it easier to account for different results. Considering retrofit policy in the contexts of the UK, Germany, New Zealand and Ireland, we characterise policy rationale in each case, assessing what the key perceived benefits have been, and whether they have changed over time. The analysis identifies some marked differences between cases with the recognition of benefits and the ensuing policy rationale resulting from a complex mix of political, social and economic influences. We find that recognition of multiple benefits may not equate with multiplied policy support, and instead it is more likely that different rationales will have relevance at different times, for different audiences. The findings highlight that, alongside evidence for policy, it is important to also consider how the overall rationale for policy is eventually framed. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency as a policy issue with perceived multiple benefits. • Assessment of the influence of different benefits on rationale for energy efficient retrofit policy. • How does the rationale for retrofit policy differ in different national policy contexts. • To what extent are the perceived multiple benefits of policy recognised. • What influence does eventual rationale for policy have on the policy implemented.

  9. Determining the Environmental Benefits of Ultra High Performance Concrete as a Bridge Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande Larsen, Ingrid; Granseth Aasbakken, Ida; O'Born, Reyn; Vertes, Katalin; Terje Thorstensen, Rein

    2017-10-01

    Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a material that is attracting attention in the construction industry due to the high mechanical strength and durability, leading to structures having low maintenance requirements. The production of UHPC, however, has generally higher environmental impact than normal strength concrete due to the increased demand of cement required in the concrete mix. What is still not sufficiently investigated, is if the longer lifetime, slimmer construction and lower maintenance requirements lead to a net environmental benefit compared to standard concrete bridge design. This study utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine the lifetime impacts of two comparable highway crossing footbridges spanning 40 meters, designed respectively with UHPC and normal strength concrete. The results of the study show that UHPC is an effective material for reducing lifetime emissions from construction and maintenance of long lasting infrastructure, as the UHPC design outperforms the normal strength concrete bridge in most impact categories.

  10. Health benefits of tunneling through the Chinese environmental Kuznets curve (EKC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajer, Victor; Mead, Robert W.; Xiao, Feng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we first add to what is a growing literature on the existence and nature of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for developing countries, by testing for the existence of an EKC for China using a panel data set of city-specific, annual ambient levels of SO 2 pollution. We find some support for both the typical inverted-U-shaped relationship and an N-shaped, cubic configuration. More significantly, we then explore the possibility of China's 'tunneling' through the EKC, by using newer, cleaner technologies, and thereby avoiding some of the environmental degradation that had often accompanied economic growth. Specifically, we estimate and economically value the health benefits realizable to Chinese cities from successful efforts to 'tunnel' under the EKC over the next generation. (author)

  11. Health benefits of tunneling through the Chinese environmental Kuznets curve (EKC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brajer, Victor; Mead, Robert W.; Xiao, Feng [Department of Economics, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we first add to what is a growing literature on the existence and nature of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for developing countries, by testing for the existence of an EKC for China using a panel data set of city-specific, annual ambient levels of SO{sub 2} pollution. We find some support for both the typical inverted-U-shaped relationship and an N-shaped, cubic configuration. More significantly, we then explore the possibility of China's 'tunneling' through the EKC, by using newer, cleaner technologies, and thereby avoiding some of the environmental degradation that had often accompanied economic growth. Specifically, we estimate and economically value the health benefits realizable to Chinese cities from successful efforts to 'tunnel' under the EKC over the next generation. (author)

  12. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  13. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  14. Beyond the throwaway society: A life cycle-based assessment of the environmental benefit of reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Valentina; Sala, Serenella; Mirabella, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In the context of a circular economy, sustainable consumption is often seen as the antithesis of current consumption patterns, which have led to the definition of the so-called throwaway society. Reuse may provide a preferred alternative to other waste management options, because it promotes resource efficiency and may significantly reduce environmental impacts. To appraise the environmental benefits related to reuse of goods, a methodology adopting life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed. A standardized procedure has been developed, identifying reference products within product category subject to reuse, and collecting reliable inventory data as a basis for calculating environmental impact through LCA. A case study on a second-hand shop is presented, and the avoided impacts are quantified. Inventory data were taken both from the literature and directly from sales and surveys submitted to customers. The results are presented, highlighting: 1) for each product category, the average avoided impacts for 1 unit of reused product considered; and 2) for the overall activities of the second-hand shop, the cumulative avoided impacts in 1 yr. In the case study, the higher contribution to avoided impacts comes from the apparel sector, due to the high amount of items sold, followed by the furniture sector, because of the high amount of environmental impacts avoided by the reuse of each single item. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Environmental and economic benefits of the recovery of materials in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Ferrara, Carmen; Finelli, Alessio; Grosso, Alberto

    2017-12-07

    The main aim of this study was to perform a Life cycle assessment study as well as an economic evaluation of the recovery of recyclable materials in a municipal solid waste management system. If citizens separate erroneously waste fractions, they produce both environmental and economic damages. The environmental and economic evaluation was performed for the case study of Nola (34.349 inhabitants) in Southern Italy, with a kerbside system that assured a source separation of 62% in 2014. The economic analysis provided a quantification of the economic benefits obtainable for the population in function of the achievable percentage of source separation. The comparison among the environmental performance of four considered scenarios showed that the higher the level of source separation was, the lower the overall impacts were. This occurred because, even if the impacts of the waste collection and transport increased, they were overcome by the avoided impacts of the recycling processes. Increasing the source separation by 1% could avoid the emission of 5 kg CO 2 eq. and 5 g PM10 for each single citizen. The economic and environmental indicators defined in this study provide simple and effective information useful for a wide-ranging audience in a behavioural change programme perspective.

  16. Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyashina, G S; Vershinina, K Yu; Dmitrienko, M A; Strizhak, P A

    2018-04-05

    A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NO x and SO x several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is There a Limit to Growth? Comparing the Environmental Cost of an Airport’s Operations with Its Economic Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growing global awareness of the requirement for sustainable development, economic development is no longer the sole objective of business activities. The need to find a balance between environmental impacts and economic benefits is especially the case for airport operations in or around cities. This study measured the environmental costs and economic benefits and of an airport for a period of 10 years, using Taipei Songshan Airport for the empirical analysis, to examine whether the environmental costs could outweigh the economic benefits. Of all the environmental negative side effects, aircraft engine emissions and noise nuisance are considered the main sources of environmental impacts. The dose-response method and the hedonic price method, respectively, were used for estimating the social costs of these. Income generation from both direct and secondary employment is measured as economic benefits by applying the Garin-Lowry model, originally developed in 1966, for estimation of the employment multiplier. The results show that, in general, the operation of Taipei Songshan Airport brought more economic benefits than environmental costs. The sensitivity analysis of emissions and noise social cost parameters shows that the environmental costs might have exceeded the economic benefits in 2008 and 2009 in certain high emissions and noise social cost cases.

  18. Quantifying the health and environmental benefits of wind power to natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, Donald; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    How tangible are the costs of natural gas compared to the benefits of one of the fastest growing sources of electricity – wind energy – in the United States? To answer this question, this article calculates the benefits of wind energy derived from two locations: the 580 MW wind farm at Altamont Pass, CA, and the 22 MW wind farm in Sawtooth, ID. Both wind farms have environmental and economic benefits that should be considered when evaluating the comparative costs of natural gas and wind energy. Though there are uncertainties within the data collected, for the period 2012–2031, the turbines at Altamont Pass will likely avoid anywhere from $560 million to $4.38 billion in human health and climate related externalities, and the turbines at Sawtooth will likely avoid $18 million to $104 million of human health and climate-related externalities. Translating these negative externalities into a cost per kWh of electricity, we estimate that Altamont will avoid costs of 1.8–11.8 cents/kWh and Sawtooth will avoid costs of 1.5–8.2 cents/kWh. - Highlights: ► This study compares the benefits of wind energy with natural gas. ► The Altamont Pass windfarm will avoid $560 million to $4.38 billion in externalities. ► The Sawtooth wind farm will produce about $18 million to $104 million in human health and climate benefits. ► Natural gas prices rise by 1.5–11.8 cents/kWh if they include the cost of such externalities.

  19. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental issues and work: women with multiple chemical sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Juliene G; Doiron, Nathalie

    2006-08-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) is an acquired condition in which exposure to low levels of chemicals causes symptoms in multiple organ systems. Some 12%-16% of the U.S. population has some level of chemical sensitivity, 80% of whom are women. Attempts to reduce chemical exposures leads to enormous life difficulties at home, school, and workplace. We base our article on an ethnographic study of MCS in the United States and Canada. We describe here themes related to work issues in terms of a general trajectory of becoming sick from work exposures, coping with toxic physical environments and dealing with coworkers and, when unable to continue working, applying for workers' compensation, or disability status, or both.

  1. Environmental Assessment: Multiple Projects at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-17

    Publico sobre el La Evaluation de lmpacto Ambiental de MUltiples Proyectos en Ia Base de Ia Fuerza Aerea Laughlin De acuerdo con el Acta Nacional de 1...which emphasizes frequencies in the middle of the audible spectrum and de -emphasizes low and high frequencies in a manner corresponding to the way the...feet from the source. Assuming that noise from the heavy equipment radiates equally in all directions, the sound intensity diminishes inversely as the

  2. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  3. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlayel, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for proper e-waste handling using Jordan as a case study. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was employed to evaluate five advanced management systems represent state-of-the-art treatment technologies, including sanitary landfilling; proper recycling of metals, materials, and precious metals (PMs); and incineration of plastic and the hazardous portion of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Six e-waste products that contribute the most to the e-waste in Jordan were included in the assessment of each scenario, which resulted in 30 total cases of e-waste management. The findings indicated that landfills for the entire components of the e-waste stream are the worst option and should be avoided. The most promising e-waste management scenario features integrated e-waste processes based on the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), including recycling materials such as non-PMs and PMs, incinerating plastic and the hazardous content of PCBs using the energy recovered from incineration, and using sanitary landfills of residues. For this scenario, the best environmental performance was obtained for the treatment of mobile phones. Incineration of the portion of hazardous waste using energy recovery is an option that deserves attention. Because scenario implementation depends on more than just the environmental benefits (e.g., economic cost and technical aspects), the study proposes a systematic approach founded on the IWM concept for e-waste management scenario selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Barrett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1 improve personal health and well-being; (2 decrease energy use; (3 reduce automobile use; (4 increase active transport; (5 shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6 reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  5. Cost analysis and ecological benefits of environmental recovery methodologies in bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Costa Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed and compared three methods of environmental recovery in bauxite mining commonly used in Poços de Caldas Plateau, MG, by means of recovery costs and ecological benefits. Earnings and costs data of environmental recovery activities were obtained for the areas that belonged to the Companhia Geral de Minas – CGM, on properties sited in the city of Poços de Caldas, MG. The amount of costs of these activities was used to compare the recovery methods by updating them monetarily to a reference date, in other words, the present moment. It is concluded that the difference between the present value of costs for simple restoration and rehabilitation activities are less than 1% and that between the complete restoration and rehabilitation is about 15.12%, suggesting that the choice of the methods to be used must be based on the ecological earnings proportional to each of them. The methodology of environmental restoration of the mining areas emphasizes the ecological variables in the process of establishment of the community, to the detriment of complex ecological aspects, which show difficulties in measuring the actual moment of the development of the ecosystem considered.

  6. Environmental benefits from energy efficiency - a study of environmental aspects of EPC-projects; Miljoenytta med energieffektivisering - en studie av miljoeaspektens roll i EPC-projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsson, Ulrik; Gottberg, Annika; Gode, Jenny; Saernholm, Erik

    2010-05-15

    Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) is an energy service which means that investments in energy saving measures are financed by means of guarantied energy savings. Since the measures are financed by estimated savings, an overall perspective on the energy performance, operating costs and indoor climate of a building or a whole building complex becomes possible. EPC thereby provides a possibility to more far-reaching energy saving measures which would otherwise not be tolerated within the operating budget. The environmental benefit such as reduced climate impact, can in some cases even be the overall objective and energy saving a way to achieve that objective. This study has investigated four EPC projects performed by public organisations in Sweden. The aim has been to analyse to what extent environmental benefit is a decision parameter in the EPC process and to develop a method and a calculating tool that make it possible for different EPC suppliers to use a common method to show the environmental benefit of the energy saving measure. Our main conclusion from this study is that the environmental issue is an important part of a EPC project but it can not be considered to be a well-functioning decision parameter. Today other parameters such as maintenance needs, modernisation, indoor climate and cost savings are the most important at the early stage for the employee of the public organisation. However, the environmental benefit could be highlighted already at this stage to show that those other advantages can be achieved with higher or lower environmental benefit, and to make sure that the political environmental benefit becomes a more important factor in the procurement process (after a political decision). An experience from the study is that for the environmental issue to play a mayor role in the realisation of an EPC project it must be involved already before the decision to perform an EPC project. This is true specially if the supplier are expected to optimise

  7. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  8. Two approaches to incorporate clinical data uncertainty into multiple criteria decision analysis for benefit-risk assessment of medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shihua; Zhang, Lanju; Yang, Bo

    2014-07-01

    The Problem formulation, Objectives, Alternatives, Consequences, Trade-offs, Uncertainties, Risk attitude, and Linked decisions (PrOACT-URL) framework and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) have been recommended by the European Medicines Agency for structured benefit-risk assessment of medicinal products undergoing regulatory review. The objective of this article was to provide solutions to incorporate the uncertainty from clinical data into the MCDA model when evaluating the overall benefit-risk profiles among different treatment options. Two statistical approaches, the δ-method approach and the Monte-Carlo approach, were proposed to construct the confidence interval of the overall benefit-risk score from the MCDA model as well as other probabilistic measures for comparing the benefit-risk profiles between treatment options. Both approaches can incorporate the correlation structure between clinical parameters (criteria) in the MCDA model and are straightforward to implement. The two proposed approaches were applied to a case study to evaluate the benefit-risk profile of an add-on therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (drug X) relative to placebo. It demonstrated a straightforward way to quantify the impact of the uncertainty from clinical data to the benefit-risk assessment and enabled statistical inference on evaluating the overall benefit-risk profiles among different treatment options. The δ-method approach provides a closed form to quantify the variability of the overall benefit-risk score in the MCDA model, whereas the Monte-Carlo approach is more computationally intensive but can yield its true sampling distribution for statistical inference. The obtained confidence intervals and other probabilistic measures from the two approaches enhance the benefit-risk decision making of medicinal products. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compartmentalization in environmental science and the perversion of multiple thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkart, W. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D 85716 Oberschleissheim, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-04-17

    Nature and living organisms are separated into compartments. The self-assembly of phospholipid micelles was as fundamental to the emergence of life and evolution as the formation of DNA precursors and their self-replication. Also, modern science owes much of its success to the study of single compartments, the dissection of complex structures and event chains into smaller study objects which can be manipulated with a set of more and more sophisticated equipment. However, in environmental science, these insights are obtained at a price: firstly, it is difficult to recognize, let alone to take into account what is lost during fragmentation and dissection; and secondly, artificial compartments such as scientific disciplines become self-sustaining, leading to new and unnecessary boundaries, subtly framing scientific culture and impeding progress in holistic understanding. The long-standing but fruitless quest to define dose-effect relationships and thresholds for single toxic agents in our environment is a central part of the problem. Debating single-agent toxicity in splendid isolation is deeply flawed in view of a modern world where people are exposed to low levels of a multitude of genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents. Its potential danger lies in the unwarranted postulation of separate thresholds for agents with similar action. A unifying concept involving toxicology and radiation biology is needed for a full mechanistic assessment of environmental health risks. The threat of synergism may be less than expected, but this may also hold for the safety margin commonly thought to be a consequence of linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship assumptions.

  10. Potential Benefits of Rib Fracture Fixation in Patients with Flail Chest and Multiple Non-flail Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Meiguang; Shi, Zhanjun; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Xuming; Ling, Shishui; Ling, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential benefits of rib fracture fixation in patients with flail chest and multiple non-flail rib fractures versus conventional treatment modalities. A retrospective reviewed study compared 86 cases which received surgical treatment between June 2009 and May 2013 to 76 cases which received conservative treatment between January 2006 and May 2009. The patients were divided into the flail chest ( n  = 38) and multiple non-flail rib fracture groups ( n  = 124). In the flail chest group, the mechanical ventilation time, ICU monitoring time, tracheostomies, thoracic deformity, and impaired pulmonary function and return to full-time employment were compared. In the multiple non-flail rib fracture group, fracture healing, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, inpatient length of stay, atelectatic, pulmonary complications, and normal activity-returning time were compared. Patients in the flail chest operative fixation group had significantly shorter ICU stay, decreased ventilator requirements, fewer tracheostomies, less thoracic deformity and impaired pulmonary function, and more returned to full-time employment. Patients in the multiple non-flail rib fracture operative fixation had shorter hospital stay, less pain, earlier return to normal activity, more fracture healing, less atelectasis, and fewer pulmonary infections. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of surgical stabilization of flail chest and multiple non-flail rib fractures with plate fixation. When compared with conventional conservative management, operatively managed patients demonstrated improved clinical outcomes.

  11. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    natural-human systems cannot be understood in the absence of data about the human dimension. Another essential element is the community of tool and platform developers who create the infrastructure for scientists, educators, resource managers, and policy analysts to discover, analyze, and collaborate on problems using the diverse data that are required to address emerging large-scale environmental challenges. These challenges are very unlikely to be problems confined to this generation: they are urgent, compelling, and long-term problems that require a sustained effort to generate and curate data and information from observations, models, and experiments. NEON's long-term national physical and information infrastructure for environmental observation is one of the cornerstones of a framework that transforms science and information for the benefit of society.

  12. Reusing and recycling in Saskatchewan: Environmental benefits of reusing and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction explaining the environmental benefits of reusing and recycling, as well as providing suggestions on minimizing waste and conserving energy, a directory of recyclers and handlers of various kinds of waste in Saskatchewan is presented. Names, addresses/telephone numbers, and types of materials accepted are given for recyclers of animal products, clothing or textiles, glass, compostable materials, industrial hardware, metals, office products, paper, plastic, and tires. Collection depots in the SARCAN recycling program for beverage containers are listed, giving town name, address, hours of operation, and telephone number. Receivers of waste dangerous goods are listed under the categories of ozone-depleting substances, waste batteries, solvents, lubricating oils and oil filters, paint, flammable liquids, antifreeze, drycleaning waste, and miscellaneous.

  13. Cogeneration plant in a pasta factory: Energy saving and environmental benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panno, Domenico; Messineo, Antonio; Dispenza, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Italy produces approximately 4,520,000 tons of pasta annually, which is about 67% of its total productive potential. As factories need electric and thermal energy simultaneously, combined heat and power (CHP) systems are the most suitable. This paper describes a feasibility study of a CHP plant in a pasta factory in Italy while analyzing energy saving and environmental benefits. Commercially available CHP systems suitable for the power range of energy demand in pasta production use reciprocating engines or gas turbines. This study demonstrates how their use can reduce both energy costs and CO 2 equivalent greenhouse gas emission in the environment. An economic analysis was performed following the methodology set out by Italian National Agency for Technology, Energy and Environment (ENEA) based on a discounted cash flow (DCF) method called 'Valore Attuale Netto' (VAN), which uses a cash flow based on the saving of energy when using different energy processes

  14. Multi-Objective Planning of Multi-Type Distributed Generation Considering Timing Characteristics and Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to multi-type distributed generation (DG planning based on the analysis of investment and income brought by grid-connected DG. Firstly, the timing characteristics of loads and DG outputs, as well as the environmental benefits of DG are analyzed. Then, on the basis of the classification of daily load sequences, the typical daily load sequence and the typical daily output sequence of DG per unit capacity can be computed. The proposed planning model takes the location, capacity and types of DG into account as optimization variables. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Case studies have been carried out on the IEEE 14-node distribution system to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  15. Assessment of utility side financial benefits of demand side management considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    Any electrical utility prefers to implement demand side management and change the shape of the demand curve in a beneficial manner. This paper aims to assess the financial gains (or losses) to the generating sector through the implementation of demand side management programs. An optimization algorithm is developed to find the optimal generation mix that minimizes the daily total generating cost. This daily total generating cost includes the daily generating cost as well as the environmental damage cost. The proposed optimization algorithm is used to find the daily total generating cost for the base case and for several demand side management programs using the data obtained from the Sri Lankan power system. Results obtained for DSM programs are compared with the results obtained for the base case to assess the financial benefits of demand side management to the generating sector.

  16. Identification and assessment of environmental benefits from solar hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Spilanis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental benefits associated with the utilization of solar energy for hot water production are estimated in this work. The case of a particular country, Greece, and its electricity production system is employed to show the direct consequences of substituting electricity with solar energy for hot water production. The amount of conventional fuel saved, i.e. lignite and oil, is estimated, and the reduction in air pollution is calculated. This allows the calculation of reduction emission factors for solar hot water production to be undertaken. Data, with respect to the materials and the amount of energy necessary for the construction of the solar heaters, are also presented. These can serve as inputs to an energy-environment policy framework in order to lead to reduction of air pollutants like SO 2 , NO X and particulates, and the release of the greenhouse gas CO 2 into the atmosphere. (Author)

  17. Green certificates: a new currency for trading the environmental benefits of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookall-Fallon, C.; Crozier-Cole, T.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the driving force of the Kyoto Protocol on the EU's proposed Directive to stimulate the use of renewable energy sources for generating electricity, and the forthcoming sixth conference of the Parties to the UN National Framework Convention on Climatic Change where it is hoped that the EU will ratify the 1997 Kyoto Protocol requiring the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. Details of the EU's Directive on the liberalisation of the internal market for electricity and targets for increasing renewable energy electricity consumption are given. Trading environmental benefits of renewable generation, the concept of trading green certificates, the challenges to creating a green certificate market, national green certificate systems such as the Dutch and Danish systems, and the progress towards Europe-wide green certificate trading are discussed

  18. Potential energy efficiency and conservation, economic, and environmental benefits from the implementation of superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) which is a recent technology that has the capability to significantly improve electrical system operations within electric utility systems. The technology has already been demonstrated by Bonneville Power Administration in a 30-MJ SMES test demonstration unit. Savings in utility operations from improved system efficiency, increased reliability, and reduced maintenance requirements contribute to the economic justification of SMES. Beyond these benefits, there are additional benefits which in the long run may equal or outweigh the electrical operational benefits. These benefits are the energy conservation and environmental benefits. The technology has the capability of reducing fuel consumption which can in turn reduce emissions. In a regional setting it can shift emissions both in volumes and in physical. With its capability to strategically shift generation and significantly affect emissions and air quality it can stretch clean energy generation options, thus SMES can be seen as an energy and environmental management technology and tool

  19. Reaping Environmental Benefits of a Global Hydrogen Economy: How Large, Fow Soon, and at What Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Western world has taken an aggressive posture to transition to a global hydrogen economy. While numerous technical challenges need to be addressed to achieve this it is timely to examine the environmental benefits and risks of this transition. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the leak rates in global hydrogen infrastructure and the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) are principal sources of uncertainty in our assessment.

  20. Modeling the development and utilization of bioenergy and exploring the environmental economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A complete bioenergy flow is schemed to industrialize bioenergy utilization. • An input–output optimization simulation model is developed. • Energy supply and demand and bioenergy industries’ development are optimized. • Carbon tax and subsidies are endogenously derived by the model. • Environmental economic benefits of bioenergy utilization are explored dynamically. - Abstract: This paper outlines a complete bioenergy flow incorporating bioresource procurement, feedstock supply, conversion technologies and energy consumption to industrialize the development and utilization of bioenergy. An input–output optimization simulation model is developed to introduce bioenergy industries into the regional socioeconomy and energy production and consumption system and dynamically explore the economic, energy and environmental benefits. 16-term simulation from 2010 to 2025 is performed in scenarios preset based on bioenergy industries, carbon tax-subsidization policy and distinct levels of greenhouse gas emission constraints. An empirical study is conducted to validate and apply the model. In the optimal scenario, both industrial development and energy supply and demand are optimized contributing to a 8.41% average gross regional product growth rate and a 39.9% reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the base scenario. By 2025 the consumption ratio of bioenergy in total primary energy could be increased from 0.5% to 8.2%. Energy self-sufficiency rate could be increased from 57.7% to 77.9%. A dynamic carbon tax rate and the extent to which bioenergy industrial development could be promoted are also elaborated. Regional economic development and greenhouse gas mitigation can be potentially promoted simultaneously by bioenergy utilization and a proper greenhouse gas emission constraint. The methodology presented is capable of introducing new industries or policies related to energy planning and detecting the best tradeoffs of

  1. TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstration project: Environmental and economic benefits by environmental management in freight transportation. Main report; TransECO{sub 2}. Demonstrationsprojekt: Miljoemaessige og oekonomiske benefits ved miljoestyring i godstransport. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the transECO{sub 2} project has was to carry out cooperation projects between companies in order to demonstrate an effect for the environment and for the economy of the companies (earnings and costs) of environmental management related to transportation of goods. 10 demonstration projects were carried thorugh in cooperation with 14 companies. 8 subjects were analysed through the transECO{sub 2} project: 1. Environmental data; 2. Benefits from the environmental management work; 3. Use of new technology; 4. Cooperation; 5. Environment and logistics; 6. Education and competence; 7. Environment and business strategy; 8. Environmental statement/tagging. (EHS)

  2. Cover crops effect on farm benefits and nitrate leaching: linking economic and environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Vanclooster, Marnik; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Introducing cover crops interspersed with intensively fertilized crops in rotation has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of the technique is still limited because growing CC could lead to extra costs for the farm in three different forms: direct, indirect, and opportunity costs. Environmental studies are complex, and evaluating the indicators that are representative of the environmental impact of an agricultural system is a complicated task that is conducted by specialized groups and methodologies. Multidisciplinary studies may help to develop reliable approaches that would contribute to choosing the best agricultural strategies based on linking economic and environmental benefits. This study evaluates barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo) as cover crops between maize, leaving the residue in the ground or selling it for animal feeding, and compares the economic and environmental results with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. Nitrate leaching for different weather conditions was calculated using the mechanistic-deterministic WAVE model, using the Richards equation parameterised with a conceptual model for the soil hydraulic properties for describing the water flow in the vadose zone, combined with field observed data. The economic impact was evaluated through stochastic (Monte-Carlo) simulation models of farms' profits using probability distribution functions of maize yield and cover crop biomass developed fitted with data collected from various field trials (during more than 5 years) and probability distribution functions of maize and different cover crop forage prices fitted from statistical sources. Stochastic dominance relationships are obtained to rank the most profitable strategies from a farm financial perspective

  3. Environmental efficiency with multiple environmentally detrimental variables : estimated with SFA and DEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.; Lovell, C.A.K.; Thijssen, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate comprehensive environmental efficiency measures for Dutch dairy farms. The environmental efficiency scores are based on the nitrogen surplus, phosphate surplus and the total (direct and indirect) energy use of an unbalanced panel of dairy farms. We define

  4. Prognostic index to identify patients who may not benefit from whole brain radiotherapy for multiple brain metastases from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, P.; Yeghiaian, R.; Gebski, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is often recommended in the management of multiple brain metastases. Allowing for WBRT waiting time, duration of the WBRT course and time to clinical response, it may take 6 weeks from the point of initial assessment for a benefit from WBRT to manifest. Patients who die within 6 weeks ('early death') may not benefit from WBRT and may instead experience a decline in quality of life. This study aimed to develop a prognostic index (PI) that identifies the subset of patients with lung cancer with multiple brain metastases who may not benefit from WBRT because of'early death'. The medical records of patients with lung cancer who had WBRT recommended for multiple brain metastases over a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as either having died within 6 weeks or having lived beyond 6 weeks. Potential prognostic indicators were evaluated for correlation with 'early death'. A PI was constructed by modelling the survival classification to determine the contribution of these factors towards shortened survival. Of the 275 patients recommended WBRT, 64 (23.22%) died within 6 weeks. The main prognostic factor predicting early death was Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status >2. Patients with a high PI score (>13) were at higher risk of'early death'. Twenty-three per cent of patients died prior to benefit from WBRT. ECOG status was the most predictive for 'early death'. Other factors may also contribute towards a poor outcome. With further refinement and validation, the PI could be a valuable clinical decision tool.

  5. Using State-Wide Multiple Measures for School Leadership and Management: Costs Incurred vs. Benefits Gained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Hirman, Jennifer; Zeehandelaar, Dara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the utility and value of multiple measures of school performance for school leaders and managers. The research was conducted within the context of the state of California through an investigation of how operators, managers and authorisers of autonomous "charter" (publicly financed but privately operated)…

  6. Multiple Site Action Research Case Studies: Practical and Theoretical Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mary Delfin; Vallance, Roger

    2006-01-01

    A curriculum initiative project was implemented in four schools in Singapore over a span of five to six weeks during 2004. The project employed a number of different schools: girls only, boys only and co-educational schools; different levels of performance in a graded situation; multiple teachers and classes within each site; and control and…

  7. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinos-Senante, M., E-mail: maria.molinos@uv.es [Department of Mathematics for Economy, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Reif, R., E-mail: rreif@icra.cat [Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Garrido-Baserba, M., E-mail: mgarrido@icra.cat [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Hernández-Sancho, F., E-mail: francesc.hernandez@uv.es [Department of Applied Economics II, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Poch, M., E-mail: manel@lequia.udg.edu [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Sala-Garrido, R., E-mail: ramon.sala@uv.es [Department of Mathematics for Economy, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are − 73.73; − 34.95; − 42.20; − 10.98; and − 8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. - Highlights: • Environmental Benefit Analysis of PPCPs • PPCPs' removal depends on their functional group and molecular structures. • Shadow prices as a proxy of the environmental benefits from ozonation process • HHCB and AHTN have the lowest shadow prices. • The greatest environmental benefit is associated with the removal of DCF.

  8. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinos-Senante, M.; Reif, R.; Garrido-Baserba, M.; Hernández-Sancho, F.; Omil, F.; Poch, M.; Sala-Garrido, R.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are − 73.73; − 34.95; − 42.20; − 10.98; and − 8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. - Highlights: • Environmental Benefit Analysis of PPCPs • PPCPs' removal depends on their functional group and molecular structures. • Shadow prices as a proxy of the environmental benefits from ozonation process • HHCB and AHTN have the lowest shadow prices. • The greatest environmental benefit is associated with the removal of DCF

  9. Social demand for multiple benefits provided by Aleppo pine forest management in Catalonia, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, Elsa; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Mavsar, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the social demand for key benefits provided by Aleppo pine forests in Catalonia that can be enhanced by management. These so-called externalities are the side effects of forest management on citizens’ welfare and can be either positive or negative. The externalities addressed...... are: biodiversity (measured as the number of tree species), accessibility for practicing recreational activities, CO2 sequestration and annual burned area by wildfires. By the use of a choice experiment, an economic valuation method, we estimate in a joint manner people’s preferences...

  10. Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI): risk mitigation or trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch

    2009-01-01

    nanoparticles, in part due to extensive and fundamental uncertainties. These data may provide a starting point to more thoroughly investigate the potential risks of nZVI and ultimately help scientists, engineers, and decision makers make better informed decisions regarding the use of nZVI for environmental...... dimensions. While the use and further development of nZVI is understandably heralded as an environmentally-beneficial technology, the potentials risks of introducing these nanoparticles into the environment also needs to be considered. To date most research has focused on the potential benefits of n...... of substantial concentrations. In this study, we provide a brief synopsis of the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of nZVI, particularly focusing on its environmental fate and behavior and potential role as contaminant carrier. These are some areas of primary concern for risk assessors...

  11. Assessing the environmental costs and benefits of plantations under future carbon pricing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Barrett, D. J.; Farley, K.; Guenther, A.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon sequestration programs are gaining attention globally as a means to offset increasing fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We are examining scenarios of C sequestration in four regions of the world: the U.S., South America, China, and Australia. The analysis uses economic models to predict where the plantations will be grown and then categorizes the other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. The goals of the project include: 1) Evaluating the assumptions behind C sequestration programs for plantations, including the importance of rotation rates, a full accounting of carbon costs (e.g., planting and site preparation), and how the C would be stored and safeguarded. 2) Examining the scale of the process needed to make a substantial contribution to offset fossil fuel emissions (see below). The scenario we have chosen to evaluate is one that addresses the consequences of storing 1 PgC yr-1 for 50 years. 3) Determining and summarizing the evidence for other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. Some of the factors to be evaluated include soil acidification, changes in water fluxes and water-table dynamics, nutrient losses, changes in soil fauna and biodiversity, volatile organic carbon emissions, and erosion. 4) A final goal of the project is to make concrete recommendations for where plantations may be the most beneficial in terms of C storage and other environmental benefits, such as the amelioration of salinity and groundwater upwelling in Australia.

  12. The Protagonism of Biocatalysis in Green Chemistry and Its Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Santana Ferreira-Leitão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a bioeconomy era requires not only a change of production pattern, but also a deep modernization of the production processes through the implementation of novel methodologies in current industrial units, where waste materials and byproducts can be utilized as starting materials in the production of commodities such as biofuels and other high added value chemicals. The utilization of renewable raw resources and residues from the agro-industries, and their exploitation through various uses and applications through technologies, particularly solid-state fermentation (SSF, are the main focus of this review. The advocacy for biocatalysis in green chemistry and the environmental benefits of bioproduction are very clear, although this kind of industrial process is still an exception and not the rule. Potential and industrial products, such as biocatalysts, animal feed, fermentation medium, biofuels (biodiesel, lignocelulose ethanol, CH4, and H2, pharmaceuticals and chemicals are dealt with in this paper. The focus is the utilization of renewable resources and the important role of enzymatic process to support a sustainable green chemical industry.

  13. Benefits and disadvantages of self-regulation of environmental noise from military training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, George A.

    2002-05-01

    In a 1981 Executive decision, the Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) told the Environmental Protection Agency to end funding of the Office of Noise Abatement and Control (ONAC). This decision, coupled with a specific exemption for military equipment contained in the Noise Control Act of 1972, ensured that the military departments would be self-regulating in regard to noise. This self-regulation for noise stands in contrast to the external regulation of other pollutants, such as air and water emissions. Two possible disadvantages of self-regulation are (1) reduced funding for noise management compared with funding for externally regulated pollutants, and (2) lack of an independent and external set of standards for determining acceptable limits on community noise exposure. Three possible benefits are (1) avoiding the costs of mitigating trivial violations of external standards, (2) maintaining a long-standing policy of preventing noise problems through land use planning, and (3) enabling negotiated solutions between installations and their neighboring communities. The paper ends with an examination of a negotiated solution for a community subjected to noise from the detonation of obsolete ammunition.

  14. Environmental and economic benefits of natural gas use for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.R.; Berkau, E.E.; Schnelle, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the primary goals of this research effort was to document and compare the economic and environment benefits of using natural gas for pollution control in boilers, furnaces and internal combustion engines, with conventional control technologies. The study indicated that replacement of 15% of the coal used in coal-fired boilers employed in the generation of electric power in the US, with natural gas, would considerably reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and do so in a cost-effect manner. The reductions achieved were also in concordance with the reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions mandated by the new Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. The combustion of natural gas would also produce less carbon dioxide as compared to the combustion of coal with an equivalent amount of heat content. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, i.e., it is believed to play a major role in global warming. Natural gas technology therefore presents a cost-effective step in the eventual mitigation of two of the main environmental problems presently facing us, acid rain, and global warming

  15. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D; Butz, Arlene M; Hackstadt, Amber J; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2015-02-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area.

  16. Change in Environmental Benefits of Urban Land Use and Its Drivers in Chinese Cities, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoqing; Chang, Kang-Tsung; Yang, Liang; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-26

    Driven by rising income and urban population growth, China has experienced rapid urban expansion since the 1980s. Urbanization can have positive effects on the urban environment; however, improvement of urban environment quality, especially its divergence between relatively developed and undeveloped cities in China, is currently a rather rudimentary and subjective issue. This study analyzed urban environmental benefits among China's prefectural cities based on their structure of urban land use in 2000 and 2010. First, we divided 347 prefectural cities into two groups, 81 coastal and capital cities in the relatively developed group (RD) and 266 other prefectural cities in the undeveloped group (RP). Then, we defined three areas of urban environmental benefits, including green infrastructure, industrial upgrade, and environmental management, and developed an assessment index system. Results showed that all prefectural cities saw improvement in urban environmental quality in 2000-2010. Although the RD cities had higher income and more population growth, they had less improvement than the RP cities during the same period. We also found that demographic and urban land agglomeration among RD cities restrained green infrastructure expansion, making green infrastructure unsuitable as a permanent solution to environmental improvement. It is therefore urgent for China to promote balanced improvement among the three areas of urban environmental benefits and between the RD and RP cities through regional differentiation policies.

  17. Change in Environmental Benefits of Urban Land Use and Its Drivers in Chinese Cities, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoqing; Chang, Kang-tsung; Yang, Liang; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Driven by rising income and urban population growth, China has experienced rapid urban expansion since the 1980s. Urbanization can have positive effects on the urban environment; however, improvement of urban environment quality, especially its divergence between relatively developed and undeveloped cities in China, is currently a rather rudimentary and subjective issue. This study analyzed urban environmental benefits among China’s prefectural cities based on their structure of urban land use in 2000 and 2010. First, we divided 347 prefectural cities into two groups, 81 coastal and capital cities in the relatively developed group (RD) and 266 other prefectural cities in the undeveloped group (RP). Then, we defined three areas of urban environmental benefits, including green infrastructure, industrial upgrade, and environmental management, and developed an assessment index system. Results showed that all prefectural cities saw improvement in urban environmental quality in 2000–2010. Although the RD cities had higher income and more population growth, they had less improvement than the RP cities during the same period. We also found that demographic and urban land agglomeration among RD cities restrained green infrastructure expansion, making green infrastructure unsuitable as a permanent solution to environmental improvement. It is therefore urgent for China to promote balanced improvement among the three areas of urban environmental benefits and between the RD and RP cities through regional differentiation policies. PMID:27240386

  18. Multiple benefits of personal FM system use by children with auditory processing disorder (APD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristin N; John, Andrew B; Kreisman, Nicole V; Hall, James W; Crandell, Carl C

    2009-01-01

    Children with auditory processing disorders (APD) were fitted with Phonak EduLink FM devices for home and classroom use. Baseline measures of the children with APD, prior to FM use, documented significantly lower speech-perception scores, evidence of decreased academic performance, and psychosocial problems in comparison to an age- and gender-matched control group. Repeated measures during the school year demonstrated speech-perception improvement in noisy classroom environments as well as significant academic and psychosocial benefits. Compared with the control group, the children with APD showed greater speech-perception advantage with FM technology. Notably, after prolonged FM use, even unaided (no FM device) speech-perception performance was improved in the children with APD, suggesting the possibility of fundamentally enhanced auditory system function.

  19. Synthesis of integrated absorption refrigeration systems involving economic and environmental objectives and quantifying social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira-Barragán, Luis Fernando; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for energy integration of systems that require absorption refrigeration. It allows heat exchange among process hot and cold streams and the integration of excess process heat as well as external utilities provided by solar energy, fossil fuels and biofuels. An optimization formulation is developed to address the multiple objectives of simultaneously minimizing the total annualized cost and the greenhouse gas emissions while the social impact is measured by the number of jobs generated by the project in the entire life cycle. The economic function accounts for the tax credit obtained by the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when cleaner technologies are used. The proposed model also considers the optimal selection of different types of solar collectors and the optimal time-based usage of solar energy, fossil fuel, and biofuel. Two example problems are presented to show the applicability of the proposed methodology. -- Highlights: ► An approach for the thermal integration of refrigeration processes is proposed. ► Different forms of sustainable energies are considered in the optimization process. ► Economic and environmental objectives are considered quantifying the number of jobs. ► The availability for the different forms of energy is taken into account. ► Results show significant advantages obtained with the proposed approach

  20. A new emphasis on root traits for perennial grass and legume varieties with environmental and ecological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Athole H; Collins, Rosemary P; Humphreys, Mike W; Scullion, John

    2016-02-01

    Grasslands cover a significant proportion of the agricultural land within the UK and across the EU, providing a relatively cheap source of feed for ruminants and supporting the production of meat, wool and milk from grazing animals. Delivering efficient animal production from grassland systems has traditionally been the primary focus of grassland-based research. But there is increasing recognition of the ecological and environmental benefits of these grassland systems and the importance of the interaction between their component plants and a host of other biological organisms in the soil and in adjoining habitats. Many of the ecological and environmental benefits provided by grasslands emanate from the interactions between the roots of plant species and the soil in which they grow. We review current knowledge on the role of grassland ecosystems in delivering ecological and environmental benefits. We will consider how improved grassland can deliver these benefits, and the potential opportunities for plant breeding to improve specific traits that will enhance these benefits whilst maintaining forage production for livestock consumption. Opportunities for exploiting new plant breeding approaches, including high throughput phenotyping, and for introducing traits from closely related species are discussed.

  1. Technology-Enhanced Peer Review: Benefits and Implications of Providing Multiple Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Lagkas, Thomas D.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the impact of self and peer feedback in technology-enhanced peer review settings. The impact of receiving peer comments (“receiver” perspective) is compared to that of reaching own insights by reviewing others’ work (“giver” perspective). In this study, 38 sophomore students...... were randomly assigned in two conditions and engaged in peer review activity facilitated by a web-based learning environment asking them to provide multiple reviews. In the Peer Reviewed (PR) condition students both reviewed peer work and received peer comments for their own work. By contrast......, in the Self Reviewed (SR) condition students provided peer reviews, but did not receive any. Instead, they were asked to perform self reviewing, before proceeding to any revisions of their work. Result showed that the two groups were comparable in all aspects, suggesting that the lack of getting peer reviews...

  2. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  3. Effects of Vicarious Experiences of Nature, Environmental Attitudes, and Outdoor Recreation Benefits on Support for Increased Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vicarious experiences of nature, environmental attitudes, and recreation benefits sought by participants on their support for funding of natural resources and alternative energy options. Using a national scenic trail user survey, results demonstrated that vicarious experiences of nature influenced environmental…

  4. Modeling complex effects of multiple environmental stresses on carbon dynamics of Mid-Atlantic temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough

    2007-01-01

    We used our GIS variant of the PnET-CN model to investigate changes of forest carbon stocks and fluxes in Mid-Atlantic temperate forests over the last century (1900-2000). Forests in this region are affected by multiple environmental changes including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition and tropospheric ozone, and extensive land disturbances. Our...

  5. The Perceptions of Management on the Benefits of Adopting an Environmental Management Accounting System as a Waste Management Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the perception of management on the benefits of adopting an environmental management accounting (EMA system as a waste management tool in a paper and pulp manufacturing company. This paper highlights the benefits of an EMA system and the role and importance of EMA as a decision-making tool in encouraging the adoption of cleaner production (CP techniques and technologies. This research was based on a case study of a paper and pulp manufacturing company in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Data collection instruments for the study included a Likert-type questionnaire and interviews with the environmental manager and cost accountant but the findings reported in this paper are based on the empirical evidence gathered from the questionnaire which identified that there was positive correlation between environmental performance and CP techniques and technologies. Environmental costs were hidden under general overheads and understated because the company was using a conventional costing system and not an EMA system; hence, environmental costs were not traced back to the products or processes responsible for those costs. It was evident from the qualitative data analysis that management regarded their environmental costs as too insignificant to justify implementation of an EMA system. The consequent reluctance of the company to adopt CP resulted in poor waste management and lower-quality environmental performance.

  6. The Effect of Social perception of environmental problems and goods on the practice of cost-benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunuel, M.; Delgado, M. L.

    2002-07-01

    When revealed, willingness to pay (WTP) is considerably lesser than willingness to accept (WTA), as economists explain. Sociological studies in Spain reveal that citizens assign a high value to the environment (high WTA), but are not ready to pay to preserve it (low WTP)because they think that it is industrial sector and the government's responsibility. This is a new factor, not studied before, that may result in underestimating environmental goods when WTP is used. The gap between WTP and WTA makes cost-benefits analysis difficult, creating the risk of environmental political judgments being replaced by pseudo scientific noise instead of by objective economic analysis.hence, it is sometimes convenient to use alternative methods to cost-benefit analysis: cost-effectiveness analysis trade-off analysis, economic-impact valuation, and risk-benefit analysis. (Author)

  7. Changes in historical Iowa land cover as context for assessing the environmental benefits of current and future conservation efforts on agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark F.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Conservationists and agriculturists face unprecedented challenges trying to minimize tradeoffs between increasing demands for food, fiber, feed, and biofuels and the resulting loss or reduced values of other ecosystem services, such as those derived from wetlands and biodiversity (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005a, 2005c; Maresch et al. 2008). The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-234, Stat. 923, HR 2419, also known as the 2008 Farm Bill) reauthorized the USDA to provide financial incentives for agricultural producers to reduce environmental impacts via multiple conservation programs. Two prominent programs, the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide incentives for producers to retire environmentally sensitive croplands, minimize erosion, improve water quality, restore wetlands, and provide wildlife habitat (USDA FSA 2008a, 2008b; USDA NRCS 2002). Other conservation programs (e.g., Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Conservation Stewardship Program) provide incentives to implement structural and cultural conservation practices to improve the environmental performance of working agricultural lands. Through its Conservation Effects Assessment Project, USDA is supporting evaluation of the environmental benefits obtained from the public investment in conservation programs and practices to inform decisions on where further investments are warranted (Duriancik et al. 2008; Zinn 1997).

  8. Multiple representations and free-body diagrams: Do students benefit from using them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengrant, David R.

    2007-12-01

    Introductory physics students have difficulties understanding concepts and solving problems. When they solve problems, they use surface features of the problems to find an equation to calculate a numerical answer often not understanding the physics in the problem. How do we help students approach problem solving in an expert manner? A possible answer is to help them learn to represent knowledge in multiple ways and then use these different representations for conceptual understanding and problem solving. This solution follows from research in cognitive science and in physics education. However, there are no studies in physics that investigate whether students who learn to use multiple representations are in fact better problem solvers. This study focuses on one specific representation used in physics--a free body diagram. A free-body diagram is a graphical representation of forces exerted on an object of interest by other objects. I used the free-body diagram to investigate five main questions: (1) If students are in a course where they consistently use free body diagrams to construct and test concepts in mechanics, electricity and magnetism and to solve problems in class and in homework, will they draw free-body diagrams on their own when solving exam problems? (2) Are students who use free-body diagrams to solve problems more successful then those who do not? (3) Why do students draw free-body diagrams when solving problems? (4) Are students consistent in constructing diagrams for different concepts in physics and are they consistent in the quality of their diagrams? (5) What are possible relationships between features of a problem and how likely a student will draw a free body diagram to help them solve the problem? I utilized a mixed-methods approach to answer these questions. Questions 1, 2, 4 and 5 required a quantitative approach while question 3 required a qualitative approach, a case study. When I completed my study, I found that if students are in an

  9. Achieving global environmental benefits through local development of clean energy? The case of small hilly hydel in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V. Ratna; Uitto, Juha I.; Frans, Dirk R.; Matin, Nilufar

    2006-01-01

    Energy and development are closely intertwined. Yet, increasing fossil fuel-based energy consumption contributes significantly to environmental problems both locally and globally. This article explores the interlinkages between local livelihood and environmental benefits from the provision of energy to remote rural households through small hydropower development. The analysis is based on research carried out around a large development project designed to assist the Government of India in the optimum utilization of small hydropower resources in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions. There are about 100,000 villages in India that are not connected to electricity supply, many of them in the hilly regions with ample hydropower potential. The project aimed to demonstrate the utility of and options for providing electricity to such villages through clean mini-hydro. The article addresses the nature of the impacts of the demonstration small hydel schemes on the local communities, to what extent they translate into environmental benefits both locally and globally, and the perceptions and participation of the local communities in these small hydro schemes. The study explores the impacts of the schemes on financial capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, human capital, and gender equity in the local communities. It further provides a discussion on the links between local and global environmental benefits. Overall, it is found that the schemes' impacts both on the local communities and the environment are mostly marginally positive or neutral, although achieving clearly demonstrable benefits would require major upscaling of the effort involving broader changes than possible under this project. Furthermore, it is argued that some of the assumptions behind the project design were faulty. Involvement of the local communities and direct livelihood benefits to them are essential for the long-term sustainability of the small hydro schemes. The discussion and

  10. Pilot test of Pickliq{reg_sign} process to determine energy and environmental benefits & economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1997-07-13

    Green Technology Group (GTG) was awarded Grant No. DE-FG01-96EE 15657 in the amount of $99,904 for a project to advance GTG`s Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in the Copper and Steel Industries. The use of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can significantly reduce the production of waste acids containing metal salts. The Pickliq{reg_sign} Process can save energy and eliminate hazardous waste in a typical copper rod or wire mill or a typical steel wire mill. The objective of this pilot project was to determine the magnitude of the economic, energy and environmental benefits of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process in two applications within the metal processing industry. The effectiveness of the process has already been demonstrated at facilities cleaning iron and steel with sulfuric acid. 9207 companies are reported to use sulfuric and hydrochloric acid in the USA. The USEPA TRI statistics of acid not recycled in the US is 2.4 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Hydrochloric Acid and 2.0 x 10{sup 9} lbs (net) for Sulfuric Acid. The energy cost of not reclaiming acid is 10.7 x 10{sup 6} BTU/ton for Hydrochloric Acid and 21.6 x 10{sup 6} BTU/Ton for Sulfuric Acid. This means that there is a very large market for the application of the Pickliq{reg_sign} Process and the widespread use of the process will bring significant world wide savings of energy to the environment.

  11. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapié, Ingrid; Künniger, Tina; Hischier, Roland; Cervellati, Dario; Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products

  12. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincapié, Ingrid [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Künniger, Tina [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Applied Wood Materials Laboratory (Switzerland); Hischier, Roland [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland); Cervellati, Dario [GFC Chimica S.r.l (Italy); Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.som@empa.ch [EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Laboratory (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products.

  13. Environmental and Health Benefits and Risks of a Global Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    Rapid development in hydrogen fuel-cell technologies will create a strong impetus for a massive hydrogen supply and distribution infrastructure in the coming decades. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. Stratospheric ozone depletion would increase exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation and increased risk to melanoma. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) is the principal source of uncertainty in our assessment. We propose global monitoring of hydrogen and its deuterium content to define a baseline and track its budget to responsibly prepare for a global hydrogen economy.

  14. The benefit of self-testing and interleaving for synthesizing concepts across multiple physiology texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Dobson, John; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    A testing-based learning strategy is one that relies on the act of recalling (i.e., testing) information after exposure, and interleaving is a strategy in which the learning materials are presented in a serial order (e.g., texts 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3) versus a blocked order (e.g., texts 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3). Although both learning strategies have been thoroughly investigated, few studies have examined their additive effect with higher-order cognitive tasks such as the ability to identify themes across multiple texts, and none of those did so using physiology information. The purpose of the present study was to compare recall and thematic processing across five different physiology texts. Participants were randomly assigned to learn the texts using one of the following four learning strategies: 1) study-study-study (S-S-S) using a blocked order, 2) S-S-S using an interleaved order, 3) study-test-study (S-T-S) using a blocked order, and 4) S-T-S using an interleaved order. Over the course of the following week, the S-T-S groups had more stable recall of key text ideas compared with the S-S-S groups, and the S-T-S group had more stable recall of thematic information than the S-S-S group when interleaving was used as the presentation order. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  15. A multiplicative environmental DEA approach to measure efficiency changes in the world's major polluters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Roshdi, Israfil; Smyth, Russell

    2016-01-01

    We propose a multiplicative environmental data envelopment analysis (ME-DEA) approach to measure the performance of 46 countries that generate most of the world's carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions. In the model, we combine economic (labour and capital), environmental (freshwater) and energy inputs with a desirable output (GDP) and three undesirable outputs (CO_2, methane and nitrous oxide emissions). We rank each country according to the optimum use of its resources employing a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. By computing partial efficiency scores for each input and output separately, we thus identify major sources of inefficiency for all sample countries. Based on the partial efficiency scores obtained from the model, we define aggregate economic, energy and environmental efficiency indexes for 2002, 2007 and 2011, reflecting points in time before and after the official enactment of the Kyoto Protocol. We find that for most countries efficiency scores increase over this period. In addition, there exists a positive relationship between economic and environmental efficiency, although, at the same time, our results suggest that environmental efficiency cannot be realized without first reaching a certain threshold of economic efficiency. We also find support for the Paradox of Plenty, whereby an abundance of natural and energy resources results in their inefficient use. - Highlights: • This study proposes a multiplicative extension of environmental DEA models. • We examine how countries utilize energy, labour, capital and freshwater over time. • We measure how efficiently countries minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases. • Results support the Paradox of Plenty among 46 countries in 2002, 2007 and 2011. • Countries richest in oil and gas exhibited the worst energy efficiency.

  16. Exercise prescription for patients with multiple sclerosis; potential benefits and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabchi, Farzin; Alizadeh, Zahra; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Abolhasani, Maryam

    2017-09-16

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) can result in significant mental and physical symptoms, specially muscle weakness, abnormal walking mechanics, balance problems, spasticity, fatigue, cognitive impairment and depression. Patients with MS frequently decrease physical activity due to the fear from worsening the symptoms and this can result in reconditioning. Physicians now believe that regular exercise training is a potential solution for limiting the reconditioning process and achieving an optimal level of patient activities, functions and many physical and mental symptoms without any concern about triggering the onset or exacerbation of disease symptoms or relapse. Appropriate exercise can cause noteworthy and important improvements in different areas of cardio respiratory fitness (Aerobic fitness), muscle strength, flexibility, balance, fatigue, cognition, quality of life and respiratory function in MS patients. Aerobic exercise training with low to moderate intensity can result in the improvement of aerobic fitness and reduction of fatigue in MS patients affected by mild or moderate disability. MS patients can positively adapt to resistance training which may result in improved fatigue and ambulation. Flexibility exercises such as stretching the muscles may diminish spasticity and prevent future painful contractions. Balance exercises have beneficial effects on fall rates and better balance. Some general guidelines exist for exercise recommendation in the MS population. The individualized exercise program should be designed to address a patient's chief complaint, improve strength, endurance, balance, coordination, fatigue and so on. An exercise staircase model has been proposed for exercise prescription and progression for a broad spectrum of MS patients. Exercise should be considered as a safe and effective means of rehabilitation in MS patients. Existing evidence shows that a supervised and individualized exercise program may improve fitness, functional capacity and

  17. Potential benefits of nintendo wii fit among people with multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Finlayson, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    We examined the potential of Nintendo Wii Fit (Nintendo Co, Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) to increase physical activity (PA) behavior and health among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study consisted of a repeated-measures design with a baseline control period and involved 30 people with MS who had the ability to walk 25 feet with or without a cane (26 individuals were included in the analyses). Nintendo Wii was set up in the homes of participants, who were prescribed a Wii Fit exercise program lasting 14 weeks, 3 days a week. The Physical Activity and Disability Survey, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey were administered three times before participants gained access to Wii Fit (control period, at 2-week intervals), and three times after they received Wii Fit (posttest 1: immediately after; posttest 2: 7 weeks after; posttest 3: 14 weeks after). Mobility, balance, strength, and weight were assessed at the first pretest, immediately prior to obtaining access to Wii Fit, and 7 weeks after obtaining access to Wii Fit. Results from the questionnaires indicated that PA significantly improved at week 7, but at week 14, PA levels declined relative to week 7 and the difference was no longer significant compared with the control period. Physical assessments indicated that balance and strength significantly improved at week 7. One adverse event was reported (repetitive knee injury). Physical assessments indicated that people with MS may be able to improve their fitness levels by using Wii Fit. Future studies should incorporate behavior change strategies to promote long-term use of Wii Fit, and explore whether individuals with more severe symptoms of MS can safely use Wii Fit.

  18. a Case Study in Documentation Production as Learning Tools Benefitting Multiple Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, T. J.; Hierlihy, B.; Jouan, P.

    2017-08-01

    The Fondation Strutt Foundation has taken on the conservation planning of the Strutt House as part of a P3 collaborative effort with the National Capital Commission (NCC). This paper will address three of the primary documents/data sets (documentary methodologies) being used on/for the Strutt House project. The Strutt House is a Recognized Federal Heritage Building and a significant example of Canadian modernist architecture. Stakeholder is a term often used in Architectural Projects reflecting an economic interest in success of the project. In conservation projects the stakeholder generally reflects social, cultural and/or economic interests in a given project. The Strutt House project has benefitted from stakeholders that have all been interested in the above, as well as the education of our future conservationists. The Strutt house was purchased from the architect's daughter in 2010, and as part of the acquisition, a Heritage Structure Report was commissioned and produced by PTAH Consultants Inc., Architects. The report forms the first of the primary referenced documents of this paper, including: a comprehensive photographic record of existing conditions; and, a building simulation model of the house `as designed/built'. This HSR and the accompanying data/documents have been adopted as the basis of an evolving document in the development of the Conservation Plan including: additional heritage surveys and technologies; traditional drawings, photographic and video records; and, a series of workshops on the structural stabilization efforts, thermography scans, and smoke/blow-door (air pressure) testing. In 2016, Pierre Jouan, a Master's thesis student from KU Leuvan, working with the Carleton University CIMS lab under the direction of Professor Mario Santana, and the FSF completed a 3-D scanning and photogrammetry workshop on the Strutt House and created a building information model (BIM model) from the collected data. The three primary documentation processes

  19. A CASE STUDY IN DOCUMENTATION PRODUCTION AS LEARNING TOOLS BENEFITTING MULTIPLE STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Truesdale

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Fondation Strutt Foundation has taken on the conservation planning of the Strutt House as part of a P3 collaborative effort with the National Capital Commission (NCC. This paper will address three of the primary documents/data sets (documentary methodologies being used on/for the Strutt House project. The Strutt House is a Recognized Federal Heritage Building and a significant example of Canadian modernist architecture. Stakeholder is a term often used in Architectural Projects reflecting an economic interest in success of the project. In conservation projects the stakeholder generally reflects social, cultural and/or economic interests in a given project. The Strutt House project has benefitted from stakeholders that have all been interested in the above, as well as the education of our future conservationists. The Strutt house was purchased from the architect’s daughter in 2010, and as part of the acquisition, a Heritage Structure Report was commissioned and produced by PTAH Consultants Inc., Architects. The report forms the first of the primary referenced documents of this paper, including: a comprehensive photographic record of existing conditions; and, a building simulation model of the house ‘as designed/built’. This HSR and the accompanying data/documents have been adopted as the basis of an evolving document in the development of the Conservation Plan including: additional heritage surveys and technologies; traditional drawings, photographic and video records; and, a series of workshops on the structural stabilization efforts, thermography scans, and smoke/blow-door (air pressure testing. In 2016, Pierre Jouan, a Master’s thesis student from KU Leuvan, working with the Carleton University CIMS lab under the direction of Professor Mario Santana, and the FSF completed a 3-D scanning and photogrammetry workshop on the Strutt House and created a building information model (BIM model from the collected data. The three primary

  20. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power–induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ∼10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56–$789 billion (central value of ∼$250 billion, equivalent to ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77–$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ∼1.4 ¢/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states. - Highlights: • With feasible cost reductions, solar power can provide major environmental benefits. • U.S. electric-sector modeling indicates climate benefits worth ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar. • Further modeling indicates air quality public health benefits worth 1.4 ¢/kWh-solar. • Solar could reduce power-sector water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%.

  1. Can rewards for environmental services benefit the poor? Lessons from Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beria, L.; Joshi, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pro-poor rewards for environmental services (RES) link global priorities on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Emerging approaches to payment for environmental services vary in mechanism and form of payment. Rural poverty is multidimensional and the poverty syndromes vary with the

  2. Mapping and modeling multiple benefits of energy efficiency and emission mitigation in China’s cement industry at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    efficiency measures can help decrease 38% of CO 2 , 23% of SO 2 , 33% of NOx, and 26% of PM emissions in these seven provinces by 2030. This indicates that the multiple benefits should be considered when local policy makers or end users make decisions whether to use energy efficiency measures to solve environmental issues

  3. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  4. Incorporating environmental co-benefits into climate policies: A regional study of the cement industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xi; Teng, Fei; Wang, Gehua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First study on the co-benefits of mitigation measures in the cement sector in China. • We evaluate the economic value of damage of various pollutants at local level. • We evaluate 18 energy-saving technologies for 31 provinces in cement sector. • The value for the co-benefits ranged from 3 $/t CO 2 to 39 $/t CO 2 . • The large spatial variations may justify stringent targets for richer provinces. - Abstract: We analyzed the impacts of incorporating local air quality improvement and environmental co-benefits into the climate policy and mitigation technology assessment of the cement sector in China. Local air quality can benefit from reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which consequently lowers abatement costs and strengthens the cost-effectiveness of mitigation technologies. We used a simplified approach to estimate environmental damage factors due to air pollution at the sub-national level in China. The calculated economic costs of environmental damage due to PM 10 , NO x , and SO 2 were 7,714 $/t, 1,006 $/t, and 902 $/t, respectively. These values vary among the provinces. We found that most energy-saving technologies in the cement industry will create significant co-benefits, ranging from 3 $/t CO 2 to 39 $/t CO 2 at the national level; however, a tradeoff for carbon capture and storage (CCS) and energy-saving technologies also resulted with increased electricity consumption. Large spatial variations of co-benefits can be gained at the sub-national level and justify the enactment of more stringent climate policies in the wealthier regions in China

  5. 75 FR 17763 - National Park Service Benefits-Sharing Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... management in connection with the allocation of benefits from valuable discoveries, inventions, and other... share the benefits with the National Park Service. Another alternative prohibits scientific research... Service and researchers who study material associated with a Scientific Research and Collecting Permit to...

  6. Trace element analysis of environmental samples by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Shozugawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple γ-ray detection method has been proved to be a high-resolution and high-sensitivity method in application to nuclide quantification. The neutron prompt γ-ray analysis method is successfully extended by combining it with the γ-ray detection method, which is called Multiple prompt γ-ray analysis, MPGA. In this review we show the principle of this method and its characteristics. Several examples of its application to environmental samples, especially river sediments in the urban area and sea sediment samples are also described. (author)

  7. The construction of feelings of justice in environmental management: An empirical study of multiple biodiversity conflicts in Calakmul, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuyer, Lou; White, Rehema M; Schmook, Birgit; Lemay, Violaine; Calmé, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    A failure to address social concerns in biodiversity conservation can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors, and hence jeopardize conservation goals. The complex socio-cultural and political context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, has historically led to multiple biodiversity conflicts. Our goal, in this case study, was to explore perceptions of justice held by local actors in relation to biodiversity conflicts. We then aimed to determine the following: 1) people's definitions of their feelings of justice; 2) the criteria used in this assessment; 3) variability in the criteria influencing them; and 4) implications for environmental management in the region and beyond. We worked with five focus groups, exploring three examples of biodiversity conflict around forest, water and jaguar management with a total of 41 ranchers, farmers and representatives of local producers. Our results demonstrated that people constructed their feelings of justice around four dimensions of justice: recognition (acknowledging individuals' rights, values, cultures and knowledge systems); ecological (fair and respectful treatment of the natural environment), procedural (fairness in processes of environmental management), distributive (fairness in the distribution of costs and benefits). We identified a list of criteria the participants used in their appraisal of justice and sources of variation such as the social scale of focus and participant role, and whom they perceived to be responsible for resource management. We propose a new framework that conceptualizes justice-as-recognition and ecological justice as forms of conditional justices, and procedural and distributive justices as forms of practical justice. Conditional justice allows us to define who is a legitimate source of justice norms and if nature should be integrated in the scope of justice; hence, conditional justice underpins other dimensions of justice. On the other hand, procedural and distributive address

  8. Are screening processes effective instruments and what are the environmental benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)is the process by which the effects that proposed projects are likely to have with respect to a number of environmental criteria is evaluated. Screening is an activity carried out in advance of an EIA to determine whether, in fact, it is necessary to undertake...... a full assessment.The paper discuss the extent of changes due to the screening process, and ask questions like what kind of environmental considerations do the changes reflect? And are they in line with EIA's holistic environmental approach?...

  9. Ensuring comparability of data generated by multiple analytical laboratories for environmental decision making at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.; Campbell, B.A.; Danahy, R.J.; Dugan, T.A.; Tomlinson, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility located 17 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1952 until 1989, the Fernald site provided high-purity uranium metal products to support US defense programs. In 1989 the mission of Fernald changed from one of uranium production to one of environmental restoration. At Fernald, multiple functional programs require analytical data. Inorganic and organic data for these programs are currently generated by seven laboratories, while radiochemical data are being obtained from six laboratories. Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) programs have been established to help ensure comparability of data generated by multiple laboratories at different times. The quality assurance program for organic and inorganic measurements specifies which analytical methodologies and sample preparation procedures are to be used based on analyte class, sample matrix, and data quality requirements. In contrast, performance specifications have been established for radiochemical analyses. A blind performance evaluation program for all laboratories, both on-site and subcontracted commercial laboratories, provides continuous feedback on data quality. The necessity for subcontractor laboratories to participate in the performance evaluation program is a contractual requirement. Similarly, subcontract laboratories are contractually required to generate data which meet radiochemical performance specifications. The Fernald on-site laboratory must also fulfill these requirements

  10. Motivating factors in hospital environmental management programs: a multiple case study in four private Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krüger

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental responsibility has been a widespread and relatively recent research theme in the healthcare sector. Considering that the greater life expectancy increases the need for healthcare services and that these services produce negative environmental externalities on human health, it is important to understand the relationship between environmental responsibility and the healthcare sector. This article aims to investigate what motivates hospital managers to adopt environmental responsibility programs and to identify the actions implemented by them. A multiple case study was conducted involving four Brazilian hospitals based in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The results indicate that the main drivers are competitive, ethical and regulatory and that the competitive and regulatory motivators have the potential to establish a baseline for environmental performance that varies across ownership type (public or private. The results also indicate that the comprehensiveness of environmental actions is related to organizational resilience and to the motivators that drive hospitals to adopt those actions. Two conceptual models are proposed to illustrate these findings and offer bases for further research.

  11. Environmental globalization, organizational form, and expected benefits from protected areas in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max J. Pfeffer; John W. Schelhas; Catherine Meola

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like - food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for such conservation...

  12. Environmental Globalization, Organizational Form, and Expected Benefits from Protected Areas in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Schelhas, John W.; Meola, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Environmental globalization has led to the implementation of conservation efforts like the creation of protected areas that often promote the interests of core countries in poorer regions. The creation of protected areas in poor areas frequently creates tensions between human needs like food and shelter and environmental conservation. Support for…

  13. Environmental cost benefit analysis for a coal-fired power plant. An application of dispersion modelling coupled with GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguz, M.; Balta, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, local air quality impacts of a proposed conventional coal-fired power at Icel region has been investigated using numerical dispersion modeling studies coupled with a GIS application. Within the impact area of the facility, Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST2) dispersion model has been used to estimate ground level concentrations of air pollutants originating from the power plant. For the same impact area, GIS applications have been utilized to determine the agricultural yield distribution. For this purpose, relevant satellite images were digitized, classified and statistically analyzed. Based on the predicted ground level pollutant concentrations and sensitivity of the agricultural crops to those, agricultural yield loss was estimated for the impact area. The results have been quantified and validated in monetary terms for the purpose of performing an environmental cost benefit analysis. Comparison of the conventional cost benefit analysis with the environmental cost benefit analysis showed the significance of the external cost of the proposed facility, resulting from the environmental damages. 6 refs

  14. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. I just ran a thousand analyses: benefits of multiple testing in understanding equivocal evidence on gene-environment interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera E Heininga

    Full Text Available In psychiatric genetics research, the volume of ambivalent findings on gene-environment interactions (G x E is growing at an accelerating pace. In response to the surging suspicions of systematic distortion, we challenge the notion of chance capitalization as a possible contributor. Beyond qualifying multiple testing as a mere methodological issue that, if uncorrected, leads to chance capitalization, we advance towards illustrating the potential benefits of multiple tests in understanding equivocal evidence in genetics literature.We focused on the interaction between the serotonin-transporter-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR and childhood adversities with regard to depression. After testing 2160 interactions with all relevant measures available within the Dutch population study of adolescents TRAILS, we calculated percentages of significant (p < .05 effects for several subsets of regressions. Using chance capitalization (i.e. overall significance rate of 5% alpha and randomly distributed findings as a competing hypothesis, we expected more significant effects in the subsets of regressions involving: 1 interview-based instead of questionnaire-based measures; 2 abuse instead of milder childhood adversities; and 3 early instead of later adversities. Furthermore, we expected equal significance percentages across 4 male and female subsamples, and 5 various genotypic models of 5-HTTLPR.We found differences in the percentages of significant interactions among the subsets of analyses, including those regarding sex-specific subsamples and genetic modeling, but often in unexpected directions. Overall, the percentage of significant interactions was 7.9% which is only slightly above the 5% that might be expected based on chance.Taken together, multiple testing provides a novel approach to better understand equivocal evidence on G x E, showing that methodological differences across studies are a likely reason for heterogeneity in findings - but chance

  16. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients' needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL's Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs

  17. How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Abroms, Lorien C

    2017-04-01

    To determine the degree to which the observed benefit of Text2Quit was accounted for by psychosocial mechanisms derived from its quit smoking messaging versus from the use of extra-programmatic smoking cessation treatments and services. Prospective, multiple mediation model of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). United States nation-wide. A total of 409 adult daily smokers participated. Participants were, on average, 35 years of age, predominantly female (68%), white (79%), lacked a college degree (70%), had medium nicotine dependence (average Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Score score of 5.2) and more than half (62%) had made a previous quit attempt. Adult daily smokers browsing the web for smoking cessation support (n = 409; recruited 19 May2011-10 July 2012) were randomized to receive smoking cessation support via Text2Quit versus a smoking cessation material. Mediators (i.e. changes in psychosocial constructs of health behavior change, use of extra-programmatic treatment) were assessed at 1 month using single-item measures and outcome (i.e. self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence) at 6-month follow-up. Mediators accounted for 35% of the effect of Text2Quit on smoking cessation. Only psychosocial mechanisms had complete mediational paths, with increases in self-efficacy [b = 0.10 (0.06-0.15)], quitting know-how [b = 0.07 (0.03-0.11)] and the sense that someone cared [b = 0.06 (0.01-0.11)], partially explaining the conferred benefit of Text2Quit. Use of outside resources, including treatments promoted explicitly by Text2Quit, i.e. medication [b = 0.001 (-0.01 to 0.01), quitline [b = -0.002 (-0.01 to 0.04)], treatments and resources not promoted by Text2Quit, i.e. online forums [b = 0.01 (-0.01 to 0.04)] and self-help materials [b = -0.01 (-0.04 to 0.02)], did not have complete mediational paths. An interaction effect existed for medication use that suggested that for participants not using medication, Text2Quit conferred substantial

  18. Does environmental confounding mask pleiotropic effects of a multiple sclerosis susceptibility variant on vitamin D in psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyegbe, Conrad O; Acharya, Anita; Lally, John; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Smith, Louise S; Smith, Shubulade; Murray, Robin; Howes, Oliver; Gaughran, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the existing and emerging evidence of overlap within the environmental and genetic profiles of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia. To investigate whether a genetic risk factor for MS (rs703842), whose variation is indicative of vitamin D status in the disorder, could also be a determinant of vitamin D status in chronic psychosis patients. A cohort of 224 chronic psychosis cases was phenotyped and biologically profiled. The relationship between rs703842 and physiological vitamin D status in the blood plasma was assessed by logistic regression. Deficiency was defined as a blood plasma concentration below 10 ng/µl. Potential environmental confounders of the vitamin D status were considered as part of the analysis. We report suggestive evidence of an association with vitamin D status in established psychosis (ß standardized=0.51, P=0.04). The logistic model fit significantly benefited from controlling for body mass index, depression and ethnicity (χ (2)=91.7; 2 degrees of freedom (df); P=1.2×10(20)). The results suggest that, in addition to lifestyle changes that accompany the onset of illness, vitamin D dysregulation in psychosis has a genetic component that links into MS. Further, comprehensive studies are needed to evaluate this prospect.

  19. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  20. Does Eco-Certification Have Environmental Benefits? Organic Coffee in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Naranjo, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-certification of coffee, timber and other high-value agricultural commodities is increasingly widespread. In principle, it can improve commodity producers’ environmental performance, even in countries where state regulation is weak. However, evidence needed to evaluate this hypothesis is virtually nonexistent. To help fill this gap, we use detailed farm-level data to analyze the environmental impacts of organic coffee certification in central Costa Rica. We use propensity score matching t...

  1. Socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours for climate change mitigation in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Wang, Susan Shuxin; Ho, Janice Ying-En; Huang, Zhe; Liu, Sida; Guo, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the patterns and socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours that support climate change mitigation in a densely populated Asian metropolis-Hong Kong. A population-based, stratified and cross-sectional random digit dialling telephone survey study was conducted between January and February 2016, among the Cantonese-speaking population aged 15 and above in Hong Kong. Socio-demographic data and the self-reported practice of 10 different co-benefit behaviours were solicited. Ethics approval and participant's verbal consent were sought. The study sample consisted of 1,017 respondents (response rate: 63.6%) were comparable to the age, gender and geographical distributions of the Hong Kong population found in the latest 2011 Hong Kong Population Census. Among the co-benefit behaviours, using less packaging and disposable shopping bags were practiced in the highest frequency (70.1%). However, four behaviours were found to have never been practiced by more than half of the respondents, including bringing personal eating utensils when dining in restaurants or small eateries, showering less than five minutes, having one vegetarian meal a week, and buying more organic food. Results of multivariable logistic regression showed that frequency of practicing co-benefit behaviours were consistently associated with gender and age. Urban residents in Hong Kong do not engage in the practice of co-benefit behaviours in a uniform way. In general, females and older people are more likely to adopt co-benefit behaviours in their daily lives. Further research to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the population towards these co-benefit behaviours will provide support to relevant climate change mitigation policies and education programmes.

  2. A heuristic approach using multiple criteria for environmentally benign 3PLs selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, Elif

    2005-11-01

    Maintaining competitiveness in an environment where price and quality differences between competing products are disappearing depends on the company's ability to reduce costs and supply time. Timely responses to rapidly changing market conditions require an efficient Supply Chain Management (SCM). Outsourcing logistics to third-party logistics service providers (3PLs) is one commonly used way of increasing the efficiency of logistics operations, while creating a more "core competency focused" business environment. However, this alone may not be sufficient. Due to recent environmental regulations and growing public awareness regarding environmental issues, 3PLs need to be not only efficient but also environmentally benign to maintain companies' competitiveness. Even though an efficient and environmentally benign combination of 3PLs can theoretically be obtained using exhaustive search algorithms, heuristics approaches to the selection process may be superior in terms of the computational complexity. In this paper, a hybrid approach that combines a multiple criteria Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Linear Physical Weighting Algorithm (LPPW) to be used in efficient and environmentally benign 3PLs is proposed. A numerical example is also provided to illustrate the method and the analyses.

  3. The environmental benefits of cellulosic energy crops at a landscape scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; English, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops--particularly the cellulosic energy crops current under development. For this discussion, the term energy crop refers to a crop grown primarily to create feedstock for either making biofuels such as ethanol or burning in a heat or electricity generation facility. Cellulosic energy crops are designed to be used in cellulose-based ethanol conversion processes (as opposed to starch or sugar-based ethanol conversion processes). As more cellulose can be produced per hectare of land than can sugar or starch, the cellulose-based ethanol conversion process is a more efficient sue of land for ethanol production. Assessing the environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing cellulosic energy crops especially at the landscape or regional scale. However, to set the stage for this discussion, the authors begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  4. Health and Environmental Benefits from the Implementation of an Energy Saving Program in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, Kristin; Patzay, Gyoergy

    1997-12-31

    This report studies the cost and benefit of implementing a specific energy conservation programme in Hungary. It considers the possible reduction in damage to public health, materials and crops that may be obtained by reducing the emission of important air pollutants and examines how the programme contributes to reduced emission of greenhouse gases. The measures are described in the National Energy Efficiency Improvement and Energy Conservation Programmes (NEEIECP), a programme elaborated by the Hungarian Ministry of Industry and Trade and accepted by the Government in 1994. The energy saving expected from the programme is about 64 PJ/year. Possible benefits were estimated by the use of monitoring data and population and recipient data from urban and rural areas in Hungary together with dose response functions and valuation estimates mainly from western studies. The main benefits of reducing the concentration of pollutants are found in the health sector, the most pronounced effect being less chronic respiratory deceases. Reduced premature mortality is also important. It is calculated that the annual benefit on public health alone probably exceeds the implementation costs of the programme. In addition, the maintenance and replacement costs for building materials have decreased. The damage to crops due to ozone is large, but a significant improvement in Hungary depends upon concerted action in several countries. 68 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  6. United States experience in environmental cost-benefit analysis for nuclear power plants with implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1980-08-01

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis in the United States involves a comparison of diverse societal impacts of the proposed developments and its alternatives. Regarding nuclear power plant licensing actions, such analyses include the need for base-load electrical generating capacity versus the no-action alternative; alternative sources of energy; alternative sites for the proposed nuclear plants; and alternative technologies for mitigating environmental impacts. Many U.S. experiences and environmental assessment practices and comparative resource requirements presented in this report will not provide a wholly reliable reflection of the precise situation of each country. Nevertheless, the procedural and substantive issues encountered by the United States in nuclear power plant licensing may exhibit a number of important, if rough, parallelisms for other countries. Procedural issues dealt with include: the scoping of alternatives and impact issues; the problem of balancing incommensurable impacts; and treating uncertainty in measuring or forecasting certain kinds of environmental impacts. Although substantive environmental impact issues will vary appreciably among nations, it is to be expected that many of the substantive impact issues such as impacts on biota, community-related effects, and aesthetic impacts will also have some measure of universal interest to other countries

  7. Choice of mineral fertilizer substitution principle strongly influences LCA environmental benefits of nutrient cycling in the agri-food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanserud, Ola Stedje; Cherubini, Francesco; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2018-02-15

    Increased nutrient cycling in the agri-food system is a way to achieve a healthier nutrient stewardship and more sustainable food production. In life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, use of recycled fertilizer products is often credited by the substitution method, which subtracts the environmental burdens associated with avoided production of mineral fertilizer from the system under study. The environmental benefits from avoided fertilizer production can make an important contribution to the results, but different calculation principles and often implicit assumptions are used to estimate the amount of avoided mineral fertilizer. This may hinder comparisons between studies. The present study therefore examines how the choice of substitution principles influences LCA results. Three different substitution principles, called one-to-one, maintenance, and adjusted maintenance, are identified, and we test the importance of these in a case study on cattle slurry management. We show that the inventory of avoided mineral fertilizer varies greatly when the different principles are applied, with strong influences on two-thirds of LCA impact categories. With the one-to-one principle, there is a risk of systematically over-estimating the environmental benefits from nutrient cycling. In a sensitivity analysis we show that the difference between the principles is closely related to the application rate and levels of residual nutrients in the soil. We recommend that LCA practitioners first and foremost state and justify the substitution method they use, in order to increase transparency and comparability with other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, Tyron; Blottnitz, Harro von

    2006-01-01

    The energetic utilisation of agricultural residues is considered to be an important element in any strategy to achieve renewable energy targets. In the approximately 80 cane-sugar producing countries there is potential to make better use of the fibrous residue known as bagasse. Subject to improved energy efficiency, sugar producers could supply energy either as 'green', co-generated electricity, or as fuel ethanol through cellulose hydrolysis followed by fermentation. This paper compares their projected environmental benefits from a life-cycle perspective, using South African data. Mass and energy analyses were prepared for the two systems and a base case (producing sugar with current methods), relative to the annual sugarcane production on one hectare. In both cases, the environmental burdens avoided by replacing an equivalent amount of fossil energy were included. The results obtained confirm that for all the impact categories considered, both 'bioenergy' products result in environmental benefits. The co-generation option results in lower energy-related emissions (i.e. lower global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials), whereas the fuel ethanol option is preferred in terms of resource conservation (since it is assumed to replace oil not coal), and also scores better in terms of human and eco-toxicity if assumed to replace lead-bearing oxygenates

  9. Cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts and radwaste system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, K.N.; Yook, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    During operation of nuclear power plant, radioactive material is inevitably formed. This radioactive material must be safely processed by radwaste system so that essentially zero activity is released to the environment. However zero released activity is not really practicable and population doses resulted from released activity are proportional to total annual cost for the radwaste system. In this study, cost-benefit analysis for the radwaste system of the Korean Nuclear Units 5 and 6 is performed to evaluate the optimization between the total annual cost for the radwaste system and population doses within 80 km from the plants. From the analysis, the following results are obtained; 1. the total population dose is estimated 4.04 x 10 3 man-rem/year, 2. total annual cost for the radwaste system is required $ 1.74 x 10 6 , 3. cost-benefit ratio is estimated $ 429/man-rem. (Author)

  10. Apex simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers for corn-soybean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model is used to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. A long-term paired watershed study under corn (Zea mays L-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with agroforestr...

  11. APEX simulation: environmental benefits of agroforestry and grass buffers on corn-soybean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model has the ability to simulate the effects of vegetative filter strips on runoff and pollutant loadings from agricultural watersheds. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and validate the APEX model for three adjacent watersheds and...

  12. Can rewards for environmental services benefit the poor? Lessons from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beria Leimona

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pro-poor rewards for environmental services (RES link global priorities on poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Emerging approaches to payment for environmental services vary in mechanism and form of payment. Rural poverty is multidimensional and the poverty syndromes vary with the intensity of landscape use and management, with the solution to lack of access to markets, education and healthcare associated with loss of natural capital. RES mechanisms have to balance effectiveness and efficiency with fairness and pro-poor characteristics, with transaction costs as obstacles to both. The economic perspective on financial transfers needs to be balanced with the social and environmental paradigms of fairness. Our first hypothesis is that only under specific circumstances, actual cash incentive to individual participants of RES will contribute substantially to poverty alleviation of ES providers. The second hypothesis is that non-financial incentive to ES providers will contribute to reducing poverty by linking the community (participants and non-participants to access to capital types (human, social/political, natural, infrastructure and financial, such as microcredit. Review of key ratios of relative number and wealth of service providers and beneficiaries supports the first hypothesis and rejects the notion of widespread potential for reducing upstream rural poverty through individual cash payments. Results of community focus group discussions support the second hypothesis through context-specific preferences for the mechanisms by which RES can trigger conditions for sustainable development.

  13. Evaluation of the Environmental Scoring System in Multiple Child Asthma Intervention Programs in Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhao; Nath, Anjali; Guo, Jing; Bhaumik, Urmi; Chin, May Y; Dong, Sherry; Marshall, Erica; Murphy, Johnna S; Sandel, Megan T; Sommer, Susan J; Ursprung, W W Sanouri; Woods, Elizabeth R; Reid, Margaret; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2018-01-01

    To test the applicability of the Environmental Scoring System, a quick and simple approach for quantitatively measuring environmental triggers collected during home visits, and to evaluate its contribution to improving asthma outcomes among various child asthma programs. We pooled and analyzed data from multiple child asthma programs in the Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts, collected in 2011 to 2016, to examine the association of environmental scores (ES) with measures of asthma outcomes and compare the results across programs. Our analysis showed that demographics were important contributors to variability in asthma outcomes and total ES, and largely explained the differences among programs at baseline. Among all programs in general, we found that asthma outcomes were significantly improved and total ES significantly reduced over visits, with the total Asthma Control Test score negatively associated with total ES. Our study demonstrated that the Environmental Scoring System is a useful tool for measuring home asthma triggers and can be applied regardless of program and survey designs, and that demographics of the target population may influence the improvement in asthma outcomes.

  14. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Do invasive alien plants benefit more from global environmental change than native plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Oduor, Ayub M O; Zhang, Zhen; Manea, Anthony; Tooth, Ifeanna M; Leishman, Michelle R; Xu, Xingliang; van Kleunen, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species threaten native biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem functions and can cause large economic damage. Plant invasions have been predicted to further increase under ongoing global environmental change. Numerous case studies have compared the performance of invasive and native plant species in response to global environmental change components (i.e. changes in mean levels of precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO 2 concentration or nitrogen deposition). Individually, these studies usually involve low numbers of species and therefore the results cannot be generalized. Therefore, we performed a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis to assess whether there is a general pattern of differences in invasive and native plant performance under each component of global environmental change. We compiled a database of studies that reported performance measures for 74 invasive alien plant species and 117 native plant species in response to one of the above-mentioned global environmental change components. We found that elevated temperature and CO 2 enrichment increased the performance of invasive alien plants more strongly than was the case for native plants. Invasive alien plants tended to also have a slightly stronger positive response to increased N deposition and increased precipitation than native plants, but these differences were not significant (N deposition: P = 0.051; increased precipitation: P = 0.679). Invasive alien plants tended to have a slightly stronger negative response to decreased precipitation than native plants, although this difference was also not significant (P = 0.060). So while drought could potentially reduce plant invasion, increases in the four other components of global environmental change considered, particularly global warming and atmospheric CO 2 enrichment, may further increase the spread of invasive plants in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b......) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios....

  17. Temporal scale dependent interactions between multiple environmental disturbances in microcosm ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Aurélie; Pennekamp, Frank; Lemoine, Mélissa; Petchey, Owen L

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental change has negative impacts on ecological systems, impacting the stable provision of functions, goods, and services. Whereas effects of individual environmental changes (e.g. temperature change or change in resource availability) are reasonably well understood, we lack information about if and how multiple changes interact. We examined interactions among four types of environmental disturbance (temperature, nutrient ratio, carbon enrichment, and light) in a fully factorial design using a microbial aquatic ecosystem and observed responses of dissolved oxygen saturation at three temporal scales (resistance, resilience, and return time). We tested whether multiple disturbances combine in a dominant, additive, or interactive fashion, and compared the predictability of dissolved oxygen across scales. Carbon enrichment and shading reduced oxygen concentration in the short term (i.e. resistance); although no other effects or interactions were statistically significant, resistance decreased as the number of disturbances increased. In the medium term, only enrichment accelerated recovery, but none of the other effects (including interactions) were significant. In the long term, enrichment and shading lengthened return times, and we found significant two-way synergistic interactions between disturbances. The best performing model (dominant, additive, or interactive) depended on the temporal scale of response. In the short term (i.e. for resistance), the dominance model predicted resistance of dissolved oxygen best, due to a large effect of carbon enrichment, whereas none of the models could predict the medium term (i.e. resilience). The long-term response was best predicted by models including interactions among disturbances. Our results indicate the importance of accounting for the temporal scale of responses when researching the effects of environmental disturbances on ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley

  18. Dietary leucine--an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Macotela

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor--leucine--can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues and at multiple levels of metabolism. Mice were placed on a normal or high fat diet (HFD. Dietary leucine was doubled by addition to the drinking water. mRNA, protein and complete metabolomic profiles were assessed in the major insulin sensitive tissues and serum, and correlated with changes in glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated with a decrease in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue. These changes occurred despite an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase indicating enhanced activation of mTOR, a phenomenon normally associated with insulin resistance. These data indicate that modest changes in a single environmental/nutrient factor can modify multiple metabolic and signaling pathways and modify HFD induced metabolic syndrome by acting at a systemic level on multiple tissues. These data also suggest that increasing dietary leucine may provide an adjunct in the management of obesity-related insulin resistance.

  19. Acceptance of new sanitation: The role of end-users' pro-environmental personal norms and risk and benefit perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Sanders, Liese; Weijma, Jan; De Vries, Jasper R

    2017-12-18

    Current sanitation systems are inherently limited in their ability to address the new challenges for (waste)water management that arise from the rising demand to restore resource cycles. These challenges include removal of micropollutants, water (re)use, and nutrient recovery. New opportunities to address these challenges arise from new sanitation, a system innovation that combines elements of source separation, local treatment and reuse, and less use of water. New sanitation is applied, but not yet widespread, in several residential areas in Europe. Implementation is hindered by the lack of insight into the general public's willingness to engage in new sanitation, and the resulting uncertainty about this among decision makers and other stakeholders in wastewater management. Using value-belief-norm theory as a conceptual lens, this paper addresses the individual motivations (pro-environmental personal norms) and personal drivers (benefits) and barriers (risks) for acceptance of new sanitation by the Dutch general public. The results of an online survey (N = 338) indicated that both pro-environmental personal norms and risk and benefit perceptions predict consumers' willingness to accept new sanitation. More specifically, they showed that consumer acceptance is driven by perceived risks relating to the housing market and the need to change behavior, but also by environmental benefits. Overall, new sanitation was favorably evaluated by respondents: 64% indicated that they would likely use new sanitation if they were owner-occupiers. The results of this explorative study are discussed in light of the development of novel sanitation systems that are sensitive to perceptions of end-users and other key stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental costs and benefits case study: nuclear power plant. Quantification and economic valuation of selected environmental impacts/effects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This case study is an application, to a nuclear power plant, of the methodology for quantifying environmental costs and benefits, contained in the regional energy plan, adopted in April, 1983, by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to Public Law 96-501.The study is based on plant number 2 of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WNP-2), currently nearing completion on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington State. This report describes and documents efforts to quantify and estimate monetary values for the following seven areas of environmental effects: radiation/health effects, socioeconomic/infrastructure effects, consumptive use of water, psychological/health effects (fear/stress), waste management, nuclear power plant accidents, and decommissioning costs. 103 references

  1. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Park, Jeongim

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: → The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.→ Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.→ Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.→ Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.→ Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  2. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yeora, E-mail: yrchae@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-Gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeongim [Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: > The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.> Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.> Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.> Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.> Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  3. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...... on resource losses through waste incineration. In this framework, this study provides actual data on the state of the art of the recovery of resource in MSWIBA in Denmark (i.e. metals), on the potential for further recovery and on the environmental benefits or burdens assessed through the Life Cycle...

  4. Analysis of economic and environmental benefits of a new heat pump air conditioning system with a heat recovery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, lingxue

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a new wind-water cooling and heating water conditioner system, connects cooling tower with heat recovery device, which uses cooling water to completely remove the heat that does not need heat recollection, in order to ensure that the system can work efficiently with higher performance coefficient. After the test actual engineering operation, the system’s maximum cooling coefficient of performance can reach 3.5. Its maximum comprehensive coefficient of performance can reach 6.5. After the analysis of its economic and environmental, we conclude that the new system can save 89822 kw per year. It reflects energy-saving and environmental benefits of the cold and hot water air conditioning system.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION: BENEFITS TO RESIDENT POPULATION IN THE GARDEN MARABÁ, CAMPO GRANDE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Duarte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the records of cases of diarrhea recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases after the implementation of sewage system in Maraba Garden, Campo Grande, Brazil. The Garden Maraba had a degraded area, characterized by exhaustion open. We searched the records of SINAN in the period before and after the environmental changes that community. The results showed that there is an asymmetry in the indicators recorded, where it was hoped that the disease had greater control due to the deployment of exhaustion, especially in cases of diarrhea that persist at levels considerably. The conclusion points to the need to expand the study to address this knowledge gap, so important and what influence and compromises the quality of life of the population, especially in matters related to environmental education.

  6. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  7. Strategies for compensating for higher costs of geothermal electricity with environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, H.; Niitsuma, Hiroaki

    1999-01-01

    After very high growth in the 1980s, geothermal electricity production has slowed in the mid- and late-1990s. While Japanese, Indonesian and Philippine geothermal growth has remained high as a consequence of supportive government policies, geothermal electricity production has been flat or reduced in much of Europe and North America. Low prices for coal and natural gas, combined with deregulation, means that in much of the world electricity from new fuel-burning electricity plants can be provided at half the cost of new geothermal electricity. Cost-cutting must be pursued, but is unlikely to close the price gap by itself. Geothermal production is widely perceived as being environmentally clean, but this is not unambiguously true, and requires reinjection to be fully realized. Strategies for monetizing the environmental advantages of geothermal, including the carbon tax, are discussed. (author)

  8. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  9. State of the art and environmental benefits using methane-hydrogen blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, D.

    2007-01-01

    Hythane is the patented mixture of 15% (by energy content) of hydrogen in CNG: in other proportions the blend is called HCNG. Hydrogen addition to CNG extends the lean burn limit of a natural gas engine, and has the potential to lower the nitrogen oxides emissions and to improve the engine thermal efficiency, with minor hardware changes necessary. This paper reports the benefits of hydrogen to CNG in S.I. engine, and a brief review of the results obtained in this field [it

  10. The Analysis of the Potential Environmental Benefits by Investigating the Hedonistic Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Gradinaru

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers get some usefulness from the attributes of heterogeneous products and they adjust their acquisitions as a response to the existing differences. Producers or vendors confront with varying prices depending on the scale of attributes provided. A plan for balancing the prices is developed as a consequence of the market interaction between the consumers and suppliers (by analogy it happens in the case of the interaction between employees and employers on the labour market. Taking into consideration the late concepts regarding hedonistic price, the article presents a way of analysis of potential benefits that environment may offer to human communities by hedonistic price investigation, using regression as instrument.

  11. Capturing the multiple benefits associated with nature-based solutions: lessons from natural flood management project in the Cotswolds, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Chrisopher; Clarke, Lucy; Uttley, Chris; Smith, Brian

    2017-04-01

    co-management and suggest how this type of framework is suitable for a range of nature-based solutions across Europe. However, the challenge remains of capturing the multiple-benefits that such projects offer as these are often missed through conventional approaches such as cost-benefit analysis and some reflections on this will also be presented along with a potential way forward.

  12. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  13. Environmental and ventilation benefits for underground mining operations using fuel cell powered production equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, C.; Hardcastle, S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells in mine production equipment were discussed. The paper was part of a multi-year feasibility study conducted to evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered equipment to replace diesel engine powered equipment in underground mining operations. The feasibility study demonstrated that fuel cells are capable of eliminating the unwanted by-products of combustion engines. However, the use of fuel cells also reduced the amount of ventilation that mines needed to supply, thereby further reducing energy consumption. This study examined the benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells, and discussed the mitigating qualifiers that may limit ventilation energy savings. Solutions to retaining and maintaining additional ventilation in the event of hydrogen leaks from fuel cell stacks were also investigated. The analyses were conducted on 6 operating mines. Current operating costs were compared with future operating conditions using fuel cell powered production vehicles. Operating costs of the primary ventilation system were established with a mine ventilation simulator. The analysis considered exhaust shaft velocities, heating system air velocities, and levels of silica exposure. Canadian mine design criteria were reviewed. It was concluded that appropriate safeguards are needed along hydrogen distribution lines to lower the impacts of hydrogen leaks. Large financial commitments may also be required to ensure a spark-free environment. 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Benefits and challenges of using the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design for testing an intervention for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viksveen, Petter; Relton, Clare; Nicholl, Jon

    2017-07-06

    Trials which test the effectiveness of interventions compared with the status quo frequently encounter challenges. The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT) design is an innovative approach to the design and conduct of pragmatic trials which seeks to address some of these challenges. In this article, we report our experiences with the first completed randomised controlled trial (RCT) using the cmRCT design. This trial-the Depression in South Yorkshire (DEPSY) trial-involved comparison of treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU plus the offer of an intervention for people with self-reported long-term moderate to severe depression. In the trial, we used an existing large population-based cohort: the Yorkshire Health Study. We discuss our experiences with recruitment, attrition, crossover, data analysis, generalisability of results, and cost. The main challenges in using the cmRCT design were the high crossover to the control group and the lower questionnaire response rate among patients who refused the offer of treatment. However, the design did help facilitate efficient and complete recruitment of the trial population as well as analysable data that were generalisable to the population of interest. Attrition rates were also smaller than those reported in other depression trials. This first completed full trial using the cmRCT design testing an intervention for self-reported depression was associated with a number of important benefits. Further research is required to compare the acceptability and cost effectiveness of standard pragmatic RCT design with the cmRCT design. ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN02484593 . Registered on 7 Jan 2013.

  15. Realizing the world economic, environmental and non-proliferation benefits of the ALMR actinide recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) Actinide Recycle System has enormous potential to: positively impact the global environment; extend currently known energy resources; and assist developing/undeveloped countries' energy resource access. A global vision of the benefits of developing and deploying this system, including the role of highly developed countries is presented. In this vision, the ALMR System is heavily used, in conjunction with light water reactors (LWRs), in highly developed countries thus displacing fossil fuel demand in those economies, and making them more available for developing/undeveloped countries. In addition, LWRs in developing countries can further reduce global fossil fuel demand. This vision provides quality of life and standard of living improvements in these developing/undeveloped economies, which should lead to more political stability. (author)

  16. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  17. Association Between Cognitive Complaints and Vulnerability to Environmental Distraction in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, John J; Randolph, Jennifer S; Wishart, Heather A

    2017-02-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report cognitive dysfunction, although neuropsychological evaluation findings may not correlate with subjective concerns. One factor that may explain this lack of correspondence is the controlled testing environment, which differs from busier settings where cognitive lapses are noted to occur. This study used a novel environmental manipulation to determine whether individuals with MS who report cognitive dysfunction are more vulnerable to the effects of auditory distraction during neuropsychological testing. Twenty-four individuals with clinically definite MS or clinically isolated syndrome were administered a cognitive battery during two counterbalanced auditory conditions: quiet/standard condition, and distraction condition with random office background noise. Participants were divided into high versus low cognitive complaint groups using a median split analysis of Perceived Deficits Questionnaire responses. Participants with more cognitive complaints showed a decrement in performance on the oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test during the distraction condition while those with fewer cognitive complaints demonstrated stable performance across conditions. These findings remained significant after controlling for education, premorbid intellect, fatigue, and depressed mood. These results suggest that individuals with MS with more cognitive complaints are vulnerable to environmental distraction, particularly regarding processing speed. Incorporating random environmental noise or other distraction conditions during selected measures may enhance the ecological validity of neuropsychological evaluation results in MS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A latent process model for forecasting multiple time series in environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn T; Shaddick, Gavin; Henderson, Sarah B; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-08-15

    This paper outlines a latent process model for forecasting multiple health outcomes arising from a common environmental exposure. Traditionally, surveillance models in environmental health do not link health outcome measures, such as morbidity or mortality counts, to measures of exposure, such as air pollution. Moreover, different measures of health outcomes are treated as independent, while it is known that they are correlated with one another over time as they arise in part from a common underlying exposure. We propose modelling an environmental exposure as a latent process, and we describe the implementation of such a model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework and its efficient computation using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Through a simulation study, we compare distinct univariate models for each health outcome with a bivariate approach. The bivariate model outperforms the univariate models in bias and coverage of parameter estimation, in forecast accuracy and in computational efficiency. The methods are illustrated with a case study using healthcare utilization and air pollution data from British Columbia, Canada, 2003-2011, where seasonal wildfires produce high levels of air pollution, significantly impacting population health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed. IWA Publishing 2008.

  20. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  1. Identifying the critical factors of green supply chain management: Environmental benefits in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Ubaidullah; Ali, Yousaf; Petrillo, Antonella; De Felice, Fabio

    2018-05-30

    Pakistan is a developing country characterized by a growing industrialization, which is the major cause of environmental pollution in the country. To control the significant increase in pollution a green incentive has started, aiming to moderate the adverse effects of environmental pollution. Thus, Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) plays an important role in influencing the total environment impact of any organizations. This study considers ten Pakistani industries that have implemented GSCM practices. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique (DEMATEL) is used to find influential factors in selecting GSCM criteria. The results show that organizational involvement is the most important dimension useful to implement GSCM practices. In addition, commitment from senior managers, ISO 14000 certification of suppliers and recycle of waste heat are considered significant factors. The paper also signifies the casual relationship among the dimensions and the factors in the form of diagraphs. The main management implication of the paper is to help decision makers to focus on the critical dimensions/factors in order to implement the GSCM practices more effectively in Pakistan. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential Environmental Benefits from Blending Biosolids with Other Organic Amendments before Application to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramashivam, Dharini; Dickinson, Nicholas M; Clough, Timothy J; Horswell, Jacqui; Robinson, Brett H

    2017-05-01

    Biosolids disposal to landfill or through incineration is wasteful of a resource that is rich in organic matter and plant nutrients. Land application can improve soil fertility and enhance crop production but may result in excessive nitrate N (NO-N) leaching and residual contamination from pathogens, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. This paper evaluates evidence that these concerns can be reduced significantly by blending biosolids with organic materials to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application to soils. It appears feasible to combine organic waste streams for use as a resource to build or amend degraded soils. Sawdust and partially pyrolyzed biochars provide an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of biosolids application, with studies showing reductions of NO-N leaching of 40 to 80%. However, other organic amendments including lignite coal waste may result in excessive NO-N leaching. Field trials combining biosolids and biochars for rehabilitation of degraded forest and ecological restoration are recommended. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Analysis of socio-environmental benefits from the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agricultural sector of the middle reaches of the river chinchiná, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Yepes, Gloria Yaneth; Calderon Cuartas, Paola Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-environmental benefits generated by the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agriculture and livestock sectors, in the middle part of the Chinchina river basin, Colombia. The methodology involves recording of field data on the basis of interviews and semi-structured dialogue; processing and analysis of data on the basis of matrix adaptation and network diagramming; and assessment of socio-environmental benefits, with determina...

  4. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  5. The environmental and socio-economic impacts and benefits associated with developing a natural gas distribution system in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.; Peacock, T. [Sempra Atlantic Gas Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The discovery of large natural gas reserves off the Scotian Shelf has resulted in the development and construction of offshore production platforms as well as underwater and onshore pipelines to transport natural gas to markets on the eastern seaboard. A billion-dollar expenditure is proposed to establish a local distribution company to construct and maintain approximately 8000 km of distribution and lateral pipelines in the province of Nova Scotia. The many aspects of the proposed program were described with particular focus on the regulatory hearings. The paper also discussed the different landscapes that will be crossed and the specialized construction techniques that will be used to meet environmental and economic challenges. The mechanisms in place to ensure maximum benefit for Nova Scotians were also discussed. The proposed project was also compared to other local megaprojects in the province such as the Sable Offshore Energy Project and the Interprovincial Pipeline through Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Some of the successful strategies for implementing benefits plans related to large energy projects were also described. Sempra has been awarded the franchise to distribute natural gas in Nova Scotia. The company has developed a benefits plan that offers significant local involvement in terms of labour and materials. 4 figs.

  6. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Sabrina J.; Drake, Lisa A.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal blooms, the economic consequences of microscopic invaders have not been studied, despite their potentially great negative effects. In this paper, we show how to estimate the economic benefits of preventing the introduction and spread of harmful bacteria, microalgae, and viruses delivered in U.S. waters. Our calculations of net social welfare show the damages from a localized incident, cholera-causing bacteria found in shellfish in the Gulf of Mexico, to be approximately 706,000 (2006). On a larger scale, harmful algal species have the potential to be transported in ships’ ballast tanks, and their effects in the United States have been to reduce commercial fisheries landings and impair water quality. We examine the economic repercussions of one bloom-forming species. Finally, we consider the possible translocation within the Great Lakes of a virus that has the potential to harm commercial and recreational fisheries. These calculations illustrate an approach to quantifying the benefits of preventing invasive aquatic microorganisms from controls on ballast water discharges.

  7. Environmental impacts of detergents and benefits of their recovery in the laundering industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giagnorio, Mattia; Amelio, Antonio; Grüttner, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    a life cycle analysis conducted on different detergents and industrial washing systems. In particular, detergent production, use, and feasible recovery in the laundering industry is evaluated. Detergent production shows wide impact distribution related to the various detergent sources, with a large...... influence on the ecosystem compared to the other impact categories. Calculations of the primary energy demand and the global warming potential reveal the fundamental role of the application of renewable resources in the detergent production phase. The calculated contribution of detergents in the overall......Detergents are important compounds in numerous industrial processes with laundering industry being among their largest consumers. Due to their wide application, detergents are continuously developed to meet higher quality and environmental standards. Following this trend, this study discusses...

  8. Properties of biochar derived from wood and high-nutrient biomasses with the aim of agronomic and environmental benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimena R Domingues

    Full Text Available Biochar production and use are part of the modern agenda to recycle wastes, and to retain nutrients, pollutants, and heavy metals in the soil and to offset some greenhouse gas emissions. Biochars from wood (eucalyptus sawdust, pine bark, sugarcane bagasse, and substances rich in nutrients (coffee husk, chicken manure produced at 350, 450 and 750°C were characterized to identify agronomic and environmental benefits, which may enhance soil quality. Biochars derived from wood and sugarcane have greater potential for improving C storage in tropical soils due to a higher aromatic character, high C concentration, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectra features as compared to nutrient-rich biochars. The high ash content associated with alkaline chemical species such as KHCO3 and CaCO3, verified by XRD analysis, made chicken manure and coffee husk biochars potential liming agents for remediating acidic soils. High Ca and K contents in chicken manure and coffee husk biomass can significantly replace conventional sources of K (mostly imported in Brazil and Ca, suggesting a high agronomic value for these biochars. High-ash biochars, such as chicken manure and coffee husk, produced at low-temperatures (350 and 450°C exhibited high CEC values, which can be considered as a potential applicable material to increase nutrient retention in soil. Therefore, the agronomic value of the biochars in this study is predominantly regulated by the nutrient richness of the biomass, but an increase in pyrolysis temperature to 750°C can strongly decrease the adsorptive capacities of chicken manure and coffee husk biochars. A diagram of the agronomic potential and environmental benefits is presented, along with some guidelines to relate biochar properties with potential agronomic and environmental uses. Based on biochar properties, research needs are identified and directions for future trials are delineated.

  9. Garden roof in the southwest for environmental benefits : the School of Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaack, K.A. [Roof Consultants Inst., Raleigh, NC (United States). Green Roof Research Committee]|[Roofing Contractors Assoc. of Texas, Pflugerville, TX (United States)]|[Gulf Coast Roof Management Inst., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    . Random watering was performed to help establish the various plants. The progress of the plants was monitored to determine the best suited plants for this application according to weather characteristics of Houston in terms of high humidity, high heat, pollution, and torrential downpours. The primary benefits include heat load reduction, roof membrane protection, and water run-off control. Other benefits provided by this garden roof were better air quality, creating green space, and offering an instrument for education to increase public awareness of green roof technology. 4 tabs., 21 figs.

  10. Air Quality and Health Benefits of China's Recent Stringent Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Xue, T.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; He, K.

    2016-12-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by China's central and local governments after the promulgation of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in 2013. We evaluated the air quality and health benefits of this ever most stringent air pollution control policy during 2013-2015 by utilizing a two-stage data fusion model and newly-developed cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions (IER) developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD). The two-stage data fusion model predicts spatiotemporal continuous PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) concentrations by integrating satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, PM2.5 concentrations from measurement and air quality model, and other ancillary information. During the years of analysis, PM2.5 concentration dropped significantly on national average and over heavily polluted regions as identified by Mann-Kendall analysis. The national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased by 72.8 (95% CI: 59.4, 85.2) thousand (6%) from 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.39) million in 2013 to 1.15 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.31) million in 2015 due to considerable reduction (i.e. 18%) of population-weighted PM2.5 from 61.4 to 50.5 µg/m3. Meteorological variations between 2013 and 2015 were estimated to raise the PM2.5 levels by 0.24 µg/m3 and national mortality by 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6, 2.6) thousand through sensitivity tests, which implies the dominant role of anthropogenic impacts on PM2.5 abatement and attributable mortality reduction. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China's recent air quality policy, however, due to the possible supralinear shape of C-R functions, health benefits induced by air quality improvement in these years are limited. We therefore appeal for continuous implementation of current policies and further stringent measures from both air quality improvement and public health protection perspectives.

  11. Comment 2 on workshop in economics - issues in benefit-cost analysis: Amplification channels and discounting long-term environmental damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Many environmental problems have long-term effects. Acid rain has long-term effects on soils, forests, and exposed materials. Global climate change has even longer-term effects. This difference in timing - between the near-term cost of environmental protection and the long-term environmental effects - makes it difficult to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of any program designed to abate environmental damages. The rate at which to discount long-term environmental damages becomes a key question in comparisons of benefits and costs. This comment points out an important facet of the discounting issue. The discount rate for calculating the present value of future environmental benefits may be much lower than the rate of return on investment. Cost-benefit analysis is a framework in which to evaluate policies and decisions. Because global climate change is a complex problem, extensions of cost-benefit theory can be expected to add additional insights, particularly in the following areas: distinguishing distributional effects among nations, over time, and among generations; determining the rate of discount that is appropriate for long-term environmental damages and separating risk aspects from the rate of discount; and assessing amplification effects when policies involve large expenditures relative to the economy or when affected sectors are significant sectors of the economy

  12. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains reuse cycles. The study showed that hybrid IX/catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Study on the economic and environmental benefits of different EV powertrain topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Min; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • EV powertrain topologies can be realized by flexible distributed electric motors. • Model-based design optimization method is used to analyze and evaluate the EV. • The wheel-hub drive with reducer possesses the most competitive advantages. • US06 and NYCC result in the deterioration of EVs’ cost and GHG emissions. - Abstract: Numerous feasible schemes of powertrain topology can be designed for the electric vehicles (EVs) based on the distributed configurations of the electric motors. In this study, the effects of different EV powertrain topologies on the energy efficiency, vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs are investigated. Energy-based vehicle simulation model including the regenerative braking function and battery degradation prediction method is established firstly. An optimization scheme combining the energy-based vehicle simulation model is conducted to minimize the electric energy consumption under various scenarios and driving conditions. Then the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions of EVs are evaluated based on Chinese EV market and electricity grid. The sensitivity analyses of EV powertrain topology are implemented based on the different vehicle weights, CO 2 intensities of electricity and all-electric ranges. Results show that EVs using the powertrain of wheel-hub drive with the gear reducer have lower energy consumption. Furthermore, the driving cycles with more aggressive acceleration/deceleration and frequently stop-and-go conditions can increase both the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions simultaneously. Chinese city traffic conditions will help EVs to obtain more benefits in respect of the economy and environment

  14. Matching economical, energetic and environmental benefits: An analysis for hybrid CHCP-heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, Ennio; Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The optimization of design and operation of combined heat, cooling and power systems usually leads to select different plant lay-outs and size of components, depending on the adopted optimization criterion (maximum profit or energy saving or minimum environmental impact). This occurs when the current energy prices and the normative provisions supporting cogeneration are not able to coincide with the specific customer's interest and the overall 'social interest' for a reduction in energy consumption and in pollutants' emissions. At EU level, polygeneration is considered to have a large potential for residential and commercial buildings district network, for the tertiary sector and for industrial applications. In such applications, it is often convenient to integrate the trigeneration system with a reversible heat pump, because of a low ratio between electric demand and that for heating and cooling. In this paper, the design and operation of such hybrid systems is discussed. The results achievable through different operation modes are compared and, with reference to a 600-rooms hotel and a 300-beds hospital in Italy, the effects on plant design from an hour-by-hour optimization of plant operation are assessed. Finally, the need for a flexible support system for cogeneration plants is put into evidence and some criteria are listed for an effective regulation

  15. Comparing economic benefits and environmental impacts. A further explanation of differences in carbon dioxide emission figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haan, M.; Verduin, H.

    2000-01-01

    To assist the development of international climate policies, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has developed instructions which can be used to calculate and report the emissions of greenhouse gases for each individual country. Bunkering, i.e., refuelling aircraft and ships, is reported separately. However, the agreements on reductions for countries or regions laid down in the Kyoto protocol do not take pollution from international transport into consideration. The Dutch economy generates a substantial amount of pollution outside its national borders through international transport. In 1998, for example, 26 of the total of 203 billion kg carbon dioxide were emitted outside the national borders. In addition, IPCC regulations result in incompatibilities between emission figures and economic key figures (gross domestic product, employment) from the national accounts. This paper reviews the various definitions of emission figures that are used in the Netherlands and their interrelationships. Special attention is paid to the analytical advantages of harmonising environmental statistics with the system of national accounts. 4 refs

  16. Converting environmental risks to benefits by using spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a valuable resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Marinos; Agapiou, Agapios; Omirou, Michalis; Vyrides, Ioannis; Ioannides, Ioannis M; Maratheftis, Grivas; Fasoula, Dionysia

    2018-06-02

    Coffee is perhaps one of the most vital ingredients in humans' daily life in modern world. However, this causes the production of million tons of relevant wastes, i.e., plastic cups, aluminum capsules, coffee chaff (silver skin), and spent coffee grounds (SCG), all thrown untreated into landfills. It is estimated that 1 kg of instant coffee generates around 2 kg of wet SCG; a relatively unique organic waste stream, with little to no contamination, separated directly in the source by the coffee shops. The produced waste has been under researchers' microscope as a useful feedstock for a number of promising applications. SCG is considered a valuable, nutrients rich source of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, lipids, chlorogenic and protocatechuic acid, melanoidins, diterpenes, xanthines, vitamin precursors, etc.) and a useful resource material in other processes (e.g., soil improver and compost, heavy metals absorbent, biochar, biodiesel, pellets, cosmetics, food, and deodorization products). This paper aims to provide a holistic approach for the SCG waste management, highlighting a series of processes and applications in environmental solutions, food industry, and agricultural sector. Thus, the latest developments and approaches of SCG waste management are reviewed and discussed.

  17. Dietary leucine--an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmin; Emanuelli, Brice; Bång, Anneli M

    2011-01-01

    homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose...... and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated......Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor--leucine--can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues...

  18. Vitamin-D Deficiency As a Potential Environmental Risk Factor in Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočovská, Eva; Gaughran, Fiona; Krivoy, Amir; Meier, Ute-Christiane

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, we want to summarize the current findings on the role of vitamin-D in multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia, and autism. Many studies have highlighted hypovitaminosis-D as a potential environmental risk factor for a variety of conditions such as MS, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and, more recently, psychiatric diseases. However, whether hypovitaminosis-D is a potential causative factor for the development or activity in these conditions or whether hypovitaminosis-D may be due to increased vitamin-D consumption by an activated immune system (reverse causation) is the focus of intense research. Here, we will discuss current evidence exploring the role of vitamin-D in MS, schizophrenia, and autism and its impact on adaptive and innate immunity, antimicrobial defense, the microbiome, neuroinflammation, behavior, and neurogenesis. More work is needed to gain insight into its role in the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions as it may offer attractive means of intervention and prevention.

  19. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Mench, Matthew M; Manahan, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities. (paper)

  20. DEP-On-Go for Simultaneous Sensing of Multiple Heavy Metals Pollutants in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Biyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple and affordable “Disposable electrode printed (DEP-On-Go” sensing platform for the rapid on-site monitoring of trace heavy metal pollutants in environmental samples for early warning by developing a mobile electrochemical device composed of palm-sized potentiostat and disposable unmodified screen-printed electrode chips. We present the analytical performance of our device for the sensitive detection of major heavy metal ions, namely, mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper with detection limits of 1.5, 2.6, 4.0, 5.0, 14.4, and, 15.5 μg·L−1, respectively. Importantly, the utility of this device is extended to detect multiple heavy metals simultaneously with well-defined voltammograms and similar sensitivity. Finally, “DEP-On-Go” was successfully applied to detect heavy metals in real environmental samples from groundwater, tap water, house dust, soil, and industry-processed rice and noodle foods. We evaluated the efficiency of this system with a linear correlation through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the results suggested that this system can be reliable for on-site screening purposes. On-field applications using real samples of groundwater for drinking in the northern parts of India support the easy-to-detect, low-cost (<1 USD, rapid (within 5 min, and reliable detection limit (ppb levels performance of our device for the on-site detection and monitoring of multiple heavy metals in resource-limited settings.

  1. Environmental and exergy benefit of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani, Samir; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, Saad; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental and ExPBT analysis of different PV/T configurations is presented. • The exergy payback time of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is about 2 years. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is a reliable solution for pollution prevention. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is highly recommended at high solar concentration. - Abstract: Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems, which produce both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously, represent a method to achieve very high conversion rates of sunlight into useful energy. In recent years, nanofluids have been proposed as efficient coolants and optical filter for PV/T systems. Aim of this paper is to theoretically analyze the life cycle exergy of three different configurations of nanofluids-based PV/T hybrid systems, and compare their performance to a standard PV and PV/T system. Electrical and thermal performance of the analyzed solar collectors was investigated numerically. The life cycle exergy analysis revealed that the nanofluids-based PV/T system showed the best performance compared to a standard PV and PV/T systems. At the optimum value of solar concentration C, nanofluid-based PV/T configuration with optimized optical and thermal properties produces ∼1.3 MW h/m 2 of high-grade exergy annually with the lowest exergy payback time of 2 years, whereas these are ∼0.36, ∼0.79 MW h/m 2 and 3.48, 2.55 years for standard PV and PV/T systems, respectively. In addition, the nanofluids-based PV/T system can prevent the emissions of about 448 kg CO 2 eq m −2 yr −1 . Overall, it was found that the nanofluids-based PV/T with optimized optical and thermal properties has potential for further development in a high-concentration solar system.

  2. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  3. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. ► Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. ► The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. ► The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. ► Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The results may serve for monitoring, flow accounting and comparative eco-assessment of MCPs. They may be useful in identifying

  4. Small-area distribution of multiple sclerosis incidence in western France: in search of environmental triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammas, Karima; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Lannes, Morgane; Edan, Gilles; Viel, Jean-François

    2017-09-21

    Despite intensive research over several decades, the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, although environmental factors are supposedly implicated. Our goal was to identify spatial clusters of MS incident cases at the small-area level to provide clues to local environmental risk factors that might cause or trigger the disease. A population-based and multi-stage study was performed in the French Brittany region to accurately ascertain the clinical onset of disease during the 2000-2004 period. The municipality of residence at the time of clinical onset was geocoded. To test for the presence of MS incidence clusters and to identify their approximate locations, we used a spatial scan statistic. We adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation, known to be strongly associated with increased MS incident rates, and scanned simultaneously for areas with either high or low rates. Sensitivity analyses (focusing on relapsing-remitting forms and/or places of residence available within the year following clinical onset) were performed. A total of 848 incident cases of MS were registered in Brittany, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The spatial scan statistic did not find a significant cluster of MS incidence in either the primary analysis (p value ≥ 0.56) or in the sensitivity analyses (p value ≥ 0.16). The findings of this study indicate that MS incidence is not markedly affected across space, suggesting that in the years preceding the first clinical expression of the disease, no environmental trigger is operative at the small-area population level in the French Brittany region.

  5. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  6. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  7. Comparative Environmental Benefits of Lightweight Design in the Automotive Sector: The Case Study of Recycled Magnesium Against CFRP and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Fabrizio; Ranza, Luigi

    A LCA feasibility study was undertaken to determine the environmental impact of an Eco-magnesium process route by recycled chips to manufacture panel for the automotive sector to be compared with comparative scenarios, a non-recycled carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and a baseline steel-made component scenario. The objective of this LCA study was to assess the actual benefits of a lightweight solution considering the whole life cycle, including the dirty-phase (i.e. the "cradle-to-exit gate" stage) that impacts differently for the different materials. For this reason the analysis has regarded the net "cradle-to-grave" scenario. Different automotive floor pans were then compared considering the rate of fuel consumption during vehicle operation — i.e. the fuel-mass correlation factor — and the different material substitution factors allowed by the different materials selected.

  8. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  9. Environmental benefits from CO2 reduction, due to modal replacement: Case study on light rail vehicle in Brasilia City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Costa, P.H. da; Alves Teixeira, L.M.; Cardoso Pinheiro, J.; Serra Arruda, F.; Mendonça Brasil, A.C.

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to measure the reduction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions in atmosphere by replacing the modal urban bus by Light Rail Vehicle (VLT). In order to accomplish this objective, a case study in Brasilia, Federal District, in the stretch of VLT which passes on Via W-3 South was conducted. The Theory of Externalities that discusses the right to ownership of private and public goods and responsibilities about the positive and negative externalities caused by the agents and individuals of society was used to support the analyses. It was used the Top-Down method, which allowed the calculation the direct emissions of CO2. The values obtained on the reduction of CO2 emissions were converted into values of carbon credits as a way to economically measure such reductions. The results showed a significant reduction in CO2 emissions per year and consequent environmental benefit. (Author)

  10. Environmental Benefit Assessment for the Carbonation Process of Petroleum Coke Fly Ash in a Rotating Packed Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Si-Lu; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Li, Ye-Mei; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-09-19

    A high-gravity carbonation process was deployed at a petrochemical plant using petroleum coke fly ash and blowdown wastewater to simultaneously mineralized CO 2 and remove nitrogen oxides and particulate matters from the flue gas. With a high-gravity carbonation process, the CO 2 removal efficiency was found to be 95.6%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 600 kg CO 2 per day, at a gas flow rate of 1.47 m 3 /min under ambient temperature and pressure. Moreover, the removal efficiency of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters was 99.1% and 83.2%, respectively. After carbonation, the reacted fly ash was further utilized as supplementary cementitious materials in the blended cement mortar. The results indicated that cement with carbonated fly ash exhibited superior compressive strength (38.1 ± 2.5 MPa at 28 days in 5% substitution ratio) compared to the cement with fresh fly ash. Furthermore, the environmental benefits for the high-gravity carbonation process using fly ash were critically assessed. The energy consumption of the entire high-gravity carbonation ranged from 80 to 169 kWh/t-CO 2 (0.29-0.61 GJ/t-CO 2 ). Compared with the scenarios of business-as-usual and conventional carbon capture and storage plant, the economic benefit from the high-gravity carbonation process was approximately 90 and 74 USD per ton of CO 2 fixation, respectively.

  11. Applying Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to Comparative Benefit-Risk Assessment : Choosing among Statins in Primary Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Naci, Huseyin; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Ades, Anthony E.; Angelis, Aris; Hillege, Hans L.; Postmus, Douwe

    2015-01-01

    Decision makers in different health care settings need to weigh the benefits and harms of alternative treatment strategies. Such health care decisions include marketing authorization by regulatory agencies, practice guideline formulation by clinical groups, and treatment selection by prescribers and

  12. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged

  13. Multi-species and multifunctional smallholder tree farming systems in Southeast Asia: timber, NTFPs, plus environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Roshetko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in human population, and the corresponding worldwide enhancement of social and economical conditions, are exerting a considerable pressure to convert forests to other uses. Moreover, these phenomena raise  the demand for food, fuel, wood fibers and other non-wood products, contributing to a further boost of the production pressure in the surviving forests. Simultaneously, these forests are expected to provide a diverse array of environmental services.Furthermore, smallholder forestry systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’ in Southeast Asia and they are primarily ‘planted’ systems that rehabilitate or reforest marginal lands, in order to produce tree products and services. As they traditionally are a means of producing goods for home consumption, they have become significant suppliers of products for local, national and international markets.The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that smallholder forestry systems are a viable management system  which is significantly contributing to global environmental goals and local economic objectives. This paper reviews global and Asian trends of human population growth, deforestation, and demand for forest and tree products.The origin, the diversity, the adaptable management and the importance of smallholder tree-based systems are here discussed and significant details are provided on the role of smallholder tree-based systems in the mitigation of deforestation, which could be obtained by expanding regional forest resources; in supplying alternative sources of forest products and environmental benefits; and in making significant contributions to local livelihoods for rural communities.

  14. Environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in coal-fired power sector: A case study of Henan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Lei; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Ruiqin; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pollutant surcharge is considered in Energy Conservation Supply Curve. • Intake Fraction method is incorporated into Energy Conservation Supply Curve. • Health benefits contribute 97% of co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement. - Abstract: The coal-fired power sector is one of the major contributors to environmental problems and has great potential of air pollution abatement. This study employs Energy Conservation Supply Curves (ECSCs) combined with pollutant surcharge and health benefits to evaluate the environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in the coal-fired power sector. Health benefits and the pollution surcharge are considered as the environmental co-benefits that reduce costs of conserved energy (CCEs) in ECSCs. The health benefits of energy efficiency improvement are quantified using Intake Fraction method, while the pollutant surcharge is calculated based on the regulation. Three scenarios including a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, an Energy Efficiency Improvement (EEI) scenario, and an Upgrading Standards and Incentive (USI) scenario is considered in a case study for Henan Province of China. Our results show that costs of conserved energy (CCEs) are reduced by 0.56 and 0.29 USD/GJ under the EEI and USI scenarios due to health benefits and pollutant surcharge reductions related to energy efficient technologies, respectively. In particular, health benefits account for 97% of the reductions in CCEs, while the pollutant surcharge only contributes 3%. Under the EEI and USI scenarios, in 2020, energy efficiency improvement reduces energy consumption in Henan’s coal-fired power sector by 3.3% and 3.5% compared with the BAU scenario, respectively. The EEI and USI scenarios indicates that health benefits of 1.5 × 10"9 and 2.4 × 10"9 USD are gained and the reductions of pollutant surcharges of 197 and 226 million USD are realized in 2020, respectively.

  15. What is the benefit of treatment with multiple lines of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J L; Wever, K; van Waesberghe, J H; Beeker, A; Meijers-Heijboer, H; Konings, I R; Verheul, H M W

    2015-12-01

    Despite the extensive clinical experience, it is still under debate to what extent patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) benefit from multiple lines of chemotherapy beyond standard first or second line treatment. Selection of patients with MBC who will benefit from treatment is crucial to improve outcome and reduce unnecessary toxicity. In this retrospective study, systemic treatment outcome for patients with metastatic MBC is being evaluated. We evaluated to what extent the clinical benefit of prior chemotherapy can predict the success of a subsequent treatment line. Ninety-one patients treated with chemotherapy for MBC between January 2005 and January 2009 were included in this study. Clinical characteristics of patients, choices of chemotherapy and response at first evaluation of every treatment line was evaluated based on radiologic and clinical data. Patients received multiple systemic cytotoxic and biological (combination) therapies. 30% of these patients received more than five consecutive systemic (combination) treatments. First line chemotherapy was mostly anthracycline-based, followed by taxanes, capecitabine and vinorelbine. The response rate (RR, complete response plus partial response according to RECIST 1.1) decreased from 20% (95% CI 11-28%) upon first line of treatment to 0% upon the fourth line. The clinical benefit rate (combining RR and stable disease) decreased from 85% (95% CI 78-93%) in the first to 54% (95% CI 26-67) upon the fourth line. 24% of the patients with clinical benefit at first evaluation did not receive a subsequent line of treatment when progressive disease occurred, while sixty-one percent of the patients with progressive disease at first evaluation of a treatment did not receive a subsequent line of chemotherapy. When applied, the efficacy of a subsequent line of treatment was similar for patients independent of previous treatment benefit. The clinical benefit at first evaluation from systemic treatment in MBC does not

  16. Multiple benefits and values of trees in urban landscapes in two small towns in northern South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shackleton, S.; Chinyimba, A.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Shackleton, C.; Kaoma, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cities and towns can be conceptualised as complex social-ecological systems or landscapes that are composed of different spatial elements. Trees in urban landscapes provide a variety of tangible and intangible benefits (ecosystem services) that may be valued differently across diverse households and

  17. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  18. Multiple forms of stakeholder interaction in environmental management: business arguments regarding differences in stakeholder relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Onkila, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    This study describes and interprets differences in stakeholder interaction as rhetorically constructed in environmental reports and in interviews with environmental managers. It also interprets the role of the natural environment among stakeholders, and discusses how that role is justified or not justified. The study focuses in a business perspective on stakeholder interaction in environmental management. Characteristically, stakeholder studies of environmental management have concentrated on...

  19. Balancing tradeoffs: Reconciling multiple environmental goals when ecosystem services vary regionally

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Christine S.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Cuadra, Santiago; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Gerber, James; West, Paul C.; Polasky, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    As the planet’s dominant land use, agriculture often competes with the preservation of natural systems that provide globally and regionally important ecosystem services. How agriculture impacts ecosystem service delivery varies regionally, among services being considered, and across spatial scales. Here, we assess the tradeoffs between four ecosystem services—agricultural production, carbon storage, biophysical climate regulation, and biodiversity—using as a case study the Amazon, an active frontier of agricultural expansion. We find that the highest values for each of the ecosystem services are concentrated in different regions. Agricultural production potential and carbon storage are highest in the north and west, biodiversity greatest in the west, and climate regulation services most vulnerable to disruption in the south and east. Using a simple optimization model, we find that under scenarios of agricultural expansion that optimize total production across ecosystem services, small increases in priority for one ecosystem service can lead to reductions in other services by as much as 140%. Our results highlight the difficulty of managing landscapes for multiple environmental goals; the approach presented here can be adapted to guide value-laden conservation decisions and identify potential solutions that balance priorities.

  20. Genetic and environmental determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Julie H.; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating supporting a beneficial effect of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis (MS). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown significant associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key genes in the vitamin D...... discrimination (Life Technologies).RESULTS: We found significant associations between 25(OH)D and SNPs in GC (rs7041, p = 0.01 and rs2282679, p = 0.03) and CYP2R1 (rs10741657, p =1.8 × 10(-4)). Season of blood sampling (p = 2.8 × 10(-31)), sex (p = 1.9 × 10(-5)), BMI (p = 2.3 × 10(-5)), vitamin supplements (p...... = 7.0 × 10(-22)), and fish intake (p = 0.02) also had significant effects on 25(OH)D.CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study, we found significant effects of environmental factors and SNPs in GC and CYP2R1 on 25(OH)D in MS patients. Since 25(OH)D might have protective effects in MS, and vitamin D...

  1. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  2. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  3. Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socioeconomic benefits to meet the needs of societies. Criterion 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Skog; James Howard; Susan Alexander; Ken Cordell; Marla Emery; Evan Mercer; Shela Mou; Kristen Magis; Maureen. McDonough

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive picture of current conditions and trends in our Nation's forests, its forest industries, and its forest communities. Although the first five criteria are centered in the environmental sphere of sustainability (with the exception of Criterion 2, which clearly overlaps the economic sphere), Criterion 6 is centered firmly in the...

  4. Potential environmental benefits of improving recycling of polyolefines – LCA of Magnetic density separation (MDS) developed in the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Bonou, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    identify eco-design criteria for the development and secondly to document the potential environmental improvement of polyolefin recycling using the MDS technology. A preliminary study focusing solely on the carbon footprint benefits of recycling plastic waste compared to virgin production of polymers...... showed that there are large benefits to recycling. However, including other uses of the waste illustrates that the benefits to a large extent depend on that the recycled plastic have such high quality that it can actually replace virgin plastic and also to some extent depends on which energy systems e.......g. energy recovery from incineration substitutes....

  5. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  6. An Analysis of the Use of Biosludge as an Energy Source and Its Environmental Benefits in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of energy utilization from biological wastewater treatment sludge (biosludge in Taiwan, a densely populated country (estimate 640 persons/km2 with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation and its management in the years 2004–2010. Findings showed that the main types of combustible waste (i.e., biosludge produced by the industrial and agricultural sectors of Taiwan included food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge and agricultural sludge which may be reused as auxiliary fuel in the utilities (e.g., generator, boiler and incinerator. Furthermore, two conceptual biosludge-to-energy systems have been addressed with regard to the thermochemical conversion processes. One is to adopt direct combustion for power generation in the combined heat and power system. Another system uses pyrolysis and gasification for producing biochar (solid fuel, bio-oil (liquid fuel and syngas (gas fuel. Based on their thermochemical properties and reported generation quantities, the energy potential and the environmental benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions were also analyzed in the study, showing around 1.1 × 103 TJ/year and 57 Gg CO2/year, respectively.

  7. Evaluating the Life Cycle Environmental Benefits and Trade-Offs of Water Reuse Systems for Net-Zero Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasik, Vaclav; Anderson, Naomi E; Collinge, William O; Thiel, Cassandra L; Khanna, Vikas; Wirick, Jason; Piacentini, Richard; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2017-02-07

    Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and trade-offs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems. We investigated the NZB's impacts over varying lifetimes, conducted a break-even analysis, and included Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. The results show that, although the NZB performs better in most categories than the conventional building, the water efficient building generally outperforms the NZB. The lifetime of the NZB, septic tank aeration, and use of solar energy have been found to be important factors in the NZB's impacts. While these findings are specific to the case study building, location, and treatment technologies, the framework for comparison of water and wastewater impacts of various buildings can be applied during building design to aid decision making. As we design and operate high-performance buildings, the potential trade-offs of advanced decentralized water treatment systems should be considered.

  8. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16 levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08, water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03, house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04, and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04. In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities.

  9. River infiltration to a subtropical alluvial aquifer inferred using multiple environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, S.; Taylor, A. R.; Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Suckow, A.; Cook, P. G.; Smith, S. D.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.

    2015-06-01

    Chloride (Cl-), stable isotope ratios of water (δ18O and δ2H), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), noble gases (4He, Ne, and Ar), and hydrometry were used to characterize groundwater-surface water interactions, in particular infiltration rates, for the Lower Namoi River (New South Wales, Australia). The study period (four sampling campaigns between November 2009 and November 2011) represented the end of a decade-long drought followed by several high-flow events. The hydrometry showed that the river was generally losing to the alluvium, except when storm-derived floodwaves in the river channel generated bank recharge—discharge cycles. Using 3H/14C-derived estimates of groundwater mean residence time along the transect, infiltration rates ranged from 0.6 to 5 m yr-1. However, when using the peak transition age (a more realistic estimate of travel time in highly dispersive environments), the range in infiltration rate was larger (4-270 m yr-1). Both river water (highest δ2H, δ18O, SF6, 3H, and 14C) and an older groundwater source (lowest δ2H, δ18O, SF6, 3H, 14C, and highest 4He) were found in the riparian zone. This old groundwater end-member may represent leakage from an underlying confined aquifer (Great Artesian Basin). Environmental tracers may be used to estimate infiltration rates in this riparian environment but the presence of multiple sources of water and a high dispersion induced by frequent variations in the water table complicates their interpretation.

  10. Environmental risk factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis in Kayseri: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servin Yeşil Günal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: our purpose is to evaluate the possible relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS and environmental factors in Kayseri.Methods: this case control study was conducted on 100 patients with MS and 100 sex-aged and residential area matched control. Data was collected by using face to face interviews. Questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part was comprised of items related with the participants’ sociodemographic features. The second part was related with factors thought to be involved in the occurrence or aggravation of the disease. The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for analysis.Results: logistic regression analysis revealed the following as possible risk factors in MS cases: economic status (Odds Ratio (OR: 0.14 adjusted 7.19; Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.05-0.43, having a sensitive personality (OR:4.51; 95% CI: 1.10-18.45, familial history of MS (OR:3.28; 95% CI: 1.3-8.27, history of cranial and spinal injury (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.11-8.08, cooking oil consumption (OR:0.07 adjusted 13.5; 95% CI: 0.03-0.20, consumption of legumes and grains (OR: 0.11 adjusted 8.9; 95% CI: 0.03-0.41, and living in dwellings within a distance of 500 meters from transformer basestations (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.54-28.21.Conclusions: we believe that it is necessary to inform the individuals about the risk of MS and their relatives of the results of large-scale joint studies and to offer suggestions based on the data obtained.

  11. Benefit-risk perception of natalizumab therapy in neurologists and a large cohort of multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Christoph; Kleiter, Ingo; Meuth, Sven G; Krämer, Julia; Kasper, Jürgen; Köpke, Sascha; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2017-05-15

    Natalizumab (NAT) is associated with the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Risk stratification algorithms have been developed, however, without detectable reduction of PML incidence. To evaluate to which extent patients and physicians understand and accept risks associated with NAT treatment. Prospective observational cohort study in German MS centers (n=73) among NAT-treated MS patients (n=801) and their neurologists (n=99). Patients included in this study had mean disease duration of 10.2years and a mean NAT treatment duration of 24months. More than 90% of patients and physicians voted for shared decision making or an informed choice decision making approach. Patients and physicians perceived a similar threat from MS as serious disease and both overestimated treatment benefits from NAT based on trial data. Men perceived MS more severe than women and perception of seriousness increased with age in both groups and in patients as well with increasing disability. Although patients evaluated their PML risk higher, their risk acceptance was significantly higher than of their neurologists. Risk stratification knowledge was good among neurologists and significantly lower among patients. While patients and physicians seem to have realistic risk perception of PML and knowledge of risk stratification concepts, the threat of MS and the perception of treatment benefits may explain the ongoing high acceptance of PML risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of Environmental Flows Below Diversion Hydropower Dams: Is There Benefit to Advanced Streamflow Prediction in Sparse Data Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. M.; Alipour, M.

    2017-12-01

    Diversion hydropower has been shown to significantly alter river flow regimes by dewatering diversion bypass reaches. Data scarcity is one of the foremost challenges to establishing environmental flow regimes below diversion hydropower dams, especially in regions of sparse hydro-meteorological observation. Herein, we test two prediction strategies for generating daily flows in rivers developed with diversion hydropower: a catchment similarity model, and a rainfall-runoff model selected by multi-objective optimization based on soft data. While both methods are designed for ungauged rivers embedded within large regions of sparse hydrologic observation, one is more complex and computationally-intensive. The objective of this study is to assess the benefit of using complex modeling tools in data-sparse landscapes to support design of environmental flow regimes. Models were tested in gauged catchments and then used to simulate a 28-year record of daily flows in 32 ungauged rivers. After perturbing flows with the hydropower diversion, we detect alteration using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) metrics and compare outcomes of the two modeling approaches. The catchment similarity model simulates low flows well (Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE) = 0.91), but poorly represents moderate to high flows (overall NSE = 0.25). The multi-objective rainfall-runoff model performs well overall (NSE = 0.72). Both models agree that flow magnitudes and variability consistently decrease following diversion as temporally-dynamic flows are replaced by static minimal flows. Mean duration of events sustained below the pre-diversion Q75 and mean hydrograph rise and fall rates increase. While we see broad areas of agreement, significant effects and thresholds vary between models, particularly in the representation of moderate flows. Thus, use of simplified streamflow models may bias detected alterations or inadequately characterize pre-regulation flow regimes, providing inaccurate

  13. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John B.; Monier, Erwan; Sohngen, Brent; Pitts, G. Stephen; Drapek, Ray; McFarland, James; Ohrel, Sara; Cole, Jefferson

    2017-04-01

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a business-as-usual reference scenario (REF) analogous to the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, and a greenhouse gas mitigation scenario, called POL3.7, which is in between the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and is consistent with a 2 °C global mean warming from pre-industrial by 2100. Evaluating the outcomes of both climate change scenarios in the MC2 model shows that the carbon stocks of most forests around the world increased, with the greatest gains in tropical forest regions. Temperate forest regions are projected to see strong increases in productivity offset by carbon loss to fire. The greatest cost of mitigation in terms of effects on forest carbon stocks are projected to be borne by regions in the southern hemisphere. We compare three sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests: emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (i.e. climate sensitivity), and natural variability. The role of natural variability on changes in forest carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) is small, but it is substantial for impacts of wildfire. Forest productivity under the REF scenario benefits substantially from the CO2 fertilization effect and that higher warming alone does not necessarily increase global forest carbon levels. Our analysis underlines why using an ensemble of climate simulations is necessary to derive robust estimates of the benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. It also demonstrates that constraining estimates of climate sensitivity and advancing our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects may considerably reduce the range of projections.

  14. Improving Outcomes and Resource Use in Multiple Sclerosis: What are the Benefits Associated With an Early Treatment Strategy With Fingolimod?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carrasco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This analysis aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of early treatment versus delayed treatment with fingolimod 0.5 mg/day in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Study Type: Economic evaluation of health technologies Local: Portugal Population: Multiple sclerosis patients (MS receiving treatment with fingolimod or interferon beta followed by fingolimod Methodology: A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed to estimate costs and health outcomes associated to two treatment strategies in MS: 1 early treatment with fingolimod -patients received treatment with 0.5 mg/day oral fingolimod continuously for 54 months; and 2 delayed treatment with fingolimod - patients received 12 months treatment with interferon beta-1a (IFN-β1a followed by an additional 42 months of treatment with fingolimod (total of 54 months. The model estimates the total number of relapses associated with the different treatment strategies, the total treatment costs and the cost per relapse avoided. Effectiveness data was derived from the annualized relapse rate of TRANSFORMS and its extension phase. Health care resource use and local clinical practice was estimated based in local experts’ opinion. The study adopted the hospital perspective and only direct medical costs were included. The analysis considered a time horizon of 54 months, and costs and outcomes were discounted at a yearly rate of 5%. Final results are presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted on key inputs to assess their impact on final incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Results: For a hypothetical cohort of 100 patient’s early treatment with fingolimod was more effective in avoiding relapses when compared to delayed treatment, less 44 relapses (64.10 relapses versus 103.35 for 100 patients after 54 months. Early treatment was associated with incremental costs (€562,165 for 100 patients after 54 months. The incremental cost

  15. Pregnancy and the Use of Disease-Modifying Therapies in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Benefits versus Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alroughani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of multiple sclerosis (MS in women of childbearing potential is increasing, with peak incidence around the age of 30 years, increasing incidence and prevalence, and growing female : male ratio. Guidelines recommend early use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs, which are contraindicated or recommended with considerable caution, during pregnancy/breastfeeding. Many physicians are reluctant to prescribe them for a woman who is/is planning to be pregnant. Interferons are not absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy, since interferon-β appears to lack serious adverse effects in pregnancy, despite a warning in its labelling concerning risk of spontaneous abortion. Glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, and alemtuzumab also may not induce adverse pregnancy outcomes, although natalizumab may induce haematologic abnormalities in newborns. An accelerated elimination procedure is needed for teriflunomide if pregnancy occurs on treatment or if pregnancy is planned. Current evidence supports the contraindication for fingolimod during pregnancy; data on other DMTs remains limited. Increased relapse rates following withdrawal of some DMTs in pregnancy are concerning and require further research. The postpartum period brings increased risk of disease reactivation that needs to be carefully addressed through effective communication between treating physicians and mothers intending to breastfeed. We address the potential for use of the first- and second-line DMTs in pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Examining the benefits of combining two learning strategies on recall of functional information in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Yael; Basso, Michael; Wood, Hali; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2011-12-01

    Forgetfulness occurs commonly in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), but few treatments alleviate this problem. This study examined the combined effect of two cognitive rehabilitation strategies to improve learning and memory in MS: self-generation and spaced learning. The hypothesis was that the combination of spaced learning and self-generation would yield better learning and memory recall performance than spaced learning alone. Using a within groups design, 20 participants with MS and 18 healthy controls (HC) were presented with three tasks (learning names, appointment, and object location), each in three learning conditions (Massed, Spaced Learning, and combination of spaced and generated information). Participants were required to recall the information they learned in each of these conditions immediately and 30 min following the initial presentation. The combination of spaced learning and self-generation yielded better recall than did spaced learning alone. In turn, spaced learning resulted in better recall than the massed rehearsal condition. These findings reveal that the combination of these two learning strategies may possess utility as a cognitive rehabilitation strategy.

  17. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  18. Microsatellite typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba shows multiple genetic lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122 and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5-51. A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70% fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical. Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii.

  19. Tidal Channel Diatom Assemblages Reflect within Wetland Environmental Conditions and Land Use at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    We characterized regional patterns of the tidal channel benthic diatom community and examined the relative importance of local wetland and surrounding landscape level factors measured at multiple scales in structuring this assemblage. Surrounding land cover was characterized at ...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of Drone-Based Delivery Services in Urban and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyoon Park; Solhee Kim; Kyo Suh

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones) used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected environmental improvements due to drone delivery in urban and rural areas. In addition, the potential environmental contributions of electric motorcycles were assessed to determine the effects of introducing t...

  1. Knowing the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest in childhood: a contribution of the theory of multiple intelligence for environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Nicollier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is grounded in the cognitive sciences and represents a comprehensive inquiry into children's environmental knowledge. It started with an investigation of a specific situation: studying an urban population – stigmatized by a history of local environmental destruction, unconsciously wrought upon an area that is nowadays acknowledged as a natural biodiversity hotspot, the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Based on the Multiple Intelligence Theory (MIT, that describes the presence of several intelligences in human beings, including a naturalist intelligence, this study aimed at improving the understanding of abilities related to environmental knowledge and the differentiation of such abilities from other ways of knowing usually valued in mainstream education. Forty-five (45 students of a primary school located in south Bahia, Brazil, their teachers, and their parents participated in this investigation between 2002 to 2004. Results suggest that the cognitive domains which are subjacent to environmental knowledge are place specific and need to be stimulated in primary schools by formulating more attractive, efficient, and innovative environmental educational methodologies.

  2. A leader-follower-interactive method for regional water resources management with considering multiple water demands and eco-environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementations of a synergistic optimization framework based on an understanding of water availability and reliability together with the characteristics of multiple water demands. This framework simultaneously integrates a set of leader-followers-interactive objectives established by different decision makers during the synergistic optimization. The upper-level model (leader's one) determines the optimal pollutants discharge to satisfy the environmental target. The lower-level model (follower's one) accepts the dispatch requirement from the upper-level one and dominates the optimal water-allocation strategy to maximize economic benefits representing the regional authority. The complicated bi-level model significantly improves upon the conventional programming methods through the mutual influence and restriction between the upper- and lower-level decision processes, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple completing users. To solve the problem, a bi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making process for measuring to what extent the constraints are met and the objective reaches its optima. The capabilities of the proposed model are illustrated through a real-world case study of water resources management system in the district of Fengtai located in Beijing, China. Feasible decisions in association with water resources allocation, wastewater emission and pollutants discharge would be sequentially generated for balancing the objectives subject to the given water-related constraints, which can enable Stakeholders to grasp the inherent conflicts and trade-offs between the environmental and economic interests. The performance of the developed bi-level model is enhanced by comparing with single-level models. Moreover, in consideration of the uncertainty in water demand and availability, sensitivity analysis and policy analysis are

  3. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM 10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO 2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  4. Meta-Analysis of Lead (Pb) in Multiple Environmental Media in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, conducts probabilistic multimedia lead (Pb) exposure modeling to inform the development of health-based benchmarks for Pb in the environment. For this modeling, robust Pb concentration dat...

  5. Multiplicative utility and the influence of environmental care on the short-term economic growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of determining under what circumstances economic growth rates are influenced by environmental care. The models used are extensions of the model by Lucas. The extensions consist of output leading to pollution and there is a stock of nature. There is also abatement to

  6. Multiple environments: South Indian children’s environmental subjectivities in formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, E.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the formation of South Indian children’s (11–15 years old) environmental subjectivities based on five months of qualitative fieldwork with children in their school and non-school lives. By doing so, this paper aims to widen the scope of the existing literature on children’s

  7. Accounting for multiple functions in environmental life cycle assessment of storm water management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rygaard, Martin

    The wide range of approaches to handle storm water runoff have varying effects on the environment. Local stormwater control measures for retention and treatment are increasingly used components in urban climate adaptation plans. Often, these solutions modify the multiple functions of urban...

  8. Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Milena A; Acuna, Brigid; Shen, Ling; Briggs, Farren B S; Quach, Hong; Bellesis, Kalliope H; Bernstein, Allan; Hedstrom, Anna K; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Schaefer, Catherine; Barcellos, Lisa F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS) while accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors. Participants included members of Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan, Northern California Region (KPNC) (1235 MS cases and 697 controls). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Body mass index (BMI) or body size was the primary predictor of each model. Both incident and prevalent MS cases were studied. In analyses stratified by gender, being overweight at ages 10 and 20 were associated with MS in females (pchildhood and adolescence obesity confer increased risk of MS in females beyond established heritable and environmental risk factors. Strong evidence for a dose-effect of BMI in 20s and MS was observed. The magnitude of BMI association with MS is as large as other known MS risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovative products and services with environmental benefits: design of search strategies for external knowledge and absorptive capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mothe, Caroline; NGuyen-Thi, Uyen; Triguero-Cano, Angela

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Although the antecedents of environmental innovation and open innovation strategies have been well studied separately, the relationship between a firm's openness and environmental technological innovation still remains an interesting topic to research, especially in terms of the various modes of openness on the one hand and the product–process distinction on the other. This study relies on data from the French Community Innovation Survey to differentiate the associatio...

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of Drone-Based Delivery Services in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoon Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected environmental improvements due to drone delivery in urban and rural areas. In addition, the potential environmental contributions of electric motorcycles were assessed to determine the effects of introducing this new type of vehicle. Changes in the national electricity generation plan were also examined. The results showed that global warming potential (GWP per 1 km delivery by drone was one-sixth that of motorcycle delivery, and the particulates produced by drone delivery were half that of motorcycle delivery. The actual environmental impact reduction in consideration of the delivery distance was 13 times higher in a rural area than in an urban area. Increasing the use of environmentally friendly electricity systems, such as solar and wind power, would further enhance the environmental effects of a drone delivery system.

  11. Long-term benefits of exercising on quality of life and fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients with mild disability: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Ruth; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Murphy, Raymond P; Cooke, Grace

    2008-03-01

    To determine if exercise benefits patients with multiple sclerosis. Randomized controlled trial. Participants exercised at home and also attended exercise classes held in a hospital physiotherapy gym. Thirty patients, diagnosed and independently mobile, were recruited in the Dublin area. For three months, classes were held twice-weekly and participants exercised independently once-weekly. The control group was monitored monthly and management remained unchanged. Measurements were taken at baseline, three and six months. The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29) and Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis (FAMS) were used to measure fatigue and quality of life (QOL). Heart rate (HR) and the Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were recorded during an incremental exercise test. The change from baseline scores between groups was compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Twenty-four participants completed the programme (n = 12 in each group). Based on the change in scores at three months, the exercise group had significantly greater improvements in exercise capacity (HR: -14 [-18.5, -2.5] versus 0.5 [-4, 5.5], P= 0.009), QOL (FAMS: 23 [9.5, 42.5] versus -3.5 [-16, 5], P=0.006) and fatigue (MFIS: -13 [-20, -3] versus 1 [-4, 4.5], P=0.02). At six months, the difference in change scores remained significant for FAMS (19 [14, 31] versus -4.5 [-25, 8], P=0.002) and MFIS (-8.5 [-19.5, -1] versus 0.5 [-2.5, 6.5], P=0.02) only. A three-month exercise programme improved participants' exercise capacity, QOL and fatigue, with the improvements in QOL and fatigue lasting beyond the programme.

  12. A framework for siting and dispatch of emerging energy resources to realize environmental and health benefits: Case study on peaker power plant displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Elena M.; Casey, Joan A.; Shonkoff, Seth B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging grid resources such as energy storage and demand response have the potential to provide numerous environmental and societal benefits, but are primarily sited and operated to provide grid-specific services without optimizing these co-benefits. We present a four-metric framework to identify priority regions to deploy and dispatch these technologies to displace marginal grid air emissions with high environmental and health impacts. To the standard metrics of total mass and rate of air pollutant emissions we add location and time, to prioritize emission displacement near densely populated areas with poor air quality, especially at times when air pollutant concentrations exceed regulatory standards. We illustrate our framework with a case study using storage, demand response, and other technologies to displace peaker power plants, the highest-rate marginal emitters on the California grid. We combine spatial-temporal data on plant electricity generation, air quality standard exceedance days, and population characteristics available from environmental justice screening tool CalEnviroScreen 2.0 to determine where emissions reductions may have the greatest marginal benefit. This screening approach can inform grid siting decisions, such as storage in lieu of peaker plants in high impact regions, or dispatch protocol, such as triggering demand response instead of peaker plants on poor air quality days. - Highlights: •We develop a health and environmental framework for siting clean energy resources. •Metrics include total mass, time, rate and location of displaced marginal emissions. •Emission displacement is prioritized near dense populations on poor air quality days. •We apply our framework to the displacement of peaker power plant generation in CA. •We identify optimal places and times to site and dispatch storage and demand response.

  13. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Yang; Shi, Wenjing; Smith, Steven J.; Ledna, Catherine M.; West, J. Jason; Nolte, Christopher G.; Loughlin, Daniel H.

    2018-04-01

    There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the U.S. energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (NUC/CCS), while another set emphasizes renewable energy (RE). These are compared with pathways in which all technologies are available. Air pollutant emissions, mortality costs attributable to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and energy-related water demands are evaluated for 50% and 80% CO2 reduction targets in the U.S. in 2050. The RE low-carbon pathways require less water withdrawal and consumption than the NUC/CCS pathways because of the large cooling demands of nuclear power and CCS. However, the NUC/CCS low-carbon pathways produce greater health benefits, mainly because the NUC/CCS assumptions result in less primary PM2.5 emissions from residential wood combustion. Environmental co-benefits differ among states because of factors such as existing technology stock, resource availability, and environmental and energy policies. An important finding is that biomass in the building sector can offset some of the health co-benefits of the low-carbon pathways even though it plays only a minor role in reducing CO2 emissions.

  14. Evaluation of Parameter Uncertainty Reduction in Groundwater Flow Modeling Using Multiple Environmental Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, B. W.; Gardner, P.

    2013-12-01

    Calibration of groundwater flow models for the purpose of evaluating flow and aquifer heterogeneity typically uses observations of hydraulic head in wells and appropriate boundary conditions. Environmental tracers have a wide variety of decay rates and input signals in recharge, resulting in a potentially broad source of additional information to constrain flow rates and heterogeneity. A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the reduction in uncertainty during model calibration using observations of various environmental tracers and combinations of tracers. A synthetic data set was constructed by simulating steady groundwater flow and transient tracer transport in a high-resolution, 2-D aquifer with heterogeneous permeability and porosity using the PFLOTRAN software code. Data on pressure and tracer concentration were extracted at well locations and then used as observations for automated calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method and the PEST code. Optimization runs were performed to estimate parameter values of permeability at 30 pilot points in the model domain for cases using 42 observations of: 1) pressure, 2) pressure and CFC11 concentrations, 3) pressure and Ar-39 concentrations, and 4) pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations. Results show significantly lower uncertainty, as indicated by the 95% linear confidence intervals, in permeability values at the pilot points for cases including observations of environmental tracer concentrations. The average linear uncertainty range for permeability at the pilot points using pressure observations alone is 4.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and CFC11 concentrations is 1.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and Ar-39 concentrations is 0.9 order of magnitude, and using pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations is 1.0 order of magnitude. Data on Ar-39 concentrations result in the greatest parameter uncertainty reduction because its half-life of 269

  15. Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows: Using Irrigation Infrastructure to Deliver Environmental Benefits During a Large Hypoxic Blackwater Event in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robyn J.; Kopf, R. Keller; McCasker, Nicole; Howitt, Julia A.; Conallin, John; Wooden, Ian; Baumgartner, Lee

    2018-03-01

    Widespread flooding in south-eastern Australia in 2010 resulted in a hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen, DO) blackwater (high dissolved carbon) event affecting 1800 kilometres of the Murray-Darling Basin. There was concern that prolonged low DO would result in death of aquatic biota. Australian federal and state governments and local stakeholders collaborated to create refuge areas by releasing water with higher DO from irrigation canals via regulating structures (known as `irrigation canal escapes') into rivers in the Edward-Wakool system. To determine if these environmental flows resulted in good environmental outcomes in rivers affected by hypoxic blackwater, we evaluated (1) water chemistry data collected before, during and after the intervention, from river reaches upstream and downstream of the three irrigation canal escapes used to deliver the environmental flows, (2) fish assemblage surveys undertaken before and after the blackwater event, and (3) reports of fish kills from fisheries officers and local citizens. The environmental flows had positive outcomes; mean DO increased by 1-2 mg L-1 for at least 40 km downstream of two escapes, and there were fewer days when DO was below the sub-lethal threshold of 4 mg L-1 and the lethal threshold of 2 mg L-1 at which fish are known to become stressed or die, respectively. There were no fish deaths in reaches receiving environmental flows, whereas fish deaths were reported elsewhere throughout the system. This study demonstrates that adaptive management of environmental flows can occur through collaboration and the timely provision of monitoring results and local knowledge.

  16. Environmental benefits of medfly sterile insect technique in Madeira and their inclusion in a cost-benefit analysis. Study sponsored by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    -spectrum insecticides affect access to the market because of the long harvest intervals and residues in fruit. High damage to fruit crops leads to the abandonment of agriculture, which has negative social and environmental consequences. In 1998, the Regional Government of Madeira, with the support of the IAEA and FAO, through a technical cooperation project implemented the Madeira-Med project aimed at controlling the medfly using an integrated approach based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). A mass rearing and sterilization facility with a production capacity of 50 million sterile males per week was built and is currently in operation. Madeira-Med was referred to as an essential stepping-stone for Madeira fruit production to be able to withstand future challenges. The present study sets out to quantify the different categories of benefits that would be obtained by effectively controlling the medfly using SIT and the costs of the control programme. The economic analysis will evaluate how Madeira-Med benefits society as a whole and not only fruit producers. It includes gains from increase in production volumes and the reduction of production costs, which are direct benefits for the farmers. In addition it includes improvements in environmental quality and health that will benefit both farmers and fruit consumers. Recent cost benefit analyses for proposed insect pest eradication or suppression programmes have included some environmental factors, but a systematic valuation of these factors is new to this study

  17. Environmental and Economic Benefit Analysis of an Integrated Heating System with Geothermal Energy—A Case Study in Xi’an China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in environmental problems and air pollution during the heating period, it is important to promote clean heating in cold regions, thereby meeting the heating demand in a green manner. In order to allocate resources more effectively and facilitate the consumption of renewable energy, this paper designs an integrated heating system that incorporates geothermal energy into the framework of an integrated energy system of electricity, heating, and gas. An analysis of the environmental and economic benefits indicates that the system reduces pollutant emissions and decreases the cost of urban heating. Using an example of central heating of residential buildings in Xi’an, the paper conducts a scenario analysis based on the gas peak-shaving ratio and the ratio of geothermal heating loads to basic heating loads. The results demonstrate that the environmental and economic benefits of the integrated heating system are higher compared to central heating using coal-fired boilers. In addition, this paper conducts a sensitivity analysis of the heat source to the price factors and the load ratios. The results show that the operating costs of the integrated heating system are most sensitive to the natural gas price and the gas peak-shaving ratio. Therefore, an optimum natural gas peak-shaving ratio can be determined.

  18. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  19. Environmental variables measured at multiple spatial scales exert uneven influence on fish assemblages of floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interaction between environmental variables measured at three different scales (i.e., landscape, lake, and in-lake) and fish assemblage descriptors across a range of over 50 floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas. Our goal was to identify important local- and landscape-level determinants of fish assemblage structure. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and variables measured at broader scales (i.e., landscape-level and lake-level) were hypothesized to be stronger than relationships with variables measured at finer scales (i.e., in-lake variables). Results suggest that fish assemblage structure in floodplain lakes was influenced by variables operating on three different scales. However, and contrary to expectations, canonical correlations between in-lake environmental characteristics and fish assemblage structure were generally stronger than correlations between landscape-level and lake-level variables and fish assemblage structure, suggesting a hierarchy of influence. From a resource management perspective, our study suggests that landscape-level and lake-level variables may be manipulated for conservation or restoration purposes, and in-lake variables and fish assemblage structure may be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  20. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  1. A quantitative approach for integrating multiple lines of evidence for the evaluation of environmental health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome J. Schleier III

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision analysis often considers multiple lines of evidence during the decision making process. Researchers and government agencies have advocated for quantitative weight-of-evidence approaches in which multiple lines of evidence can be considered when estimating risk. Therefore, we utilized Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to integrate several human-health risk assessment, biomonitoring, and epidemiology studies that have been conducted for two common insecticides (malathion and permethrin used for adult mosquito management to generate an overall estimate of risk quotient (RQ. The utility of the Bayesian inference for risk management is that the estimated risk represents a probability distribution from which the probability of exceeding a threshold can be estimated. The mean RQs after all studies were incorporated were 0.4386, with a variance of 0.0163 for malathion and 0.3281 with a variance of 0.0083 for permethrin. After taking into account all of the evidence available on the risks of ULV insecticides, the probability that malathion or permethrin would exceed a level of concern was less than 0.0001. Bayesian estimates can substantially improve decisions by allowing decision makers to estimate the probability that a risk will exceed a level of concern by considering seemingly disparate lines of evidence.

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the pollutant emission reduction and demand-side management potential of 16 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed across the U.S. in 1993 and 1994. The project was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 11 electric utilities. This ar...

  3. Nonmarket benefits of reducing environmental effects of potential wildfires in beetle-killed trees: A contingent valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam Tabatabaei; John B. Loomis; Daniel W. McCollum

    2015-01-01

    We estimated Colorado households’ nonmarket values for two forest management options for reducing intensity of future wildfires and associated nonmarket environmental effects wildfires. The first policy is the traditional harvesting of pine beetle-killed trees and burning of the slash piles of residual materials on-site. The second involves harvesting but moving the...

  4. Do young people benefit from AA as much, and in the same ways, as adult aged 30+? A moderated multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, John F

    2014-10-01

    Research has shown that participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) confers significant recovery benefit to adults suffering from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Concerns persist, however, that AA may not work as well for younger adults, who tend to have shorter addiction histories, different social circumstances, and less spiritual/religious interest than adults. Secondary data analysis of Project MATCH, using a prospective, moderated multiple mediation analysis to test and compare six previously identified mechanisms of change in younger adults (n=266) vs. adults aged 30+ (n=1460). Nine clinical sites within the United States. Treatment-seeking adults (n=1726) suffering from AUD who participated in 12 weeks of outpatient treatment and completed follow-ups at 3-, 9- and 15-months. AA attendance during treatment; mediators at 9 months; and outcomes [percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and drinks per drinking day (DDD)] at 15 months. AA attendance was associated with improved drinking outcomes in both younger adults (PDA: F(1, 247)=8.55, p<0.01; DDD: F(1, 247)=15.93, p<0.01) and adults aged 30+ (PDA: F(1, 1311)=86.58, p<0.01; DDD: F(1, 1311)=11.96, p<0.01). Only two of the six hypothesized pathways (i.e., decreases in pro-drinking social networks, self-efficacy in social situations) appeared to work in younger adults. Unidentified mechanisms of behavior change that are mobilized by AA participation appear to be at work in young people. Once identified, these mechanisms may shed new light on how exactly AA confers similar benefits for young people and, more broadly, may enhance our understanding of recovery-related change for young adults that could yield novel intervention targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  6. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR, a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1 in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  7. Improved environmental and forensics measurements using multiple ion counters in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.A.; Richter, S.; Schwieters, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A new detector system designed for isotope ratio mass spectrometers provides improved precision on measurements of samples with very low amounts ( -11 grams) of analyte. An array of continuous dynode electron multipliers has been installed on a new ThermoFinnigan MAT Triton thermal ionization mass spectrometer acquired by the New Brunswick Laboratory. These ion counters are modifications of miniaturized, commercially-available continuous dynode electron multipliers. They can be readily installed to replace individual Faraday cups in a multi-detector mass spectrometer or bundled together and located along the detector plane with a set of Faraday cups. On the New Brunswick Laboratory mass spectrometer, nine Faraday cups, one conventional discrete dynode electron multiplier, and seven miniaturized ion counters were installed. Six of the small ion counters were bundled together and positioned on the high mass side of the Low 4 Faraday cup. One additional ion counter was positioned on the low mass side of the Low 4 Faraday cup. This arrangement allows for the simultaneous measurement of all uranium (including 233 U) or plutonium (including 244 Pu) isotopes, and allows for the measurement of larger 238 U intensities on the Faraday cup if needed. Unit mass spacing of U, Pu, or other actinides is readily achieved by the use of a mass dispersion zoom lens. The advantage of multiple ion counting is the simultaneous collection of isotopes. It overcomes many of the problems such as transient signal variation in sample emission and ionization. For a given sample, multiple ion counting generates a greater number of counts for each isotope relative to single detector ion counting and provides improved counting statistics by a factor of two or more. Initial tests indicate that the multiple ion counters exhibit high counting efficiency, a dark noise of less than 10 counts per minute and typically less than 1 count per minute, and show linear response characteristics over

  8. A mixed biomass-based energy supply chain for enhancing economic and environmental sustainability benefits: A multi-criteria decision making framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkouei, Amin; Haapala, Karl R.; Sessions, John; Murthy, Ganti S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mixed supply chain is developed to enhance sustainability benefits of bioenergy. •A decision-making framework is constructed to balance sustainability dimensions. •A stochastic optimization model is developed to explore the effects of uncertainty. •This study provides insights on bio-oil production processes and system structure. -- Abstract: Bioenergy sources have been introduced as a means to address challenges of conventional energy sources. The uncertainties of supply-side (upstream) externalities (e.g., collection and logistics) represent the key challenges in bioenergy supply chains and lead to reduce cross-cutting sustainability benefits. We propose a mixed biomass-based energy supply chain (consisting of mixed-mode bio-refineries and mixed-pathway transportation) and a multi-criteria decision making framework to address the upstream challenges. Our developed framework supports decisions influencing the economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Economic analysis employs a support vector machine technique, to predict the pattern of uncertainty parameters, and a stochastic optimization model, to incorporate uncertainties into the model. The stochastic model minimizes the total annual cost of the proposed mixed supply chain network by using a genetic algorithm. Environmental impact analysis employs life cycle assessment to evaluate the global warming potential of the cost-effective supply chain network. Our presented approach is capable of enhancing sustainability benefits of bioenergy industry infrastructure. A case study for the Pacific Northwest is used to demonstrate the application of the methodology and to verify the models. The results indicate that mixed supply chains can improve sustainability performance over traditional supply infrastructures by reducing costs (up to 24%) and environmental impacts (up to 5%).

  9. Added diagnostic benefit of 16-row whole-body spiral CT in patients with multiple trauma differentiated by region and injury severity according to the ATLS registered concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, M.H.; Knopke, S.; Schroeder, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to determine the added diagnostic benefit of using MS-CT in multiple trauma patients differentiated by severity of injury and affected body region. Materials and methods: a retrospective analysis was performed of the 16-row whole-body spiral CT findings in 275 multiple trauma patients (73% men, 27% women; age 39.6 ± 18.9 years) with regard to additional findings and new findings obtained with CT compared to the findings obtained by conventional projection radiography and abdominal ultrasound in the emergency room. The additional and new findings were differentiated by body region (head, face, chest, pelvis, abdomen, spine) and the degree of severity according to the three classes of injuries distinguished by the ATLS registered concept (class 1: simple injury, class 2: potentially life threatening, class 3: immediately life threatening). Results: a total of 921 additional findings (findings potentially relevant for further diagnosis and therapy in addition to the findings obtained by conventional radiography or ultrasound) were obtained by MS-CT in all patients. The distribution by number of patients and body region was as follows: 22 neck, 76 face, 125 chest, 112 abdomen, 50 pelvis, and 91 spine. Most additional findings were categorized as potentially life threatening (ATLS class 2). In addition, there were 439 completely new findings, involving the head in 128 patients (mostly ATLS class 3), the face in 18, the chest in 47, the abdomen in 26, and the spine in 9 patients. Most new findings involving the face, abdomen, and spine were ATLS class 2 injuries. (orig.)

  10. Single-molecule electron tunnelling through multiple redox levels with environmental relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    represent the substrate and tip in electrochemical in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. An equivalent three-electrode configuration represents a molecular single-electron transistor in which the enclosing electrodes constitute source and drain, and the reference electrode the gate. Current-bias voltage...... relations at fixed electrochemical overpotential or gate voltage, and current-overpotential or current-gate voltage relations at fixed bias voltage are equivalent in the two systems. Due to the activation-less nature of the processes, electron flow between the electrodes through the molecular redox levels...... level(s) subsequent to electron transfer. Several physical mechanisms can be distinguished and distinctive current-overpotential/gate voltage or current-bias voltage relations obtained. These reflect electronic level separation, environmental nuclear reorganisation, and coherent or incoherent multi...

  11. Hsp60-induced tolerance in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis exposed to multiple environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, C E; Wolfe, M F; Olsen, H; Tjeerdema, R S; Sowby, M L

    1999-04-01

    Hsp60 induction was selected as a sublethal endpoint of toxicity for Brachionus plicatilis exposed to a water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO), a PBCO/dispersant (Corexit 9527(R)) fraction and Corexit 9527(R) alone. To examine the effect of multiple stressors, exposures modeled San Francisco Bay, where copper levels are approximately 5 microgram/L, salinity is 22 per thousand, significant oil transport and refining occurs, and petroleum releases have occurred historically. Rotifers were exposed to copper at 5 microgram/L for 24 h, followed by one of the oil/dispersant preparations for 24 h. Batch-cultured rotifers were used in this study to model wild populations instead of cysts. SDS-PAGE with Western Blotting using hsp60-specific antibodies and chemiluminescent detection were used to isolate, identify, and measure induced hsp60 as a percentage of control values. Both PBCO/dispersant and dispersant alone preparations induced significant levels of hsp60. However, hsp60 expression was reduced to that of controls at high WAF concentrations, suggesting interference with protein synthesis. Rotifers that had been preexposed to copper maintained elevated levels of hsp60 upon treatment with WAF at all concentrations. Results suggest that induction of hsp60 by chronic low-level exposure may serve as a protective mechanism against subsequent or multiple stressors and that hsp60 levels are not additive for the toxicants tested in this study, giving no dose-response relationship. The methods employed in this study could be useful for quantifying hsp60 levels in wild rotifer populations.

  12. Evaluation of environmental benefits and energy saving of urban heating systems; Valutazione dei benefici ambientali e del risparmio energetico dei sistemi diriscaldamento urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzano, E [CISE, Milan (Italy); Cancelli, F [ASM, Brescia (Italy); Bassi, F; Corso, S [AEM, Milan (Italy); Franceschelli, F [AMI, Imola (Italy); Caminiti, N; Casagrande, A; Degli Espinosa, P [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia; Fraternali, D [Servizi Territoriali, Cinisello Balsamo, Milan (Italy); Riva, A [SNAM, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Magnelli, T

    1995-10-01

    Scope of the report is the definition of environmental benefits and energy saving potential achievable through application of CHP-DH (Combined Heat Power and District Heating) to the Italian situation. An economic analysis is also performed to the actual Italian institutional and legislative frame, and is achievable through a full exploitation of available economic resources and provided local decision-makers be significantly involved in the process. The assessment is based on experience coming from existing CHP-DH plants, or from plant designs yet in advanced development stage, adopting proven technologies.

  13. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  14. Multi-species and multifunctional smallholder tree farming systems in Southeast Asia: timber, NTFPs, plus environmental benefits

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Roshetko; Manuel Bertomeu

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in human population, and the corresponding worldwide enhancement of social and economical conditions, are exerting a considerable pressure to convert forests to other uses. Moreover, these phenomena raise  the demand for food, fuel, wood fibers and other non-wood products, contributing to a further boost of the production pressure in the surviving forests. Simultaneously, these forests are expected to provide a diverse array of environmental services.Furthermore, smallholde...

  15. Increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of environmental decisions: Benefit-cost analysis and effluent fees: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lave, L.; Gruenspecht, H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this critical review is to evaluate and summarize the literature on economic tools used to improve environmental decision making. Environmental decisions are complicated by pervasive uncertainty, and the lack of consensus on goals and on tradeoffs, such as air versus water pollution and versus loss of coal mining jobs. Five decision frameworks are used by regulatory agencies to simplify decision making. Congress' choice of a decision framework designates the amount of data and analysis that will be required and the range and depth of social values that must be considered. Economic incentives have worked well for phasing out lead in gasoline, for increasing recycling and for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste. Congress has mandated incentives for acid rain and CFCs, and several countries have implemented carbon taxes to abate greenhouse gas emissions. Economic tools have become more central to the analysis and implementation of environmental policies; their role should continue to increase. We conclude that economic tools are extremely valuable, although their application is difficult

  16. An Empirical Study of the Assessment of Green Development in Beijing, China: Considering Resource Depletion, Environmental Damage and Ecological Benefits Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohui Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban green development (UGD is a highly topical issue. To assess the degree of UGD, in this paper, we use the driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, and responses (DPSIR model to evaluate UGD with a collection of 40 indicators based on the three aspects of resource depletion, environmental damage and ecological benefits. The established system of indicators is then applied to evaluate the UGD in Beijing from 2000 to 2014 as a case study. The results demonstrate that it is essential to analyze the trend in the change in resource depletion, which had a high weight of 0.556 because environmental damage and ecological benefits partly changed in response to this driving force and pressure. However, the UGD index value of environmental damage (positive index has decreased since 2010. By ranking the degree of correlation among indicators, it can be seen that UGD is highly related to the lifestyle, status quo, technology and education, industrialization, environmental quality, and ecological environment of a city. The health situation in Beijing has improved in the past 15 years; it was determined to be very unhealthy (75% at the very unhealthy level (V and 9% at the very healthy level (I in 2000 but very healthy (8% at the very unhealthy level (V and 60% at the very healthy level (I in 2014. However, there are internal problems due to imbalanced development in Beijing related to aspects such as the ecological environment, population and economy, social life, investment management, energy consumption and urban infrastructure. And government should adjust the energy structure, formulate detailed plans and policies on urban environment, and increase investment in education and business development.

  17. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yang; Shi, Wenjing; Smith, Steven J; Ledna, Catherine M; West, J Jason; Nolte, Christopher G; Loughlin, Daniel H

    2018-04-15

    There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways for the United States. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage, while another set emphasizes renewable energy, including wind, solar, geothermal power, and bioenergy. These are compared with pathways in which all technologies are available. Air pollutant emissions, mortality costs attributable to particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter, and energy-related water demands are evaluated for 50% and 80% carbon dioxide reduction targets in 2050. The renewable low-carbon pathways require less water withdrawal and consumption than the nuclear and carbon capture pathways. However, the renewable low-carbon pathways modeled in this study produce higher particulate matter-related mortality costs due to greater use of biomass in residential heating. Environmental co-benefits differ among states because of factors such as existing technology stock, resource availability, and environmental and energy policies.

  18. Using diatom assemblages and sulphur in sediments to uncover the effects of historical mining on Lake Arnoux (Quebec, Canada: A retrospective of economic benefits versus environmental debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brian Hamilton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in environmental conditions is increasingly important as the Canadian economic infrastructure ramps up exploration and mining development in the more inaccessible northern regions of Canada. Governments are concurrently assessing effects from past mining activities and absorbing the economic cost to society with on-going remediation and monitoring initiatives. The abandoned Aldermac mine in northwestern Quebec, mined from 1932–1943, is an excellent case study for assessing the state of environmental and economic effects of past mining operations. A paleolimnological approach, using diatoms as environmental proxies, was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal impacts on aquatic receiving environments. Based on the inferences drawn from diatom assemblages in Lake Arnoux, prior to mining activity, lake water pH was similar to that of surrounding lakes (circumneutral to weakly acidic. After mining operations terminated, changes in pH and alkalinity in Lake Arnoux coincided with distinct increases in sediment sulphur content. Across a 30- to 40-year span (circa 1940 to 1970s a significant decline in phytoplankton flora coincided with lake acidification and increased clarity of the water column. This resulted in an increase in the benthic diatom population (>90%, replacing the planktonic diatoms. Observed shifts in environmental proxies are concurrent with one, and possibly two, reported tailings pond breaches at the abandoned mine site. Adverse effects of the abandoned Aldermac mine on nearby ecosystems, combined with pressure from local citizens and environmental groups, forced responsible accountability for site restoration led by the Quebec government. Based on the historical period of economic growth, the financial benefits of the Aldermac mine were significant and justify the current pay-it-backward costs for environmental remediation. However, it has now been documented that the pay-it-backward model is not sustainable in

  19. Virus Resistance Is Not Costly in a Marine Alga Evolving under Multiple Environmental Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Heath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are important evolutionary drivers of host ecology and evolution. The marine picoplankton Ostreococcus tauri has three known resistance types that arise in response to infection with the Phycodnavirus OtV5: susceptible cells (S that lyse following viral entry and replication; resistant cells (R that are refractory to viral entry; and resistant producers (RP that do not all lyse but maintain some viruses within the population. To test for evolutionary costs of maintaining antiviral resistance, we examined whether O. tauri populations composed of each resistance type differed in their evolutionary responses to several environmental drivers (lower light, lower salt, lower phosphate and a changing environment in the absence of viruses for approximately 200 generations. We did not detect a cost of resistance as measured by life-history traits (population growth rate, cell size and cell chlorophyll content and competitive ability. Specifically, all R and RP populations remained resistant to OtV5 lysis for the entire 200-generation experiment, whereas lysis occurred in all S populations, suggesting that resistance is not costly to maintain even when direct selection for resistance was removed, or that there could be a genetic constraint preventing return to a susceptible resistance type. Following evolution, all S population densities dropped when inoculated with OtV5, but not to zero, indicating that lysis was incomplete, and that some cells may have gained a resistance mutation over the evolution experiment. These findings suggest that maintaining resistance in the absence of viruses was not costly.

  20. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-01-01

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to mental accouting'' in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the true'' values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. The valuation of environmental goods in Norway: A contingent valuation study with multiple bias testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Taraldset, A.

    1991-12-31

    We report on a study of contingent valuation of reduction in air pollution, and of a broader set of six environmental issues, among a population sample in Oslo. We derive an estimate of the extent of upward bias due to ``mental accouting`` in the expressed valuation of the air pollution issue, in two steps: (1) by comparing valuation of air pollution alone, with the same when the other issues at the same time are to be dealt with; and (2) by deriving the implicit valuation of the air pollution issue from the ranking of issues, and total valuation of all six issues. We find that expressed valuation of air pollution reductions are 3-4 times as high as the ``true`` values, and argue that this discrepancy is mainly due to mental account biases. We also test for strategic, starting point, information and interviewer biases, which are all present and, with the exception of the information bias, all in the expected directions. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Environmental emergency response plans (EERPs): A single plan approach to satisfy multiple regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzyka, L.

    1995-01-01

    Conrail is a freight railroad operating in twelve northeast and midwestern states transporting goods and materials over 11,700 miles of railroad. To repair, maintain, rebuild, and manufacture locomotives and rail cars, and to maintain the track, right of way, bridges, tunnels and other structures, Conrail uses petroleum products, solvents and cleaners. These products are stored in hundreds of storage tanks in and around the yards and right of way. To power the trains, locomotives are fueled with diesel fuel. With large volumes of fuel, lubricants, solvents and cleaners, safe and efficient handling of petroleum and chemicals is crucial to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Conrail recently revisited the issue of environmental emergency response planning. In an attempt to assure full compliance with a myriad of federal, state, and local regulation, a ''single plan approach'' was chosen. Single plans for each facility, coined EERPs, were decided on after careful review of the regulations, and evaluation of the company's operational and organizational needs

  3. Capturing multiple values of ecosystem services shaped by environmental worldviews: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Carena J; Kyle, Gerard T

    2014-12-01

    Two related approaches to valuing nature have been advanced in past research including the study of ecosystem services and psychological investigations of the factors that shape behavior. Stronger integration of the insights that emerge from these two lines of enquiry can more effectively sustain ecosystems, economies, and human well-being. Drawing on survey data collected from outdoor recreationists on Santa Cruz Island within Channel Islands National Park, U.S., our study blends these two research approaches to examine a range of tangible and intangible values of ecosystem services provided to stakeholders with differing biocentric and anthropocentric worldviews. We used Public Participation Geographic Information System methods to collect survey data and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services mapping application to spatially analyze a range of values assigned to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the park. Our results showed that preferences for the provision of biological diversity, recreation, and scientific-based values of ecosystem services varied across a spatial gradient. We also observed differences that emerged from a comparison between survey subgroups defined by their worldviews. The implications emanating from this investigation aim to support environmental management decision-making in the context of protected areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Debating the legitimacy of a contested environmental illness: a case study of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tarryn

    2010-11-01

    More than 20years after it was first identified, the anomalous condition, multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), remains immersed in controversy, with a continuing debate over its causation being played out in the medico-scientific community and in the courts. This article examines why sceptical and supportive experts disagree over the condition's legitimacy as an organic condition. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Perth, Western Australia, the author scrutinises the decision-making practices of 16 experts (eight sceptical and eight supportive of a chemical explanation). Both groups were found to use evidence-based, inductive reasoning. However, sceptical experts tended to use a different set of evidence requirements, exhibited more faith in the efficiency of the current biomedical paradigm regarding toxicity and were less likely to acknowledge uncertainty in their field. All the experts recognised a spectrum of beliefs about the causal mechanisms of MCS. However, when they were engaged in litigation as expert witnesses due to their supportive or sceptical tendency, the oppositional legal system polarised their opinions and exacerbated the perceived divide between them. Ultimately, the adversarial medico-legal process inhibits genuine dialogue between some of the key players in the MCS debate, thus impeding understanding and consensus about the condition. © 2010 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The residues and environmental risks of multiple veterinary antibiotics in animal faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Xue-Lian; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing

    2013-03-01

    To understand the residues and ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in animal faeces from concentrated animal feeding operations in northeastern China, 14 VAs were identified by high performance liquid chromatography, and the preliminary risks of six antibiotics were assessed using the hazard quotient (HQ). The investigated VAs occurred in 7.41 to 57.41 % of the 54 samples, and the levels ranged from 0.08 to 56.81 mg kg(-1). Tetracyclines were predominant with a maximum level of 56.81 mg kg(-1) mostly detected in pig faeces. Sulfonamides were common and detected with the highest concentration of 7.11 mg kg(-1). Fluoroquinolones were more widely detected in chicken faeces rather than in pig or cow faeces, which contained the dominant antibiotic enrofloxacin. In comparison, the residue of tylosin was less frequently found. The risk evaluations of the six antibiotics revealed that tetracyclines, especially oxytetracycline, displayed the greatest ecological risk because of its high HQ value of 15.75. The results of this study imply that multiple kinds of VAs were jointly used in animal feeding processes in the study area. These medicine residues in animal faeces may potentially bring ecological risks if the animal manure is not treated effectively.

  6. Unique picoeukaryotic algal community under multiple environmental stress conditions in a shallow, alkaline pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálffy, Károly; Felföldi, Tamás; Mentes, Anikó; Horváth, Hajnalka; Márialigeti, Károly; Boros, Emil; Vörös, Lajos; Somogyi, Boglárka

    2014-01-01

    Winter phytoplankton communities in the shallow alkaline pans of Hungary are frequently dominated by picoeukaryotes, sometimes in particularly high abundance. In winter 2012, the ice-covered alkaline Zab-szék pan was found to be extraordinarily rich in picoeukaryotic green algae (42-82 × 10(6) cells ml(-1)) despite the simultaneous presence of multiple stressors (low temperature and light intensity with high pH and salinity). The maximum photosynthetic rate of the picoeukaryote community was 1.4 μg C μg chlorophyll a (-1) h(-1) at 125 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The assimilation rates compared with the available light intensity measured on the field show that the community was considerably light-limited. Estimated areal primary production was 180 mg C m(-2) d(-1). On the basis of the 18S rRNA gene analysis (cloning and DGGE), the community was phylogenetically heterogeneous with several previously undescribed chlorophyte lineages, which indicates the ability of picoeukaryotic communities to maintain high genetic diversity under extreme conditions.

  7. Estimating the effect of multiple environmental stressors on coral bleaching and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Welle

    Full Text Available Coral cover has been declining in recent decades due to increased temperatures and environmental stressors. However, the extent to which different stressors contribute both individually and in concert to bleaching and mortality is still very uncertain. We develop and use a novel regression approach, using non-linear parametric models that control for unobserved time invariant effects to estimate the effects on coral bleaching and mortality due to temperature, solar radiation, depth, hurricanes and anthropogenic stressors using historical data from a large bleaching event in 2005 across the Caribbean. Two separate models are created, one to predict coral bleaching, and the other to predict near-term mortality. A large ensemble of supporting data is assembled to control for omitted variable bias and improve fit, and a significant improvement in fit is observed from univariate linear regression based on temperature alone. The results suggest that climate stressors (temperature and radiation far outweighed direct anthropogenic stressors (using distance from shore and nearby human population density as a proxy for such stressors in driving coral health outcomes during the 2005 event. Indeed, temperature was found to play a role ~4 times greater in both the bleaching and mortality response than population density across their observed ranges. The empirical models tested in this study have large advantages over ordinary-least squares-they offer unbiased estimates for censored data, correct for spatial correlation, and are capable of handling more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. The models offer a framework for preparing for future warming events and climate change; guiding monitoring and attribution of other bleaching and mortality events regionally and around the globe; and informing adaptive management and conservation efforts.

  8. Estimating the effect of multiple environmental stressors on coral bleaching and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Paul D; Small, Mitchell J; Doney, Scott C; Azevedo, Inês L

    2017-01-01

    Coral cover has been declining in recent decades due to increased temperatures and environmental stressors. However, the extent to which different stressors contribute both individually and in concert to bleaching and mortality is still very uncertain. We develop and use a novel regression approach, using non-linear parametric models that control for unobserved time invariant effects to estimate the effects on coral bleaching and mortality due to temperature, solar radiation, depth, hurricanes and anthropogenic stressors using historical data from a large bleaching event in 2005 across the Caribbean. Two separate models are created, one to predict coral bleaching, and the other to predict near-term mortality. A large ensemble of supporting data is assembled to control for omitted variable bias and improve fit, and a significant improvement in fit is observed from univariate linear regression based on temperature alone. The results suggest that climate stressors (temperature and radiation) far outweighed direct anthropogenic stressors (using distance from shore and nearby human population density as a proxy for such stressors) in driving coral health outcomes during the 2005 event. Indeed, temperature was found to play a role ~4 times greater in both the bleaching and mortality response than population density across their observed ranges. The empirical models tested in this study have large advantages over ordinary-least squares-they offer unbiased estimates for censored data, correct for spatial correlation, and are capable of handling more complex relationships between dependent and independent variables. The models offer a framework for preparing for future warming events and climate change; guiding monitoring and attribution of other bleaching and mortality events regionally and around the globe; and informing adaptive management and conservation efforts.

  9. Market, Policies and Local Governance as Drivers of Environmental Public Benefits: The Case of the Localised Processed Tomato in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of a specific Localised Agri-food System (LAFS in the provision of Environmental and social benefits (ESBs in densely cultivated, industrialised, and populated areas by analysing the core of the processing tomato supply chain of northern Italy (Parma and Piacenza. The research examines how the interplay of market drivers, public policies, and collective actions favoured farming, technological, and organisational innovations geared to support long-term economic growth and tackle, at the same time, environmental challenges. The tomato supply chain is characterised by a favourable convergence of attitudes, policies, and market conditions that over time allowed for fruitful interactions between private stakeholders and between the supply chain and public players. Decades of key stakeholders’ interconnections within the tomato supply chain led to a success story of economic growth and attention to a new balance between agro-industry and environment, for the benefit of producers/processors, consumers, and natural resources. Profitability strategies inevitably imply intensification of farming in order to maximise profit levels per hectare, however, the tomato supply chain found a collective motivation that could grant profitability and concurrently reward producers and processors for attention paid to safeguarding the environment—giving evidence that intensification does not necessarily conflict with requirements in support of sustainability.

  10. Can High-Tech Ventures Benefit from Government Guanxi and Business Guanxi? The Moderating Effects of Environmental Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejin Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of guanxi has become an interesting topic for analyzing how to do business more effectively and successfully in China’s economic transition period. Drawing on the guanxi strategy theory, this study examines when government guanxi (guanxi with the government and its officials and business guanxi (guanxi with the business sectors matter to new venture performance under two typical turbulent environments (institutional turbulence and market turbulence. According to empirical results using original data from 146 new ventures in clusters driven by China’s local governments, both government guanxi and business guanxi were positively related to new venture performance, and market turbulence was an important contextual factor influencing performance benefits of guanxi. However, the results reveal no moderating effects of institutional turbulence on direct relationships. Furthermore, the study provides a better conceptual and empirical understanding of why market turbulence is a double-edged sword for performance implications of guanxi in the rapidly changing business environment.

  11. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  12. Clean Energy for Development: The Environmental and Socioeconomic Benefits of Ethanol as a Household Cooking Fuel In Ethiopia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debebe, M.; Lambe, F. (Gaia Association, Bole Subcity, P.O.Box 13493, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)). e-mail: gaiaassociation@ethionet.et

    2008-10-15

    The overwhelming dependence of the household sector on traditional fuels (solid biomass) and kerosene for cooking is having a hugely negative impact on health, the environment and the economy in Ethiopia. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and deforestation associated with harvesting biomass for cooking, are contributing to climate change and environmental degradation. Moreover, indoor air pollution from the burning of traditional fuels indoors causes numerous serious health problems for those exposed - in most cases, women and children. Ethiopian families cook using these fuels because they have no alternatives. Gaia Association, an Ethiopian NGO, and its partners are working to increase access to ethanol fuelled cooking stoves for households at all income levels and have conducted an extensive pilot study to assess the impact of the ethanol fuelled CleanCook stove on Ethiopian homes in a variety of locations. The favourable study results were used to inform a detailed business plan outlining the strategies for local commercialisation of the stove and fuel. Adoption of this alternative clean cooking technology has been shown to address the health, environmental and socioeconomic problems associated with heavy reliance on traditional cooking fuels.

  13. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  14. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  15. The use of ethanol in the bus in public transport system of Salvador (Bahia): environmental benefits; O uso de onibus a etanol no sistema de transporte publico de Salvador (Bahia): beneficios ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Alberto Rodamilans Freire de; Lopo, Luciene Matos; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article makes an initial approach on the environmental benefits, the replacement of diesel vehicles to the public transportation system in Salvador by cars to ethanol and natural gas. It also makes an approach on reducing the emission of pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate material, and estimates the environmental benefit caused by the reduction of the emission of pollutants. (author)

  16. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Xiaodong; Yang, Qiaoling; Yin, Ying; Li, Ruihua; Qian, Mengying; Zhao, Taoran; Li, Yaohui; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    balance under stress. In conclusion, our results provide a better understanding of the global metabolic adaptations of B. abortus associated with distinct environmental stresses. The identification of proteins necessary for stress resistance is crucial toward elucidating the infectious process in order to control brucellosis, and may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and effective vaccines.

  17. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zai

    2017-11-01

    homeostasis and metabolic balance under stress. In conclusion, our results provide a better understanding of the global metabolic adaptations of B. abortus associated with distinct environmental stresses. The identification of proteins necessary for stress resistance is crucial toward elucidating the infectious process in order to control brucellosis, and may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and effective vaccines.

  18. Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Milena A.; Acuna, Brigid; Shen, Ling; Briggs, Farren B.S.; Quach, Hong; Bellesis, Kalliope H.; Bernstein, Allan; Hedstrom, Anna K.; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Schaefer, Catherine; Barcellos, Lisa F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS) while accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors. Methods Participants included members of Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan, Northern California Region (KPNC) (1,235 MS cases and 697 controls). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Body mass index (BMI) or body size was the primary predictor of each model. Both incident and prevalent MS cases were studied. Results In analyses stratified by gender, being overweight at age 10 and 20 were associated with MS in females (prisk of MS for females with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was observed (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.18, 3.92). Significant associations between BMI in 20’s and MS in males were not observed. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that significant associations between BMI or body size with MS in females persisted after adjusting for history of infectious mononucleosis and genetic risk factors, including HLA-DRB1*15:01 and established non-HLA risk alleles. Interpretation Results show that childhood and adolescence obesity confer increased risk of MS in females beyond established heritable and environmental risk factors. Strong evidence for a dose-effect of BMI in 20’s and MS was observed. The magnitude of BMI association with MS is as large as other known MS risk factors. PMID:25263833

  19. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  20. A planning tool for tree species selection and planting schedule in forestation projects considering environmental and socio-economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollan, Catherine Denise; Li, Richard; San Juan, Jayne Lois; Dizon, Liezel; Ong, Karl Benedict

    2018-01-15

    Species selection is a crucial step in the planning phase of forestation programs given its impact on the results and on stakeholder interactions. This study develops a planning tool for forestation programs that incorporates the selection of tree species and the scheduling of planting and harvesting, while balancing the maximization of the carbon sequestered and income realized, into the forestation decision-making and planning process. The validation of the goal programming model formulated demonstrates that the characteristics of natural tree species along with the behavior of growth and timing of yield are significant factors in achieving the environmental and socio-economic aspirations. The proposed model is therefore useful in gauging species behavior and performance over time. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted where the behavior of the income generated and carbon sequestered with respect to the external factors such as carbon market prices, percentage area allocated for protection and discount factor was assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Theorizing benefits and constraints in collaborative environmental governance: a transdisciplinary social-ecological network approach for empirical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Bodin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When environmental processes cut across socioeconomic boundaries, traditional top-down government approaches struggle to effectively manage and conserve ecosystems. In such cases, governance arrangements that foster multiactor collaboration are needed. The effectiveness of such arrangements, however, depends on how well any ecological interdependencies across governed ecosystems are aligned with patterns of collaboration. This inherent interdisciplinary and complex problem has impeded progress in developing a better understanding of how to govern ecosystems for conservation in an increasingly interconnected world. We argue for the development of empirically informed theories, which are not only able to transcend disciplinary boundaries, but are also explicit in taking these complex social-ecological interdependences into account. We show how this emerging research frontier can be significantly improved by incorporating recent advances in stochastic modeling of multilevel social networks. An empirical case study from an agricultural landscape in Madagascar is reanalyzed to demonstrate these improvements.

  2. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  3. Substitution of pig feed preparation using firewood with biogas in Samosir Island: transforming an environmental catastrophe into environmental, social, economic benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.

    2018-02-01

    In Samosir Island, Indonesia pigs care was not environmentally friendly as people were used firewood in pig feed preparation. A series of research has been conducted from March until September 2017 which was preceded by survey. It was found that people cut tree for firewood. As Samosir Island was under Toba Go Green Project which was a tree planting project so feed pig preparation was in contrast to the project. More over, Indonesia has been committed to reduce its green house gases (GHG) by 26% in 2020, any mitigation on GHG was strongly recommended. One way of mitigation in Samosir was by installing biogas for pig feed preparation. 5 biodigesters 500 liters capacity each were installed in Parbaba Village, Samosir Island and biodigester input were pig manure, water hyacinth. Research design was Randomized Completely Design. Parameters were gas production, pH, temperature and C/N ratio. Biogas than used to cook feed pig. It was known that to cook for 5 finisher pigs, 3 kg firewood could be substituted by 250 liters of biogas.

  4. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Samaras, Constantine; Hauffe, Richard; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is receiving attention as an approach to reducing US dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. PHEVs require large batteries for energy storage, which affect vehicle cost, weight, and performance. We construct PHEV simulation models to account for the effects of additional batteries on fuel consumption, cost, and GHG emissions over a range of charging frequencies (distance traveled between charges). We find that when charged frequently, every 20 miles or less, using average US electricity, small-capacity PHEVs are less expensive and release fewer GHGs than hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or conventional vehicles. For moderate charging intervals of 20-100 miles, PHEVs release fewer GHGs, but HEVs have lower lifetime costs. High fuel prices, low-cost batteries, or high carbon taxes combined with low-carbon electricity generation would make small-capacity PHEVs cost competitive for a wide range of drivers. In contrast, increased battery specific energy or carbon taxes without decarbonization of the electricity grid would have limited impact. Large-capacity PHEVs sized for 40 or more miles of electric-only travel do not offer the lowest lifetime cost in any scenario, although they could minimize GHG emissions for some drivers and provide potential to shift air pollutant emissions away from population centers. The tradeoffs identified in this analysis can provide a space for vehicle manufacturers, policymakers, and the public to identify optimal decisions for PHEV design, policy and use. Given the alignment of economic, environmental, and national security objectives, policies aimed at putting PHEVs on the road will likely be most effective if they focus on adoption of small-capacity PHEVs by urban drivers who can charge frequently.

  5. Methodology for the selection of routes for international cross-border line projects involving multiple objectives and decision-makers in the analyses of restrictions and environmental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Cadena, Luis Fernando

    2005-01-01

    A scheme was developed and applied to select the optimum environmental route for international cross-border line projects, in a decision making context involving multiple objectives and multiple decision-makers, the project studied was the electricity interconnection for central America (SIEPAC) for which a prospective assessment was carried out regarding the restrictions and possibilities in the light of the Colombian environmental dimensions management model. The methodology proposed followed these stages: Definition and approval of the structure of environmental restriction and criticality variables, sectorization and selection of complex sections, definition of decision-makers for multi-objective analysis; design and application of consultation tool; definition and modeling of options applying SIG; sensitivity analysis of alternative routes and project's environment management. Different options were identified for insertion and permanence of the project according to the criteria of various interest groups and actors consulted: environmental authorities, electricity companies, scientific community and civil society

  6. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@uah.es; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector.

  7. Improved detection of multiple environmental antibiotics through an optimized sample extraction strategy in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C; Li, Xu; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized in this study for sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple antibiotics in urban surface waters and soils. Among the seven classes of tested antibiotics, extraction efficiencies of macrolides, lincosamide, chloramphenicol, and polyether antibiotics were significantly improved under optimized sample extraction pH. Instead of only using acidic extraction in many existing studies, the results indicated that antibiotics with low pK a values (antibiotics with high pK a values (>7) were extracted more efficiently under neutral conditions. The effects of pH were more obvious on polar compounds than those on non-polar compounds. Optimization of extraction pH resulted in significantly improved sample recovery and better detection limits. Compared with reported values in the literature, the average reduction of minimal detection limits obtained in this study was 87.6% in surface waters (0.06-2.28 ng/L) and 67.1% in soils (0.01-18.16 ng/g dry wt). This method was subsequently applied to detect antibiotics in environmental samples in a heavily populated urban city, and macrolides, sulfonamides, and lincomycin were frequently detected. Antibiotics with highest detected concentrations were sulfamethazine (82.5 ng/L) in surface waters and erythromycin (6.6 ng/g dry wt) in soils. The optimized sample extraction strategy can be used to improve the detection of a variety of antibiotics in environmental surface waters and soils.

  8. Do Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Derive More Benefit from Robot-Assisted Gait Training Compared with Conventional Walking Therapy on Motor Function? A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine whether robot-assisted gait training (RAGT is more effective in improving mobility, endurance, gait performance, and balance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS compared with conventional walking rehabilitation treatment (CWT.Data sourcesSources included the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Science Direct databases.Review methodAll possible articles were retrieved by two independent investigators and relevant articles were gathered. Studies on adult patients (older than 19 years old suffering from MS were included, regardless the subtype of MS diagnosis. Finally, we identified seven studies that comprised 205 patients with MS.ResultsWe identified seven studies comprising 205 patients with MS in our meta-analysis. The pooled mean difference (MD for the six-minute walk test (6MWT was 14.25 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.19 to 25.32, Z = 2.53, P = 0.01, I2 = 54%], which indicates that RAGT is superior to CWT on improving endurance. No significant improvement on using RAGT was found regarding the Berg Balance Scale (MD = −0.59, 95% CI: −2.7 to 1.52, Z = 0.55, P = 0.58, I2 = 51%, 10-meter walk test [standard mean difference (SMD = 0.03, 95% CI: −0.26 to 0.31, Z = 0.18, P = 0.86, I2 = 48%] timed up and go (TUG test (MD = −1.04, 95% CI: −8.68 to 6.60, Z = 0.27, P = 0.79, or stride length (SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.85, Z = 0.73, P = 0.15.ConclusionWe can conclude that RAGT can bring more benefits on improving 6MWT among MS patients, but it is not enough to make a clinically significance conclusion. Considering the limitation of our study, it takes reservations about recommending all MS patients to take RAGT as primary rehabilitation intervention. Unless patients with progressive MS can take conventional rehabilitation in early time, RAGT would be a suitable substitute.

  9. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  10. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  11. Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identification of relevant environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F

    2007-01-01

    To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identify relevant environmental factors. Cross-sectional survey of 101 participants in the community. Their multiple sclerosis-related problems were linked with ICF categories (second level) using a checklist, consensus between health professionals and the "linking rules". The impact of multiple sclerosis on health areas corresponding to 48 ICF categories was also assessed. A total of 170 ICF categories were identified (mean age 49 years, 72 were female). Average number of problems reported was 18. The categories include 48 (42%) for body function, 16 (34%) body structure, 68 (58%) activities and participation and 38 (51%) for environmental factors. Extreme impact in health areas corresponding to ICF categories for activities and participation were reported for mobility, work, everyday home activities, community and social activities. While those for the environmental factors (barriers) included products for mobility, attitudes of extended family, restriction accessing social security and health resources. This study is a first step in the use of the ICF in persons with multiple sclerosis and towards development of the ICF Core set for multiple sclerosis from a broader international perspective.

  12. Health impact assessments in hospital community benefit: A multiple case study of the use of HIAs at Children’s Hospital Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Jackson Tung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  To explore the use of Health Impact Assessments (HIAs within non-profit hospital community benefit activities. Methods:  We constructed case studies of three HIAs that were conducted in collaboration with Children’s Hospital Colorado as part of the hospital’s community benefit portfolio. These HIAs were part of a pilot that was funded by the Health Impact Project, a collaboration of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and The Pew Charitable Trusts. Results:  HIAs provided Children’s Hospital Colorado with a transparent and systematic process for generating evidence-based recommendations with community and stakeholder feedback within the hospital’s community benefit activities. HIAs were used to generate recommendations to inform community benefit planning activities and to generate public policy recommendations to enhance child health. The case studies highlighted several issues that need to be addressed in order to further advance the use of HIA within hospital community benefit activities including: use of HIA on explicit health issues, hospital capacity for HIA, potentially broadening the scope of HIA recommendations, and the use of HIA to generate recommendations from broad priority areas. Conclusion: HIAs can help meet the need for established, evidence-based, and stakeholder responsive tools and processes to be used within non-profit hospital community benefit activities. In meeting this need, the non-profit hospital community benefit area can potentially serve as a major institutional home for the practice of HIA. There is a need for additional research and practice innovation to further explore and refine the use of HIA within non-profit hospital community benefit activities.

  13. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  14. Benefits at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Herbicide resistant GM plants have been promoted as a tool in the development of more environment-friendly agriculture. The environmental benefits here, however, depend not only on farmer's acceptance of GM crops as such, but also on their willingness to use herbicides in accordance with altered ...... spraying plans. In this paper, we will argue that factors driving the spraying practices of Danish farmers may hamper efforts to secure the environmental benefits of the new crops....

  15. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  16. Forgotten but Not Gone: Retro-Cue Costs and Benefits in a Double-Cueing Paradigm Suggest Multiple States in Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Theeuwes, Jan; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Sligte, Ilja G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we assessed whether noncued items can be restored to VSTM…

  17. Forgotten but not gone: Retro-cue costs and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Sligte, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we

  18. Forgotten but not gone: retro-cue cost and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moorselaar, D.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Theeuwes, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Sligte, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we

  19. A socio-scientific analysis of the environmental and health benefits as well as potential risks of cassava production and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombo, S; Dumat, C; Shahid, M; Schreck, E

    2017-02-01

    Due to its high adaptability, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most cultivated and consumed plants after maize and rice. However, there are relatively few scientific studies on this important crop. The objective of this review was therefore to summarize and discuss the available information on cassava cropping in order to promote sustainable practices in terms of production and consumption. Cassava cultivation has been expanding recently at the global scale and is widely consumed in most regions of South America, Africa, and Asia. However, it is also characterized by the presence in its roots of potentially toxic hydrocyanic acid. Furthermore, cassava can also absorb pollutants as it is currently cultivated near roads or factories and generally without consideration for potential sources of soil, water, or atmospheric pollution. Careful washing, peeling, and adequate preparation before eating are therefore crucial steps for reducing human exposure to both environmental pollutants and natural hydrocyanic acid. At present, there is not enough precise data available on this staple food crop. To improve our knowledge on the nutritive benefits versus health risks associated with cassava consumption, further research is necessary to compare cassava cultivars and precisely study the influence of preparation methods.

  20. The reconstruction of late Holocene environmental change at Redhead Lagoon, NSW, using a multiple-method approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.; Gale, S.

    1999-01-01

    . However, since the 1960s, urbanisation has also contributed to accelerated sedimentation and urban pollution within the basin. The sedimentary record also illustrates dramatic and sudden changes in sediment chemistry. In particular, atmospheric pollution from industrial activities has affected lake sediment quality. Increases in heavy metal trace elements such as lead, zinc, arsenic, nickel and copper have been attributed to fallout of atmospheric particulate matter from the nearby smelter at Cockle Creek and the coal-fired power stations around Lake Macquarie. This study shows that a multiple-method approach is capable of yielding important insights into the history of environmental conditions within a single catchment. A combination of analyses together with documented records of land use changes can improve the reliability of the dates obtained by the more established chronological techniques

  1. Expression of multiple resistance genes enhances tolerance to environmental stressors in transgenic poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Su

    Full Text Available Commercial and non-commercial plants face a variety of environmental stressors that often cannot be controlled. In this study, transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus × euramericana 'Guariento' harboring five effector genes (vgb, SacB, JERF36, BtCry3A and OC-I were subjected to drought, salinity, waterlogging and insect stressors in greenhouse or laboratory conditions. Field trials were also conducted to investigate long-term effects of transgenic trees on insects and salt tolerance in the transformants. In greenhouse studies, two transgenic lines D5-20 and D5-21 showed improved growth, as evidenced by greater height and basal diameter increments and total biomass relative to the control plants after drought or salt stress treatments. The improved tolerance to drought and salt was primarily attributed to greater instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in the transgenic trees. The chlorophyll concentrations tended to be higher in the transgenic lines under drought or saline conditions. Transformed trees in drought conditions accumulated more fructan and proline and had increased Fv/Fm ratios (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II under waterlogging stress. Insect-feeding assays in the laboratory revealed a higher total mortality rate and lower exuviation index of leaf beetle [Plagiodera versicolora (Laicharting] larvae fed with D5-21 leaves, suggesting enhanced insect resistance in the transgenic poplar. In field trials, the dominance of targeted insects on 2-year-old D5-21 transgenic trees was substantially lower than that of the controls, indicating enhanced resistance to Coleoptera. The average height and DBH (diameter at breast height of 2.5-year-old transgenic trees growing in naturally saline soil were 3.80% and 4.12% greater than those of the control trees, but these increases were not significant. These results suggested that multiple stress-resistance properties in important crop tree species could be simultaneously improved, although

  2. Multiple Stressors in a Top Predator Seabird: Potential Ecological Consequences of Environmental Contaminants, Population Health and Breeding Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan O Bustnes

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants may have impacts on reproduction and survival in wildlife populations suffering from multiple stressors. This study examined whether adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs increased with poor population health and breeding conditions in three colonies (60-74°N of great skua (Stercorarius skua in the north-eastern Atlantic (Shetland, Iceland and Bjørnøya [Bear Island]. POPs (organochlorines [OCs] and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs] were measured in plasma of incubating birds (n = 222, concentrations differing nearly tenfold among colonies: Bjørnøya (2009 > Bjørnøya (2010 > Iceland (2009 > Shetland (2009. Reproductive success (hatching success and chick survival showed that breeding conditions were favourable in Shetland and at Bjørnøya (2010, but were very poor in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2009. Biomarkers indicated that health was poor in the Shetland population compared to the other populations. Females whose chicks hatched late had high POP concentrations in all colonies except at Bjørnøya (2010, and females losing their eggs at Bjørnøya (2009 tended to have higher concentrations than those hatching. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between female POP concentrations and chick body condition at hatching in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2010. Supplementary feeding experiments were conducted, and in Iceland where feeding conditions were poor, significant negative relationships were found between female POP concentrations and daily growth-rate in first-hatched chicks of control nests, but not in food supplemented nests. This suggests that negative impacts of POPs were mitigated by improved feeding conditions. For second-chicks, there was a strong negative relationship between the female POP concentrations and growth-rate, but no effects of supplementary feeding. Lowered adult return-rate between breeding seasons with increasing POP loads were found both at Bjørnøya (2009 and

  3. Analysis of the benefits of designing and implementing a virtual didactic model of multiple choice exam and problem-solving heuristic report, for first year engineering students

    OpenAIRE

    Bennun, Leonardo; Santibanez, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in performance and approval obtained by first year engineering students from University of Concepcion, Chile, were studied, once a virtual didactic model of multiple-choice exam, was implemented. This virtual learning resource was implemented in the Web ARCO platform and allows training, by facing test models comparable in both time and difficulty to those that they will have to solve during the course. It also provides a feedback mechanism for both: 1) The students, since they c...

  4. Assessment of environmental co-benefits of energy system decarbonisation - the case of UK air quality using Remote Sensing and Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Z.; Konadu, D. D.; Damoah, R.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a binding obligation to reduce GHG emission by 80% (based on 1990 levels) by 2050. Meeting this target requires extensive decarbonisation of the UK energy system. Different pathways that achieve this target at the lowest system costs are being explored at different levels of policy and decisions on future energy infrastructure. Whilst benefits of decarbonisation are mainly focused on the impacts on climate change, there are other potential environmental and health impacts such as air-quality. In particular, a decrease in fossil fuel use by directly substituting current systems with low-carbon technologies could lead to significant reductions in the concentrations of SO2, NOX, CO and other atmospheric pollutants. So far, the proposed decarbonisation pathways tend to target the electricity sector first, followed by a transition in transport and heating technologies and use. However, the spatial dimension of where short term changes in the energy sector occur in relation to high density population areas is not taken into account when defining the energy transition strategies. This may lead to limited short-term improvements in air quality within urban areas, where use of fossil fuels for heating and transport is the main contribution to overall atmospheric pollutant levels. It is therefore imperative to explore decarbonisation strategies that prioritise transition in sectors of the energy system that produce immediate improvements in air quality in key regions of the UK. This study aims to use a combination of Remote Sensing observations and atmospheric chemistry/transport modelling approaches to estimate and map the atmospheric pollutants impact of the traditional approach of decarbonising electricity first compared to a slower transition in the electricity sector, but faster change in end use sectors (heating and transport). This would provide an additional standard to compare future energy system pathways beyond the traditional metrics of cost and GHG

  5. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  6. An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    A central characteristic of large river basins in the western US is the spatial and temporal disjunction between the supply of and demand for water. Water sources are typically concentrated in forested mountain regions distant from municipal and agricultural water users, while precipitation is super-abundant in winter and deficient in summer. To cope with these disparities, systems of reservoirs have been constructed throughout the West. These reservoir systems are managed to serve two main competing purposes: to control flooding during winter and spring, and to store spring runoff and deliver it to populated, agricultural valleys during the summer. The reservoirs also provide additional benefits, including recreation, hydropower and instream flows for stream ecology. Since the storage capacity of the reservoirs cannot be used for both flood control and storage at the same time, these uses are traded-off during spring, as the most important, or dominant use of the reservoir, shifts from buffering floods to storing water for summer use. This tradeoff is expressed in the operations rule curve, which specifies the maximum level to which a reservoir can be filled throughout the year, apart from real-time flood operations. These rule curves were often established at the time a reservoir was built. However, climate change and human impacts may be altering the timing and amplitude of flood events and water scarcity is expected to intensify with anticipated changes in climate, land cover and population. These changes imply that reservoir management using current rule curves may not match future societal values for the diverse uses of water from reservoirs. Despite a broad literature on mathematical optimization for reservoir operation, these methods are not often used because they 1) simplify the hydrologic system, raising doubts about the real-world applicability of the solutions, 2) exhibit perfect foresight and assume stationarity, whereas reservoir operators face

  7. Forgotten but not gone: Retro-cue costs and benefits in a double-cueing paradigm suggest multiple states in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Dirk; Olivers, Christian N L; Theeuwes, Jan; Lamme, Victor A F; Sligte, Ilja G

    2015-11-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance is enhanced when the to-be-tested item is cued after encoding. This so-called retro-cue benefit is typically accompanied by a cost for the noncued items, suggesting that information is lost from VSTM upon presentation of a retrospective cue. Here we assessed whether noncued items can be restored to VSTM when made relevant again by a subsequent second cue. We presented either 1 or 2 consecutive retro-cues (80% valid) during the retention interval of a change-detection task. Relative to no cue, a valid cue increased VSTM capacity by 2 items, while an invalid cue decreased capacity by 2. Importantly, when a second, valid cue followed an invalid cue, capacity regained 2 items, so that performance was back on par. In addition, when the second cue was also invalid, there was no extra loss of information from VSTM, suggesting that those items that survived a first invalid cue, automatically also survived a second. We conclude that these results are in support of a very versatile VSTM system, in which memoranda adopt different representational states depending on whether they are deemed relevant now, in the future, or not at all. We discuss a neural model that is consistent with this conclusion. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  9. The effects of RecO deficiency in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 on resistance to multiple environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengru; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng

    2014-12-01

    Multiple stresses could cause damage to DNA and other macromolecules. RecO, belonging to the family of DNA repair proteins, plays an important part in homologous recombination and replication repair. In order to explore the role of RecO in overcoming multiple stresses, a mutant of recO deletion is constructed in Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris NZ9000. Compared with the mutant strain, the original strain L. lactis NZ9000 shows better performance in growth under multiple stresses. The survival rates of the original strain under acid, osmotic and chill stresses are 13.49-, 2.78- and 60.89-fold higher. In our deeper research on fermentation capability under osmotic stress, lactate dehydrogenase activity after 8 h fermentation, maximum lactate acid production, lactate yield and maximum lactate productivity of L. lactis NZ9000 are 1.63-, 1.28-, 1.28- and 1.5-fold higher, respectively. Results indicate that RecO has positively improved the survival of L. lactis NZ9000, protected its key enzymes and enhanced its fermentation efficiencies. Our research confirms the role of RecO in enhancing tolerances to multiple stresses of L. lactis NZ9000, and puts forward the suggestion that RecO could be used in other industrial microorganisms as a new anti-stress component to improve their resistance to various stresses. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Continued Benefit to Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Across Multiple Definitions of High-Risk Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Sandler, Howard M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors in patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and androgen deprivation (ADT). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2008 at University of Michigan Medical Center, 718 men were consecutively treated with EBRT to at least 75 Gy. Seven definitions of high-risk prostate cancer, applying to 11–33% of patients, were evaluated. Biochemical failure (BF), salvage ADT use, metastatic progression, and prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Each high-risk definition was associated with increased BF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.8–3.9, p < 0.0001), salvage ADT use (HR 3.9–6.3, p < 0.0001), metastasis (HR 3.7–6.6, p < 0.0001), and PCSM (HR 3.7–16.2, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, an increasing number of high-risk features predicted worse outcome. Adjuvant ADT yielded significant reductions in both metastases (HR 0.19–0.38, p < 0.001) and PCSM (HR 0.38–0.50, p < 0.05) for all high-risk definitions (with the exception of clinical Stage T3–4 disease) but improved BF only for those with elevated Gleason scores (p < 0.03, HR 0.25–0.48). When treated with ADT and dose-escalated EBRT, patients with Gleason scores 8 to 10, without other high-risk features, had 8-year freedom from BF of 74%, freedom from distant metastases of 93%, and cause-specific survival of 92%, with salvage ADT used in 16% of patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant ADT results in a significant improvement in clinical progression and PCSM across multiple definitions of high-risk disease even with dose-escalated EBRT. There is a subset of patients, characterized by multiple high-risk features or the presence of Gleason Pattern 5, who remain at significant risk for metastasis and PCSM despite current treatment.

  11. Impacts of multiple global environmental changes on African crop yield and water use efficiency: Implications to food and water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S.; Yang, J.; Zhang, J.; Xu, R.; Dangal, S. R. S.; Zhang, B.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    Africa is one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to climate change and climate variability. Much concern has been raised about the impacts of climate and other environmental factors on water resource and food security through the climate-water-food nexus. Understanding the responses of crop yield and water use efficiency to environmental changes is particularly important because Africa is well known for widespread poverty, slow economic growth and agricultural systems particularly sensitive to frequent and persistent droughts. However, the lack of integrated understanding has limited our ability to quantify and predict the potential of Africa's agricultural sustainability and freshwater supply, and to better manage the system for meeting an increasing food demand in a way that is socially and environmentally or ecologically sustainable. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2) driven by spatially-explicit information on land use, climate and other environmental changes, we have assessed the spatial and temporal patterns of crop yield, evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency across entire Africa in the past 35 years (1980-2015) and the rest of the 21st century (2016-2099). Our preliminary results indicate that African crop yield in the past three decades shows an increasing trend primarily due to cropland expansion (about 50%), elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and nitrogen deposition. However, crop yield shows substantially spatial and temporal variation due to inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability and spatial heterogeneity of environmental drivers. Climate extremes especially droughts and heat wave have largely reduced crop yield in the most vulnerable regions. Our results indicate that N fertilizer could be a major driver to improve food security in Africa. Future climate warming could reduce crop yield and shift cropland distribution. Our study further suggests that improving water use efficiency through land

  12. Effect of multiple-feedstock strategy on the economic and environmental performance of thermochemical ethanol production under extreme weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Nannan; Zhao, Fu

    2011-01-01

    Current US transportation sector mainly relies on liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and about 60% of the petroleum consumed is from areas where supply may be disturbed by regional instability. This has led to serious concerns on energy security and global warming. To address these issues, numerous alternative energy carriers have been proposed. Among them, second generation biofuel is one of the most promising technologies. Gasification-based thermochemical conversion will bring flexibility to both feedstock and production sides of a plant, thus presents an attractive technical route to address both the energy security and global warming concerns. In this paper, thermochemical ethanol production using multiple-feedstock (corn stover, municipal solid waste, and wood chips) is simulated using Aspen Plus and compared with the single-feedstock scenario, in terms of economic performances, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and survivability under extreme weather conditions. For a hypothetical facility in southwest Indiana it is found that multiple-feedstock strategy improves the net present value by 18% compared to single-feedstock strategy. This margin is increased to 57% when effects of extreme weather conditions on feedstock supply are considered. Moreover, multiple-feedstock fuel plant has no potential risk of bankruptcy during the payback period, while single-feedstock fuel plant has a 75% chance of bankruptcy. Although the multiple-feedstock strategy has 26% more GHG emission per liter of ethanol produced than the single-feedstock strategy, the trend is reversed if feedstock supply disruption is taken into account. Thus the idea of multiple-feedstock strategy is proposed to the future thermo chemical biofuel plants.

  13. In Psycho-Spiritual Integrative Therapy for Women with Primary Breast Cancer, What Factors Account for the Benefits? Insights from a Multiple Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rettger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the context in which Psycho-Spiritual Integrative Therapy (PSIT, a group intervention, promotes varying degrees of spiritual growth and quality of life change in breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between spiritual well-being (SWB and Quality of Life (QL in PSIT participants. A qualitative, multiple case analysis was undertaken to examine the experiences of two participants with the highest change scores on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being Scale-Expanded Version (FACIT-Sp-Ex and two participants with among the lowest change scores on this measure. The participant factors thought to contribute to SWB and QL changes included utilization of metacognitive psychological skills and spiritual/religious frameworks, while PSIT factors included application of PSIT core intervention components, cognitive restructuring, group dynamics, and the role of the facilitator. The nature and extent of participant use of spiritual practices appeared to shape the relationship between SWB and OL. The findings suggest directions for future research to investigate potential moderators and mediators of treatment efficacy of PSIT specifically, as well as other psycho-spiritual interventions for cancer survivors more generally.

  14. In Psycho-Spiritual Integrative Therapy for Women with Primary Breast Cancer, What Factors Account for the Benefits? Insights from a Multiple Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettger, John; Wall, Kathleen; Corwin, Diana; Davidson, Alexandra N; Lukoff, David; Koopman, Cheryl

    2015-05-12

    This study sought to understand the context in which Psycho-Spiritual Integrative Therapy (PSIT), a group intervention, promotes varying degrees of spiritual growth and quality of life change in breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between spiritual well-being (SWB) and Quality of Life (QL) in PSIT participants. A qualitative, multiple case analysis was undertaken to examine the experiences of two participants with the highest change scores on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being Scale-Expanded Version (FACIT-Sp-Ex) and two participants with among the lowest change scores on this measure. The participant factors thought to contribute to SWB and QL changes included utilization of metacognitive psychological skills and spiritual/religious frameworks, while PSIT factors included application of PSIT core intervention components, cognitive restructuring, group dynamics, and the role of the facilitator. The nature and extent of participant use of spiritual practices appeared to shape the relationship between SWB and OL. The findings suggest directions for future research to investigate potential moderators and mediators of treatment efficacy of PSIT specifically, as well as other psycho-spiritual interventions for cancer survivors more generally.

  15. Can persons with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes benefit from technology delivered behavior therapy? A moderating role of treatment history at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C; Guarino, Honoria; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2016-03-01

    A growing line of research has shown positive treatment outcomes from technology-based therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about the effectiveness of technology-based SUD interventions for persons who already had numerous prior SUD treatments. We conducted a secondary analysis on a 12-month trial with patients (N=160) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Patients were randomly assigned to either standard MMT treatment or a model in which half of standard counseling sessions were replaced with a computer-based intervention, called Therapeutic Education System (standard+TES). Four treatment history factors at baseline, the number of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, detoxification episodes, and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes were categorized into three levels based on their tertile points, and analyzed as moderators. Dependent variables were urine toxicology results for opioid and cocaine abstinence for 52-weeks. The standard+TES condition produced significantly better opioid abstinence than standard treatment for participants with 1) a moderate or high frequency of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, and 2) those with all three levels (low, moderate and high) of detoxification and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes, pshistory, pstechnology-based behavioral therapy as part of treatment can be more effective than MMT alone, even among patients with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoke and mirrors: Limited value of relative risk reductions for assessing the benefits of disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Magd

    2015-05-01

    A reduction in relapse rate is the main primary outcome in most clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the effect of a treatment commonly expressed as relative risk reduction for this outcome. Physicians often assume that a drug with a higher relative risk reduction demonstrated in one trial is more effective than a drug with a lower relative risk reduction in another, and may pass this idea on to younger physicians and to patients. The use of the relative risk reduction as a measure of drug efficacy can be misleading, as it depends on the nature of the population studied: a treatment effect characterized by a lower relative risk reduction may be more clinically meaningful than one with a higher relative risk reduction. This concept is especially important with regard to clinical trials in patients with MS, where relapse rates in placebo groups have been declining in recent decades. Direct, head-to-head comparisons are the only way to compare the efficacy of the different treatments for MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multicollinearity in associations between multiple environmental features and body weight and abdominal fat: using matching techniques to assess whether the associations are separable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cinira; Bean, Kathy; Thomas, Frédérique; Chaix, Basile

    2012-06-01

    Because of the strong correlations among neighborhoods' characteristics, it is not clear whether the associations of specific environmental exposures (e.g., densities of physical features and services) with obesity can be disentangled. Using data from the RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) Cohort Study (Paris, France, 2007-2008), the authors investigated whether neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service-related, and social-interactional environments were associated with body mass index and waist circumference. The authors developed an original neighborhood characteristic-matching technique (analyses within pairs of participants similarly exposed to an environmental variable) to assess whether or not these associations could be disentangled. After adjustment for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic variables, body mass index/waist circumference was negatively associated with characteristics of the physical/service environments reflecting higher densities (e.g., proportion of built surface, densities of shops selling fruits/vegetables, and restaurants). Multiple adjustment models and the neighborhood characteristic-matching technique were unable to identify which of these neighborhood variables were driving the associations because of high correlations between the environmental variables. Overall, beyond the socioeconomic environment, the physical and service environments may be associated with weight status, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of strongly correlated environmental dimensions, even if they imply different causal mechanisms and interventions.

  18. Multiple long-term trends and trend reversals dominate environmental conditions in a man-made freshwater reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Seďa, Jaromír; Kopáček, Jiří; Boukal, David; Mrkvička, Tomáš

    2018-05-15

    Man-made reservoirs are common across the world and provide a wide range of ecological services. Environmental conditions in riverine reservoirs are affected by the changing climate, catchment-wide processes and manipulations with the water level, and water abstraction from the reservoir. Long-term trends of environmental conditions in reservoirs thus reflect a wider range of drivers in comparison to lakes, which makes the understanding of reservoir dynamics more challenging. We analysed a 32-year time series of 36 environmental variables characterising weather, land use in the catchment, reservoir hydrochemistry, hydrology and light availability in the small, canyon-shaped Římov Reservoir in the Czech Republic to detect underlying trends, trend reversals and regime shifts. To do so, we fitted linear and piecewise linear regression and a regime shift model to the time series of mean annual values of each variable and to principal components produced by Principal Component Analysis. Models were weighted and ranked using Akaike information criterion and the model selection approach. Most environmental variables exhibited temporal changes that included time-varying trends and trend reversals. For instance, dissolved organic carbon showed a linear increasing trend while nitrate concentration or conductivity exemplified trend reversal. All trend reversals and cessations of temporal trends in reservoir hydrochemistry (except total phosphorus concentrations) occurred in the late 1980s and during 1990s as a consequence of dramatic socioeconomic changes. After a series of heavy rains in the late 1990s, an administrative decision to increase the flood-retention volume of the reservoir resulted in a significant regime shift in reservoir hydraulic conditions in 1999. Our analyses also highlight the utility of the model selection framework, based on relatively simple extensions of linear regression, to describe temporal trends in reservoir characteristics. This approach can

  19. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašínová, H.; Neděla, Vilém; Dordevic, B.; Havel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 4 (2017), s. 1487-1497 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * pinus uncinata subsp uliginosa * abnormalities * environmental scanning electron microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  20. Environmental equity and the conservation of unique ecosystems: an analysis of the distribution of benefits for protecting Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Aldy; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    Some critics in the environmental equity literature argue that low-income populations disproportionately have environmental risks, while the wealthy and better educated gain disproportionately from protecting unique ecosystems. The authors test this hypothesis in an analysis of the decline of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. They calculate willingness-to-pay...

  1. Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Communities Driven by Multiple Environmental Factors in a Beach Wetland of the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia eDing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distributions of bacterial communities may be driven by multiple environmental factors. Thus, understanding the relationships between bacterial distribution and environmental factors is critical for understanding wetland stability and the functioning of freshwater lakes. However, little research on the bacterial communities in deep sediment layers exists. In this study, thirty clone libraries of 16S rRNA were constructed from a beach wetland of the Poyang Lake along both horizontal (distance to the water-land junction and vertical (sediment depth gradients to assess the effects of sediment properties on bacterial community structure and diversity. Our results showed that bacterial diversity increased along the horizontal gradient and decreased along the vertical gradient. The heterogeneous sediment properties along gradients substantially affected the dominant bacterial groups at the phylum and species levels. For example, the NH4+ concentration decreased with increasing depth, which was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria. The changes in bacterial diversity and dominant bacterial groups showed that the top layer had a different bacterial community structure than the deeper layers. Principal component analysis revealed that both gradients, not each gradient independently, contributed to the shift in the bacterial community structure. A multiple linear regression model explained the changes in bacterial diversity and richness along the depth and distance gradients. Overall, our results suggest that spatial gradients associated with sediment properties shaped the bacterial communities in the Poyang Lake beach wetland.

  2. A statistical approach to rank multiple priorities in Environmental Epidemiology: an example from high-risk areas in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Catelan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In Environmental Epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks with credibility intervals useful to address the above mentioned inferential problems. Applying the procedure to a real dataset from the report “Environment and Health in Sardinia (Italy” we selected 18 areas characterized by high environmental pressure for industrial, mining or military activities investigated for 29 causes of deaths among male residents. Ranking diseases highlighted the increased burdens of neoplastic (cancerous, and non-neoplastic respiratory diseases in the heavily polluted area of Portoscuso. The averaged ranks by disease over areas showed lung cancer among the three highest positions.

  3. Bottlenecks in bog pine multiplication by somatic embryogenesis and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlašínová, Helena; Neděla, Vilem; Đorđević, Biljana; Havel, Ladislav

    2017-07-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media. The media on which the highest number of early-precotyledonary/cotyledonary somatic embryos was formed was supplemented with 121 μM abscisic acid (ABA) and with 6 % maltose. In the end of maturation experiments, different abnormalities in formation of somatic embryos were observed. For visualization and identification of abnormalities in meristem development during proliferation and maturation processes, the environmental scanning electron microscope was used. In comparison to the classical light microscope, the non-commercial environmental scanning electron microscope AQUASEM II has been found as a very useful tool for the quick recognition of apical meristem disruption and abnormal development. To our knowledge, this is the first report discussing somatic embryogenesis in bog pine. Based on this observation, the cultivation procedure could be enhanced and the method for SE of bog pine optimized.

  4. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using the GCAM-USA integrated assessment model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on...

  5. Genetically based differentiation in growth of multiple non-native plant species along a steep environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sylvia; Kueffer, Christoph; Edwards, Peter J; Alexander, Jake M

    2012-09-01

    A non-native plant species spreading along an environmental gradient may need to adjust its growth to the prevailing conditions that it encounters by a combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. There have been several studies of how non-native species respond to changing environmental conditions along latitudinal gradients, but much less is known about elevational gradients. We conducted a climate chamber experiment to investigate plastic and genetically based growth responses of 13 herbaceous non-native plants along an elevational gradient from 100 to 2,000 m a.s.l. in Tenerife. Conditions in the field ranged from high anthropogenic disturbance but generally favourable temperatures for plant growth in the lower half of the gradient, to low disturbance but much cooler conditions in the upper half. We collected seed from low, mid and high elevations and grew them in climate chambers under the characteristic temperatures at these three elevations. Growth of all species was reduced under lower temperatures along both halves of the gradient. We found consistent genetically based differences in growth over the upper elevational gradient, with plants from high-elevation sites growing more slowly than those from mid-elevation ones, while the pattern in the lower part of the gradient was more mixed. Our data suggest that many non-native plants might respond to climate along elevational gradients by genetically based changes in key traits, especially at higher elevations where low temperatures probably impose a stronger selection pressure. At lower elevations, where anthropogenic influences are greater, higher gene flow and frequent disturbance might favour genotypes with broad ecological amplitudes. Thus the importance of evolutionary processes for invasion success is likely to be context-dependent.

  6. Assessment of environmental injustice in Korea using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Giehae; Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of the universal right to a healthy environment, the right is being violated in some populations. The objective of the current study is to verify environmental discrimination associated with socioeconomic status in Korea, using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status. The concentrations of NO₂(nitrogen dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), SO₂(sulfur dioxide), PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Socioeconomic status was measured at individual level (income, education, number of household members, occupation, and National Basic Livelihood status) and area level (neighborhood index). The neighborhood index was calculated in the finest administrative unit (municipality) by performing standardization and integration of municipality-level data of the following: number of families receiving National Basic Livelihood, proportion of people engaged in an elementary occupation, population density, and number of service industries. Each study participant was assigned a neighborhood index value of the municipality in which they reside. Six regression models were generated to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and overall air pollution. All models were adjusted with sex, age, and smoking status. Stratification was conducted by residency (urban/rural). Moran's I was calculated to identify spatial clusters, and adjusted regression analysis was conducted to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results showed that people with higher neighborhood index, people living with smaller number of family members, and people with no education lived in municipalities with better overall air quality. The association differed by residency in some cases, and consideration of spatial autocorrelation altered the association. This study gives strength to the idea that environmental discrimination exists in some socioeconomic groups in Korea, and that residency and spatial autocorrelation must be considered

  7. Holocene history and environmental reconstruction of a Hercynian mire and surrounding mountain landscape based on multiple proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudová, Lydie; Hájková, Petra; Opravilová, Věra; Hájek, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We discovered the first peat section covering the entire Holocene in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, representing an island of unique alpine vegetation whose history may display transitional features between the Hercynian and Carpathian regions. We analysed pollen, plant macrofossils (more abundant in bottom layers), testate amoebae (more abundant in upper layers), peat stratigraphy and chemistry. We found that the landscape development indeed differed from other Hercynian mountains located westward. This is represented by Pinus cembra and Larix during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, the early expansion of spruce around 10,450 cal yr BP, and survival of Larix during the climatic optimum. The early Holocene climatic fluctuations are traced in our profile by species compositions of both the mire and surrounding forests. The mire started to develop as a calcium-rich percolation fen with some species recently considered to be postglacial relicts (Meesia triquetra, Betula nana), shifted into ombrotrophy around 7450 cal yr BP by autogenic succession and changed into a pauperised, nutrient-enriched spruce woodland due to modern forestry activities. We therefore concluded that its recent vegetation is not a product of natural processes. From a methodological viewpoint we demonstrated how using multiple biotic proxies and extensive training sets in transfer functions may overcome taphonomic problems.

  8. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  9. The benefits of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the benefits of nuclear power. Nuclear electricity generation is compared with fossil-fuel generated electricity in terms of environmental pollution and accidents and disease hazards

  10. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    ), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic...

  11. Environmental benefits and value chain economics at biogas production, phase II. Food waste and manure; Miljoenytte og verdikjedeoekonomi ved biogassproduksjon, fase II. Matavfall og husdyrgjoedsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Hanne; Arnoey, Silje; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Morken, John; Briseid, Tormod; Hanssen, Ole Joergen; Soerby, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective has been to develop an environmental model and an economic model for the entire value chain for the production of biogas and digestate processing. The results will contribute to better decision making in the planning of new biogas plants in Norway. Shortened version.(eb)

  12. Requirements for, and benefits of, environmentally sound and economically viable management of battery recycling in the Philippines in the wake of Basel Convention trade restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Wilson, B.

    The ban on the export of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) from Annex VII to non-Annex VII countries pursuant to decision III/1 of the Basel Convention reduced the availability of imported scrap feedstock for battery recycling in the Philippines. As ULAB supply from other developing countries becomes scarcer, the ban is likely to encourage and enhance collection and recuperation for domestically generated scrap. From a short-term perspective, this study explores the technological and managerial opportunities for improving the environmental and occupational health performance of the formal battery recycling sector and unregulated reconditioning. From a medium- and long-term point of view, the study investigates restructuring the informal ULAB's collection and recycling sector. The objective has been to make the smaller battery recyclers and reconditioners in the informal sector part of an effective and efficient collection infrastructure that supports an environmentally sound secondary lead sector. This approach gradually phases out uncontrolled, inefficient and environmentally unacceptable methods of secondary lead recovery. Due attention has also been paid to the logistical peculiarities of an archipelago, in particular the regional spread of collection infrastructure, collection and shipment costs as well as the assurance of environmentally safe transport.

  13. Sustainability Instruction in High Doses: Results From Incorporation of Multiple InTeGrate Modules Into an Environmental Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future (InTeGrate) community has developed extensive courses and modules designed for broad adoption into geoscience classrooms in diverse environments. I participated in a three-semester research project designed to test the efficacy of incorporating "high doses" (minimum 3 modules or 18 class periods) of InTeGrate materials into a course, in my case, an introductory environmental science class. InTeGrate materials were developed by groups of instructors from a range of institutions across the US. These materials include an emphasis on systems thinking, interdisciplinary approaches, and sustainability, and those themes are woven throughout the modules. The three semesters included a control in which no InTeGrate materials were used, a pilot in which InTeGrate materials were tested, and a treatment semesters in which tested materials were modified as needed and fully implemented into the course. Data were collected each semester on student attitudes using the InTeGrate Attitudinal Instrument (pre and post), a subset of Geoscience Literacy Exam questions (pre and post), and a series of assessments and essay exam questions (post only). Although results suggest that learning gains were mixed, changes in attitudes pre- and post-instruction were substantial. Changes in attitudes regarding the importance of sustainable employers, the frequency of self-reported individual sustainable actions, and motivation level for creating a sustainable society were observed in the control and treatment semesters, with the treatment semester showing the greatest gains. Importantly, one of the biggest differences between the control and treatment semesters is the reported impact that the course had on influencing students' sustainable behaviors. The treatment semester course impacted students' sustainable behaviors far more than the control semester.

  14. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  15. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  16. Retrieval Practice Benefits Deductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglington, Luke G.; Kang, Sean H. K.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to benefit learning. However, the benefit has sometimes been attenuated with more complex materials that require integrating multiple units of information. Critically, Tran et al. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22," 135-140 (2015) found that retrieval practice improves sentence memory but not the…

  17. Research Update. The Benefits of Leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the state of scientific knowledge and research regarding the benefits of leisure. The review focuses on physiological, psychophysiological, economic, environmental, psychological, and sociocultural benefits. It discusses the need for documentation on the magnitude of benefits leisure provides as well as lists of benefits to compete for…

  18. An industrial perspective on environmental benefits of biotechnology on legal controls. Ein industrieller Ausblick: Nutzen der Biotechnologie fuer die Umwelt und gesetzliche Kontrollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, D [Hoechst AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1991-10-01

    Modern biotechnology was 'invented' in 1972/73. New technologies typically require a fifteen to twenty year incubation period of research and development before their commercial, industrial and other economic impacts begin to become significant. Biotechnology holds the key to many problems from environmental management to major savings for the consumer through improved performance of products and processes as well as from entirely new products and services. Simultaneously, environmental applications of biotechnology will produce enormous savings in the economic costs of pollution. Modern biotechnology, its current applications and its potential to reduce pressure on the environment, will be discussed in respect to biosafety, regulatory approaches, new processes, R and D, 'after processes' waste treatment and bioremediation. (orig.).

  19. Detection of multiple cocirculating wild poliovirus type 1 lineages through environmental surveillance: impact and progress during 2011-2013 in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Shaukat, Shahzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan; Malik, Farzana; Rehman, Lubna; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2014-11-01

    The environmental surveillance has proven to be a useful tool to identify poliovirus circulation in different countries and was started in Pakistan during July 2009 to support the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system. Sewage samples were collected from 27 environmental sampling (ENV) sites and processed for poliovirus isolation through 2-phase separation method. Poliovirus isolates were identified as Sabin-like or wild type through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Wild-type strains were subjected to VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis performed using MEGA 5.0. During 2011-2013, a total of 668 samples were collected from 4 provinces that resulted in 40% of samples positive for wild poliovirus type-1 (WPV-1). None of the samples were positive for WPV-3. The areas with high frequency of WPV-1 detection were Karachi-Gadap (69%), Peshawar (82%), and Rawalpindi (65%), whereas the samples from Quetta and Sukkur remained negative for WPV during 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters with multiple poliovirus lineages circulating across different country areas as well as in bordering areas of Afghanistan. Environmental surveillance in Pakistan has been proven to be a powerful tool to detect WPV circulation in the absence of poliomyelitis cases in many communities. Our findings emphasize the need to continue and expand such surveillance activities to other high-risk areas in the country. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Thin-film photovoltaic power generation offers decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing environmental co-benefits in the long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D; Heath, Garvin A; Gibon, Thomas; Suh, Sangwon

    2014-08-19

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies have improved significantly recently, and similar improvements are projected into the future, warranting reevaluation of the environmental implications of PV to update and inform policy decisions. By conducting a hybrid life cycle assessment using the most recent manufacturing data and technology roadmaps, we compare present and projected environmental, human health, and natural resource implications of electricity generated from two common thin-film PV technologies-copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe)-in the United States (U.S.) to those of the current U.S. electricity mix. We evaluate how the impacts of thin films can be reduced by likely cost-reducing technological changes: (1) module efficiency increases, (2) module dematerialization, (3) changes in upstream energy and materials production, and (4) end-of-life recycling of balance of system (BOS). Results show comparable environmental and resource impacts for CdTe and CIGS. Compared to the U.S. electricity mix in 2010, both perform at least 90% better in 7 of 12 and at least 50% better in 3 of 12 impact categories, with comparable land use, and increased metal depletion unless BOS recycling is ensured. Technological changes, particularly efficiency increases, contribute to 35-80% reductions in all impacts by 2030.

  1. Air pollution, weight loss and metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery: a potential model for study of metabolic effects of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, R; Gauderman, W J; Minor, H; Youn, H A; Lurmann, F; Cromar, K R; Chatzi, L; Belcher, B; Fielding, C R; McConnell, R

    2018-05-01

    Emerging experimental evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to development of obesity and diabetes, but studies of children are limited. We hypothesized that pollution effects would be magnified after bariatric surgery for treatment of obesity, reducing benefits of surgery. In 75 obese adolescents, excess weight loss (EWL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA 1c ) were measured prospectively at baseline and following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Residential distances to major roads and the average two-year follow-up exposure to particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone were estimated. Associations of exposure with change in outcome and with attained outcome two years post-surgery were examined. Major-roadway proximity was associated with reduced EWL and less improvement in lipid profile and ALP after surgery. NO 2 was associated with less improvement in HbA 1c and lower attained HDL levels and change in triglycerides over two years post-surgery. PM 2.5 was associated with reduced EWL and reduced beneficial change or attained levels for all outcomes except HbA 1c . Near-roadway, PM 2.5 and NO 2 exposures at levels common in developed countries were associated with reduced EWL and metabolic benefits of LAGB. This novel approach provides a model for investigating metabolic effects of other exposures. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  3. Effect of Organic Potato Farming on Human and Environmental Health and Benefits from New Plant Breeding Techniques. Is It Only a Matter of Public Acceptance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pacifico

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming practices are commonly thought to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture and to preserve the naturalness of the products. Herein, we report the effect of crop management practices on nutritional and toxicological value of potato tubers. Comparative studies are often controversial and the results are dependent on genotype and methodological approach. Targeted analysis and “omics” strategies are discussed, pointing at the nutritional aspects and the corresponding biological and molecular processes involved. Organic farming supporters still do not accept the use of genetic modification to produce new varieties suited for organic agriculture and crop improvement by genetic engineering still sparks hot debate among various scientific and social factions whose major concern is the possible existence of unintended effects both on human and world health. In this context, the advent of “new plant breeding techniques” has reignited the discussion on genetic engineering and on the compatibility of the new technologies with an eco-friendly agriculture. Could cisgenic and genome-edited potatoes be new good options for organic agriculture? We discuss how these approaches can be used to address food security challenges and to overcome specific problems based on the biological characteristics of potato tubers, producing new varieties that can improve farmers’ profit with a lower impact on public opinion. However, political, ethical, and social fears will probably persist much longer, mainly in Italy, historically a fiercely anti-GM country with a European leadership in organic food production and export.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of multiple classes of antimicrobials in environmental water samples using SPE coupled with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS and isotope dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Chen, Hongjie; Do, Thanh Van; Reinhard, Martin; Ngo, Huu Hao; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2016-10-01

    A robust and sensitive analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 21 target antimicrobials in different environmental water samples. Both single SPE and tandem SPE cartridge systems were investigated to simultaneously extract multiple classes of antimicrobials. Experimental results showed that good extraction efficiencies (84.5-105.6%) were observed for the vast majority of the target analytes when extraction was performed using the tandem SPE cartridge (SB+HR-X) system under an extraction pH of 3.0. HPLC-MS/MS parameters were optimized for simultaneous analysis of all the target analytes in a single injection. Quantification of target antimicrobials in water samples was accomplished using 15 isotopically labeled internal standards (ILISs), which allowed the efficient compensation of the losses of target analytes during sample preparation and correction of matrix effects during UHPLC-MS/MS as well as instrument fluctuations in MS/MS signal intensity. Method quantification limit (MQL) for most target analytes based on SPE was below 5ng/L for surface waters, 10ng/L for treated wastewater effluents, and 15ng/L for raw wastewater. The method was successfully applied to detect and quantify the occurrence of the target analytes in raw influent, treated effluent and surface water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Local health practices and the knowledge of medicinal plants in a Brazilian semi-arid region: environmental benefits to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Sofia; Peroni, Nivaldo; de Araújo, Elcida Lima; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2015-02-23

    The concept of eco-cultural health considers the dynamic interaction between humans and ecosystems, emphasizing the implications of the health of the ecosystem for the health and well-being of human populations. Ethnobotanical studies focusing on folk medicine and medicinal plants can contribute to the field of eco-cultural health if they incorporate the perspective and local knowledge of communities. We investigated the local health practices in three rural communities living within the vicinity of a protected area of sustainable use in a semi-arid region of Brazil. We analyzed the opinions of local health experts on the elements that influence human health and on how the environment contributes to this influence. We also analyzed and compared the local knowledge of medicinal plants, as knowledge of this type is an important factor when considering the interaction between environmental and human health. We performed structured interviews and free-listings with 66 local health experts. We used content analysis to systematize the elements of the influences on human health. We compared the richness of the plants cited among communities and analyzed the differences among the three communities regarding the ways in which the plants were obtained and the environments in which plants were collected. The local experts identified several influences of the environment on human health. These influences can be associated with ecosystem services, such as climatic conditions, water and air quality, recreation and medicinal and food resources. We identified 192 medicinal plant species, most of which were gathered from wild ecosystems. The most important environments for the three communities were the plateau mountain and backyards. The informants had a broad and integrated view of health, perceiving the importance of conserving the environment within the National Forest of Araripe for the health and well-being of the local populations.

  6. Using benefit indicators to evaluate ecosystem services resulting from restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration can reestablish ecosystem services that provide valuable social and environmental benefits. Final ecosystem goods and services (FEGS) are the goods and services that directly benefit people. Explicitly identifying the people who benefit and characterizing w...

  7. Improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer at the beginning of the survivorship period: a randomized clinical trial comparing the benefits of single-component and multiple-component group interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Lewis, Florence; Delevallez, France; Herman, Sophie; Caillier, Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Libert, Yves; Liénard, Aurore; Nogaret, Jean-Marie; Ogez, David; Scalliet, Pierre; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Van Houtte, Paul; Razavi, Darius

    2017-08-01

    To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multiple-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87). Anxiety regulation was assessed, before and after group interventions, through an anxiety regulation task designed to assess their ability to regulate anxiety psychologically (anxiety levels) and physiologically (heart rates). Questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, everyday anxiety regulation, and fear of recurrence. Group allocation was computer generated and concealed till baseline completion. Compared with patients in the SGI group (n = 77), patients attending the MGI group (n = 82) showed significantly reduced anxiety after a self-relaxation exercise (P = .006) and after exposure to anxiety triggers (P = .013) and reduced heart rates at different time points throughout the task (P = .001 to P = .047). The MGI participants also reported better everyday anxiety regulation (P = .005), greater use of fear of recurrence-related coping strategies (P = .022), and greater reduction in fear of recurrence-related psychological distress (P = .017) compared with the SGI group. This study shows that an MGI combining support with cognitive-behavioral techniques and hypnosis is more effective than an SGI based only on support in improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  9. Multiple assessment methods of prenatal exposure to radio frequency radiation from telecommunication in the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR from telecommunication using a mobile phone questionnaire, operator data logs of mobile phone use and a personal exposure meter (PEM. Material and Methods: The study included 1228 mother–infants pairs from the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH study – a multicenter prospective cohort study ongoing since 2006, in which participants were enrolled at ≤ 20 weeks of pregnancy, with a follow-up of a child birth and growth to assess the association between prenatal environmental exposure and children’s health. The questionnaire included the average calling frequency per day and the average calling time per day. An EME Spy 100 PEM was used to measure RFR among 269 pregnant women from November 2007 to August 2010. The operators’ log data were obtained from 21 participants. The Spearman’s correlation test was performed to evaluate correlation coefficient and 95% confidence intervals between the mobile phone use information from the questionnaire, operators’ log data, and data recorded by the PEM. Results: The operators’ log data and information from the self-reported questionnaire showed significantly high correlations in the average calling frequency per day (ρ = 0.6, p = 0.004 and average calling time per day (ρ = 0.5, p = 0.02. The correlation between information on the mobile phone use in the self-reported questionnaire and exposure index recorded by the PEM was poor. But correlation between the information of the operators’ log data and exposure index for transmission of mobile communication was significantly high: correlation coefficient (p-value was 0.44 (0.07 for calling frequency per day, and it was 0.49 (0.04 for calling time per day. Conclusions: The questionnaire information on the mobile phone use showed moderate to high quality. Using multiple methods for exposure assessment might be better than using only one method. Int J Occup

  10. Cost-benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the cost benefit analysis is given for the LMFBR-type reactor development program given in an environmental impact statement of AEC. Several methodological shortcomings are signalled. As compared with a HTGR-type/LWR-type mix of reactors the LMFBR-type reactor will not be competitive until the U 3 O 8 prices reach a level of $ 50/lb which is not likely to happen before the year 2020. It is recommended to review the draft of the ZEC document and include timing as one of the issues. Deferal of the LMFBR-type reactor development program if necessary will not be intolerably costly

  11. Particulate matter and carbon monoxide multiple regression models using environmental characteristics in a high diesel-use area of Baguio City, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Brandon E.; Naeher, Luke P. [The University of Georgia (UGA), College of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Science, Athens, Georgia, GA 30602-2102 (United States); Alabanza-Akers, Mary Anne [UGA, College of Environment and Design, Athens, Georgia (United States); Akers, Timothy A. [Kennesaw State University, WellStar College of Health and Human Services, Kennesaw, Georgia (United States); Hall, Daniel B. [UGA, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Statistics, Athens, Georgia (United States); Ryan, P. Barry [Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Bayer, Charlene W. [Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2007-08-01

    In Baguio City, Philippines, a mountainous city of 252,386 people where 61% of motor vehicles use diesel fuel, ambient particulate matter < 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) in aerodynamic diameter and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at 30 street-level locations for 15 min apiece during the early morning (4:50-6:30 am), morning rush hour (6:30-9:10 am) and afternoon rush hour (3:40-5:40 pm) in December 2004. Environmental observations (e.g. traffic-related variables, building/roadway designs, wind speed and direction, etc.) at each location were noted during each monitoring event. Multiple regression models were formulated to determine which pollution sources and environmental factors significantly affect ground-level PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10} and CO concentrations. The models showed statistically significant relationships between traffic and early morning particulate air pollution [(PM{sub 2.5}p = 0.021) and PM{sub 10} (p = 0.048)], traffic and morning rush hour CO (p = 0.048), traffic and afternoon rush hour CO (p = 0.034) and wind and early morning CO (p 0.044). The mean early morning, street-level PM{sub 2.5} (110 {+-} 8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; mean {+-} 1 standard error) was not significantly different (p-value > 0.05) from either rush hour PM{sub 2.5} concentration (morning = 98 {+-} 7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; afternoon = 107 {+-} 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) due to nocturnal inversions in spite of a 100% increase in automotive density during rush hours. Early morning street-level CO (3.0 {+-} 1.7 ppm) differed from morning rush hour (4.1 {+-} 2.3 ppm) (p 0.039) and afternoon rush hour (4.5 {+-}2.2 ppm) (p = 0.007). Additionally, PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10}, CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and select volatile organic compounds were continuously measured at a downtown, third-story monitoring station along a busy roadway for 11 days. Twenty-four-hour average ambient concentrations were: PM{sub 2.5} = 72.9 {+-} 21 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; CO = 2.61 {+-} 0.6 ppm; NO{sub 2} = 27

  12. Particulate matter and carbon monoxide multiple regression models using environmental characteristics in a high diesel-use area of Baguio City, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, Brandon E.; Naeher, Luke P.; Alabanza-Akers, Mary Anne; Akers, Timothy A.; Hall, Daniel B.; Ryan, P. Barry; Bayer, Charlene W.

    2007-01-01

    In Baguio City, Philippines, a mountainous city of 252,386 people where 61% of motor vehicles use diesel fuel, ambient particulate matter 2.5 ) and 10 ) in aerodynamic diameter and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at 30 street-level locations for 15 min apiece during the early morning (4:50-6:30 am), morning rush hour (6:30-9:10 am) and afternoon rush hour (3:40-5:40 pm) in December 2004. Environmental observations (e.g. traffic-related variables, building/roadway designs, wind speed and direction, etc.) at each location were noted during each monitoring event. Multiple regression models were formulated to determine which pollution sources and environmental factors significantly affect ground-level PM 2.5 , PM 10 and CO concentrations. The models showed statistically significant relationships between traffic and early morning particulate air pollution [(PM 2.5 p = 0.021) and PM 10 (p = 0.048)], traffic and morning rush hour CO (p = 0.048), traffic and afternoon rush hour CO (p = 0.034) and wind and earl