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Sample records for multiple emulsion technique

  1. PHEA-PLA biocompatible nanoparticles by technique of solvent evaporation from multiple emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Sardo, Carla; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela; Dalmoro, Annalisa

    2015-11-30

    Nanocarriers of amphiphilic polymeric materials represent versatile delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs. In this work the technique of solvent evaporation from multiple emulsions was applied to produce nanovectors based on new amphiphilic copolymer, the α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide-polylactic acid (PHEA-PLA), purposely synthesized to be used in the controlled release of active molecules poorly soluble in water. To this aim an amphiphilic derivative of PHEA, a hydrophilic polymer, was synthesized by derivatization of the polymeric backbone with hydrophobic grafts of polylactic acid (PLA). The achieved copolymer was thus used to produce nanoparticles loaded with α tocopherol (vitamin E) adopted as lipophilic model molecule. Applying a protocol based on solvent evaporation from multiple emulsions assisted by ultrasonic energy and optimizing the emulsification process (solvent selection/separation stages), PHEA-PLA nanostructured particles with total α tocopherol entrapment efficiency (100%), were obtained. The drug release is expected to take place in lower times with respect to PLA due to the presence of the hydrophilic PHEA, therefore the produced nanoparticles can be used for semi-long term release drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthetic Polymers at Interfaces: Monodisperse Emulsions Multiple Emulsions and Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guanqing

    The adsorption of polymeric materials at interfaces is an energetically favorable process which is investigated in much diversified fields, such as emulsions, bubbles, foams, liquid marbles. Pickering emulsion, which is emulsion stabilized by solid particles has been investigated for over one century and preparation of Pickering emulsion with narrow size distribution is crucial for both the theoretical study of the stabilization mechanism and practical application, such as templated fabrication of colloidosomes. The precise control over the size and functionality of polymer latices allows the preparation of monodisperse Pickering emulsions with desired sizes through SPG membrane emulsification at rather rapid rate compared to microfludic production. Double or multiple emulsions have long been investigated but its rapid destabilization has always been a major obstacle in applying them into practical applications. The modern living polymerization techniques allow us to prepare polymers with designed structure of block copolymers which makes it possible to prepare ultra-stable multiple emulsions. The precise tuning of the ratio of hydrophobic part over the hydrophilic can unveil the stabilization mechanism. Liquid marble is a new type of materials of which liquid droplets are coated by dry particles. The coating of an outer layer of dry particles renders the liquid droplets non-sticky at solid surface which is useful in transportation of small amount of liquid without leakage at extreme low friction force. The property of liquid marbles relies largely on the stabilizers and the drying condition of polymeric latices is shown to have great influence on the property of liquid marbles. Firstly, an introduction to the interfacial and colloidal science with special attention to topics on emulsions, multiple emulsion and liquid marbles is given in Chapter 1. The unique features of an interface and a discussion on the definition of colloids are introduced prior to the

  3. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsion containing 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable multiple emulsion containing a skin anti-aging agent and using paraffin oil. Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion at a concentration of 1%. Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. Stability ...

  4. Microfluidic production of multiple emulsions and functional microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Choi, Tae Min; Shim, Tae Soup; Frijns, Raoul A.M.; Kim, Shin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in microfluidics have enabled the controlled production of multiple-emulsion drops with onion-like topology. The multiple-emulsion drops possess an intrinsic core-shell geometry, which makes them useful as templates to create microcapsules with a solid membrane. High flexibility

  5. Development of lamivudine containing multiple emulsions stabilized by gum odina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Jena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a multiple emulsion (W/O/W of lamivudine was developed using a new biopolymer, gum odina (GOd to increase bioavailability and patient compliances. GOd was employed to stabilize both the interfaces of liquid membrane in both the external and internal aqueous phases. The developed W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine was characterized by analyzing droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI, sedimentation, viscosity, rheological properties, drug entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and stability at various storage conditions. The results obtained were also compared with W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine prepared using Tween 80 (a standard emulsion stabilizer. The drug entrapment efficiency of W/O/W multiple emulsion stabilized using GOd was measured as 91.60 ± 3.66% with sustained lamivudine release over a period of 6 h. Rheological and microscopic examinations indicated long term stability of the developed emulsion prepared using GOd. The results of the current study provide a promising scope to attain sustained drug release through the W/O/W multiple emulsions stabilized by GOd in antiviral therapies. Keywords: Gum odina, Lamivudine, Multiple emulsions

  6. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: zarubin@lhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  7. Study on short-lived particles with emulsion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentis, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on measuring the lifetimes are reviewed and the decay mechanisms for c-, b-quark, tau-lepton and charmed hadron are disclosed by means of emulsion chambers and hybride techniques (HT) of the emulsion-spectrometer type. The dominant development of hybride emulsion technique is traced beginning with the early experiments on measuring the lifetime of particles with emulsion (approximately 10 -13 s) and emulsion chambers. The layouts of arrangement of emulsions, counters and chambers are presented. Experiments on neutrino beams in the Fermilab and CERN using a foot bubble chamber and the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) are briefly described. HT experiments with a muon beam and neutrino beams in the Fermilab, with a photon beam in CERN with the use of the modified Omega are considered in detail. The results on measuring the lifetimes of the particles investigated are presented. The lengths of decay tracks, hypothetical decays, fitted masses, leVels of permissible limit of kinematic analysis, pulses of charmed baryons and intrinsic lifetimes of candidates for decay Λsub(c)sup(+), D +- , D 0 , F + - mesons are tabulated. The maximum likelihood method has been applied to determine the lifetimes from complete data on decays. It is noted that new developments in the field of semiconductor detectors and automation of emulsion measurements can extend possibilities of HT for investigation of both charmed

  8. Mixing Time, Inversion and Multiple Emulsion Formation in a Limonene and Water Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sawiak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that particle-stabilized emulsions comprised of limonene, water and fumed silica particles exhibit complex emulsification behavior as a function of composition and the duration of the emulsification step. Most notably the system can invert from being oil-continuous to being water-continuous under prolonged mixing. Here we investigate this phenomenon experimentally for the regime where water is the majority liquid. We prepare samples using a range of different emulsification times and we examine the final properties in bulk and via confocal microscopy. We use the images to quantitatively track the sizes of droplets and clusters of particles. We find that a dense emulsion of water droplets forms initially which is transformed, in time, into a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion with concomitant changes in droplet and cluster sizes. In parallel we carry out rheological studies of water-in-limonene emulsions using different concentrations of fumed silica particles. We unite our observations to propose a mechanism for inversion based on the changes in flow properties and the availability of particles during emulsification.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of cationic lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles using multiple emulsions as microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbaba, Hasan; Karagöz, Uğur [Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Selamet, Yusuf [Izmir Institute of Technology, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 35433 Izmir (Turkey); Kantarcı, A. Gülten, E-mail: gulten.kantarci@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. For this purpose multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for the first time and magnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles. DLS, SEM, TEM, VSM, Raman Spectrometer, XRD, and XPS techniques were performed for characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and no additional process was needed for surface adjustments. They are positively charged as a result of cationic lipid coating and has appropriate particle size (<30 nm) for drug or nucleic acid delivery. Structure analysis showed that magnetic core material is in the form of magnetite. Saturation magnetization value was measured as 15–17 emu g{sup −1} for lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles obtained by multiple emulsion method which is reasonably sufficient for magnetic targeting. - Highlights: • A novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. • Combining advantages of microemulsions and multiple emulsion methods. • Multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic lipids. • Possible delivery systems for nucleic acids, oil soluble compounds or drugs.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of cationic lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles using multiple emulsions as microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaba, Hasan; Karagöz, Uğur; Selamet, Yusuf; Kantarcı, A. Gülten

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. For this purpose multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for the first time and magnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles. DLS, SEM, TEM, VSM, Raman Spectrometer, XRD, and XPS techniques were performed for characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and no additional process was needed for surface adjustments. They are positively charged as a result of cationic lipid coating and has appropriate particle size (<30 nm) for drug or nucleic acid delivery. Structure analysis showed that magnetic core material is in the form of magnetite. Saturation magnetization value was measured as 15-17 emu g-1 for lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles obtained by multiple emulsion method which is reasonably sufficient for magnetic targeting.

  11. Influence of a multiple emulsion, liposomes and a microemulsion gel on sebum, skin hydration and TEWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrhauser, D; Nagelreiter, C; Baierl, A; Skipiol, J; Valenta, C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the influence of three cosmetically relevant, priorly characterized vehicles on skin hydration, sebum content and transepidermal water loss was investigated. The chosen vehicles included a liposomal pre-formulation, a multiple W/O/W emulsion and a microemulsion gel. The in vivo effects of these vehicles were demonstrated and compared among them. The stability of the prepared vehicles was determined visually, microscopically, rheologically by pH measurements and particle size. Interactions with skin were assessed by non-invasive biophysical techniques using the Corneometer(®), Aqua Flux(®) and Sebumeter, measuring skin hydration, TEWL and skin sebum content, respectively. All vehicles remained stable over an observation period of 6 weeks. The multiple emulsion increased sebum content and skin hydration. In case of the liposomes, each monitored parameter remained almost constant. In contrast, the microemulsion gel lowered skin hydration and increased TEWL values, but even 1 week after termination of the treatment TEWL decreased almost close to control levels. All produced vehicles were proven to remain physically stable over the duration of this study. The used multiple emulsion showed very skin-friendly properties by increasing sebum and skin hydration. Likewise, the liposomal pre-formulation exhibited no negative effects. On the contrary, the investigated microemulsion gel seemed to have skin dehydrating and TEWL increasing features. However, the multiple emulsion as well as liposomes was identified to be well-tolerated vehicles for skin which might qualify them for the use in cosmetic formulations. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. How the multiple antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid affect lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-02-18

    Lipid oxidation is a serious problem for oil-containing food products because it negatively affects shelf life and nutritional composition. An antioxidant strategy commonly employed to prevent or delay oxidation in foods is to remove oxygen from the closed food-packaging system. An alternative technique is use of an edible oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen within the food. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a particularly promising antioxidant because of its natural label and multiple antioxidative functions. In this study, AA was tested as an oxygen scavenger in buffer and an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The effects of transition metals on the ability of AA to scavenge oxygen were determined. Headspace oxygen decrease less than 1% in the medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) O/W emulsion system (pH 3 and 7). AA was able to almost completely remove dissolved oxygen (DO) in a buffered solution. Transition metals (Fe(2+) and Cu(+)) significantly accelerated the degradation of AA; however, iron and copper only increased DO depletion rates, by 10.6-16.4% from day 1 to 7, compared to the control. AA (2.5-20 mM) decreased DO in a 1% O/W emulsion system 32.0-64.0% and delayed the formation of headspace hexanal in the emulsion from 7 to over 20 days. This research shows that, when AA is used in an O/W emulsion system, oxidation of the emulsion system can be delay by multiple mechanisms.

  13. Simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices for the generation of monodisperse multiple emulsions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Zhang, Jiaming; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    of expensive apparatus and a complex manufacturing procedure. Here, we report the design and fabrication of simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices based on microscope glass slides and pulled glass capillaries, for generating monodisperse multiple emulsions

  14. Concanavalin-A conjugated fine-multiple emulsion loaded with 6-mercaptopurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopade, A J; Jain, N K

    2000-01-01

    Fine-multiple (water-in-oil-in-water) emulsions were prepared by two-step emulsification using sonication. They were coated with concanavalin-A (Con-A) by three methods. The one involving covalent coupling of Con-A to the multiple emulsion incorporated anchor was better compared with lipid derivatized Con-A anchoring or the glutaraldehyde-based cross-linking method, as shown by the faster rate of dextran-induced aggregation. The selected multiple emulsions were characterized by physical properties such as droplet size, encapsulation efficiency, and zeta potential. Stability parameters such as droplet size, creaming, leakage, and aggregation as a function of relative turbidity were monitored over a 1-month period, which revealed good stability of the formulations. The release profile of 6-mercaptopurine followed zero-order kinetics. Pharmacokinetic studies showed an increase in half-life and bioavailability from multiple emulsion formulations administered intravenously. There was prolonged retention of drug in various tissues of rats when treated with Con-A-coated multiple emulsion as compared with uncoated one. Our study demonstrates the suitability of fine-multiple emulsion for intravenous administration and the potential for prolonged retention of drugs and targeting in biological systems.

  15. Egg white powder-stabilised multiple (water-in-olive oil-in-water) emulsions as beef fat replacers in model system meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2017-05-01

    Today, multiple emulsions are believed to have a considerable application potential in food industry. We aimed to investigate physical, chemical and textural quality characteristics of model system meat emulsions (MSME) in which beef fat (C) was totally replaced by 10% (E-10), 20% (E-20) or 30% (E-30) multiple emulsions (W 1 /O/W 2 ) prepared with olive oil and egg white powder (EWP). Incorporation of W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion resulted in reduced fat (from 11.54% to 4.01%), increased protein content (from 13.66% to 14.74%), and modified fatty acid composition, significantly increasing mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content and decreasing saturated fatty acid content. E-20 and E-30 samples had lower jelly and fat separation (5.77% and 5.25%) compared to C and E-10 (9.67% and 8.55%). W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion treatments had higher water-holding capacity (93.96-94.35%) than C samples (91.84%), and also showed the desired storage stability over time. Emulsion stability results showed that E-20 and E-30 samples had lower total expressible fluid (14.05% and 14.53%) and lower total expressible fat (5.06% and 5.33%) compared to C samples (19.13% and 6.09%). Increased concentrations of W 1 /O/W 2 emulsions led to alterations in colour and texture parameters. TBA values of samples were lower in W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion treatments than control treatment during 60 days of storage. Our results indicated that multiple emulsions prepared with olive oil and EWP had promising impacts on reducing fat, modifying the lipid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable meat systems. These are the first findings concerning beef matrix fat replacement with multiple emulsions stabilised by EWP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Time stamp technique using a nuclear emulsion multi-stage shifter for gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Rokujo, Hiroki; Hamada, Kaname; Komatsu, Masahiro; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Niwa, Kimio; Sato, Osamu; Yoshioka, Teppei; Kodama, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion has a potential use as a gamma-ray telescope with high angular resolution. For this application it is necessary to know the time when each track was recorded in the emulsion. In previous experiments using nuclear emulsion, various efforts were used to associate time to nuclear emulsion tracks and to improve the time resolution. Using a high speed readout system for nuclear emulsion together with a clock-based multi-stage emulsion shifter, we invented a technique to give a time-stamp to emulsion tracks and greatly improve the time resolution. A test experiment with a 2-stage shifter was used to demonstrate the principle of multi-stage shifting, and we achieved a time resolution 1.5 s for 12.1 h (about 1 part in 29 000) with the time stamp reliability 97% and the time stamp efficiency 98%. This multi-stage shifter can achieve the time resolution required for a gamma-ray telescope and can also be applied to another cosmic ray observations and accelerator experiments using nuclear emulsion.

  17. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsion containing 1% L-ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Akhtar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable multiple emulsion containing a skin anti-aging agent and using paraffin oil. Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w multiple emulsion at a concentration of 1%. Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. Stability studies were performed at different accelerated conditions, i.e. 8 oC (in refrigerator, 25 oC (in oven, 40 oC (in oven, and 40 oC at 75% RH (in stability cabin for 28 days to predict the stability of formulations. Different parameters, namely pH, globule size, electrical conductivity and effect of centrifugation (simulating gravity were determined during stability studies. Data obtained was evaluated statistically using ANOVA two way analyses and LSD tests. Multiple emulsion formulated was found to be stable at lower temperatures (i.e. 8 and 25 oC for 28 days. No phase separation was observed in the samples during stability testing. It was found that there was no significant change (p > 0.05 in globule sizes in most of the samples kept at various conditions. Insignificant changes (p > 0.05 in both pH and conductivity values were determined for the samples kept at 8, 40, and 40 oC at 75% RH, throughout the study period. Further studies are needed to formulate more stable emulsions with other emulsifying agents.

  18. Efficiency and protective effect of encapsulation of milk immunoglobulin G in multiple emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Tu, Y Y; Chang, H M

    1999-02-01

    Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG), separated with protein G affinity chromatography, and IgG in colostral whey were encapsulated by 0.5% (w/v) of Tween 80, sucrose stearate, or soy protein, which were used as secondary emulsifiers in the water in oil in water type multiple emulsion. The residual contents of separated IgG and IgG in colostral whey, ranging from 58.7 to 49.7% and from 13.2 to 21.3%, respectively, in the inner water phase (water phase surrounded by oil phase) with emulsifiers were determined by ELISA. However, the emulsion stability decreased after 24 h, and the residual IgG content in the inner water phase was lowered. Encapsulation of IgG in the multiple emulsion increased the stability of separated IgG against acid (pH 2.0) and alkali (pH 12.0) by 21-56% and 33-62%, respectively, depending on the emulsifier used. Moreover, multiple emulsion also provided a remarkable protective effect on separated IgG stability against proteases. The residual contents of separated IgG in multiple emulsion, using Tween 80 as secondary emulsifier, incubated for 2 h with pepsin (pH 2.0) and trypsin and chymotrypsin (pH 7.6) (enzyme/substrate = 1/20) were 35.4, 72.5, and 82.3%, whereas those of separated IgG in enzyme solution were only 7.2, 33. 1, and 35.2%, respectively. However, the separated IgG loss during the preparation of multiple emulsion was almost 41-50%.

  19. Effect of gelation of inner dispersed phase on stability of (w1/o/w2) multiple emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, A.K.L.; Renssen, M.; Schuch, A.; Stieger, M.A.; Scholten, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of water-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/w2) multiple emulsions offers a method for the reduction of oil in foods. In this study we investigated the influence of osmotic pressure tailoring and gelation of the inner dispersed w1 water droplets on the stability and yield of multiple emulsions. Yield is

  20. Modification of natural leather by grafting emulsion copolymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, A.S.; Nasr, H.E.; El-Halawany, N.R.; Mohamed, W.S.

    2005-01-01

    Grafting emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with butyl acrylate of different molar ratios onto natural leather with different molar ratios was carried out using developed redox initiation system of potassium persulphate (PPS) as an oxidizing agent and some sodium bisulphite adducts as reducing agent, as well as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as an anionic emulsifier. The grafted leather was characterized via FTIR, SEM and thermal gravimetric analysis. Moreover, the grafted leather was evaluated through water absorption, tensile strength, dyeing performance and hardness measurements. The obtained results revealed that the physical and mechanical properties of the modified leather were enhanced

  1. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaechamud T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thawatchai Phaechamud,1 Sarun Tuntarawongsa2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Pharmaceutical Intelligence Unit Prachote Plengwittaya, Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Abstract: Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (Tg of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and -31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. Keywords

  2. Simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices for the generation of monodisperse multiple emulsions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2013-12-16

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices have become a preferred versatile platform for various fields in physics, chemistry and biology. Polydimethylsiloxane soft lithography, the mainstay for fabricating microfluidic devices, usually requires the usage of expensive apparatus and a complex manufacturing procedure. Here, we report the design and fabrication of simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices based on microscope glass slides and pulled glass capillaries, for generating monodisperse multiple emulsions. The advantages of our method lie in a simple manufacturing procedure, inexpensive processing equipment and flexibility in the surface modification of the designed microfluidic devices. Different types of devices have been designed and tested and the experimental results demonstrated their robustness for preparing monodisperse single, double, triple and multi-component emulsions. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (Tg) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and −31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. PMID:27366064

  4. Particle multiplicity distributions in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuhu; Abd Allah, Nabil N.; Zhang Donghai; Duan Maiying

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results of particle multiplicity distributions in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna synchrophasotron momentum) are reported. The correlations between the multiplicities of target fragments are given. The saturation effect of target black fragment multiplicity in the collisions is observed

  5. Rheological and droplet size analysis of W/O/W multiple emulsions containing low concentrations of polymeric emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA D. VASILJEVIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions are complex dispersion systems which have many potential applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and the food industry. In practice, however, significant problems may arise because of their thermodynamic instability. In this study, W/O/W multiple emulsion systems containing low concentration levels of lipophilic polymeric primary emulsifiers cetyl dimethicone copolyol and PEG–30 dipolyhydroxystearate were evaluated. The concentrations of the primary emulsifiers were set at 1.6 and 2.4 % w/w in the final emulsions. Rheological and droplet size analysis of the investigated samples showed that the type and concentration of the primary lipophilic polymeric emulsifier markedly affected the characteristics of the multiple emulsions. The multiple emulsion prepared with 2.4 % w/w PEG–30 dipolyhydroxystearate as the primary emulsifier exhibited the highest apparent viscosity, yield stress and elastic modulus values, as well as the smallest droplet size. Furthermore, these parameters remained relatively constant over the study period, confirming the high stability of the investigated sample. The results obtained indicate that the changes observed in the investigated samples over time could be attributed to the swelling/breakdown mechanism of the multiple droplets. Such changes could be adequately monitored by rheological and droplet size analysis.

  6. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. Studies using long-chain and structured triglyceride emulsions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Jörgen; Thörne, Anders; Aberg, Wiveca; Carneheim, Claes; Olivecrona, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    In a randomized crossover study, plasma kinetics of 2 different types of fat emulsions were studied in 8 healthy volunteers by using a hypertriglyceridemic clamp technique. The method involves the stabilization of serum triglyceride (TG) concentration during 180 minutes at a predetermined level (4 mmol/L) by adjustment of TG infusion rate by repeated online measurements of serum TG concentration. The fat emulsions under study were a long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (LCT) emulsion (Intralipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi, Sweden) and a structured triglyceride (STG) emulsion (Structolipid 20%, Fresenius Kabi) where medium- and long-chain fatty acids have been interesterified within a TG molecule. The hypertriglyceridemic clamp was found to have acceptable reproducibility when tested in 3 healthy individuals on 2 different occasions, as similar steady-state TG levels were obtained by infusing similar amounts of fat. The average (+/-SEM) TG concentration during the 180-minute clamp was similar for STGs and LCTs (4.0 +/- 0.1 vs 3.9 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; not significant), but the amount of fat that had to be infused was significantly higher during STG than during LCT clamping (0.31 +/- 0.04 vs 0.21 +/- 0.02 g TG per minute; P < .05). Higher serum levels of free fatty acids (1.80 +/- 0.13 vs 0.96 +/- 0.09 mmol/L; P < .05), free glycerol (1.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.76 +/- 0.08 mmol/L; P < .001), and beta-OH butyrate (1.61 +/- 0.44 vs 1.17 +/- 0.23 mmol/L; not significant) were obtained at the end of the clamp during infusion of STGs compared with LCTs. During infusion of STGs the medium-chain fatty acids octanoic (C:8) and decanoic acid (C:10) constituted approximately half of circulating fatty acids that correspond to the compositional ratio of the emulsion. Plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) concentration was higher during STG than during LCT clamping (6.06 +/- 0.62 vs 3.15 +/- 0.40 mU/mL; P < .05), and there was a positive correlation between the mean LPL concentration and the amount of

  7. Scaling in multiplicity distributions of heavy, black and grey prongs in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Torsti, J.J.; Valtonen, E.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling hypothesis was examined in the case of heavy, black, and grey prongs in proton-emulsion collisions ('heavy' means 'either black or grey'). The average multiplicities of these prongs were computed in the region 0.1-400 GeV for the nuclei C, N, O, S, Br, Ag, and I. After the inclusion of the energy-dependent excitation probability of the nuclei of the form P* = b 0 + b 1 ln E 0 into the model, experimental multiplicity distributions in the energy region 6-300 GeV agreed satisfactorily with the scaling hypothesis. The ratio of the dispersion D (D = √ 2 >- 2 ) to the average multiplicity in the scaling functions of heavy, balck, and grey prongs was estimated to be 0.86, 0.84, and 1.04, respectively, in the high energy region. (Auth.)

  8. Fabrication, physicochemical characterization and preliminary efficacy evaluation of a W/O/W multiple emulsion loaded with 5% green tea extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Mahmood

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex multiple emulsions have an excellent ability to fill large volumes of functional cosmetic agents. This study was aimed to encapsulate large volume of green tea in classical multiple emulsion and to compare its stability with a multiple emulsion without green tea extract. Multiple emulsions were developed using Cetyl dimethicone copolyol as lipophilic emulsifier and classic polysorbate-80 as hydrophilic emulsifier. Multiple emulsions were evaluated for various physicochemical aspects like conductivity, pH, microscopic analysis, rheology and these characteristics were followed for a period of 30 days in different storage conditions. In vitro and in vivo skin protection tests were also performed for both kinds of multiple emulsions i.e. with active (MeA and without active (MeB. Both formulations showed comparable characteristics regarding various physicochemical characteristics in different storage conditions. Rheological analysis showed that formulations showed pseudo plastic behavior upon continuous shear stress. Results of in vitro and in vivo skin protection data have revealed that the active formulation has comparable skin protection effects to that of control formulation. It was presumed that stable multiple emulsions could be a promising choice for topical application of green tea but multiple emulsions presented in this study need improvement in the formula, concluded on the basis of pH, conductivity and apparent viscosity data.

  9. Naproxen-imprinted xerogels in the micro- and nanospherical formsby emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Mariana; Azenha, Manuel; Pereira, Carlos; Silva, A Fernando

    2015-11-27

    Naproxen-imprinted xerogels in the microspherical and nanospherical forms were prepared by W/O emulsion and microemulsion, respectively. The work evolved from a sol–gel mixture previously reported for bulk synthesis. It was relatively simple to convert the original sol–gel mixture to one amenable to emulsion technique. The microspheres thus produced presented mean diameter of 3.7 μm, surface area ranging 220–340 m2/g, selectivity factor 4.3 (against ibuprofen) and imprinting factor 61. A superior capacity (9.4 μmol/g) was found, when comparing with imprints obtained from similar pre-gelification mixtures. However, slow mass transfer kinetics was deduced from column efficiency results. Concerning the nanospherical format, which constituted the first example of the production of molecularly imprinted xerogels in that format by microemulsion technique, adapting the sol–gel mixture was troublesome. In the end, nanoparticles with diameter in the order of 10 nm were finally obtained, exhibiting good indications of an efficient molecular imprinting process. Future refinements are necessary to solve serious aggregation issues, before moving to more accurate characterization of the binding characteristics or to real applications of the nanospheres.

  10. Nanocrystalline cellulose-dispersed AKD emulsion for enhancing the mechanical and multiple barrier properties of surface-sized paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luming; Lu, Sheng; Li, Juanjuan; Zhang, Fengshan; Cha, Ruitao

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we employed nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as an efficient dispersant to perpare alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) emulsion. The particle size and zeta potential of AKD/NCC emulsion were measured, which were approximately 5 μm and -50 mV, respectively. The surface-sized paper possessed multiple barriers properties. The air permeability of surface-sized paper was 0.29 μm/Pas and the sizing degree reached 42 s when the amount of sizing was 12.58 g/m(2) with a 96.83% decrease and a 40.00%, increase, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were optimal when the amount of sizing was about 8 g/m(2). AKD/NCC emulsion acted as a good reinforcing agent in surface-sized paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incorporation of essential oil in alginate microparticles by multiple emulsion/ionic gelation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoosh; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Dehghan, Solmaz; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-11-01

    In this study, an o/w/o multiple emulsion/ionic gelation method was developed for production of alginate microparticles loaded with Satureja hortensis essential oil (SEO). It was found that the essential oil concentration has significant influence on encapsulation efficiency (EE), loading capacity (LC) and size of microparticles. The values of EE, LC and particle mean diameter were about 52-66%, 20-26%, and 47-117 μm, respectively, when the initial SEO content was 1-3% (v/v) .The essential oil-loaded microparticles were porous, as displayed by scanning electron micrograph. The presence of SEO in alginate microparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. SEO-loaded microparticles showed good antioxidant (with DPPH radical scavenging activity of 40.7-73.5%) and antibacterial properties; this effect was greatly improved when the concentration of SEO was 3% (v/v). S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to SEO and showed a highest inhibition zone of 304.37 mm(2) in the microparticles incorporated with 3% (v/v) SEO. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst release and followed by a slow release. In addition, the release of SEO from the microparticles followed Fickian diffusion with acceptable release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey...

  13. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...

  14. Effect of Formulation and Process Parameters on Chitosan Microparticles Prepared by an Emulsion Crosslinking Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lidia B; Avalos, Abraham; Chiaia, Nicholas; Nadarajah, Arunan

    2017-05-01

    There are many studies about the synthesis of chitosan microparticles; however, most of them have very low production rate, have wide size distribution, are difficult to reproduce, and use harsh crosslinking agents. Uniform microparticles are necessary to obtain repeatable drug release behavior. The main focus of this investigation was to study the effect of the process and formulation parameters during the preparation of chitosan microparticles in order to produce particles with narrow size distribution. The technique evaluated during this study was emulsion crosslinking technique. Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable material but lacks good mechanical properties; for that reason, chitosan was ionically crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) at three different ratios (32, 64, and 100%). The model drug used was acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). During the preparation of the microparticles, chitosan was first mixed with ASA and then dispersed in oil containing an emulsifier. The evaporation of the solvents hardened the hydrophilic droplets forming microparticles with spherical shape. The process and formulation parameters were varied, and the microparticles were characterized by their morphology, particle size, drug loading efficiency, and drug release behavior. The higher drug loading efficiency was achieved by using 32% mass ratio of TPP to chitosan. The average microparticle size was 18.7 μm. The optimum formulation conditions to prepare uniform spherical microparticles were determined and represented by a region in a triangular phase diagram. The drug release analyses were evaluated in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and were mainly completed at 24 h.

  15. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlalila N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nichrous Mlalila,1 Hulda Swai,2 Lonji Kalombo,2 Askwar Hilonga3 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania Abstract: The goal of this study was to explore the effects of spray-drying on w/o/w double emulsions of methyltestosterone (MT loaded in a stearic acid matrix. MT-loaded nanoparticles were formulated by a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique using 50, 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized responses with regard to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential, for both emulsion and powder samples. Dynamic light scattering analysis shown that the nanoparticles increased in size with increasing concentrations of polyvinyl alcohol and stearic acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the MT-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth surface, and were in an amorphous state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. These MT-loaded nanoparticles are a promising candidate carrier for the delivery of MT; however, further studies are needed in order to establish the stability of the system and the cargo release profile under normal conditions of use. Keywords: double emulsions, nanoparticles, pump rate, spray-drying, testosterone

  16. Influence Of Initiator Types And Emulsion Polymerization Techniques To Particle Size Of Copolymerization Styrene-Butyl Acrylate-Methyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyanti Sarwono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of initiator types and emulsion polymerization techniques to particle size of copolymerization styrene-butyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate. Copoly(styrene/butyl acrylic/methyl methacrylic was prepared by emulsion polymerization method. This paper describes effect of insiator types i.e. ammonium persulfate (APS, hydrogen peroxide, ters-butyl peroxide (TBHP, initiator redox (H2O2/ascorbic acid and polymerization techniques i.e. batch and semicontinue to particle size distribution of copoly(styrene/butyl acrylic/methyl methacrylic. Initiator TBHP and H2O2 could not initiate copolymerization properly, but initiator APS and redox initiate copolymerization with batch and semi continue techniques could well perform. The higher concentration of APS, the greater particle size of the copolymer, but the copolymer is polymodal. Initiator redox (H2O2/ascorbic acid produced greater particle size than initiator redox (ascorbic acid/ H2O2.

  17. Syringe-vacuum microfluidics: A portable technique to create monodisperse emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A

    2011-03-16

    We present a simple method for creating monodisperse emulsions with microfluidic devices. Unlike conventional approaches that require bulky pumps, control computers, and expertise with device physics to operate devices, our method requires only the microfluidic device and a hand-operated syringe. The fluids needed for the emulsion are loaded into the device inlets, while the syringe is used to create a vacuum at the device outlet; this sucks the fluids through the channels, generating the drops. By controlling the hydrodynamic resistances of the channels using hydrodynamic resistors and valves, we are able to control the properties of the drops. This provides a simple and highly portable method for creating monodisperse emulsions.

  18. Homogenization Effect on Nanostructure and Conductivity of Polyaniline Nanofibre Synthesis by Mini-Emulsion Polymerization Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, M.; Kamarudin, S.; Mohamed, N. H.; Asim, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-12-01

    Nanofibre polyaniline (n-PANI) was synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization technique between aniline monomer and ammonium persulfate as an oxidant using homogenizer. The synthesis was performed by optimizing mixing speed from 10,000 to 30,000 rpm and time reaction between 0.5 to 24 hours at fixed monomer to oxidant molar ratio 4:1. An attempt has been made to investigate on how the speed of homogenizer affects the size and conductivity of n-PANI. The formation of n-PANI chain was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed PANI crystalline nature. Hall effect measurement used indicated that the electrical conductivity of n-PANI is increased with homogenizer speed from 5.2 to 17.5 Scm-1. The morphological properties of n-PANI performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show the decreasing size of n-PANI from 50-60 nm to 20-30 nm with the increment homogenizer speed. This study indicated the optimum speed parameter of homogenizer play a role in reducing the nanostructured size and thus, increasing the electrical conductivity of n-PANI.

  19. Green polyurethane synthesis by emulsion technique: a magnetic composite for oil spill removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raphael Maria Dias da; Hungerbühler, Gabriela; Saraiva, Thiago; De Jong, Gabriel; Moraes, Rafael Silva; Ferreira, Luciana Spinelli; Souza Junior, Fernando Gomes de, E-mail: fgsj@ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LaBioS/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biopolímeros e Sensores; Furtado, Evandro Goncalves [Alfa Rio Química Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Fabrício Machado [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Geiza Esperandio de [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    After the consolidation of the Brazilian biodiesel industry, issues related to the final destination of the glycerin, the by-product from the biodiesel industrial process, drawing the attention of several researchers. There are several uses to this byproduct. Among them, the obtaining of polymers, such as polyurethane (PU), are very encouraged since the glycerin ca be used, as well as the castor oil, in the replacement of petrochemical polyols. The aim of this work was to propose a new route for the obtainment of a petroleum sorbent based on polyurethane resin from glycerin and castor oil, through the emulsion technique. In addition, maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was mixed to the polymer matrix, producing a magnetic composite, able to make easier the oil cleanup process. The products synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. The magnetic material was used to remove oil from water, exhibited a good oil removal capability. In a typical test, 1g of the composite containing 5wt% of maghemite was able to remove 10g of oil from water. (author)

  20. Green polyurethane synthesis by emulsion technique: a magnetic composite for oil spill removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Raphael Maria Dias da; Hungerbühler, Gabriela; Saraiva, Thiago; De Jong, Gabriel; Moraes, Rafael Silva; Ferreira, Luciana Spinelli; Souza Junior, Fernando Gomes de; Silva, Fabrício Machado; Oliveira, Geiza Esperandio de

    2017-01-01

    After the consolidation of the Brazilian biodiesel industry, issues related to the final destination of the glycerin, the by-product from the biodiesel industrial process, drawing the attention of several researchers. There are several uses to this byproduct. Among them, the obtaining of polymers, such as polyurethane (PU), are very encouraged since the glycerin ca be used, as well as the castor oil, in the replacement of petrochemical polyols. The aim of this work was to propose a new route for the obtainment of a petroleum sorbent based on polyurethane resin from glycerin and castor oil, through the emulsion technique. In addition, maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) was mixed to the polymer matrix, producing a magnetic composite, able to make easier the oil cleanup process. The products synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. The magnetic material was used to remove oil from water, exhibited a good oil removal capability. In a typical test, 1g of the composite containing 5wt% of maghemite was able to remove 10g of oil from water. (author)

  1. Influence of Emulsion Polymerization Techniques to Particle Size of Copoly(styrene/butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresye Utari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of applications, particle size and particle size distribution are highly significant factors that determine the properties of a polymer dispersion, such as its flow behavior or its stability. For example, a coating material with small particle size will give smooth coating result, good adhesive strength, good water resistance and latex stability. This article describes influence of various emulsion polymerization techniques to particle size of copoly(styrene/butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate with mix surfactant SDBS linear chain and nonyl fenol (EO10 and initiator ammonium persulphate. DSC data, solid content and IR spectrum showed that copoly(styrene/butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate was produced. Batch emulsion polymerization technique gave the highest particle size i.e. 615 nm and also the highest % conversion of monomer i.e. 97%. The more concentration of monomer was seeded to initial charge gave greater particle size and greater poly dispersity index.

  2. Oil encapsulation in core-shell alginate capsules by inverse gelation II: comparison between dripping techniques using W/O or O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Poncelet, Denis; Rodrigues, Ramila Cristiane; Renard, Denis

    2017-09-01

    In the first part of this article, it was described an innovative method of oil encapsulation from dripping-inverse gelation using water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. It was noticed that the method of oil encapsulation was quite different depending on the emulsion type (W/O or oil-in-water (O/W)) used and that the emulsion structure (W/O or O/W) had a high impact on the dripping technique and the capsules characteristics. The objective of this article was to elucidate the differences between the dripping techniques using both emulsions and compare the capsule properties (mechanical resistance and release of actives). The oil encapsulation using O/W emulsions was easier to perform and did not require the use of emulsion destabilisers. However, capsules produced from W/O emulsions were more resistant to compression and showed the slower release of actives over time. The findings detailed here widened the knowledge of the inverse gelation and gave opportunities to develop new techniques of oil encapsulation.

  3. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  4. Comparative study of DNA encapsulation into PLGA microparticles using modified double emulsion methods and spray drying techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, C G; Kissel, T

    2005-05-01

    Recently, several research groups have shown the potential of microencapsulated DNA as adjuvant for DNA immunization and in tissue engineering approaches. Among techniques generally used for microencapsulation of hydrophilic drug substances into hydrophobic polymers, modified WOW double emulsion method and spray drying of water-in-oil dispersions take a prominent position. The key parameters for optimized microspheres are particle size, encapsulation efficiency, continuous DNA release and stabilization of DNA against enzymatic and mechanical degradation. This study investigates the possibility to encapsulate DNA avoiding shear forces which readily degrade DNA during this microencapsulation. DNA microparticles were prepared with polyethylenimine (PEI) as a complexation agent for DNA. Polycations are capable of stabilizing DNA against enzymatic, as well as mechanical degradation. Further, complexation was hypothesized to facilitate the encapsulation by reducing the size of the macromolecule. This study additionally evaluated the possibility of encapsulating lyophilized DNA and lyophilized DNA/PEI complexes. For this purpose, the spray drying and double emulsion techniques were compared. The size of the microparticles was characterized by laser diffractometry and the particles were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DNA encapsulation efficiencies were investigated photometrically after complete hydrolysis of the particles. Finally, the DNA release characteristics from the particles were studied. Particles with a size of <10 microm which represent the threshold for phagocytic uptake could be prepared with these techniques. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 100-35% for low theoretical DNA loadings. DNA complexation with PEI 25?kDa prior to the encapsulation process reduced the initial burst release of DNA for all techniques used. Spray-dried particles without PEI exhibited high burst releases, whereas double emulsion techniques showed continuous

  5. Charged particles multiplicity in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 28Si with light and heavy target nuclei in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.K.; Tuli, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Results from measurement of multiplicity of different charged particles emitted from the interactions of 3.7 A GeV 28 Si with different target groups in nuclear emulsion and correlations among them are presented. The nature of the dependence of multiplicities of charged particles on the impact parameter is examined. Analysis of data in terms of specific multiplicity for different target groups is performed and the results are discussed in the light of superposition model. (author)

  6. A two emulsion autoradiographic technique and the discriminating of the three different types of labelling after double labelling with 3H- and 14C-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, B.; Maurer, W.; Hagenbusch, H.

    1976-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with a two emulsion autoradiographic technique for double labelling experiments with 3 H- and 14 C-thymidine which permits a clear discrimination of the different types of labelling. In the second part the application of this technique to cell kinetics studies is discussed. Accurate discrimination between the different types of labelling, namely purely 3 H-, purely 14 C- and double ( 3 H + 14 C) labelling, is only possible if the activity ratio of 3 H- to 14 C-thymidine is sufficiently high. This condition is necessary for a reliable distinction between those grains in the first emulsion which are due to true 3 H-labelling and spurious grains which are simultaneously produced in the same emulsion by 14 C-β- particles. Experiments are described to determine the required activity ratio of 3 H- to 14 C-thymidine. (author)

  7. On the new technique of X-ray-emulsion chamber data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingaryan, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The modern installations for cosmic ray studies register the spatial and energy characteristics of various particles. One has to solve the problems of selecting the strong interaction models or determining the primary radiation chemical composition under conditions of high a priori uncertainty, when there is practically nothing known about the probability distribution function form in the indication space. In this paper the universal methods are reported that allow one with most confidence to select the optimal feature complexes and to make statistical decisions on the experimental data relation to one or the other model. The methods are tested on the problem of discriminating #betta#-families produced by primary protons or iron nuclei and registered by X-ray emulsion chambers

  8. Encapsulating acetaminophen into poly(L-lactide) microcapsules by solvent-evaporation technique in an O/W emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M-K; Tsiang, R C-C

    2004-05-01

    Microencapsulation of acetaminophen in poly(L-lactide) was studied using the oil-in-water emulsification solvent-evaporation technique. Methylene chloride was used as the dispersed medium and water as the dispersing medium. The thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry data indicated that the acetaminophen was encapsulated and uniformly distributed in the poly(L-lactide) microcapsules. The addition of either gelatin or polyvinyl alcohol as the protective colloid to the emulsion was found to have a significant impact on the resulting microcapsules. Increasing the concentration of either protective colloid in the dispersing medium increased the recovery and the release rate of acetaminophen, but reduced the particle size and loading efficiency of the microcapsules. Scanning electron micrographs manifested that all the microcapsules attained a nearly round shape. While gelatin imparted a smooth topography to the surface of the microcapsules, PVA made the surface of the microcapsules bumpy and humped.

  9. Effects of green tea extract and α-tocopherol on the lipid oxidation rate of omega-3 oils, incorporated into table spreads, prepared using multiple emulsion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Sandra P O'; O'Beirne, David; Ní Eidhin, Deirdre; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of fat and water soluble antioxidants on the oxidative stability of omega (ω)-3 rich table spreads, produced using novel multiple emulsion technology. Table spreads were produced by dispersing an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (500 g/kg 85 camelina/15 fish oil blend) in a hardstock/rapeseed oil blend, using sodium caseinate and polyglycerol polyricinoleate as emulsifiers. The O/W and oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions contained either a water soluble antioxidant (green tea extract [GTE]), an oil soluble antioxidant (α-Tocopherol), or both. Spreads containing α-Tocopherol had the highest lipid hydroperoxide values, whereas spreads containing GTE had the lowest (P < 0.05), during storage at 5°C, while p-Anisidine values did not differ significantly. Particle size was generally unaffected by antioxidant type (P < 0.05). Double emulsion (O/W/O) structures were clearly seen in confocal images of the spreads. By the end of storage, none of the spreads had significantly different G' values. Firmness (Newtons) of all spreads generally increased during storage (P < 0.05). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Preparation and characterization of quercetin-loaded silica microspheres stabilized by combined multiple emulsion and sol-gel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite exhibiting a wide spectrum of cosmeceutical properties, flavonoids and related compounds have some limitations related to their stability and solubility in distilledwater. In this project, we prepared silica microspheres using a novel method that uses polyol-in-oil-in-water (P/O/W emulsion and sol-gel methods as techniques for stabilizing quercetin. A stable microsphere suspension was successfully preparedusing a mixed solvent system comprising a polyol-phase medium for performing the sol-gel processing of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as an inorganic precursor with outer water phase. The morphology of the microsphere was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, which showed a characteristic spherical particle shape with a smooth surface. Furthermore, SEM/EDSanalysis of a representative microsphere demonstrated that the inner structure of the silica microspheres was filled with quercetin. The mean diameter of the microsphere was in the range 20.6-35.0 μm, and the encapsulation efficiency ranged from 17.8% to 27.5%. The free and encapsulated quercetin samples were incubated in separateaqueous solutions at 25 and 42°C for 28 days. The residualcontent of the quercetin encapsulated by silica microspheres was 82% at 42°C. In contrast, that of the free quercetin stored at 42°C decreased to ~24%.

  11. Multiple response optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with sample injection as detergent emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F.; Robaina, Nicolle F.; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O.; Cassella, Ricardo J.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports the optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) employing a strategy based on the injection of the samples as detergent emulsions. The method was optimized in relation to the experimental conditions for the emulsion formation and taking into account that the three analytes (Cu, Fe and Pb) should be measured in the same emulsion. The optimization was performed in a multivariate way by employing a three-variable Doehlert design and a multiple response strategy. For this purpose, the individual responses of the three analytes were combined, yielding a global response that was employed as a dependent variable. The three factors related to the optimization process were: the concentration of HNO 3 , the concentration of the emulsifier agent (Triton X-100 or Triton X-114) in aqueous solution used to emulsify the sample and the volume of solution. At optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain satisfactory results with an emulsion formed by mixing 4 mL of the samples with 1 mL of a 4.7% w/v Triton X-100 solution prepared in 10% v/v HNO 3 medium. The resulting emulsion was stable for 250 min, at least, and provided enough sensitivity to determine the three analytes in the five samples tested. A recovery test was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimized procedure and recovery rates, in the range of 88-105%; 94-118% and 95-120%, were verified for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively.

  12. Multiple response optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with sample injection as detergent emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, A. Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, Vicosa/MG, 36570-000 (Brazil); Robaina, Nicolle F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de S.J. Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-141 (Brazil); Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. [Petrobras, Cenpes/PDEDS/QM, Av. Horacio Macedo 950, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-915 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de S.J. Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The present paper reports the optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) employing a strategy based on the injection of the samples as detergent emulsions. The method was optimized in relation to the experimental conditions for the emulsion formation and taking into account that the three analytes (Cu, Fe and Pb) should be measured in the same emulsion. The optimization was performed in a multivariate way by employing a three-variable Doehlert design and a multiple response strategy. For this purpose, the individual responses of the three analytes were combined, yielding a global response that was employed as a dependent variable. The three factors related to the optimization process were: the concentration of HNO{sub 3}, the concentration of the emulsifier agent (Triton X-100 or Triton X-114) in aqueous solution used to emulsify the sample and the volume of solution. At optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain satisfactory results with an emulsion formed by mixing 4 mL of the samples with 1 mL of a 4.7% w/v Triton X-100 solution prepared in 10% v/v HNO{sub 3} medium. The resulting emulsion was stable for 250 min, at least, and provided enough sensitivity to determine the three analytes in the five samples tested. A recovery test was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimized procedure and recovery rates, in the range of 88-105%; 94-118% and 95-120%, were verified for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively.

  13. Innovative Natural Ingredients-Based Multiple Emulsions: The Effect on Human Skin Moisture, Sebum Content, Pore Size and Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugne Cizauskaite

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in natural cosmetics has resulted in a higher market demand for preservative-free products based on herbal ingredients. An innovative W/O/W type emulsions containing herbal extracts were prepared directly; its cation form was induced by an ethanolic rosemary extract and stabilized using weak herbal gels. Due to the wide phytochemical composition of herbal extracts and the presence of alcohol in the emulsion system, which can cause skin irritation, sensitization or dryness when applied topically, the safety of the investigated drug delivery system is necessary. The aim of our study was to estimate the potential of W/O/W emulsions based on natural ingredients for skin irritation and phototoxicity using reconstructed 3D epidermis models in vitro and to evaluate in vivo its effect on human skin moisture, sebum content and pigmentation by biomedical examination using a dermatoscopic camera and corneometer. According to the results obtained after in vitro cell viability test the investigated emulsion was neither irritant nor phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes. W/O/W emulsion did not cause skin dryness in vivo, despite the fact that it contained ethanol. We can conclude that the emulsion is safe for use as a leave-on product due to the positive effect on human skin characteristics or as a semisolid pharmaceutical base where active compounds could be encapsulated.

  14. Chemistry and technology of emulsion polymerisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsion polymerisation produces high value polymers in a low cost, environmentally friendly process. The drive to develop environmentally benign production methods for polymers has resulted in widespread development and implementation of the emulsion polymerisation technique. In addition, when

  15. Emulsion Polymerization of Etyl Acrylate: The Effect of Surfactant, Initiator Concentration and PolymerizationTechnique on Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitri Arinda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion polymerization was conducted using ethyl acrylate monomer. Theeffect of sodium lauryl sulfate concentration, ammonium persulfate concentration, the various of polymerizationtechniques and feeding time to the conversion, particle size and its distribution were observed. The purpose of thisresearch is to obtain the optimum condition of ethyl acrylate homopolymer with particle size around 100 nm, to get theparticle size distribution monodisperse and to get solid content value of the experiment closed to its theoretical value.The optimum condition then could be applied in shell polymerization of core-shell polymers. The results of the researchshowed that semicontinuous technique obtained optimum sodium lauryl sulfate concentration at 20 CMC (criticalmicelle concentration and ammonium persulfate concentration is 3%. By using batch technique that the biggestparticle size is 123 nm with conversion 95.8% and monodisperse. The shorter of feeding time the more monomer ofethyl acrylate being polymerized, it is showed by the higher conversion up to 94.4% and the bigger particle size is107.9 nm.

  16. Scaling properties of charged particle multiplicity distributions in oxygen induced emulsion interactions at 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Arora, R.

    1988-12-01

    The multiplicity distributions of shower particles (n s ) are measured in inclusive inelastic oxygen emulsion interactions. Scaling in observed in the normalized variable n s / ave.(n s ) for 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV. The dependence of ave. (n s ) on the charge flow in the forward direction (Q ZD ) and the distribution of the number of participating projectile protons is examined. The normalized multiplicities as a function of Q ZD seem also to be independent of incident energies. A comparison with the Lund Model Fritiof yields satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  17. Multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments in interactions of nuclei with emulsion at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhraddin, S; Rahim, Magda A

    2008-01-01

    The results of our systematic studies of projectile fragments (PFs) multiplicity distributions in interactions of 4 He, 12 C, 16 O, 22 Ne and 28 Si with emulsion at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/c are presented in this paper. The mean values for the three different multiplicities of PFs at nearly the same energy are given. The dependence of these mean values on the projectile mass number A p , as well as the dependence of the PFs on target groups (H, CNO and AgBr), has been investigated

  18. Multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments in interactions of nuclei with emulsion at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhraddin, S; Rahim, Magda A [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sana' a University, Republic of Yemen (Yemen)], E-mail: sakinafa1@hotmail.com, E-mail: dr.magda2006@hotmail.com

    2008-07-15

    The results of our systematic studies of projectile fragments (PFs) multiplicity distributions in interactions of {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 28}Si with emulsion at 4.1-4.5 A GeV/c are presented in this paper. The mean values for the three different multiplicities of PFs at nearly the same energy are given. The dependence of these mean values on the projectile mass number A{sub p}, as well as the dependence of the PFs on target groups (H, CNO and AgBr), has been investigated.

  19. Modified two-step emulsion solvent evaporation technique for fabricating biodegradable rod-shaped particles in the submicron size range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Hanieh; Adili, Reheman; Holinstat, Michael; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2018-05-15

    Though the emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique has been previously modified to produce rod-shaped particles, it cannot generate small-sized rods for drug delivery applications due to the inherent coupling and contradicting requirements for the formation versus stretching of droplets. The separation of the droplet formation from the stretching step should enable the creation of submicron droplets that are then stretched in the second stage by manipulation of the system viscosity along with the surface-active molecule and oil-phase solvent. A two-step ESE protocol is evaluated where oil droplets are formed at low viscosity followed by a step increase in the aqueous phase viscosity to stretch droplets. Different surface-active molecules and oil phase solvents were evaluated to optimize the yield of biodegradable PLGA rods. Rods were assessed for drug loading via an imaging agent and vascular-targeted delivery application via blood flow adhesion assays. The two-step ESE method generated PLGA rods with major and minor axis down to 3.2 µm and 700 nm, respectively. Chloroform and sodium metaphosphate was the optimal solvent and surface-active molecule, respectively, for submicron rod fabrication. Rods demonstrated faster release of Nile Red compared to spheres and successfully targeted an inflamed endothelium under shear flow in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Creating nanoscale emulsions using condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ingrid F; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2017-11-08

    Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

  1. Automated track recognition and event reconstruction in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Aranas, A.; Cherry, M.L.; Dugas, J.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B.S.; Sengupta, K.; Waddington, C.J.; Wefel, J.P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wosiek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject background and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities ∝ 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon 208 Pb beam at CERN. Automatically measured events agree with our best manual measurements on 97% of all the tracks. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties. (orig.)

  2. PHBV/PLLA-based composite scaffolds fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique for bone tissue engineering: surface modification and in vitro biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Naznin; Wang Min

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering combines living cells with biodegradable materials and/or bioactive components. Composite scaffolds containing biodegradable polymers and nanosized osteoconductive bioceramic with suitable properties are promising for bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, based on blending two biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, namely poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) with incorporated nano hydroxyapatite (HA), three-dimensional composite scaffolds with controlled microstructures and an interconnected porous structure, together with high porosity, were fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique. The influence of various parameters involved in the emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique was studied for the fabrication of good-quality polymer scaffolds based on PHBV polymers. The morphology, mechanical properties and crystallinity of PHBV/PLLA and HA in PHBV/PLLA composite scaffolds and PHBV polymer scaffolds were studied. The scaffolds were coated with collagen in order to improve wettability. During in vitro biological evaluation study, it was observed that SaOS-2 cells had high attachment on collagen-coated scaffolds. Significant improvement in cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity for HA-incorporated composite scaffolds was observed due to the incorporation of HA. After 3 and 7 days of culture on all scaffolds, SaOS-2 cells also had normal morphology and growth. These results indicated that PHBV/PLLA-based scaffolds fabricated via an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique were favorable sites for osteoblastic cells and are promising for the applications of bone tissue engineering.

  3. Synthesis of spherical NiO nanoparticles through a novel biosurfactant mediated emulsion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, Prakash; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2009-01-01

    Spherical nickel oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by microemulsion technique using rhamnolipids as the surfactant along with n-heptane and water. Nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH) 2 ) particles were first formed which were then calcined to obtain nickel oxide (NiO) particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that the synthesized nickel hydroxide particles were spherical in shape with stacked lamellar sheets. Nickel hydroxide was converted to nickel oxide by calcinations at 600 deg. C for 3 h and was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that the nickel oxide particles were crystalline and of uniform size. The effect of pH on particle size was investigated and it was found that the particle size decreased from 86 ± 8 nm at pH 11.6 to 47 ± 5 nm at pH 12.5. A novel method using rhamnolipid biosurfactant for microemulsion synthesis has been demonstrated which offers an eco-friendly alternative to conventional microemulsion technique based on organic surfactants

  4. Effects of spray-drying on w/o/w multiple emulsions prepared from a stearic acid matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlalila, N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available , 75, and 100 mg of stearic acid, 2% and 3% w/v polyvinyl alcohol, 5% w/v lactose, and 0.2% w/v chitosan. The emulsions were immediately spray-dried based on an optimized model of inlet temperature and pump rate, and characterized for optimized...

  5. Preparation of non-porous microspheres with high entrapment efficiency of proteins by a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, N B; Thomas, P A; Pandit, J K; Kulkarni, M G; Mashelkar, R A

    1999-03-08

    Emulsification-solvent removal methods have been widely used for encapsulating bioactive macromolecules like proteins and polypeptides in biodegradable polymers. We report, a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique wherein proteins and polypeptides differing in molecular weight and shape were encapsulated in polymers of current biomedical interest. When an oil was used as the processing medium in combination with a carefully selected mixed solvent system such that a stable (w/o1/o2 emulsion is formed and solvents are removed by a combination of extraction and evaporation, the entrapment efficiency was high and the product nonporous. The entrapment efficiency of globular proteins exceeded 90% while that of fibrous proteins was around 70%. Fracture studies revealed that the polymer matrix was dense. The mechanism of entrapment involved solvent-induced precipitation of the protein as the microspheres were being formed. The principle of the method will find use in preparation of non-porous polymer microparticles with reduced burst effect.

  6. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples

  7. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Sören, E-mail: christensen@math.uni-kiel.de [Christian–Albrechts-University in Kiel, Mathematical Institute (Germany); Lempa, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.lempa@hioa.no [Oslo and Akershus University College, School of business, Faculty of Social Sciences (Norway)

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  8. Influence of the oil globule fraction on the release rate profiles from multiple W/O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie; Cansell, Maud; Placin, Frédéric; Monteil, Julien; Anton, Marc; Leal-Calderon, Fernando

    2010-06-15

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions were prepared and the kinetics of release of magnesium ions from the internal to the external water phase was investigated as a function of the formulation and the globule volume fraction. All the emulsions were formulated using the same surface-active species (polyglycerol polyricinoleate and sodium caseinate). Also, the internal droplet and oil globule diameters were almost identical for all the systems. Two types of W/O/W emulsions were prepared based either on a synthetic oil (miglyol) or on an edible oil (olive oil). The globule volume fraction varied from 11% to 72%. At constant temperature (T=25 degrees C) and irrespective of the oil type, the percentage of magnesium released was lowered by increasing the globule fraction. In all cases, magnesium leakage occurred without film rupturing (no coalescence). Thus, the experimental data were interpreted within the frame of a model based on diffusion. The rate of release was determined by the permeation coefficient of magnesium across the oil phase and by the binding (chelation) of magnesium by caseinate molecules. The data could be adequately fitted by considering a time-dependant permeation coefficient. The better retention of magnesium at high globule fractions could account for two distinct phenomena: (i) the reduction of the relative volume of the outer phase, and (ii) the attenuation of the permeation coefficient over time induced by interfacial magnesium binding, all the more important than the globule fraction increased. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Emulsion Polymerization of Etyl Acrylate: The Effect of Surfactant, Initiator Concentration and PolymerizationTechnique on Particle Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nitri Arinda; Emil Budianto; Helmiyati

    2009-01-01

    Emulsion polymerization was conducted using ethyl acrylate monomer. Theeffect of sodium lauryl sulfate concentration, ammonium persulfate concentration, the various of polymerizationtechniques and feeding time to the conversion, particle size and its distribution were observed. The purpose of thisresearch is to obtain the optimum condition of ethyl acrylate homopolymer with particle size around 100 nm, to get theparticle size distribution monodisperse and to get solid content value of the exp...

  10. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  11. Forward-backward multiplicity correlations of target fragments in nucleus-emulsion collisions at a few hundred MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Donghai; Chen Yanling; Wang Guorong; Li Wangdong; Wang Qing; Yao Jijie; Zhou Jianguo; Li Rong; Li Junsheng; Li Huiling

    2015-01-01

    The forward-backward multiplicity and correlations of a target evaporated fragment (black track particle) and target recoiled proton (grey track particle) emitted from 150 A MeV "4He, 290 A MeV "1"2C, 400 A MeV "1"2C, 400 A MeV "2"0Ne and 500 A MeV "5"6Fe induced different types of nuclear emulsion target interactions are investigated. It is found that the forward and backward averaged multiplicity of a grey, black and heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of the target size. The averaged multiplicity of a forward black track particle, backward black track particle, and backward grey track particle do not depend on the projectile size and energy, but the averaged multiplicity of a forward grey track particle increases with an increase of projectile size and energy. The backward grey track particle multiplicity distribution follows an exponential decay law and the decay constant decreases with an increase of target size. The backward-forward multiplicity correlations follow linear law which is independent of the projectile size and energy, and the saturation effect is observed in some heavy target data sets. (authors)

  12. Integrated, Continuous Emulsion Creamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Wesley G; Hackler, Amber L; Cavett, Valerie J; Price, Alexander K; Paegel, Brian M

    2017-12-19

    Automated and reproducible sample handling is a key requirement for high-throughput compound screening and currently demands heavy reliance on expensive robotics in screening centers. Integrated droplet microfluidic screening processors are poised to replace robotic automation by miniaturizing biochemical reactions to the droplet scale. These processors must generate, incubate, and sort droplets for continuous droplet screening, passively handling millions of droplets with complete uniformity, especially during the key step of sample incubation. Here, we disclose an integrated microfluidic emulsion creamer that packs ("creams") assay droplets by draining away excess oil through microfabricated drain channels. The drained oil coflows with creamed emulsion and then reintroduces the oil to disperse the droplets at the circuit terminus for analysis. Creamed emulsion assay incubation time dispersion was 1.7%, 3-fold less than other reported incubators. The integrated, continuous emulsion creamer (ICEcreamer) was used to miniaturize and optimize measurements of various enzymatic activities (phosphodiesterase, kinase, bacterial translation) under multiple- and single-turnover conditions. Combining the ICEcreamer with current integrated microfluidic DNA-encoded library bead processors eliminates potentially cumbersome instrumentation engineering challenges and is compatible with assays of diverse target class activities commonly investigated in drug discovery.

  13. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  14. Impact of sodium caseinate concentration and location on magnesium release from multiple W/O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie; Cansell, Maud; Placin, Frédéric; Anton, Marc; Leal-Calderon, Fernando

    2010-06-15

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions were prepared and the rate of release of magnesium ions from the internal to the external aqueous phase was followed. Sodium caseinate was used not only as a hydrophilic surface-active species but also as a chelating agent able to bind magnesium ions. The release occurred without film rupturing (no coalescence). The kinetics of the release process depended on the location (in only one or in both aqueous compartments) and on the concentration of sodium caseinate. The rate of release increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate in the external phase and decreased when sodium caseinate was present in the inner droplets. The experiments were interpreted within the frame of a mean-field model based on diffusion, integrating the effect of ion binding. The data could be adequately fitted by considering a time-dependent permeation coefficient of the magnesium ions across the oil phase. Our results suggested that ion permeability was influenced by the state of the protein interfacial layers which itself depended on the extent of magnesium binding.

  15. Application of multiplicative array techniques for multibeam sounder systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.

    modification in terms of additional computation or hardware for improved array gain. The present work is devoted towards the study of a better beamforming method i.e. a multiplicative array technique with some modification proposEd. by Brown and Rowland...

  16. Using multiple linear regression techniques to quantify carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallow ecosystems provide a significant carbon stock that can be quantified for inclusion in the accounts of global carbon budgets. Process and statistical models of productivity, though useful, are often technically rigid as the conditions for their application are not easy to satisfy. Multiple regression techniques have been ...

  17. Teaching Multiple Online Sections/Courses: Tactics and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger; LaBrecque, Bryan; Fortner, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of teaching online increases as the number of sections or courses increase in a semester. The tactics and techniques which enrich online instruction in the tradition of quality matters can be modified and adapted to the demands of multiple instructional needs during a semester. This paper addresses time management and instructional…

  18. Implementation of Multiple Access Techniques Applicable for Maritime Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Dimov Ilcev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are introduced fundamentals, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of Multiple Access (MA employed as transmission techniques in the Maritime Mobile Satellite Communications (MMSC between ships and Coast Earth Station (CES via Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO or Not-GEO satellite constellations. In fixed satellite communication, as a rule, especially in MMSC many users are active at the same time. The problem of simultaneous communications between many single or multipoint mobile satellite users can be solved by using MA technique, such as Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA, Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA and Random (Packet Division Multiple Access (RDMA. Since the resources of the systems such as the transmitting power and the bandwidth are limited, it is advisable to use the channels with complete charge and to create a different MA to the channel. This generates a problem of summation and separation of signals in the transmission and reception parts, respectively. Deciding this problem consists in the development of orthogonal channels of transmission in order to divide signals from various users unambiguously on the reception part.

  19. Multiple production around 1000 TeV observed in the emulsion chamber experiments at Mt. Fuji and linkage experiments with air shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Syoji

    1980-01-01

    The multiple production around 1000 TeV is discussed in this paper by using the experimental data at Mt. Fuji and the results of the Monte Carlo simulation. Six events with the total energy more than 1000 TeV were observed in the emulsion chamber (EC) exposed for 600 m 2 year at Mt. Fuji. Various Monte Carlo calculations with the scaling model were performed. The relation between the transverse momentum and The Feynman scaling law is discussed. The frequency of the total gamma energy spectrum and the lateral distribution of the family were compared with the calculation. In the case that protons are dominant in primary cosmic ray, the multiplicity in the interaction increased according to 1/4 th power of energy. In the case of heavy nuclei, the experimental results can be reproduced by assuming the increase of cross-section, when the scaling holds. It is still hard to make definite conclusion on the break of scaling. Simultaneous observation of air family and air shower is proposed. (Kato, T.)

  20. A new multiple noncontinuous puncture (pointage technique for corneal tattooing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the safety and cosmetic efficacy of a new multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique for tattooing a decompensated cornea.METHODS:It was anon-comparative clinical case series study.The study examines 33 eyes in 33 patients with total corneal opacity due to corneal decompensation, which developed following intraocular surgery.Corneal tattooing was performed using the multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique (i.e. pointage. The safety of this new surgical strategy was assessed by occurrence of adverse events for the follow-up period. The cosmetic efficacy was determined by the patient’s cosmetic satisfaction and independent observer’s opinion about patient appearance.RESULTS:Seven women and 26 men were included in the study. The mean age was 46.4±17.5y (range:7-67. In total, 30 of 33 patients (91% reported cosmetic satisfaction within the follow-up period. Only 3 patients (9% required additional tattooing due to cosmetic unsatisfaction. Cosmetic outcomes were analyzed and classified as excellent or good in 13 (39% and 17 (52% patients, respectively. No serious adverse events developed, except delayed epithelial healing in 3 cases.CONCLUSION:The cosmetic outcomes of the multiple noncontinuous transepithelial puncture technique for corneal tattooing were good. The safety of this method is higher than conventional procedures. This new procedure also provides improved cost-effectiveness and safety over current corneal tattooing techniques.

  1. Nuclear emulsion and high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hancheng; Zhang Donghai

    2008-01-01

    The history of the development of nuclear emulsion and its applications in high-energy physics, from the discovery of pion to the discovery of tau neutrino, are briefly reviewed in this paper. A new stage of development of nuclear-emulsion technique is discussed

  2. Techniques for Performance Improvement of Integer Multiplication in Cryptographic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brumnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of arithmetic operations performance in number fields is actively researched by many scientists, as evidenced by significant publications in this field. In this work, we offer some techniques to increase performance of software implementation of finite field multiplication algorithm, for both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms. The developed technique, called “delayed carry mechanism,” allows to preventing necessity to consider a significant bit carry at each iteration of the sum accumulation loop. This mechanism enables reducing the total number of additions and applies the modern parallelization technologies effectively.

  3. Charm studies in emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinin, Sergey

    Neutrino-nucleon scattering is an effective way to investigate the inner structure of the nucleon, to extract the Standard Model parameters and to explore heavy quarks production dynamics. In the last decades, several experiments have been constructed to study weak interactions of neutrinos with nucleons. One of them was CERN-WA95 experiment operated by the CHORUS collaboration. It is based on a hybrid detector with nuclear emulsion as a target followed by electronic devices. Nuclear emulsion provides three dimensional spatial information with an outstanding resolution of the order of one micron. Therefore, it is ideal to detect short-lived particles. A special technique has been developed to reconstruct events in the emulsion which allows to perform a detailed investigation of events such as charmed hadrons production by neutrinos. As a result, the backround in the selected charm sample is up to six times lower compared to similar experiments. Such a method also permits to make direct measurements of some qu...

  4. Multiple-energy Techniques in Industrial Computerized Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneberk, D.; Martz, H.; Azevedo, S.

    1990-08-01

    Considerable effort is being applied to develop multiple-energy industrial CT techniques for materials characterization. Multiple-energy CT can provide reliable estimates of effective Z (Z{sub eff}), weight fraction, and rigorous calculations of absolute density, all at the spatial resolution of the scanner. Currently, a wide variety of techniques exist for CT scanners, but each has certain problems and limitations. Ultimately, the best multi-energy CT technique would combine the qualities of accuracy, reliability, and wide range of application, and would require the smallest number of additional measurements. We have developed techniques for calculating material properties of industrial objects that differ somewhat from currently used methods. In this paper, we present our methods for calculating Z{sub eff}, weight fraction, and density. We begin with the simplest case -- methods for multiple-energy CT using isotopic sources -- and proceed to multiple-energy work with x-ray machine sources. The methods discussed here are illustrated on CT scans of PBX-9502 high explosives, a lexan-aluminum phantom, and a cylinder of glass beads used in a preliminary study to determine if CT can resolve three phases: air, water, and a high-Z oil. In the CT project at LLNL, we have constructed several CT scanners of varying scanning geometries using {gamma}- and x-ray sources. In our research, we employed two of these scanners: pencil-beam CAT for CT data using isotopic sources and video-CAT equipped with an IRT micro-focal x-ray machine source.

  5. Implementation of Multiple Access Techniques Applicable for Maritime Satellite Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Stojce Dimov Ilcev

    2013-01-01

    In this paper are introduced fundamentals, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of Multiple Access (MA) employed as transmission techniques in the Maritime Mobile Satellite Communications (MMSC) between ships and Coast Earth Station (CES) via Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) or Not-GEO satellite constellations. In fixed satellite communication, as a rule, especially in MMSC many users are active at the same time. The problem of simultaneous communications between many single or multip...

  6. Rheology of attractive emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Gerrard, Dustin D; Rhodes, Travers S; Mason, Thomas G; Weitz, David A

    2011-10-01

    We show how attractive interactions dramatically influence emulsion rheology. Unlike the repulsive case, attractive emulsions below random close packing, φ(RCP), can form soft gel-like elastic solids. However, above φ(RCP), attractive and repulsive emulsions have similar elasticities. Such compressed attractive emulsions undergo an additional shear-driven relaxation process during yielding. Our results suggest that attractive emulsions begin to yield at weak points through the breakage of bonds, and, above φ(RCP), also undergo droplet configurational rearrangements.

  7. Nanoencapsulation of water-soluble drug, lamivudine, using a double emulsion spray-drying technique for improving HIV treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshweu, Lesego, E-mail: tshweull@gmail.com [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites (South Africa); Katata, Lebogang [North West University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology (South Africa); Kalombo, Lonji; Swai, Hulda [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites (South Africa)

    2013-11-15

    Current treatments available for human immunodeficiency virus, namely antiretrovirals, do not completely eradicate the virus from the body, leading to life-time commitment. Many antiretrovirals suffer drawbacks from toxicity and unpleasant side effects, causing patience non-compliance. To minimize challenges associated with the antiretrovirals, biodegradable nanoparticles used as drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential to enhance patience compliance. The main objective of this work was to load lamivudine (LAM) into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. LAM is a hydrophilic drug with low plasma half-life of 5–7 h and several unpleasant side effects. LAM was nanoencapsulated into PCL polymer via the double emulsion spray-drying method. Formulation parameters such as the effect of solvent, excipient and drug concentration were optimized for the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 215 ± 3 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.227 ± 0.01 were obtained, when ethyl acetate and lactose were used in the preparation. However, dichloromethane presented sizes larger than 454 ± 11 nm with PDI of more than 0.4 ± 0.05, irrespective of whether lactose or trehalose was used in the preparation. Some of the nanoparticles prepared with trehalose resulted in crystal formation. UV spectroscopy showed encapsulation efficiency ranging from 68 ± 4 to 78 ± 4 % for LAM depending on the starting drug concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the possibility of preparing amorphous PCL nanoparticles containing LAM. Drug release extended for 4 days in pH 1.3, pH 4.5 and pH 6.8. These results indicated that LAM-loaded PCL nanoparticles show promise for controlled delivery.

  8. Nanoencapsulation of water-soluble drug, lamivudine, using a double emulsion spray-drying technique for improving HIV treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshweu, Lesego; Katata, Lebogang; Kalombo, Lonji; Swai, Hulda

    2013-11-01

    Current treatments available for human immunodeficiency virus, namely antiretrovirals, do not completely eradicate the virus from the body, leading to life-time commitment. Many antiretrovirals suffer drawbacks from toxicity and unpleasant side effects, causing patience non-compliance. To minimize challenges associated with the antiretrovirals, biodegradable nanoparticles used as drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential to enhance patience compliance. The main objective of this work was to load lamivudine (LAM) into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. LAM is a hydrophilic drug with low plasma half-life of 5-7 h and several unpleasant side effects. LAM was nanoencapsulated into PCL polymer via the double emulsion spray-drying method. Formulation parameters such as the effect of solvent, excipient and drug concentration were optimized for the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 215 ± 3 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.227 ± 0.01 were obtained, when ethyl acetate and lactose were used in the preparation. However, dichloromethane presented sizes larger than 454 ± 11 nm with PDI of more than 0.4 ± 0.05, irrespective of whether lactose or trehalose was used in the preparation. Some of the nanoparticles prepared with trehalose resulted in crystal formation. UV spectroscopy showed encapsulation efficiency ranging from 68 ± 4 to 78 ± 4 % for LAM depending on the starting drug concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the possibility of preparing amorphous PCL nanoparticles containing LAM. Drug release extended for 4 days in pH 1.3, pH 4.5 and pH 6.8. These results indicated that LAM-loaded PCL nanoparticles show promise for controlled delivery.

  9. Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of kojic dipalmitate loaded w/o/w multiple emulsions intended for skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Maíra Lima; Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of -13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ''shear thinning" flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders.

  10. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Lima Gonçalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions (MEs are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP. The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm and zeta potential (ZP, performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of −13 mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning’’ flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders.

  11. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  12. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  13. MIKROENKAPSULASI Lactobacillus sp. DENGAN TEKNIK EMULSI DAN APLIKASINYA PADA DODOL SIRSAK [Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus sp. using Emulsion Technique and Its Application in Soursop Sweet Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Usfah Prastu Jati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4 and L. rhamnosus R23 were microencapsulated by an emulsion technique using sodium alginate and vegetable oil. The present study aimed to enhance probiotic survival on their application in the production of soursop sweet cakes (dodol sirsak and their stability during storage at room temperature. The probiotic biomasses were mixed with 3% sodium alginate and then added dropwise into a mixture of soybean oil and Tween 80. The microencapsulation technique applied resulted in excellent survival (95-96% for both Lactobacillus sp. strains. Encapsulation significantly improved the survival of probiotics (P<0.05 during exposure to heat process (60, 65, and 70°C for 20 min, low pH (pH 2 and bile salt (0.5%. Encapsulation did not alter the ability of both probiotics in inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The viability of encapsulated strains in soursop sweet cakes were improved to the adequate number, i.e. 6 Log CFU g-1 up to 3 and 2 weeks storage, as compared to that of controls survivors, i.e. 4.3 and 2.5 Log CFU g-1, for L. acidophilus 2B4 and L. rhamnosus R23, respectively, during a week of storage.

  14. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Description of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. Then, in the second and concluding part of this presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  15. Multiple matings among glossina and the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinhao, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The fact that multiple matings are a common phenomenon among glossina turns the sterile male technique into a competition not between adult insects but between two types of sperm, and the proportion of females inseminated with the one or the other is given by the binomial (p+q)sup(n), where p is the percentage of normal males, q the percentage of sterile males and n the average number of matings per female. However, multiple matings cannot damage the effectiveness of the technique unless two conditions are present either separately or simultaneously: precocious death of the spermatozoa and reduced inseminating potential among the sterile males. Study of the factors which can alter the inseminating potential is thus important for those who wish to use the sterile male technique. These factors are of three kinds: factors connected with quality, with quantity and with availability. The first are associated with the nature and intensity of the alterations brought about in the spermatozoa by the sterilizing agent, the second with possible variations in the amount of sperm reaching the spermotheca, the third with the behaviour of the sterile males in the nature - that is, the question whether sterilization has a favourable or unfavourable influence on their chances of mating with wild females. The author describes his observations of the quantity of sperm produced by Glossina morsitans submorsitans males from the colony reared at the Institute for Tropical Hygiene and Medicine in Lisbon, compares them with the observations of other authors and discusses their practical significance. Specific research is suggested. Advantages from assessing the behaviour of colonies not by female productivity but by male inseminating potential, and appropriate laboratory techniques

  16. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  17. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  18. Utilisation de la DSC pour la caractérisation de la stabilité des émulsions eau dans pétrole Use of the Dsc Technique to Characterize Water-In-Crude Oil Emulsions Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmazzone C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La technique DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry a été appliquée à l'étude des émulsions eau dans pétrole, qui se forment naturellement après un déversement de pétrole en mer. Ces émulsions, également appelées mousses au chocolat , peuvent contenir de 50 à 80% d'eau et se présentent souvent sous la forme d'un produit visqueux, difficile à récupérer mécaniquement, à traiter ou à brûler. Il est par conséquent important de pouvoir estimer leur stabilité pour optimiser le choix du traitement. Un grand nombre de techniques, généralement fondées sur l'analyse de la distribution de tailles de gouttes, peuvent être utilisées pour estimer la stabilité d'une émulsion. Malheureusement, la plupart ne sont pas adaptées à l'étude des émulsions eau dans huile opaques. La méthode la plus utilisée pour caractériser la stabilité de ce type d'émulsions est le bottle test. Elle consiste à mesurer la séparation de phases en fonction du temps. Ce test est la source d'une quantité d'informations appréciables quant à la stabilité de l'émulsion et à la qualité de la phase aqueuse séparée, mais il reste très empirique. La technique DSC est généralement utilisée pour déterminer la composition des émulsions eau dans huile, car elle permet de distinguer l'eau libre de l'eau émulsifiée. Cette étude a montré qu'il s'agit d'une technique très utile qui permet à la fois l'étude de l'évolution de la taille des gouttes dans l'émulsion, et une détermination précise de la quantité d'eau. The DSC technique (Differential Scanning Calorimetry was applied to the study of water-in-crude oil emulsions, which naturally form after an oil spill. The resulting emulsions contain between 50 and 80% seawater and they are often heavy materials, hard to recover mechanically, treat or burn. It is therefore important to assess their stability in order to optimize their treatments. A great variety of techniques are available for

  19. Photographic emulsion versus bubble chambers in charm and beauty searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacton, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of visual detectors in the search for charm and other flavors. The photographic emulsion and the bubble chamber techniques are compared. The main difficulties encounted in searching for charmed and beautiful hadrons are related to the short lifetimes of these particles and to their small production cross-sections, even at SPS energies. Resolution, visibility, the data analysis rate, and exposure time are considered. Most of the charmed hadrons present a large variety of decay modes of which only a fraction has been identified to date. First results from CESR indicate that the average charged particle multiplicity in the hadronic decay of beautiful hadrons is as high as 6.31 + or - 0.35; no B meson decay has yet been kinematically reconstructed. The case of hadronic charmed particle production at SPS energies is examined. The data show that 1) the bubble chamber technique (high resolution or holographic optics) is well suited to the study of charmed hadrons with lifetimes in the range 10 -13 to 10 -12 s; 2) searches for beautiful hadrons remain presently a domain for triggered emulsion experiments due to the smallness of the production cross-sections (provided the lifetime is not much shorter than 10 -14 s); and 3) for particles of lifetimes shorter than a few times 10 -14 s the emulsion technique is still without competitor

  20. Continuous analog of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique for computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Kiyoko; Yamaguchi, Yusaku; Abou Al-Ola, Omar M.; Kojima, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    We propose a hybrid dynamical system as a continuous analog to the block-iterative multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (BI-MART), which is a well-known iterative image reconstruction algorithm for computed tomography. The hybrid system is described by a switched nonlinear system with a piecewise smooth vector field or differential equation and, for consistent inverse problems, the convergence of non-negatively constrained solutions to a globally stable equilibrium is guaranteed by the Lyapunov theorem. Namely, we can prove theoretically that a weighted Kullback-Leibler divergence measure can be a common Lyapunov function for the switched system. We show that discretizing the differential equation by using the first-order approximation (Euler's method) based on the geometric multiplicative calculus leads to the same iterative formula of the BI-MART with the scaling parameter as a time-step of numerical discretization. The present paper is the first to reveal that a kind of iterative image reconstruction algorithm is constructed by the discretization of a continuous-time dynamical system for solving tomographic inverse problems. Iterative algorithms with not only the Euler method but also the Runge-Kutta methods of lower-orders applied for discretizing the continuous-time system can be used for image reconstruction. A numerical example showing the characteristics of the discretized iterative methods is presented.

  1. Recent Emulsion Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariga, A.

    2011-01-01

    Emulsion technologies are very much developed in the last decade and still developing in both the emulsion gel and the data taking. Emulsion detectors are suitable for the neutrino experiments because they can distinguish all 3 flavors of neutrino. The OPERA experiment, a recent pillar in the emulsion experiments aiming at the first observation of the neutrino oscillation in CNGS beam in appearance mode, is running, showing the good capability to separate 3 flavor neutrino interactions. In this poster, the recent developments and prospects of the emulsions for the next generation experiments are reported.

  2. Combined interpretation of multiple geophysical techniques: an archaeological case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, S.; Reichmann, S.; Tronicke, J.; Lück, E.

    2009-04-01

    In order to locate and ascertain the dimensions of an ancient orangery, we explored an area of about 70 m x 60 m in the Rheinsberg Palace Garden (Germany) with multiple geophysical techniques. The Rheinsberg Park, situated about 100 km northwest of Berlin, Germany, was established by the Prussian emperors in the 18th century. Due to redesign of the architecture and the landscaping during the past 300 years, buildings were dismantled and detailed knowledge about some original buildings got lost. We surveyed an area close to a gazebo where, after historical sources, an orangery was planned around the year 1740. However, today it is not clear to what extent this plan has been realized and if remains of this building are still buried in the subsurface. Applied geophysical techniques include magnetic gradiometry, frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and direct current (DC) resistivity mapping as well as ground penetrating radar (GPR). To get an overview of the site, we performed FDEM electrical conductivity mapping using an EM38 instrument and magnetic gradiometry with caesium magnetometers. Both data sets were collected with an in- and crossline data point spacing of ca. 10 cm and 50 cm, respectively. DC resistivity surveying was performed using a pole-pole electrode configuration with an electrode spacing of 1.5 m and a spacing of 1.0 m between individual readings. A 3-D GPR survey was conducted using 200 MHz antennae and in- and crossline spacing of ca. 10 cm and 40 cm, respectively. A standard processing sequence including 3-D migration was applied. A combined interpretation of all collected data sets illustrates that the magnetic gradient and the EM38 conductivity maps is are dominated by anomalies from metallic water pipes from belonging to the irrigation system of the park. The DC resistivity map outlines a rectangular area which might indicate the extension of a former building south of the gazebo. The 3-D GPR data set provides further insights about

  3. System health monitoring using multiple-model adaptive estimation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifford, Stanley Ryan

    Monitoring system health for fault detection and diagnosis by tracking system parameters concurrently with state estimates is approached using a new multiple-model adaptive estimation (MMAE) method. This novel method is called GRid-based Adaptive Parameter Estimation (GRAPE). GRAPE expands existing MMAE methods by using new techniques to sample the parameter space. GRAPE expands on MMAE with the hypothesis that sample models can be applied and resampled without relying on a predefined set of models. GRAPE is initially implemented in a linear framework using Kalman filter models. A more generalized GRAPE formulation is presented using extended Kalman filter (EKF) models to represent nonlinear systems. GRAPE can handle both time invariant and time varying systems as it is designed to track parameter changes. Two techniques are presented to generate parameter samples for the parallel filter models. The first approach is called selected grid-based stratification (SGBS). SGBS divides the parameter space into equally spaced strata. The second approach uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) to determine the parameter locations and minimize the total number of required models. LHS is particularly useful when the parameter dimensions grow. Adding more parameters does not require the model count to increase for LHS. Each resample is independent of the prior sample set other than the location of the parameter estimate. SGBS and LHS can be used for both the initial sample and subsequent resamples. Furthermore, resamples are not required to use the same technique. Both techniques are demonstrated for both linear and nonlinear frameworks. The GRAPE framework further formalizes the parameter tracking process through a general approach for nonlinear systems. These additional methods allow GRAPE to either narrow the focus to converged values within a parameter range or expand the range in the appropriate direction to track the parameters outside the current parameter range boundary

  4. Magnetic resonance techniques for investigation of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Alex; Laule, Cornelia; Li, David K. B.; Meyers, Sandra M.; Russell-Schulz, Bretta; Vavasour, Irene M.

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurological disease which can cause loss of vision and balance, muscle weakness, impaired speech, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and even paralysis. The key pathological processes in MS are inflammation, edema, myelin loss, axonal loss and gliosis. Unfortunately, the cause of MS is still not understood and there is currently no cure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important clinical and research tool for MS. 'Conventional' MRI images of MS brain reveal bright lesions, or plaques, which demark regions of severe tissue damage. Conventional MRI has been extremely valuable for the diagnosis and management of people who have MS and also for the assessment of therapies designed to reduce inflammation and promote repair. While conventional MRI is clearly valuable, it lack pathological specificity and, in some cases, sensitivity to non-lesional pathology. Advanced MR techniques have been developed to provide information that is more sensitive and specific than what is available with clinical scanning. Diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer provide a general but non-specific measure of the pathological state of brain tissue. MR spectroscopy provides concentrations of brain metabolites which can be related to specific pathologies. Myelin water imaging was designed to assess brain myelination and has proved useful for measuring myelin loss in MS. To combat MS, it is crucial that the pharmaceutical industry finds therapies which can reverse the neurodegenerative processes which occur in the disease. The challenge for magnetic resonance researchers is to design imaging techniques which can provide detailed pathological information relating to the mechanisms of MS therapies. This paper briefly describes the pathologies of MS and demonstrates how MS-associated pathologies can be followed using both conventional and advanced MR imaging protocols.

  5. Geomorphological and Geoelectric Techniques for Kwoi's Multiple Tremor Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2017-12-01

    This work epicentres on geomorphological and geoelectric techniques for multiple tremor assessment in Kwoi, Nigeria. Earth tremor occurrences have been noted by Akpan and Yakubu (2010) within the last 70 years, in nine regions in Nigeria; on September 11,12,20,22, 23 and 24, 2016, additional earth tremors rocked the village of Kwoi eleven times. Houses cracked and collapsed, a rock split and slid and smoke evolved at N9027''5.909''', E800'44.951'', from an altitude of 798m. By employing the Ohmega Meter and Schlumberger configuration, four VES points are sounded for subsurface structure characterisation. Thereafter, a cylindrical steel ring is hammered into the ground at the first point (VES 1) and earth samples are scooped from this location; this procedure is repeated for other points (VES 2, 3 and 4). Winresist, Geo-earth, and Surfer version 12.0.626 software are employed to generate geo-sections, lithology, resistivity profile, Iso resistivity and Isopach maps, of the region. Outcome of results reveal some lithological formations of lateritic topsoil, fractured basement and fresh basement; additionally, results reveal 206.6m, 90.7m, 73.2m and 99.4m fractured basement thicknesses for four points. Scooped samples are transferred to the specimen stage of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). SEM images show rounded inter-granular boundaries—the granular structures act like micro-wheels making the upper crustal mass susceptible to movement at the slightest vibration. Collapsed buildings are sited around VES1 location; samples from VES 1 are the most well fragmented sample owing to multiple microfractures—this result explains why VES 1 has the thickest fractured basement. Abrupt frictional sliding occurs between networks of fault lines; there is a likelihood that friction is most intense at the rock slide site on N9027'21.516'' and E800'44.9993'', VES 1 at N9027'5.819'' and E8005'3.1120'' and smoke sites—holo-centres are suspected below these locations. The

  6. Characterising and modelling regolith stratigraphy using multiple geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M.; Cremasco, D.; Fotheringham, T.; Hatch, M. A.; Triantifillis, J.; Wilford, J.

    2013-12-01

    Regolith is the weathered, typically mineral-rich layer from fresh bedrock to land surface. It encompasses soil (A, E and B horizons) that has undergone pedogenesis. Below is the weathered C horizon that retains at least some of the original rocky fabric and structure. At the base of this is the lower regolith boundary of continuous hard bedrock (the R horizon). Regolith may be absent, e.g. at rocky outcrops, or may be many 10's of metres deep. Comparatively little is known about regolith, and critical questions remain regarding composition and characteristics - especially deeper where the challenge of collecting reliable data increases with depth. In Australia research is underway to characterise and map regolith using consistent methods at scales ranging from local (e.g. hillslope) to continental scales. These efforts are driven by many research needs, including Critical Zone modelling and simulation. Pilot research in South Australia using digitally-based environmental correlation techniques modelled the depth to bedrock to 9 m for an upland area of 128 000 ha. One finding was the inability to reliably model local scale depth variations over horizontal distances of 2 - 3 m and vertical distances of 1 - 2 m. The need to better characterise variations in regolith to strengthen models at these fine scales was discussed. Addressing this need, we describe high intensity, ground-based multi-sensor geophysical profiling of three hillslope transects in different regolith-landscape settings to characterise fine resolution (i.e. a number of frequencies; multiple frequency, multiple coil electromagnetic induction; and high resolution resistivity. These were accompanied by georeferenced, closely spaced deep cores to 9 m - or to core refusal. The intact cores were sub-sampled to standard depths and analysed for regolith properties to compile core datasets consisting of: water content; texture; electrical conductivity; and weathered state. After preprocessing (filtering, geo

  7. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  8. Comparison of multiple support excitation solution techniques for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, H.P.; Leimbach, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Design and analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems exposed to a variety of dynamic loads often require multiple support excitation analysis by modal or direct time integration methods. Both methods have recently been implemented in the computer program KWUROHR for static and dynamic analysis of piping systems, following the previous implementation of the multiple support excitation response spectrum method (see papers K 6/15 and K 6/15a of the SMiRT-4 Conference). The results of multiple support excitation response spectrum analyses can be examined by carrying out the equivalent time history analyses which do not distort the time phase relationship between the excitations at different support points. A frequent point of discussion is multiple versus single support excitation. A single support excitation analysis is computationally straightforward and tends to be on the conservative side, as the numerical results show. A multiple support excitation analysis, however, does not incur much more additional computer cost than the expenditure for an initial static solution involving three times the number, L, of excitation levels, i.e. 3L static load cases. The results are more realistic than those from a single support excitation analysis. A number of typical nuclear plant piping systems have been analyzed using single and multiple support excitation algorithms for: (1) the response spectrum method, (2) the modal time history method via the Wilson, Newmark and Goldberg integration operators and (3) the direct time history method via the Wilson integration operator. Characteristic results are presented to compare the computational quality of all three methods. (orig.)

  9. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  10. Lithium aluminate spheroids prepared by emulsion procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, A.G.; DiBello, P.M.; Zaleski, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium aluminate powders were prepared by emulsion evaporation method. The procedure involved preparation of water-in-oil emulsion, with the aqueous phase being a solution of Li and Al nitrates. The mixed salts precursor crystallized to gamma-LiAlO 2 at 700C. Single phase LiAlO 2 occurred as μm spherical particles with average crystallite size of 81 angstrom and surface area of 14 M 2 /g. After prolonged heating at 900C, the aluminate powder crystallite size grew by 5 times with a reduction in particle porosity. The emulsion technique promotes close control of particle size and shape of product and the technique facilitates chemical reaction of constituents and sinterability of resulting product

  11. Multiple Access Techniques for Next Generation Wireless: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Krishna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in multiple access techniques has been one of the key drivers in moving from one cellular generation to another. Starting from the first generation, several multiple access techniques have been explored in different generations and various emerging multiplexing/multiple access techniques are being investigated for the next generation of cellular networks. In this context, this paper first provides a detailed review on the existing Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA related works. Subsequently, it highlights the main features and the drawbacks of various existing and emerging multiplexing/multiple access techniques. Finally, we propose a novel concept of clustered orthogonal signature division multiple access for the next generation of cellular networks. The proposed concept envisions to employ joint antenna coding in order to enhance the orthogonality of SDMA beams with the objective of enhancing the spectral efficiency of future cellular networks.

  12. A faster technique for rendering meshes in multiple display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Randall E.; Moorhead, Robert J., II

    2003-05-01

    Level of detail algorithms have widely been implemented in architectural VR walkthroughs and video games, but have not had widespread use in VR terrain visualization systems. This thesis explains a set of optimizations to allow most current level of detail algorithms run in the types of multiple display systems used in VR. It improves both the visual quality of the system through use of graphics hardware acceleration, and improves the framerate and running time through moifications to the computaitons that drive the algorithms. Using ROAM as a testbed, results show improvements between 10% and 100% on varying machines.

  13. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  14. Influence of ionic complexation on release rate profiles from multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie; Cansell, Maud; Placin, Frédéric; David-Briand, Elisabeth; Anton, Marc; Leal-Calderon, Fernando

    2010-07-14

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions were prepared, and the kinetics of release of magnesium ions from the internal to the external water phase was followed. Different chelating agents (phosvitin and gluconate) were used to bind magnesium within the prospect of improving the ion retention in the internal aqueous droplets. Magnesium release was monitored for 1 month of storage, for each formulation, with and without chelation, at two storage temperatures (4 and 25 degrees C). Leakage occurred without film rupturing (coalescence) and was mainly due to entropically driven diffusion/permeation phenomena. The experimental results revealed a clear correlation between the effectiveness of chelating agents to delay the delivery and their binding capacity characterized by the equilibrium affinity constant. The kinetic data (percent released versus time curves) were interpreted within the framework of a kinetic model based on diffusion and taking into account magnesium chelation.

  15. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2007-09-01

    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.

  16. Emulsions inside Gargamelle

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    A feasibility test was made with a 2.5 litre emulsion stack installed within the chamber. The stack was contained in a thermally insulated aluminium alloy pressure vessel (photo). See Annual Report 1978 p. 79 Fig. 5.

  17. British patent 580,504 and Ilford nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, C.

    1988-01-01

    By a new technique disclosed in British Patent 580,504, gelatin with silver halide is precipitated from emulsion by adding a surface active agent. This technique was used from 1945 to produce emulsions with about eight times the normal ratio of silver halide to gelatin. The technique also facilitated the combined use of production and laboratory resources for their reliable manufacture on a fairly large scale. (author)

  18. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikado, S. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: mikado@cit.nihon-u.ac.jp; Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yasuda, N. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I. [Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y. [Department of Pharmacology, Kumamoto Institute Branch, Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Institute Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan); Morishita, Y. [Department of Human and Molecular Pathology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, R. [Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, A. [Department of Humanities, The Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Ogura, K. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Iikura, H.; Ando, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishimoto, M. [Department of Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Department of Physics, Toho University, Chiba (Japan)

    2009-06-21

    It is necessary to accumulate the {sup 10}B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of {sup 10}B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of {sup 10}BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The {sup 10}B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of {sup 10}B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping)

  19. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikado, S.; Yanagie, H.; Yasuda, N.; Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I.; Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y.; Morishita, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Shinohara, A.; Ogura, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Iikura, H.; Ando, H.; Ishimoto, M.; Takamoto, S.; Eriguchi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kimura, M.

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to accumulate the 10 B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of 10 B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of 10 BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The 10 B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of 10 B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping).

  20. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikado, S.; Yanagie, H.; Yasuda, N.; Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I.; Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y.; Morishita, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Shinohara, A.; Ogura, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Iikura, H.; Ando, H.; Ishimoto, M.; Takamoto, S.; Eriguchi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kimura, M.

    2009-06-01

    It is necessary to accumulate the 10B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of 10B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of 10BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The 10B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of 10B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of 10B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping).

  1. Clustering economies based on multiple criteria decision making techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Momeni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on many countries is to determine different important factors affecting economic growth. In this paper, we study some factors such as unemployment rate, inflation ratio, population growth, average annual income, etc to cluster different countries. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to prioritize the criteria and then uses a K-mean technique to cluster 59 countries based on the ranked criteria into four groups. The first group includes countries with high standards such as Germany and Japan. In the second cluster, there are some developing countries with relatively good economic growth such as Saudi Arabia and Iran. The third cluster belongs to countries with faster rates of growth compared with the countries located in the second group such as China, India and Mexico. Finally, the fourth cluster includes countries with relatively very low rates of growth such as Jordan, Mali, Niger, etc.

  2. Interventional drainage technique for patients with multiple biliary tracts obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zonggui; Yi Yuhai; Zhang Xuping; Zhang Lijun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the methodology and effectiveness of interventional biliary drainage for patients with multiple biliary tract obstruction (MBO). Methods: Twenty-one patients with MBO caused by cholangiocarcinoma in 13 cases, primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 5 cases and porta hepatic metastases in 3 cases were included. According to types of biliary tract occlusion, the authors performed different combined interventional draining procedures. That is, thirteen cases were performed with right and left bile duct stent implantation respectively; three cases with stent insertion between left and right bile ducts and catheter for external draining in right bile duct; three cases with right bile duct stent placement and catheter for external draining in left bile duct; two cases with anterior right bile tract stent placement and posterior right bile tract for external draining while left bile duct for internal (one case) or external (one case) draining. Results: All together 36 stents were implanted in 21 patients. 35 stents have obtained satisfactory internal draining function and one stent has not shown function due to malposition. Jaundice disappeared completed in 19 of 21 cases, and disappeared incompletely in 2 cases. Conclusions: Multiform biliary internal and/or external drainage is effective for most patients with MBO

  3. Modern imaging techniques in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannas, Peter; Adam, G.; Derlin, T.; Kroeger, N.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging studies are essential for both diagnosis and initial staging of multiple myeloma, as well as for differentiation from other monoclonal plasma cell diseases. Apart from conventional radiography, a variety of newer imaging modalities including whole-body low-dose-CT, whole-body MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT may be used for detection of osseous and extraosseous myeloma manifestations. Despite of known limitations such as limited sensitivity and specificity and the inability to detect extraosseous lesions, conventional radiography still remains the gold standard for staging newly diagnosed myeloma, partly due to its wide availability and low costs. Whole-body low-dose CT is increasingly used due to its higher sensitivity for the detection of osseous lesions and its ability to diagnose extraosseous lesions, and is replacing conventional radiography at selected centres. The highest sensitivity for both detection of bone marrow disease and extraosseous lesions can be achieved with whole-body MRI or 18F-FDG PET/CT. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration may be visualized by whole-body MRI with high sensitivity. Whole-body MRI is at least recommended in all patients with normal conventional radiography and in all patients with an apparently solitary plasmacytoma of bone. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of myeloma lesions are required. (orig.)

  4. Preparation of bovine serum albumin hollow microparticles by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion technique for drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimark, Y.; Srisa-Ard, M.; Srihaman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable bovine serum albumin (BSA) hollow microparticles have been prepared by a single step and rapid water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method without any emulsifiers and templates. Aqueous BSA solution and ethyl acetate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. BSA solution was cross-linked with polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) before microparticle formation. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a water-soluble model drug to entrap in the microparticle matrix. The non-cross-linked and cross-linked BSA microparticles contained empty core structure with outer smooth surface. Inner surface and matrix of hollow microparticles consisted void structure. Drug loading did not affect the microparticle morphology. Cumulative drug released from microparticles was decreased steadily as decreasing of MB ratio and increasing of PEGDE ratio. The BSA hollow microparticles may have potential application in controlled release drug delivery application. (author)

  5. Acylated-naproxen as the surface-active template in the preparation of micro- and nanospherical imprinted xerogels by emulsion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Mariana; Azenha, Manuel; Araújo, Maria João; Marques, Eduardo F; Dias-Cabral, A C; Pereira, Carlos; Silva, A Fernando

    2016-03-11

    A strategy based on water-in-oil emulsion for the dispersion of a sol-gel mixture into small droplets was employed with the view of the production of naproxen-imprinted micro- and nanospheres. The procedure, aiming at a surface imprinting process, comprised the synthesis of a naproxen-derived surfactant. The imprinting process occurred at the interface of the emulsions or microemulsions, by the migration of the NAP-surfactant head into the sol-gel drops to leave surficial imprints due mainly to ion-pair interaction with a cationic group contained within the growing sol-gel network. The surface-imprinted microspheric particles exhibited a log-normal size distribution with geometric mean diameter of 3.1μm. A mesoporous texture was found from measurements of the specific surface area (206m(2)/g) and pore diameter (Dp 2nm). Evaluation of the microspheres as packed HPLC stationary phases resulted in the determination of the selectivity factor against ibuprofen (α=2.1), demonstrating the successful imprinting. Chromatographic efficiency, evaluated by the number of theoretical plates (222platescm(-3)), emerged as an outstanding feature among the set of all relatable formats produced before, an advantage intrinsic to the location of the imprinted sites on the surface. The material presented a capacity of 3.2μmolg(-1). Additionally, exploratory work conducted on their nanoscale counterparts resulted in the production of nanospheres in the size order of 10nm providing good indications of a successful imprinting process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-31

    Dec 31, 2015 ... interaction of asphaltene with the prepared model oils can be used as a ... techniques, microscopy, interfacial pressure, and ... conclusion that these compounds were asphaltene .... The emulsion may invert from oil in water.

  7. Synthesis of polyanthranilic acid–Au nanocomposites by emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    PANA–Au nanocomposites are characterized by SEM, equipped with EDS, TGA, FT–IR, XRD and electrochemical techniques. XRD of ... Polyanthranilic acid; nanocomposite; in situ polymerization; emulsion polymerization; nano- particles. 1.

  8. Method validation and stability study of quercetin in topical emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Casagrande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study validated a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for the quantitative evaluation of quercetin in topical emulsions. The method was linear within 0.05 - 200 μg/mL range with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, and without interference in the quercetin peak. The detection and quantitation limits were 18 and 29 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions presented R.S.D. values lower than 2%. An average of 93% and 94% of quercetin was recovered for non-ionic and anionic emulsions, respectively. The raw material and anionic emulsion, but not non-ionic emulsion, were stable in all storage conditions for one year. The method reported is a fast and reliable HPLC technique useful for quercetin determination in topical emulsions.

  9. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...

  10. Development of novel zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films for improved water barrier properties via emulsion/solvent evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Ye-Chong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Shi, Wei-Jian; Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2013-11-20

    This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films.

  11. Multiple sectioning and perforation techniques for TEM sub-surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for preparing multiple electron transparent regions at several depth levels below the surface of a metal disk specimen are described. These techniques are relatively rapid and find application in many areas involving surface studies. Examples are shown of multiple thin areas produced at intervals of approximately 200 nm below the original surface of a stainless steel bombarded with 4 MeV Ni +2 ions for void swelling studies

  12. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  13. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R and D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion

  14. TbxBi1-xFeO3 nanoparticulate multiferroics fabricated by micro-emulsion technique: Structural elucidation and magnetic behavior evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Anwar, Zobia

    2014-04-01

    Tb-doped BiFeO3 multiferroics nanoparticles fabricated via micro-emulsion route were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fully characterized TbxBi1-xFeO3 nanoparticles were then subjected to magnetic behavior evaluation for various technological applications. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) conducted in the range 25-1000 C predicted the temperature (~960 C) for phase formation. XRD estimated the crystallite size 30-47 nm, while the particles size estimated by SEM was found (80-120 nm). The XRD data confirmed the rhombohedral (space group R3c) phase with average cell volume 182.66 Å3 (for BiFeO 3). Various other physical parameters like bulk density, X-ray density and porosity were also determined from the XRD data and found in agreement with theoretical predictions. The magnetic studies showed that as Bi3+ was substituted by Tb3+, all magnetic parameters were altered. The maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) (0.6691 emug -1) was exhibited by Tb0.02Bi0.98FeO 3 while the Tb0.00Bi1.00Fe1.00O 3 showed the maximum (549 Oe) coercivity. The evaluated magnetic behavior categorized these materials as soft magnetic materials that may be useful for fabricating advanced technological applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Fine grained nuclear emulsion for higher resolution tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T., E-mail: naka@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Hakamata, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T. [Graduated School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tawara, Y. [Division of Energy Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); De Lellis, G. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); D' Ambrossio, N. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Fine grained nuclear emulsion with several 10 nm silver halide crystals can detect submicron tracks. This detector is expected to be worked as dark matter detector with directional sensitive. Now, nuclear emulsion became possible to be produced at Nagoya University, and extreme fine grained nuclear emulsion with 20 nm diameter was produced. Using this emulsion and new reading out technique with expansion technique, for optical selection and X-ray microscopy, recoiled tracks induced by dark matter can be detected automatically. Then, readout efficiency is larger than 80% at 120 nm, and angular resolution for final confirmation with X-ray microscopy is 20°. In addition, we started to construct the R and D underground facility in Gran Sasso.

  16. Formulation and in Vivo Evaluation for Anti-Aging Effects of an Emulsion Containing Basil Extract Using non- Invasive Biophysical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akhtar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Skin aging is a complex process induced by constant exposure to ultraviolet (UV irradiation and damages human skin. UV generates reactive oxygen species leading to collagen deficiency and eventually skin wrinkling. Basil contains a number of phenolics and favonoids which possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to formulate and investigate the antiaging potential of a cream containing Basil extract. Methods: A single blinded study was conducted using non-invasive methods. Formulation containing 3% of the concentrated extract of Basil was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both creams were stored at different storage conditions of 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C+ 75% relative humidity to predict their stabilities. The formulation and base were evaluated for their effects on various skin parameters i.e., moisture and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL, volume, energy and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS. Results: Significant effects (p≤0.05 were observed for both creams in the case of TEWL. The base showed insignificant (p≤0.05 while formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture. Volume, SELS SEr (skin roughness, SEsc (skin scaliness, SEsm (skin smoothness, SEw (skin wrinkles parameter showed significant decline while texture parameter of ‘Energy' showed significant increase. Conclusion: The results statistically indicated that the active formulation containg extract of Basil exert antiaging effects when applied topically.

  17. Multiple Solutions of Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Order: A New Analytic Iterative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abu Arqub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new kind of analytical method, the so-called residual power series, to predict and represent the multiplicity of solutions to nonlinear boundary value problems of fractional order. The present method is capable of calculating all branches of solutions simultaneously, even if these multiple solutions are very close and thus rather difficult to distinguish even by numerical techniques. To verify the computational efficiency of the designed proposed technique, two nonlinear models are performed, one of them arises in mixed convection flows and the other one arises in heat transfer, which both admit multiple solutions. The results reveal that the method is very effective, straightforward, and powerful for formulating these multiple solutions.

  18. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  19. A novel fiber-free technique for brain activity imaging in multiple freely behaving mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Shigenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Nagai, Takeharu

    2018-02-01

    Brain functions and related psychiatric disorders have been investigated by recording electrophysiological field potential. When recording it, a conventional method requires fiber-based apparatus connected to the brain, which however hampers the simultaneous measurement in multiple animals (e.g. by a tangle of fibers). Here, we propose a fiber-free recording technique in conjunction with a ratiometric bioluminescent voltage indicator. Our method allows investigation of electrophysiological filed potential dynamics in multiple freely behaving animals simultaneously over a long time period. Therefore, this fiber-free technique opens up the way to investigate a new mechanism of brain function that governs social behaviors and animal-to-animal interaction.

  20. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  1. Simple lock-in detection technique utilizing multiple harmonics for digital PGC demodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fajie; Huang, Tingting; Jiang, Jiajia; Fu, Xiao; Ma, Ling

    2017-06-01

    A simple lock-in detection technique especially suited for digital phase-generated carrier (PGC) demodulators is proposed in this paper. It mixes the interference signal with rectangular waves whose Fourier expansions contain multiple odd or multiple even harmonics of the carrier to recover the quadrature components needed for interference phase demodulation. In this way, the use of a multiplier is avoided and the efficiency of the algorithm is improved. Noise performance with regard to light intensity variation and circuit noise is analyzed theoretically for both the proposed technique and the traditional lock-in technique, and results show that the former provides a better signal-to-noise ratio than the latter with proper modulation depth and average interference phase. Detailed simulations were conducted and the theoretical analysis was verified. A fiber-optic Michelson interferometer was constructed and the feasibility of the proposed technique is demonstrated.

  2. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  3. Endoscopic treatment of multilocular walled-off pancreatic necrosis with the multiple transluminal gateway technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Mateusz; Smoczyński, Marian; Adrych, Krystian

    2017-06-01

    The development of minimally invasive techniques allowed access to the necrotic cavity through transperitoneal, retroperitoneal, transmural and transpapillary routes. The choice of access to walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) should depend not only on the spread of necrosis, but also on the experience of the clinical center. Herein we describe treatment of a patient with multilocular symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis using minimally invasive techniques. The single transmural access (single transluminal gateway technique - SGT) to the necrotic collection of the patient was ineffective. The second gastrocystostomy was performed using the same minimally invasive technique as an extra way of access to the necrosis (multiple transluminal gateway technique - MTGT). In the described case the performance of the new technique consisting in endoscopic multiplexing transmural access (MTGT) was effective enough and led to complete recovery of the patient.

  4. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  5. Datafish Multiphase Data Mining Technique to Match Multiple Mutually Inclusive Independent Variables in Large PACS Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan P; Klochko, Chad; Halabi, Safwan; Siegal, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Retrospective data mining has tremendous potential in research but is time and labor intensive. Current data mining software contains many advanced search features but is limited in its ability to identify patients who meet multiple complex independent search criteria. Simple keyword and Boolean search techniques are ineffective when more complex searches are required, or when a search for multiple mutually inclusive variables becomes important. This is particularly true when trying to identify patients with a set of specific radiologic findings or proximity in time across multiple different imaging modalities. Another challenge that arises in retrospective data mining is that much variation still exists in how image findings are described in radiology reports. We present an algorithmic approach to solve this problem and describe a specific use case scenario in which we applied our technique to a real-world data set in order to identify patients who matched several independent variables in our institution's picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) database.

  6. Multiple-walled BN nanotubes obtained with a mechanical alloying technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, G.; Sistos, J.; Ascencio, J.A.; Medina, A.; Perez, R.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental method to obtain multiple-walled nanotubes of BN using low energy is presented. The method is based on the use of mechanical alloying techniques with elemental boron powders and nitrogen gas mixed in an autoclave at room temperature. The chemical and structural characteristics of the multiple-walled nanotubes were obtained using different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, EELS microanalysis, high-resolution electron microscopy images and theoretical simulations based on the multisliced approach of the electron diffraction theory. This investigation clearly illustrates the production of multiple-wall BN nanotubes at room temperature. These results open up a new kind of synthesis method with low expense and important perspectives for use in large-quantity production. (orig.)

  7. Neutrino Interactions in a Hybrid Emulsion - Bubble Chamber Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbladt, Robert Ludwig [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1981-05-01

    target consisting of 22 - 1 liter stacks of cryogenically sensitive nuclear emulsion has been exposed inside the 15 Foot Bubble Chamber to the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. A hybrid system of emulsion plus bubble chamber was used to find and analyze neutrino interactions with nuclei in the emulsion target. The average multiplicity of charged minimum ionization tracks of the 45 events was found to be 6.8 ± 0.5. The normalized multiplicity with respect to neutrino - proton interactions at the same average hadronic center of mass energy was found to be 1.3 ± 0.2. When compared to neutrino - proton interactions, the rapidity distribution shows a clear signal for intranuclear cascading in the target fragmentation region. Measured rapidity and multiplicity distributions are compared with predictions of the Growth of Longitudinal Distances Model of Nikolaev and the Coherent Tube Model.

  8. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  9. Measurement and three dimensional reconstruction of particle tracks in emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, S.

    1989-01-01

    A software package for making fast and accurate measurements of particle tracks in emulsion chambers is described. In a chamber, which is designed for high particle multiplicities, the emulsion layers are interspersed with air and placed perpendicular to the beam direction during exposure. (orig.)

  10. Rheology essentials of cosmetic and food emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Brummer, Rüdiger

    2006-01-01

    Cosmetic emulsions exist today in many forms for a wide variety of applications, including face and hand creams for normal, dry or oily skin, body milks and lotions, as well as sun-block products. Keeping track of them and their properties is not always easy despite informative product names or partial names (e.g. hand or face cream) that clearly indicate their use and properties. This practical manual provides a detailed overview that describes the key properties and explains how to measure them using modern techniques. Written by an expert in flows and flow properties, it focuses on the application of rheological (flow) measurements to cosmetic and food emulsions and the correlation of these results with findings from other tests. Beginning with a brief history of rheology and some fundamental principles, the manual describes in detail the use of modern viscometers and rheometers, including concise explanations of the different available instruments. But the focus remains on practical everyday lab procedure...

  11. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Araki, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate was polymerized in emulsion by Co-60 γ-rays below 19 deg C in a batch reactor by using sodium lauryl sulfate as emulsifier. The conversion-time curves of the polymerization system showed two rate regions, i.e., a fact conversion rate in early stage, and a much slower rate in latter stage. The change in rate occurred at about 70 % conversion. The molecular weight of product polymer decreased with increasing conversion during the course of polymerization in latter stage, in contrast to the behavior in early stage. The distribution of the monomer in emulsion in latter stage was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The decrease of the molecular weight with conversion is due to the radiation-induced degradation of product polymer accelerated by the monomers absorbed in the polymer particles. (author)

  12. A Technique of Fuzzy C-Mean in Multiple Linear Regression Model toward Paddy Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan Wahab, Nur; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Mohamad, Mahathir; Amira Azmi, Nur; Che Him, Norziha; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid model which is a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. This research involved a relationship between 20 variates of the top soil that are analyzed prior to planting of paddy yields at standard fertilizer rates. Data used were from the multi-location trials for rice carried out by MARDI at major paddy granary in Peninsular Malaysia during the period from 2009 to 2012. Missing observations were estimated using mean estimation techniques. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression model and a combination of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method. Analysis of normality and multicollinearity indicate that the data is normally scattered without multicollinearity among independent variables. Analysis of fuzzy c-means cluster the yield of paddy into two clusters before the multiple linear regression model can be used. The comparison between two method indicate that the hybrid of multiple linear regression model and fuzzy c-means method outperform the multiple linear regression model with lower value of mean square error.

  13. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  14. Analysis of multiple instructional techniques on the understanding and retention of select mechanical topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsco, Sara Elizabeth

    There are several topics that introductory physics students typically have difficulty understanding. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if multiple instructional techniques will help students to better understand and retain the material. The three units analyzed in this study are graphing motion, projectile motion, and conservation of momentum. For each unit students were taught using new or altered instructional methods including online laboratory simulations, inquiry labs, and interactive demonstrations. Additionally, traditional instructional methods such as lecture and problem sets were retained. Effectiveness was measured through pre- and post-tests and student opinion surveys. Results suggest that incorporating multiple instructional techniques into teaching will improve student understanding and retention. Students stated that they learned well from all of the instructional methods used except the online simulations.

  15. Radiation induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    High energy radiation is particularly favored for the initiation of emulsion polymerization. The yield of free radicals, for example, from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase, is high; G(radical) values of 5-7. In addition, the rather special kinetics associated with emulsion polymerization lead, in general, to very large kinetic chain lengths, even with 'non-ideal' monomers such as vinyl acetate. Together, high polymerization rates at low doses become possible. There are some important advantages of radiation polymerization compared with chemical initiators, such as potassium persulfate. Perhaps the most important among them is the temperature independence of the initiation step. This makes low temperature polymerization very accessible. With monomers such as vinyl acetate, where chain termination to monomer is predominant, low temperatures lead to often highly desirable higher molecular weights. With styrene, the classical ideally behaved monomer, there are the advantages such as, for example, the feasibility of using cationic monomers. These and some attendant disadvantages are discussed in detail, including pilot plant studies

  16. Initial Clinical Experience in Multiple Myeloma Staging by Means of Whole-Body Resonance Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J. I.; Concepcion, L.; Alonso, S.; Sanchez, B.; Manzi, F.

    2003-01-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) exploratory technique equivalent to serial bone X-ray, and to compare their precision in the staging of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Multiple acquisition T1-weights TSE and STIR sequences in the coronal plane were performed. Ten healthy volunteers and 11 multiple myeloma diagnosed patients were included. The visualization of bony structures was particularly noted,with special attention given to those which would normally be included in a serial bone X-ray. In the case of the patients, a comparison was made between diagnostic capacities of the MR sequences. MR highlighters significantly more (p<0.05) bony elements than did the serial bone X-ray. This was greatly due to a sequential displacement of the scanner bed, allowing for field-of-views which were minimally from head to third proximal of the leg. Magnetic resonance detected a significantly higher number (p<0.05) of lesions. It was, in turn, capable of revealing greater lesion extensions, even to the point of implying staging classification changes in 18% of the patients. The utilization of whole-body MR techniques in multiple myeloma patients is feasible and clinically beneficial. MR is both more sensitive and more specific than serial bone X-ray for evaluation of bony lesions in MM. It is currently serving as a valid alternative in a growing numbers of patients. (Author) 10 refs

  17. On the production of thick pellicles of Kodak NTB-3 nuclear track emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, G.; Soederstroem, K.; Ingelman, G.

    1980-11-01

    We describe procedures for making thick pellicles of Kodak NTB-3 nuclear emulsion. The technique has successfully been applied for the production of a 15 liter emulsion target, consisting of 600 μm thick pellicles. Melting and pouring of the gel is discussed as well as the conditions during the drying and processing. (author)

  18. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison of static conformal field with multiple noncoplanar arc techniques for stereotactic radiosurgery or stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Kuchnir, Franca T.; Sweeney, Patrick; Rubin, Steven J.; Dujovny, Manuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Chen, George T. Y.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Compare the use of static conformal fields with the use of multiple noncoplanar arcs for stereotactic radiosurgery or stereotactic radiotherapy treatment of intracranial lesions. Evaluate the efficacy of these treatment techniques to deliver dose distributions comparable to those considered acceptable in current radiotherapy practice. Methods and Materials: A previously treated radiosurgery case of a patient presenting with an irregularly shaped intracranial lesion was selected. Using a three-dimensional (3D) treatment-planning system, treatment plans using a single isocenter multiple noncoplanar arc technique and multiple noncoplanar conformal static fields were generated. Isodose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were computed for each treatment plan. We required that the 80% (of maximum dose) isodose surface enclose the target volume for all treatment plans. The prescription isodose was set equal to the minimum target isodose. The DVHs were analyzed to evaluate and compare the different treatment plans. Results: The dose distribution in the target volume becomes more uniform as the number of conformal fields increases. The volume of normal tissue receiving low doses (> 10% of prescription isodose) increases as the number of static fields increases. The single isocenter multiple arc plan treats the greatest volume of normal tissue to low doses, approximately 1.6 times more volume than that treated by four static fields. The volume of normal tissue receiving high (> 90% of prescription isodose) and intermediate (> 50% of prescription isodose) doses decreases by 29 and 22%, respectively, as the number of static fields is increased from four to eight. Increasing the number of static fields to 12 only further reduces the high and intermediate dose volumes by 10 and 6%, respectively. The volume receiving the prescription dose is more than 3.5 times larger than the target volume for all treatment plans. Conclusions: Use of a multiple noncoplanar

  20. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis; Zygomalas, Apollon; Papas, Theofanis; Maras, Dimitris; Pavlidis, Polyvios; Andrikopoulou, Maria; Tsanis, Antonis; Alivizatos, Vasileios; Bessias, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates

  1. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  2. Preparation of thin actinide metal disks using a multiple disk casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1975-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for preparing multiple actinide metal disks which have a minimum thickness of 0.006 inch. This technique was based on an injection casting procedure which utilizes the weight of a tantalum metal rod to force the molten metal into the mold cavity. Using the proper mold design and casting parameters, it has been possible to prepare ten 1/2 inch diameter neptunium or plutonium metal disks in a single casting, This casting technique is capable of producing disks which are very uniform. The average thickness of the disks from a typical casting will vary no more than 0.001 inch and the variation in the thickness of the individual disks will range from 0.0001 to 0.0005 inch. (Auth.)

  3. Preparation of thin actinide metal disks using a multiple disk casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for preparing multiple actinide metal disks which have a minimum thickness of 0.006 inch. This technique was based on an injection casting procedure which utilizes the weight of a tantalum metal rod to force the molten metal into the mold cavity. Using the proper mold design and casting parameters, it has been possible to prepare ten 1/2 inch diameter neptunium or plutonium metal disks in a single casting. This casting technique is capable of producing disks which are very uniform. The average thickness of the disks from a typical casting will vary no more than 0.001 inch and the variation in the thickness of the individual disks will range from 0.0001 to 0.0005 inch. (author)

  4. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans

  5. Heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1979-04-01

    Recent results from heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion are reviewed. General properties of hadron-reaction multiplicities and their correlation to the production of recoiling protons are given. Properties of pseudo-rapidity distributions of shower-particles especially the particle production in the central region of pseudo-rapidity will be discussed. Non-peripheral heavy ion reactions are compared to recent participant-spectator model calculations. Very energetic cosmic ray events will be examined in the light of recent results from hadron-nucleus reactions. (author)

  6. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, Dk; Sibi, Maj E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4) in group US and 3 (2-5) in group NS (P =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  7. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  8. [Investigation of RNA viral genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zheng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    In order to facilitate the detection of newly emerging or rare viral infectious diseases, a negative-strand RNA virus-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, and a positive-strand RNA virus-dengue virus, were used to investigate RNA viral genome unspecific amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique from clinical samples. Series of 10-fold diluted purified viral RNA were utilized as analog samples with different pathogen loads, after a series of reactions were sequentially processed, single-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA treated with ligation without or with supplemental RNA were generated, then a Phi29 DNA polymerase depended isothermal amplification was employed, and finally the target gene copies were detected by real time PCR assays to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of various methods. The results showed that multiple displacement amplification effects of single-strand or double-strand cDNA templates were limited, while the fold increases of double-strand cDNA templates treated with ligation could be up to 6 X 10(3), even 2 X 10(5) when supplemental RNA existed, and better results were obtained when viral RNA loads were lower. A RNA viral genome amplification system using multiple displacement amplification technique was established in this study and effective amplification of RNA viral genome with low load was achieved, which could provide a tool to synthesize adequate viral genome for multiplex pathogens detection.

  9. Building a new predictor for multiple linear regression technique-based corrective maintenance turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio M; Barr, Cameron; Puñales-Pozo, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    This research's main goals were to build a predictor for a turnaround time (TAT) indicator for estimating its values and use a numerical clustering technique for finding possible causes of undesirable TAT values. The following stages were used: domain understanding, data characterisation and sample reduction and insight characterisation. Building the TAT indicator multiple linear regression predictor and clustering techniques were used for improving corrective maintenance task efficiency in a clinical engineering department (CED). The indicator being studied was turnaround time (TAT). Multiple linear regression was used for building a predictive TAT value model. The variables contributing to such model were clinical engineering department response time (CE(rt), 0.415 positive coefficient), stock service response time (Stock(rt), 0.734 positive coefficient), priority level (0.21 positive coefficient) and service time (0.06 positive coefficient). The regression process showed heavy reliance on Stock(rt), CE(rt) and priority, in that order. Clustering techniques revealed the main causes of high TAT values. This examination has provided a means for analysing current technical service quality and effectiveness. In doing so, it has demonstrated a process for identifying areas and methods of improvement and a model against which to analyse these methods' effectiveness.

  10. Self-normalizing multiple-echo technique for measuring the in vivo apparent diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perman, W.H.; Gado, M.; Sandstrom, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents work to develop a new technique for quantitating the in vivo apparent diffusion/perfusion coefficient (ADC) by obtaining multiple data points from only two images with the capability to normalize the data from consecutive images, thus minimizing the effect of interimage variation. Two multiple-echo (six-to eight-echo) cardiac-gated images are obtained, one without and one with additional diffusion/perfusion encoding gradients placed about the 180 RF pulses of all but the first echo. Since the first echoes of both images have identical pulse sequence parameters, variations in signal intensity-between the first echoes represent image-to-image variation. The signal intensities of the subsequent echoes with additional diffusion/perfusion encoding gradients are then normalized by using the ratio of the first-echo signal intensities

  11. Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. II - Systems performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Jawad A.; Brackett, Charles A.

    1989-08-01

    A technique based on optical orthogonal codes was presented by Salehi (1989) to establish a fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (FO-CDMA) communications system. The results are used to derive the bit error rate of the proposed FO-CDMA system as a function of data rate, code length, code weight, number of users, and receiver threshold. The performance characteristics for a variety of system parameters are discussed. A means of reducing the effective multiple-access interference signal by placing an optical hard-limiter at the front end of the desired optical correlator is presented. Performance calculations are shown for the FO-CDMA with an ideal optical hard-limiter, and it is shown that using a optical hard-limiter would, in general, improve system performance.

  12. Characterization of flaxseed oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-En; Choo, Wee-Sim

    2015-07-01

    The emulsifying capacity of surfactants (polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80 and soy lecithin) and proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil was measured based on 1 % (w/w) of emulsifier. Surfactants showed significantly higher emulsifying capacity compared to the proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil. The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a mixer was ranked in the following order: 1,000 rpm (58 min) ≈ 1,000 rpm (29 min) ≈ 2,000 rpm (35 min) >2,000 rpm (17.5 min). The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a homogenizer (Ultra Turrax) was independent of the speed and mixing time. The mean particle size of the flaxseed oil emulsions prepared using the two mixing devices ranged from 23.99 ± 1.34 μm to 47.22 ± 1.99 μm where else the particle size distribution and microstructure of the flaxseed oil emulsions demonstrated using microscopic imaging were quite similar. The flaxseed oil emulsions had a similar apparent viscosity and exhibited shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The flaxseed oil emulsions had L* value above 70 and was in the red-yellow color region (positive a* and b* values).

  13. Key issues of multiple access technique for LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温萍萍; 顾学迈

    2004-01-01

    The large carrier frequency shift caused by the high-speed movement of satellite (Doppler effects) and the propagation delay on the up-down link are very critical issues in an LEO satellite communication system, which affects both the selection and the implementation of a suitable access method. A Doppler based multiple access technique is used here to control the flow and an MPRMA-HS protocol is proposed for the application in LEO satellite communication systems. The extended simulation trials prove that the proposed scheme seems to be a very promising access method.

  14. Nuclear techniques in the development of fertilizer practices for multiple cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This document summarizes the results of a coordinated research programme. Eight Member States of the FAO and IAEA carried out a series of field studies aimed at identifying optimum practices for the use of fertilizers in multiple cropping systems and for maximizing the contribution of atmospheric nitrogen biologically fixed by the legume component of such systems to the non-fixing cereal component or to the succeeding crop. Isotope techniques allowed the researchers to accurately determine the uptake of specific nutrients and to compare selected treatments

  15. Reconstruction of elongated bubbles fusing the information from multiple optical probes through a Bayesian inference technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Shubhankar; Das, Prasanta Kr., E-mail: pkd@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Roy Chaudhuri, Partha [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-07-15

    In this communication, a novel optical technique has been proposed for the reconstruction of the shape of a Taylor bubble using measurements from multiple arrays of optical sensors. The deviation of an optical beam passing through the bubble depends on the contour of bubble surface. A theoretical model of the deviation of a beam during the traverse of a Taylor bubble through it has been developed. Using this model and the time history of the deviation captured by the sensor array, the bubble shape has been reconstructed. The reconstruction has been performed using an inverse algorithm based on Bayesian inference technique and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. The reconstructed nose shape has been compared with the true shape, extracted through image processing of high speed images. Finally, an error analysis has been performed to pinpoint the sources of the errors.

  16. Multiple and high-throughput droplet reactions via combination of microsampling technique and microfluidic chip

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2012-11-20

    Microdroplets offer unique compartments for accommodating a large number of chemical and biological reactions in tiny volume with precise control. A major concern in droplet-based microfluidics is the difficulty to address droplets individually and achieve high throughput at the same time. Here, we have combined an improved cartridge sampling technique with a microfluidic chip to perform droplet screenings and aggressive reaction with minimal (nanoliter-scale) reagent consumption. The droplet composition, distance, volume (nanoliter to subnanoliter scale), number, and sequence could be precisely and digitally programmed through the improved sampling technique, while sample evaporation and cross-contamination are effectively eliminated. Our combined device provides a simple model to utilize multiple droplets for various reactions with low reagent consumption and high throughput. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Charge identification of highly ionizing particles in desensitized nuclear emulsion using high speed read-out system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; Koi, T.; Fukushima, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibasaki, M.; Shibuya, H.

    2006-01-01

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles

  18. The new technique of using the epigastric arteries in renal transplantation with multiple renal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Amirzargar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common anatomic variant seen in the donor kidneys for renal transplantation is multiple renal arteries (MRA, which can cause an increased risk of complications. We describe the long-term outcomes of 16 years of experience in 76 kidney transplantations with MRAs. In a new reconstruction technique, we remove arterial clamps after anastomosing the donor to the recipient′s main renal vessels, which cause backflow from accessory arteries to prevent thrombosis. By this technique, we reduce the ischemic times as well as the operating times. Both in live or cadaver donor kidneys, lower polar arteries were anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery and upper polar arteries were anastomosed to the superior epigastric arteries. Injection of Papaverine and ablation of sympathic nerves of these arteries dilate and prevent them from post-operative spasm. Follow-up DTPA renal scan in all patients showed good perfusion and function of the transplanted kidney, except two cases of polar arterial thrombosis. Mean creatinine levels during at least two years of follow-up remained acceptable. Patient and graft survival were excellent. No cases of ATN, hypertension, rejection and urologic complications were found. In conclusion, this technique can be safely and successfully utilized for renal transplantation with kidneys having MRAs, and may be associated with a lower complication rate and better graft function compared with the existing techniques.

  19. Application of Soft Computing Techniques and Multiple Regression Models for CBR prediction of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Khaleel Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of soft computing technique such as Artificial Neutral Network (ANN have improved the predicting capability and have actually discovered application in Geotechnical engineering. The aim of this research is to utilize the soft computing technique and Multiple Regression Models (MLR for forecasting the California bearing ratio CBR( of soil from its index properties. The indicator of CBR for soil could be predicted from various soils characterizing parameters with the assist of MLR and ANN methods. The data base that collected from the laboratory by conducting tests on 86 soil samples that gathered from different projects in Basrah districts. Data gained from the experimental result were used in the regression models and soft computing techniques by using artificial neural network. The liquid limit, plastic index , modified compaction test and the CBR test have been determined. In this work, different ANN and MLR models were formulated with the different collection of inputs to be able to recognize their significance in the prediction of CBR. The strengths of the models that were developed been examined in terms of regression coefficient (R2, relative error (RE% and mean square error (MSE values. From the results of this paper, it absolutely was noticed that all the proposed ANN models perform better than that of MLR model. In a specific ANN model with all input parameters reveals better outcomes than other ANN models.

  20. Techniques necessary for multiple tracer quantitative small-animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Terry L.; Dence, Carmen S.; Engelbach, John A.; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J.; Welch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An increasing number and variety of studies on rodent models are being conducted using small-animal positron emission tomography scanners. We aimed to determine if animal handling techniques could be developed to perform routine animal imaging in a timely and efficient manner and with minimal effect on animal physiology. These techniques need to be reproducible in the same animal while maintaining hemodynamic and physiological stability. Methods: The necessary techniques include (a) the use of inhalant anesthesia, (b) arterial and venous cannulation for multiple tracer administrations and blood sampling, (c) development of small-volume analytic columns and techniques and (d) measurement of the physiological environment during the imaging session. Results: We provide an example of a cardiac imaging study using four radiotracers ( 15 O-water, 1-[ 11 C]-acetate, 1-[ 11 C]-palmitate and 1-[ 11 C]-glucose) injected into normal rats. Plasma substrates, CO 2 production and total metabolites were measured. The animals remained anesthetized over the entire imaging session, and their physiological state was maintained. Conclusion: The intrastudy stability of the physiological measurements and substrate levels and interstudy reproducibility of the measurements are reported

  1. Study on some characteristics of nuclear emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonglian, Liu; Jinqin, Han; Huichang, Liu [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe the variation of some characteristics of the nuclear emulsion such as sensitivity, fog density and latent image stability influenced by adding ascorbic acid into the finished emulsion N-4. A comparative study of latent image stability is made between Fuji ET-7B nuclear emulsion and authors' under different temperature and relative humidity. The result indicates that the addition of ascorbic acid obviously improves the latent image stability of the emulsion N-4. The Fuji ET-7B emulsion and the emulsion N-4 containing ascorbic acid have similar latent image fading quality at lower temperature while the Japanese sample does have better quality at room temperature.

  2. Impression of multiple implants using photogrammetry: description of technique and case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Bagán, Leticia; Giménez, Beatriz; Peñarrocha, María

    2014-07-01

    To describe a technique for registering the positions of multiple dental implants using a system based on photogrammetry. A case is presented in which a prosthetic treatment was performed using this technique. Three Euroteknika® dental implants were placed to rehabilitate a 55-year-old male patient with right posterior maxillary edentulism. Three months later, the positions of the implants were registered using a photogrammetry-based stereo-camera (PICcamera®). After processing patient and implant data, special abutments (PICabutment®) were screwed onto each implant. The PICcamera® was then used to capture images of the implant positions, automatically taking 150 images in less than 60 seconds. From this information a file was obtained describing the relative positions - angles and distances - of each implant in vector form. Information regarding the soft tissues was obtained from an alginate impression that was cast in plaster and scanned. A Cr-Co structure was obtained using CAD/CAM, and its passive fit was verified in the patient's mouth using the Sheffield test and the screw resistance test. Twelve months after loading, peri-implant tissues were healthy and no marginal bone loss was observed. The clinical application of this new system using photogrammetry to record the position of multiple dental implants facilitated the rehabilitation of a patient with posterior maxillary edentulism by means of a prosthesis with optimal fit. The prosthetic process was accurate, fast, simple to apply and comfortable for the patient.

  3. Photoelectrode Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Nanosolar Cells Using Multiple Spray Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spray coating technique for fabricating nanoporous film of photoelectrode in dye-sensitized nanosolar cells (DSSCs. Spray coating can quickly fabricate nanoporous film of the photoelectrode with lower cost, which can further help the DSSCs to be commercialized in the future. This paper analyzed photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs using spray coated photoelectrode in comparison with the photoelectrode made with the doctor blade method. Spray coating can easily control transmittance of the photoelectrode through the multiple spray coating process. This work mainly used a dispersant with help of ultrasonic oscillation to prepare the required nano-TiO2 solution and then sprayed it on the ITO glasses. In this work, a motor-operated conveyor belt was built to transport the ITO glasses automatically for multiple spray coating and drying alternately. Experiments used transmittance of the photoelectrode as a fabrication parameter to analyze photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. The influencing factors of the photoelectrode transmittance during fabrication are the spray flow rate, the spray distance, and the moving speed of the conveyor belt. The results show that DSSC with the photoelectrode transmittance of ca. 68.0 ± 1.5% and coated by the spray coating technique has the best photoelectric conversion efficiency in this work.

  4. Super-Resolution Enhancement From Multiple Overlapping Images: A Fractional Area Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Joshua A.

    With the availability of large quantities of relatively low-resolution data from several decades of space borne imaging, methods of creating an accurate, higher-resolution image from the multiple lower-resolution images (i.e. super-resolution), have been developed almost since such imagery has been around. The fractional-area super-resolution technique developed in this thesis has never before been documented. Satellite orbits, like Landsat, have a quantifiable variation, which means each image is not centered on the exact same spot more than once and the overlapping information from these multiple images may be used for super-resolution enhancement. By splitting a single initial pixel into many smaller, desired pixels, a relationship can be created between them using the ratio of the area within the initial pixel. The ideal goal for this technique is to obtain smaller pixels with exact values and no error, yielding a better potential result than those methods that yield interpolated pixel values with consequential loss of spatial resolution. A Fortran 95 program was developed to perform all calculations associated with the fractional-area super-resolution technique. The fractional areas are calculated using traditional trigonometry and coordinate geometry and Linear Algebra Package (LAPACK; Anderson et al., 1999) is used to solve for the higher-resolution pixel values. In order to demonstrate proof-of-concept, a synthetic dataset was created using the intrinsic Fortran random number generator and Adobe Illustrator CS4 (for geometry). To test the real-life application, digital pictures from a Sony DSC-S600 digital point-and-shoot camera with a tripod were taken of a large US geological map under fluorescent lighting. While the fractional-area super-resolution technique works in perfect synthetic conditions, it did not successfully produce a reasonable or consistent solution in the digital photograph enhancement test. The prohibitive amount of processing time (up to

  5. Synthesis of polyanthranilic acid–Au nanocomposites by emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyanthranilic acid (PANA) and polyanthranilic acid–gold (PANA–Au) nanocomposites have been synthesized through emulsion polymerization technique. Use of gold chloride as an oxidant for anthranilic acid not only provides a new route for chemical synthesis of PANA, but also explores a facile method for the formation ...

  6. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanopowders by sol–gel emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    gel emulsion technique, where the sol (water medium) is emulsified, in a support ... The sol was prepared by mixing a 2 M solution of calcium acetate dissolved in ... powder using a punch and die set and a KBr press (model. M-15) with a ...

  7. Invert emulsion: Method of preparation and application as proper formulation of entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Yacoub A

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the technique used for preparing the invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) then, selecting the most proper formulation of invert emulsion for being used as a carrier formulation of entomopathogenic fungi. It also describes the method used for testing the efficacy of the formulated fungi as biocontrol agents of targeted insects. Detailed examples demonstrating the efficacy of formulated strains of entomopathogenic fungi against certain species of insect pests were included in the present article. The techniques and methods described in this article are reproducible and helpful in enhancing the effectiveness of formulated fungi against wide range of targeted insects in comparison with the unformulated form of these fungi. Also, these techniques and methods can be used effectively in crop protection and in the integrated pest management programs. Finally, it is important to indicate that the ingredients used for preparation of the invert emulsion have no environmental side-effects or health risks since these ingredients are safe to use and can be used in manufacturing of cosmetics or as food additives.•Description of method used for preparation of invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) and selecting the most stable and non-viscous emulsion.•Description of technique used for introducing the entomopathogenic fungi into the selected stable and non-viscous invert emulsion.•Description of method for testing the efficacy of introduced entomopathogenic fungus into the selected invert emulsion against targeted insects with detailed examples on the efficacy testing.

  8. Isotachophoresis with emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goet, G.; Baier, T.; Hardt, S.; Sen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study on isotachophoresis (ITP) in which an emulsion is used as leading electrolyte (LE) is reported. The study aims at giving an overview about the transport and flow phenomena occurring in that context. Generally, it is observed that the oil droplets initially dispersed in the LE are collected at the ITP transition zone and advected along with it. The detailed behavior at the transition zone depends on whether or not surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidon, PVP) are added to the electrolytes. In a system without surfactants, coalescence is observed between the droplets collected at the ITP transition zone. After having achieved a certain size, the droplets merge with the channel walls, leaving an oil film behind. In systems with PVP, coalescence is largely suppressed and no merging of droplets with the channel walls is observed. Instead, at the ITP transition zone, a droplet agglomerate of increasing size is formed. In the initial stages of the ITP experiments, two counter rotating vortices are formed inside the terminating electrolyte. The vortex formation is qualitatively explained based on a hydrodynamic instability triggered by fluctuations of the number density of oil droplets. PMID:24404037

  9. Radiation dosimetry by neutron or X ray fluorescence activation of residual silver in ionographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, C.

    1987-01-01

    A global measuring technique which is sensitive enough to detect small silver contents in films for dosimetry applications is presented. The applications studied are neutron dosimetry by measuring residual silver due to recoil protons in developed emulsions and high dose dosimetry by the detection of photolytic silver in fixed emulsions. An individual fast neutron dosimeter which can be used in radiation protection was developed, along with an automatic data analysis and readout system. Application of this technique to the measurement of high radiation doses (100 to 1 million Gy) via the measurement of photolytic silver in fixed, but undeveloped, emulsions confirms the usefulness of the method [fr

  10. Multiple regression technique for Pth degree polynominals with and without linear cross products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple regression technique was developed by which the nonlinear behavior of specified independent variables can be related to a given dependent variable. The polynomial expression can be of Pth degree and can incorporate N independent variables. Two cases are treated such that mathematical models can be studied both with and without linear cross products. The resulting surface fits can be used to summarize trends for a given phenomenon and provide a mathematical relationship for subsequent analysis. To implement this technique, separate computer programs were developed for the case without linear cross products and for the case incorporating such cross products which evaluate the various constants in the model regression equation. In addition, the significance of the estimated regression equation is considered and the standard deviation, the F statistic, the maximum absolute percent error, and the average of the absolute values of the percent of error evaluated. The computer programs and their manner of utilization are described. Sample problems are included to illustrate the use and capability of the technique which show the output formats and typical plots comparing computer results to each set of input data.

  11. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A simple and low-cost fully 3D-printed non-planar emulsion generator

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming; Li, Erqiang; Aguirre-Pablo, Andres A.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices provide a powerful platform for material, chemical and biological applications based on droplet templates. The technique traditionally utilized to fabricate microfluidic emulsion generators, i.e. soft

  13. Study of the effects induced by lead on the emulsion films of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Franceschi, A.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Gornoushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, Y.; Sato, O.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Togo, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Valieri, C.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment is based on the use of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC). In the OPERA ECC, nuclear emulsion films acting as very high precision tracking detectors are interleaved with lead plates providing a massive target for neutrino interactions. We report on studies related to the effects occurring from the contact between emulsion and lead. A low radioactivity lead is required in order to minimize the number of background tracks in emulsions and to achieve the required performance in the reconstruction of neutrino events. It was observed that adding other chemical elements to the lead, in order to improve the mechanical properties, may significantly increase the level of radioactivity on the emulsions. A detailed study was made in order to choose a lead alloy with good mechanical properties and an appropriate packing technique so as to have a low enough effective radioactivity.

  14. Rheology of Emulsion-Filled Gels Applied to the Development of Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana M. Geremias-Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion-filled gels are classified as soft solid materials and are complex colloids formed by matrices of polymeric gels into which emulsion droplets are incorporated. Several structural aspects of these gels have been studied in the past few years, including their applications in food, which is the focus of this review. Knowledge of the rheological behavior of emulsion-filled gels is extremely important because it can measure interferences promoted by droplets or particle inclusion on the textural properties of the gelled systems. Dynamic oscillatory tests, more specifically, small amplitude oscillatory shear, creep-recovery tests, and large deformation experiments, are discussed in this review as techniques present in the literature to characterize rheological behavior of emulsion-filled gels. Moreover, the correlation of mechanical properties with sensory aspects of emulsion-filled gels appearing in recent studies is discussed, demonstrating the applicability of these parameters in understanding mastication processes.

  15. Investigation of multiple visualisation techniques and dynamic queries in conjunction with direct sonification to support the browsing of audio resources

    OpenAIRE

    Brazil, Eoin

    2003-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed In this thesis, a prototype system for the browsing of audio resources was developed and an initial evaluation of this system was performed. The main contributions of this thesis are dynamic queries and multiple visualisation techniques in conjunction with direct sonification. Dynamic queries are queries that provide immediate feedback while maintaining consistency between the queries themselves and the graphical/auditory display. The multiple visualisation techniques are...

  16. A field comparison of multiple techniques to quantify groundwater - surface-water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Ward, Adam S; Hatch, Christine E; Wlostowski, Adam N; Singha, Kamini; Gooseff, Michael N.; Haggerty, Roy; Harvey, Judson; Cirpka, Olaf A; Brock, James T

    2015-01-01

    implementing multiple techniques through collaborative research.

  17. Simultaneous rotational and vibrational CARS generation through a multiple-frequency combination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden, M.; Bengtsson, P.E.; Edner, H.

    1987-01-01

    One most promising laser technique for probing combustion processes is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), which due to its coherent nature and signal strength is applied in several real-world applications. Until today almost all CARS experiments are based on probing the population of molecular vibrational energy levels. However, there are several reasons rotational CARS, i.e. probing of rotational energy levels, may provide a complement to or even a better choice than vibrational CARS. Recently an alternative way to produce rotational CARS spectra is proposed, which is based on a multiple-frequency combination technique. The energy-level diagram for this process is presented. Two dye laser beams at ω/sub r/, and one fix frequency laser beam at ω/sub g/ are employed. ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ are two frequencies of many possible pairs with a frequency difference matching a rotational transition in a molecule. The excitation induced by ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ is then scattered by the narrowband ω/sub g/ beam resulting in a CARS beam ω/sub g/ at ω/sub g/ + ω/sub r,1/ - ω/sub r,2/. An interesting feature with this technique is that it is possible to generate simultaneously a rotational and vibrational CARS spectrum by using a double-folded boxcars phase matching approach. The authors believe that the proposed technique for producing rotational and vibration CARS spectra could be of interest, e.g., when measuring in highly turbulent flows. In this case the rotational CARS spectra could use for temperature measurements in the cooler parts, whereas vibrational CARS are to be preferred when measuring in the hotter parts

  18. Laboratory model study of newly deposited dredger fills using improved multiple-vacuum preloading technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems continue to be encountered concerning the traditional vacuum preloading method in field during the treatment of newly deposited dredger fills. In this paper, an improved multiple-vacuum preloading method was developed to consolidate newly dredger fills that are hydraulically placed in seawater for land reclamation in Lingang Industrial Zone of Tianjin City, China. With this multiple-vacuum preloading method, the newly deposited dredger fills could be treated effectively by adopting a novel moisture separator and a rapid improvement technique without sand cushion. A series of model tests was conducted in the laboratory for comparing the results from the multiple-vacuum preloading method and the traditional one. Ten piezometers and settlement plates were installed to measure the variations in excess pore water pressures and moisture content, and vane shear strength was measured at different positions. The testing results indicate that water discharge–time curves obtained by the traditional vacuum preloading method can be divided into three phases: rapid growth phase, slow growth phase, and steady phase. According to the process of fluid flow concentrated along tiny ripples and building of larger channels inside soils during the whole vacuum loading process, the fluctuations of pore water pressure during each loading step are divided into three phases: steady phase, rapid dissipation phase, and slow dissipation phase. An optimal loading pattern which could have a best treatment effect was proposed for calculating the water discharge and pore water pressure of soil using the improved multiple-vacuum preloading method. For the newly deposited dredger fills at Lingang Industrial Zone of Tianjin City, the best loading step was 20 kPa and the loading of 40–50 kPa produced the highest drainage consolidation. The measured moisture content and vane shear strength were discussed in terms of the effect of reinforcement, both of which indicate

  19. Bulk-loaded emulsion explosives technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.G. [Blasting Analysis International, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The largest use of emulsion explosives and emulsion-Anfo blends is in surface mining operations. An emulsion explosive is a two-phase system: the inner phase is madeup of an oxidizer solution; the outer phase is made up of oils or an oil/wax blend. Emulsion Anfo blends have been used to expand drill patterns, increase fragmentation, and provide extra energy for blast casting. 3 tabs.

  20. Security of public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Zou Liuhua; Cheung Yiuming; He Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems has been proposed [B. Ranjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 098702]. This scheme employs m-chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. Security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP) m , where N, P are the size of the key and the computational complexity of the linear functions respectively. In this Letter, the fundamental weakness of the cryptosystem is pointed out and a successful attack is described. Given the public keys and the initial vector, one can calculate the secret key based on Parseval's theorem. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the attacker can access to the secret key without difficulty. The lack of security discourages the use of such algorithm for practical applications

  1. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  2. Impact of airway gas exchange on the multiple inert gas elimination technique: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C; Hlastala, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    The multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) provides a method for estimating alveolar gas exchange efficiency. Six soluble inert gases are infused into a peripheral vein. Measurements of these gases in breath, arterial blood, and venous blood are interpreted using a mathematical model of alveolar gas exchange (MIGET model) that neglects airway gas exchange. A mathematical model describing airway and alveolar gas exchange predicts that two of these gases, ether and acetone, exchange primarily within the airways. To determine the effect of airway gas exchange on the MIGET, we selected two additional gases, toluene and m-dichlorobenzene, that have the same blood solubility as ether and acetone and minimize airway gas exchange via their low water solubility. The airway-alveolar gas exchange model simulated the exchange of toluene, m-dichlorobenzene, and the six MIGET gases under multiple conditions of alveolar ventilation-to-perfusion, VA/Q, heterogeneity. We increased the importance of airway gas exchange by changing bronchial blood flow, Qbr. From these simulations, we calculated the excretion and retention of the eight inert gases and divided the results into two groups: (1) the standard MIGET gases which included acetone and ether and (2) the modified MIGET gases which included toluene and m-dichlorobenzene. The MIGET mathematical model predicted distributions of ventilation and perfusion for each grouping of gases and multiple perturbations of VA/Q and Qbr. Using the modified MIGET gases, MIGET predicted a smaller dead space fraction, greater mean VA, greater log(SDVA), and more closely matched the imposed VA distribution than that using the standard MIGET gases. Perfusion distributions were relatively unaffected.

  3. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijlwijk, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus

  4. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  5. Interactions of 400 GeV proton with Different target nuclei in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, M.; Abdel-Halim, S.M.; Yasin, M.N.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction characteristics of 400 GeV proton with emulsion nuclei were studied and discussed. The multiplicity distributions of secondary charged particles have been measured for 480 inelastic events and are compared with the results obtained in p-emulsion collisions at different energies. The integral distribution of the number of disintegrated particles from the target nuclei N h are used to separate the number of the inelastic interactions of proton with light (Cno) and heavy (Ag Br) nuclei in the emulsion. The interaction characteristics of proton (400 GeV) with different groups of target nuclei have been investigated

  6. Interactions of 400 GeV protons with different target nuclei in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, M.; Abdel Halim, S.M.; Yasin, M.N.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction characteristics of 400 GeV protons with emulsion nuclei were studied and discussed. The multiplicity distributions of secondary charged particles have been measured for 480 inelastic events and are compared with the results obtained in p-emulsion (P-Em) collisions at different energies. The integral distribution of the number of disintegrated particles from the target nuclei N h is used to separate the number of the inelastic interactions of proton with light (CNO) and heavy (AgBR) nuclei in the emulsion. The interaction characteristics of protons (400 GeV) with different groups of target nuclei have been investigated. (author)

  7. Multiple sensitive estimation and optimal sample size allocation in the item sum technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Pier Francesco; Rueda García, María Del Mar; Cobo Rodríguez, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    For surveys of sensitive issues in life sciences, statistical procedures can be used to reduce nonresponse and social desirability response bias. Both of these phenomena provoke nonsampling errors that are difficult to deal with and can seriously flaw the validity of the analyses. The item sum technique (IST) is a very recent indirect questioning method derived from the item count technique that seeks to procure more reliable responses on quantitative items than direct questioning while preserving respondents' anonymity. This article addresses two important questions concerning the IST: (i) its implementation when two or more sensitive variables are investigated and efficient estimates of their unknown population means are required; (ii) the determination of the optimal sample size to achieve minimum variance estimates. These aspects are of great relevance for survey practitioners engaged in sensitive research and, to the best of our knowledge, were not studied so far. In this article, theoretical results for multiple estimation and optimal allocation are obtained under a generic sampling design and then particularized to simple random sampling and stratified sampling designs. Theoretical considerations are integrated with a number of simulation studies based on data from two real surveys and conducted to ascertain the efficiency gain derived from optimal allocation in different situations. One of the surveys concerns cannabis consumption among university students. Our findings highlight some methodological advances that can be obtained in life sciences IST surveys when optimal allocation is achieved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique and Fractal Dimension for Identifying Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Yin; Phillips, Preetha; Dong, Zhengchao; Wang, Shuihua

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe brain disease. Early detection can provide timely treatment. Fractal dimension can provide statistical index of pattern changes with scale at a given brain image. In this study, our team used susceptibility weighted imaging technique to obtain 676 MS slices and 880 healthy slices. We used synthetic minority oversampling technique to process the unbalanced dataset. Then, we used Canny edge detector to extract distinguishing edges. The Minkowski-Bouligand dimension was a fractal dimension estimation method and used to extract features from edges. Single hidden layer neural network was used as the classifier. Finally, we proposed a three-segment representation biogeography-based optimization to train the classifier. Our method achieved a sensitivity of 97.78±1.29%, a specificity of 97.82±1.60% and an accuracy of 97.80±1.40%. The proposed method is superior to seven state-of-the-art methods in terms of sensitivity and accuracy.

  9. 3-D thermal weight function method and multiple virtual crack extension technique for thermal shock problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanlin; Zhou Xiao; Qu Jiadi; Dou Yikang; He Yinbiao

    2005-01-01

    An efficient scheme, 3-D thermal weight function (TWF) method, and a novel numerical technique, multiple virtual crack extension (MVCE) technique, were developed for determination of histories of transient stress intensity factor (SIF) distributions along 3-D crack fronts of a body subjected to thermal shock. The TWF is a universal function, which is dependent only on the crack configuration and body geometry. TWF is independent of time during thermal shock, so the whole history of transient SIF distributions along crack fronts can be directly calculated through integration of the products of TWF and transient temperatures and temperature gradients. The repeated determinations of the distributions of stresses (or displacements) fields for individual time instants are thus avoided in the TWF method. An expression of the basic equation for the 3-D universal weight function method for Mode I in an isotropic elastic body is derived. This equation can also be derived from Bueckner-Rice's 3-D WF formulations in the framework of transformation strain. It can be understood from this equation that the so-called thermal WF is in fact coincident with the mechanical WF except for some constants of elasticity. The details and formulations of the MVCE technique are given for elliptical cracks. The MVCE technique possesses several advantages. The specially selected linearly independent VCE modes can directly be used as shape functions for the interpolation of unknown SIFs. As a result, the coefficient matrix of the final system of equations in the MVCE method is a triple-diagonal matrix and the values of the coefficients on the main diagonal are large. The system of equations has good numerical properties. The number of linearly independent VCE modes that can be introduced in a problem is unlimited. Complex situations in which the SIFs vary dramatically along crack fronts can be numerically well simulated by the MVCE technique. An integrated system of programs for solving the

  10. Energy spectra of fast neutrons by nuclear emulsion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental method which uses nuclear emulsion plates to determine the energy spectrum of fission neutrons is described. By using this technique, we have obtained the energy distribution of neutrons from spontaneous fission of Cf 2 5 2 . The results are in good agreement with whose obtained previously by others authors who have used different detection techniques, and they are consistent with a Maxwellian distribution as expected by Weisskopf's nuclear evaporation theory. (author)

  11. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  12. Modelling of Emulsion Flow in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates); Farouq Ali, S.M. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-06-01

    Oil recovery methods predominantly involve emulsion formation. Oil recovery simulation requires the incorporation of emulsion characteristics and flow in porous media, in order to optimize oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. This paper explored the nature and rheology of emulsions, and evaluated several models of flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. It also summarized in situ emulsion formation in porous media. A model for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian emulsion fluid flow was proposed, with special emphasis on pore size, and tortuosity in the porous media.

  13. Formation of random and regular relief-phase structures on silver halide photographic emulsions by holographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzherli, N. M.; Gulyaev, S. N.; Gurin, A. S.; Kramushchenko, D. D.; Maurer, I. A.; Chernykh, D. F.

    2009-07-01

    The formation of diffusers and microlens rasters on silver halide emulsions by holographic methods is considered. Two techniques for converting amplitude holographic recording to relief-phase recording, selective curing and irradiation of the emulsion gelatin by short-wavelength UV radiation, are compared.

  14. Rheological characterization of gel-in-oil-in-gel type structured emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashok; Dumlu, Pinar; Vermeir, Lien; Lewille, Benny; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of multiple emulsions where both the enclosed and the external water phases are structured using a combination of two non-gelling biopolymers. Emulsions (with gelled inner water droplets and gelled water continuous phase) were created using a simple 'one-step' process where the oil phase (triglyceride oil and polyglycerol polyricinoleate) and the water phase (containing a combination of locust bean gum and carrageenan) were emulsified at an elevated temperature (70 d...

  15. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Fu, Xiao-Qi, E-mail: xzx19820708@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS{sub 2}(s) + 91NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO{sub 2}(g) + 6Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) + 78NH{sub 3}(g) + 26N{sub 2}O(g) + 2FeSO{sub 4}(s) + 65H{sub 2}O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  16. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS_2(s) + 91NH_4NO_3(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO_2(g) + 6Fe_2O_3(s) + 78NH_3(g) + 26N_2O(g) + 2FeSO_4(s) + 65H_2O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO_2, NH_3, SO_2 and N_2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  17. High-conversion emulsion polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, I.A.; Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The four important factors that det. the rate of emulsion polymn. are the propagation rate coeff., the latex-particle concn., the monomer concn. in the latex particles, and the free-radical concn. in the latex particles. Both theor. considerations and exptl. evidence suggested that the important

  18. Modeling of emulsion copolymer microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doremaele, G.H.J.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to describe stages II and III of batch emulsion copolymn., and its predictive capabilities are investigated by application to the system styrene-Me acrylate. The main reaction site is the monomer-swollen polymer particle. Copolymn. rate and copolymer microstructure (molar

  19. Reducing BER of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access systems by single photodiode detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khafaji, H. M. R.; Aljunid, S. A.; Amphawan, A.; Fadhil, H. A.; Safar, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a single photodiode detection (SPD) technique for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. The proposed technique eliminates both phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) in the optical domain. Analytical results show that for 35 simultaneous users transmitting at data rate of 622 Mbps, the bit-error rate (BER) = 1.4x10^-28 for SPD technique is much better compared to 9.3x10^-6 and 9.6x10^-3 for the modified-AND as well as the AND detection techniques, respectively. Moreover, we verified the improved performance afforded by the proposed technique using data transmission simulations.

  20. White matter tract-specific quantitative analysis in multiple sclerosis: Comparison of optic radiation reconstruction techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Wang

    Full Text Available The posterior visual pathway is commonly affected by multiple sclerosis (MS pathology that results in measurable clinical and electrophysiological impairment. Due to its highly structured retinotopic mapping, the visual pathway represents an ideal substrate for investigating patho-mechanisms in MS. Therefore, a reliable and robust imaging segmentation method for in-vivo delineation of the optic radiations (OR is needed. However, diffusion-based tractography approaches, which are typically used for OR segmentation are confounded by the presence of focal white matter lesions. Current solutions require complex acquisition paradigms and demand expert image analysis, limiting application in both clinical trials and clinical practice. In the current study, using data acquired in a clinical setting on a 3T scanner, we optimised and compared two approaches for optic radiation (OR reconstruction: individual probabilistic tractography-based and template-based methods. OR segmentation results were applied to subjects with MS and volumetric and diffusivity parameters were compared between OR segmentation techniques. Despite differences in reconstructed OR volumes, both OR lesion volume and OR diffusivity measurements in MS subjects were highly comparable using optimised probabilistic tractography-based, and template-based, methods. The choice of OR reconstruction technique should be determined primarily by the research question and the nature of the available dataset. Template-based approaches are particularly suited to the semi-automated analysis of large image datasets and have utility even in the absence of dMRI acquisitions. Individual tractography methods, while more complex than template based OR reconstruction, permit measurement of diffusivity changes along fibre bundles that are affected by specific MS lesions or other focal pathologies.

  1. Probabilistic images (PBIS): A concise image representation technique for multiple parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.C.; Yeh, S.H.; Chen, Z.; Liu, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Based on m parametric images (PIs) derived from a dynamic series (DS), each pixel of DS is regarded as an m-dimensional vector. Given one set of normal samples (pixels) N and another of abnormal samples A, probability density functions (pdfs) of both sets are estimated. Any unknown sample is classified into N or A by calculating the probability of its being in the abnormal set using the Bayes' theorem. Instead of estimating the multivariate pdfs, a distance ratio transformation is introduced to map the m-dimensional sample space to one dimensional Euclidean space. Consequently, the image that localizes the regional abnormalities is characterized by the probability of being abnormal. This leads to the new representation scheme of PBIs. Tc-99m HIDA study for detecting intrahepatic lithiasis (IL) was chosen as an example of constructing PBI from 3 parameters derived from DS and such a PBI was compared with those 3 PIs, namely, retention ratio image (RRI), peak time image (TNMAX) and excretion mean transit time image (EMTT). 32 normal subjects and 20 patients with proved IL were collected and analyzed. The resultant sensitivity and specificity of PBI were 97% and 98% respectively. They were superior to those of any of the 3 PIs: RRI (94/97), TMAX (86/88) and EMTT (94/97). Furthermore, the contrast of PBI was much better than that of any other image. This new image formation technique, based on multiple parameters, shows the functional abnormalities in a structural way. Its good contrast makes the interpretation easy. This technique is powerful compared to the existing parametric image method

  2. An Overview of Food Emulsions: Description, Classification and Recent Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Serdaroğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions take place partially or completely in the structures of many natural and processed foods or some foods are already emulsified in certain stages of production. In general “emulsion” is described as a structure created through the dispersion of one of two immiscible liquids within the other one in form of little droplets. Many terms are available to describe different emulsion types and it is very important to define and clarify these terms like “macro emulsion”, “nanoemulsion” and “multiple emulsion”. Nanoemulsions become increasingly important in food industry as an innovative approach in carrying functional agents. Application potential of multiple emulsions (W/O/W is also stated to be very high in food industry. The two main strategic purposes of utilization of multiple emulsions in food applications are to encapsulate various aromas, bioactive compounds or sensitive food compounds and to allow the production of the low-fat products. This review provides an overview to the general terms of emulsion types, the role of various emulsifying agents, and the application potential of emulsions in food industry.

  3. The identification method of the nuclear fragments in emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Alexandru; Ocheseanu, Silvia; Caramarcu, Costin; Calin, Marius; Constantin, Florin; Stan, Emil

    2003-01-01

    The visualization detectors have been successfully used from the beginning of the study of the relativistic nuclear collisions. One of these detectors used in such experiments is the nuclear emulsion. To increase the speed of the passage from pictures to experimental data different methods and tools have been proposed during the time. For identifying the nuclear fragments obtained in the relativistic radioactive beams multiple layers of nuclear emulsions have been exposed in experiments performed at the Synchrophasotron from the JINR Dubna (BECQUEREL Collaboration). The nuclear fragments have been identified using PAVICOM scanning and measuring system. In the present work an identification method based on a real time image processing machine and a reconstruction algorithm based on special conformal transforms is proposed. The results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained using PAVICOM device. Because in this study only pictures have been used, not initial nuclear emulsions, some difficulties in the identification of the nuclear fragments with higher polar angles can appear. Generally, comparable results have been obtained. The authors thank Dr. Pavel Zarubin from JINR Dubna, Laboratory of High Energy Physics, and Dr. Maria Haiduc, Institute of Space Sciences Bucharest-Magurele, for the pictures of the nuclear emulsions exposed in these experiments. (authors)

  4. Efficiency of emulsifier-free emulsions and emulsions containing rapeseed lecithin as delivery systems for vectorization and release of coenzyme Q10: physico-chemical properties and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaci, M; Arab-Tehrany, E; Dostert, G; Desjardins, I; Velot, E; Desobry, S

    2016-11-01

    To improve the encapsulation and release of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), emulsifier-free-emulsions were developed with a new emulsification process using high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) at 1.7MHz. Nano-emulsions containing CoQ10 were prepared with or without rapeseed lecithin as an emulsifier. The emulsions prepared with HFU were compared with an emulsion of CoQ10 containing emulsifier prepared with the same emulsification technique as well as with emulsions prepared with low-frequency ultrasound coupled with high-pressure homogenization (LFU+HPH). The physico-chemical properties of the emulsions were determined by average droplet size measurement with nano-droplet tracking analysis, droplet surface charge with ζ potential measurement, surface tension and rheological behaviour. Emulsions made by LFU+HPH with an emulsifier showed lower droplet sizes due to cavitation generated by the HFU process. Surface tension results showed that there was no significant difference between emulsions containing lecithin emulsifier regardless of the preparation process or the inclusion of CoQ10. In vitro biocompatibility tests were performed on human mesenchymal stem cells in order to show the cytotoxicity of various formulations and the efficiency of CoQ10-loaded emulsions. In vitro tests proved that the vectors were not toxic. Furthermore, CoQ10 facilitated a high rate of cell proliferation and metabolic activity especially when in an emulsifier-free formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combination of various data analysis techniques for efficient track reconstruction in very high multiplicity events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklér, Ferenc

    2017-08-01

    A novel combination of established data analysis techniques for reconstructing charged-particles in high energy collisions is proposed. It uses all information available in a collision event while keeping competing choices open as long as possible. Suitable track candidates are selected by transforming measured hits to a binned, three- or four-dimensional, track parameter space. It is accomplished by the use of templates taking advantage of the translational and rotational symmetries of the detectors. Track candidates and their corresponding hits, the nodes, form a usually highly connected network, a bipartite graph, where we allow for multiple hit to track assignments, edges. In order to get a manageable problem, the graph is cut into very many minigraphs by removing a few of its vulnerable components, edges and nodes. Finally the hits are distributed among the track candidates by exploring a deterministic decision tree. A depth-limited search is performed maximizing the number of hits on tracks, and minimizing the sum of track-fit χ2. Simplified but realistic models of LHC silicon trackers including the relevant physics processes are used to test and study the performance (efficiency, purity, timing) of the proposed method in the case of single or many simultaneous proton-proton collisions (high pileup), and for single heavy-ion collisions at the highest available energies.

  6. Mouse epileptic seizure detection with multiple EEG features and simple thresholding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieng, Quang M.; Anbazhagan, Ashwin; Chen, Min; Reutens, David C.

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. The search for new treatments for seizures and epilepsy relies upon studies in animal models of epilepsy. To capture data on seizures, many applications require prolonged electroencephalography (EEG) with recordings that generate voluminous data. The desire for efficient evaluation of these recordings motivates the development of automated seizure detection algorithms. Approach. A new seizure detection method is proposed, based on multiple features and a simple thresholding technique. The features are derived from chaos theory, information theory and the power spectrum of EEG recordings and optimally exploit both linear and nonlinear characteristics of EEG data. Main result. The proposed method was tested with real EEG data from an experimental mouse model of epilepsy and distinguished seizures from other patterns with high sensitivity and specificity. Significance. The proposed approach introduces two new features: negative logarithm of adaptive correlation integral and power spectral coherence ratio. The combination of these new features with two previously described features, entropy and phase coherence, improved seizure detection accuracy significantly. Negative logarithm of adaptive correlation integral can also be used to compute the duration of automatically detected seizures.

  7. A modified discrete algebraic reconstruction technique for multiple grey image reconstruction for limited angle range tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiting; Guan, Yong; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiangyu; Li, Fahu; Guo, Pengfei; Tian, Yangchao

    2016-03-01

    The `missing wedge', which is due to a restricted rotation range, is a major challenge for quantitative analysis of an object using tomography. With prior knowledge of the grey levels, the discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) is able to reconstruct objects accurately with projections in a limited angle range. However, the quality of the reconstructions declines as the number of grey levels increases. In this paper, a modified DART (MDART) was proposed, in which each independent region of homogeneous material was chosen as a research object, instead of the grey values. The grey values of each discrete region were estimated according to the solution of the linear projection equations. The iterative process of boundary pixels updating and correcting the grey values of each region was executed alternately. Simulation experiments of binary phantoms as well as multiple grey phantoms show that MDART is capable of achieving high-quality reconstructions with projections in a limited angle range. The interesting advancement of MDART is that neither prior knowledge of the grey values nor the number of grey levels is necessary.

  8. Approach and landing guidance design for reusable launch vehicle using multiple sliding surfaces technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous approach and landing (A&L guidance law is presented in this paper for landing an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV at the designated runway touchdown. Considering the full nonlinear point-mass dynamics, a guidance scheme is developed in three-dimensional space. In order to guarantee a successful A&L movement, the multiple sliding surfaces guidance (MSSG technique is applied to derive the closed-loop guidance law, which stems from higher order sliding mode control theory and has advantage in the finite time reaching property. The global stability of the proposed guidance approach is proved by the Lyapunov-based method. The designed guidance law can generate new trajectories on-line without any specific requirement on off-line analysis except for the information on the boundary conditions of the A&L phase and instantaneous states of the RLV. Therefore, the designed guidance law is flexible enough to target different touchdown points on the runway and is capable of dealing with large initial condition errors resulted from the previous flight phase. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law in different scenarios.

  9. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  10. Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy study of globular proteins in emulsions: influence of droplet flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, V; Genot, C; Riaublanc, A; Anton, M; Axelos, M A V; McClements, D J

    2003-04-23

    Measurement of the intensity (I(MAX)) and/or wavelength (lambda(MAX)) of the maximum in the tryptophan (TRP) emission spectrum using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) can be used to provide information about the molecular environment of proteins in nondiluted emulsions. Many protein-stabilized emulsions in the food industry are flocculated, and therefore, we examined the influence of droplet flocculation on FFFS. Stock oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine serum albumin were prepared by high-pressure valve homogenization (30 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.35 wt % BSA, pH 7). These emulsions were used to create model systems with different degrees of droplet flocculation, either by changing the pH, adding surfactant, or adding xanthan. Emulsions (21 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.22 wt % BSA) with different pH (5 and 7) and molar ratios of Tween 20 to BSA (R = 0-131) were prepared by dilution of the stock emulsion. As the surfactant concentration was increased, the protein was displaced from the droplet surfaces, which caused an increase in both I(MAX) and lambda(MAX), because of the change in TRP environment. The dependence of I(MAX) and lambda(MAX) on surfactant concentration followed a similar pattern in emulsions that were initially flocculated (pH 5) and nonflocculated (pH 7). Relatively small changes in FFFS emission spectra were observed in emulsions (21 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.22 wt % BSA, pH 7) with different levels of depletion flocculation induced by adding xanthan. These results suggested that droplet flocculation did not have a major impact on FFFS. This study shows that FFFS is a powerful technique for nondestructively providing information about the molecular environment of proteins in concentrated and flocculated protein-stabilized emulsions. Nevertheless, in general the suitability of the technique may also depend on protein type and the nature of the physicochemical matrix surrounding the proteins.

  11. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Collisions of $^{16}$O Beams with Emulsion Nuclei at 13-200 A GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .SK 2\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to study, on an event by event basis, multiplicities of produced charged particles, pseudo-rapidity density distributions globally and in selected regions of pseudo-rapidity, density fluctuations, multiplicity and angular distributions of nuclear fragments and recoiling protons (30-400~A~MeV) and cross sections for production and interation of light and medium (Z=2-8) projectile fragments. \\\\ \\\\ The detectors are emulsion chambers as well as conventional emulsion stacks. The emulsion chambers consist of several layers of a plastic substrate, each coated with nuclear emulsion on both sides. Since the best measurement accuracy is obtained for the particles with the smallest emission angles, this design is especially suited for the pseudo-rapidity determination. The emulsion stacks, of both high and low sensitivity, have been exposed in the conventional way, with the beam parallel to the emulsion sheets. These stacks are used to study the fragmentation of the interaction n...

  12. A sectional-splinting technique for impressing multiple implant units by eliminating the use of an open tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakant C. Deogade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of root form implant dentistry by P-I Branemark in the early 1980′s, so many technical advances have been put forward by several authors. However, the open tray impression technique is still performed for impressing multiple implant fixtures as it was first described in the original Branemark procedure manual. The most critical aspect for a successful implant-supported restoration is the passive and an accurate fit of superstructures to avoid preload and loading stresses. Splinting impression technique in multiple implants has gained popularity. Auto-polymerizing acrylic resin is among the most routinely practiced splinting material for multiple implant units. However, unfortunately, it exhibits shrinkage, which makes an impression quite inaccurate. This case report presents the solution to minimize the shrinkage of resin by utilizing sectional-splinting technique as advocated in the previous implant literature.

  13. The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velicogna, D.; Koundakjiian, A.; Beausejour, I.

    1993-01-01

    Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  14. High-speed particle tracking in nuclear emulsion by last-generation automatic microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenise, N.; De Serio, M.; Ieva, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S.; Damet, J.; Kreslo, I.; Savvinov, N.; Waelchli, T.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Esposito, L.S.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Arrabito, L.; Laktineh, I.; Royole-Degieux, P.; Buontempo, S.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Coppola, D.; Formisano, F.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Pistillo, C.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sorrentino, G.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Juget, F.; Hauger, M.; Rosa, G.; Barbuto, E.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Romano, G.; Sirignano, C.

    2005-01-01

    The technique of nuclear emulsions for high-energy physics experiments is being revived, thanks to the remarkable progress in measurement automation achieved in the past years. The present paper describes the features and performances of the European Scanning System, a last-generation automatic microscope working at a scanning speed of 20cm 2 /h. The system has been developed in the framework of the OPERA experiment, designed to unambigously detect ν μ ->ν τ oscillations in nuclear emulsions

  15. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  16. Steroidal compounds in commercial parenteral lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  17. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  18. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-12-30

    The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG-DSC-MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10K/min from room temperature to 350°C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200°C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO2, NH3, SO2 and N2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Demulsification based on the thermal treatment (cooling and heating of W/O emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković Vladana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An important step in waste water treatment is the removal of oil from an O/W emulsion and the separation of oil and water into two phases, a process usually called demulsification. Modern methods of oil removal from waste water were described in the present study. Typical demulsification techniques include thermal, electrical, chemical, acoustic, or mechanical methods of emulsion treatment. The freeze/thaw process was found to be very effective for demulsification. In the freeze/thaw process, water removal from the W/O emulsion depends on the initial oil content, freezing temperature, freezing time, thawing rate and temperature. The described method is a non-destructive and physical method of emulsion treatment and because there is no addition of chemical agents there is no problem of further waste water treatment, which usually exists when chemicals are applied for demulsification. Different methods for oil content determination in the O/W emulsion were also applied and compared in this study (gravimetric, volumetric, measurement of oxygen consumption and emulsion pH, IR analysis of the emulsion, electro analytical measurement.

  20. A simple and low-cost fully 3D-printed non-planar emulsion generator

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-12-23

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices provide a powerful platform for material, chemical and biological applications based on droplet templates. The technique traditionally utilized to fabricate microfluidic emulsion generators, i.e. soft-lithography, is complex and expensive for producing three-dimensional (3D) structures. The emergent 3D printing technology provides an attractive alternative due to its simplicity and low-cost. Recently a handful of studies have already demonstrated droplet production through 3D-printed microfluidic devices. However, these devices invariably use purely two-dimensional (2D) flow structures. Herein we apply 3D printing technology to fabricate simple and low-cost 3D miniaturized fluidic devices for droplet generation (single emulsion) and droplet-in-droplet (double emulsion) without need for surface treatment of the channel walls. This is accomplished by varying the channel diameters at the junction, so the inner liquid does not touch the outer walls. This 3D-printed emulsion generator has been successfully tested over a range of conditions. We also formulate and demonstrate, for the first time, uniform scaling laws for the emulsion drop sizes generated in different regimes, by incorporating the dynamic contact angle effects during the drop formation. Magnetically responsive microspheres are also produced with our emulsion templates, demonstrating the potential applications of this 3D emulsion generator in chemical and material engineering.

  1. Generation of emulsion droplets and micro-bubbles in microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-04-01

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices have become a preferred versatile platform for various fields in physics, chemistry and biology to manipulate small amounts of liquid samples. In addition to microdroplets, microbubbles are also needed for various pro- cesses in the food, healthcare and cosmetic industries. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, the mainstay for fabricating microfluidic devices, usually requires the usage of expensive apparatus and a complex manufacturing procedure. In ad- dition, current methods have the limited capabilities for fabrication of microfluidic devices within three dimensional (3D) structures. Novel methods for fabrication of droplet-based microfluidic devices for the generation microdroplets and microbubbles are therefore of great interest in current research. In this thesis, we have developed several simple, rapid and low-cost methods for fabrication of microfluidic devices, especially for generation of microdroplets and mi- crobubbles. We first report an inexpensive full-glass microfluidic devices with as- sembly of glass capillaries, for generating monodisperse multiple emulsions. Different types of devices have been designed and tested and the experimental results demon- strated the robust capability of preparing monodisperse single, double, triple and multi-component emulsions. Second, we propose a similar full-glass device for generation of microbubbles, but with assembly of a much smaller nozzle of a glass capillary. Highly monodisperse microbubbles with diameter range from 3.5 to 60 microns have been successfully produced, at rates up to 40 kHz. A simple scaling law based on the capillary number and liquid-to-gas flow rate ratio, successfully predicts the bubble size. Recently, the emergent 3D printing technology provides an attractive fabrication technique, due to its simplicity and low cost. A handful of studies have already demonstrated droplet production through 3D-printed microfluidic devices. However, two

  2. Multiple stable isotope tracer technique for studying the metabolic kinetics of amino acids in hepatic failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongqin, Xia; Tengchang, Dai; Jianhua, Zhang; Yaer, Hu; Bingyao, Yu; Xingrong, Xu; Guanlu, Huang; Gengrong, Shen; Yaqiu, Zhou; Hong, Yu

    1987-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the imbalance of amino acid metabolism during hepatic failure, a stable isotope tracer method for observing simultaneously the metabolic kinetics of several amino acids has been established. /sup 15/N-L-Ala, (2,3-D/sub 3/)-Leu and (2,3-D/sub 3/)-Phe were chosen as nonessential, branched chain and aromatic amino acids. A single iv injection of 40 mg N-Ala, 20 mg deuterated Leu and 20 mg deuterated Phe was given to each human subject. Blood samples were taken just before and at different times (up to 60 min) after the injection. Total free amino acids were isolated from the plasma with a small dowex 50 x 8 column and converted to trifluoroacetyl derivatives. Their abundances were then analyzed with a GC-MS system and typical double exponential time course curves were found for all the three labelled amino acids. A two-pool model was designed and applied for compartmental analysis. Significant changes were found in the kinetic parameters of Phe and Leu in patients with fulminant hepatitis or heptic cirrhosis. The half-lives of both Phe pools were longer and the pool sizes were larger than normal subjects, while the half-lives and pool sizes of Leu changes in the opposite direction. No marked change was found in Ala. The significance of intracellular imbalance of Phe and Leu metabolism was discussed. It is evident that the combination of GCMS technique and multiple-tracers labelled with stable isotopes is of great potential for similar purposes.

  3. Interference-Assisted Techniques for Transmission and Multiple Access in Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xun

    communication (VLC) by adopting PNC, with a newly proposed phase-aligning method. PNC could improve the throughput at the bottlenecking relay node in a VLC system, and the proposed phase aligning method can improve the BER performance. The second part of this thesis discusses another interference-assisted technology in communication, that is, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). NOMA multiplexes signals from multiple users in another dimension: power domain, with a non-orthogonal multiplexing in other dimensions such as time, frequency and code. Three schemes are proposed in this part. The first and the second schemes both realize NOMA in VLC, with different multiuser detection (MUD) techniques and a proposed phase pre-distortion method. Although both can decrease the system BER compared to conventional NOMA, the scheme using joint detection (JD) outperforms the one using successive interference cancellation (SIC). The third scheme investigated in this part is a combination of NOMA and a multicarrier precoding (MP) technology based on an orthogonal circulant transform matrix (OCT). This combination can avoid the complicated adaptive bit loading or electronic equalization, making NOMA more attractive in a practical system.

  4. pH-induced inversion of water-in-oil emulsions to oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) using core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer as interfacial stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qijing; Deng, Xiaoyong; An, Zesheng

    2014-06-01

    A pH-responsive core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms was used as an interfacial stabilizer for emulsions containing toluene (80 v%) and water (20 v%). In the pH range of 12.1-9.3, ordinary water-in-oil emulsions were formed. Intermediate multiple emulsions of oil-in-water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water were formed at pH 8.6 and 7.5, respectively. Further lowering the pH resulted in the formation of gelled high internal phase emulsions of oil-in-water type in the pH range of 6.4-0.6. The emulsion behavior was correlated with interfacial tension, conductivity and configuration of the CCS polymer at different pH. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Influence of pH value on microstructure of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by chickpea protein flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Manuel; Isurralde, Nadia; Romero, Alberto; Guerrero, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Food industry is highly interested in the development of healthier formulations of oil-in-water emulsions, stabilized by plant proteins instead of egg or milk proteins. These emulsions would avoid allergic issues or animal fat. Among other plant proteins, legumes are a cost-competitive product. This work evaluates the influence of pH value (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5) on emulsions stabilized by chickpea-based emulsions at two different protein concentration (2.0 and 4.0 wt%). Microstructure of chickpea-based emulsions is assessed by means of backscattering, droplet size distributions and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements. Visual appearances as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy images are obtained to provide useful information on the emulsions structure. Interestingly, results indicate that the pH value and protein concentration have a strong influence on emulsion microstructure and stability. Thus, the system which contains protein surfaces positively charged shows the highest viscoelastic properties, a good droplet size distribution profile and non-apparent destabilization phenomena. Interestingly, results also reveal the importance of rheological measurements in the prediction of protein interactions and emulsion stability since this technique is able to predict destabilization mechanisms sooner than other techniques such as backscattering or droplet size distribution measurements.

  6. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    OpenAIRE

    Muijlwijk, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus need to be controlled. Rapid coalescence of droplets during emulsification increases droplet size and widens the size distribution, and therefore needs to be prevented. To increase stability of emulsio...

  8. A study of recording possibilities of emulsions in autoradiography conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, C.S.; Razorenova, I.F.; Ruditskaya, I.A.; Khruliova, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The autoradiography method is widely used in various fields of science and technique and particularly, in medico-biological and medical researches. Combination of autoradiography method and electron microscopy allowed to carry out researches with qualitatively new level and to study radioactive labels, for example, in separate elements of a cell structure. In the present paper there has been carried out a study of nuclear emulsion properties with reference to electron-microscopic autoradiography conditions. (orig./ORU) [de

  9. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  10. Response of nuclear emulsions to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Pinkerton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Heavy ion tracks in Ilford K-2 emulsion are simulated with a computer program which makes use of the delta-ray theory of track structure, and the special assumption that the response of this emulsion to gamma-rays is 8-or-more hit. The Ilford K-series of nuclear emulsions is produced from a parent stock called K.0 emulsion, sensitized to become K.1 to K.5, and desensitized to become K-1 to K-3. Our simulations demonstrate that the emulsions K.5 through K.0 to K-1 are 1-or-more hit detectors, while K-2 is an 8-or-more hit detector. We have no data for K-3 emulsion. It would appear that emulsions of intermediate hittedness might be produced by an intermediate desensitization, to mimic or match the RBE-LET variations of biological cells, perhaps to produce a ''rem-dosimeter''. In the K-2 emulsion no developable gains are produced by stopping H, He, and Li ions. The emulsion has ''threshold-like'' properties, resembling etchable track detectors. It should prove useful in the measurement of high LET dose in a strong low LET background, as for pions or neutrons. Since it can be expected to accumulate and repair ''sub-lethal damage'', to display the ion-kill and gamma-kill inactivation modes, the grain-count and track width regimes, it may serve to model biological effects. (auth)

  11. Asphalt emulsion; Asphalt nyuzai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The emulsification, manufacture, type, applications, etc. of asphalt emulsion were introduced. The emulsification of asphalt is obtained by mixing heated asphalt into an emulsification liquid where emulsifier is added to water and then agitating it. The emulsifier has both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts in the same molecule, prevents collision between asphalt particles after being arranged properly on the surface of asphalt particles, and prevent separation into water and asphalt. The emulsion is available for penetration and for mixing depending on applications and can be classified into cation emulsion, anion emulsion, and nonionic emulsion according to the property. The emulsion is mainly applied to road pavement, reaching approximately 90 % of the total manufactured emulsion. It is also used for other areas such as the filler of a slab race of each bullet train of Sanyo, Tohoku, and Jyoetsu and is also applied to the formation of a water-proof layer by spraying a high-concentration emulsion with rubber, agricultural water channels using asphalt emulsion and nonwoven cloth, etc. in civil engineering and agricultural fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. System identification via sparse multiple kernel-based regularization using sequential convex optimization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Tianshi; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Ljung, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Model estimation and structure detection with short data records are two issues that receive increasing interests in System Identification. In this paper, a multiple kernel-based regularization method is proposed to handle those issues. Multiple kernels are conic combinations of fixed kernels...

  13. A Technique for Estimating Intensity of Emotional Expressions and Speaking Styles in Speech Based on Multiple-Regression HSMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takao

    In this paper, we propose a technique for estimating the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appearing in speech. The key idea is based on a style control technique for speech synthesis using a multiple regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM), and the proposed technique can be viewed as the inverse of the style control. In the proposed technique, the acoustic features of spectrum, power, fundamental frequency, and duration are simultaneously modeled using the MRHSMM. We derive an algorithm for estimating explanatory variables of the MRHSMM, each of which represents the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appearing in acoustic features of speech, based on a maximum likelihood criterion. We show experimental results to demonstrate the ability of the proposed technique using two types of speech data, simulated emotional speech and spontaneous speech with different speaking styles. It is found that the estimated values have correlation with human perception.

  14. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, K.

    2007-10-01

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the ν μ → ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  15. Combined Acquisition Technique (CAT) for Neuroimaging of Multiple Sclerosis at Low Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Armin; Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A.; Jakob, Peter M.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT) of turbo-spin-echo (TSE) and echo-planar-imaging (EPI) with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF) burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR) for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. Material and Methods The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL) and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. Results Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen’s kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82). CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (pCAT were 29.0 (±5.7) % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (±21.9) % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations). Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. Conclusion T2−/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning. PMID:24608106

  16. Combined acquisition technique (CAT for neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis at low specific absorption rates (SAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Biller

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare a novel combined acquisition technique (CAT of turbo-spin-echo (TSE and echo-planar-imaging (EPI with conventional TSE. CAT reduces the electromagnetic energy load transmitted for spin excitation. This radiofrequency (RF burden is limited by the specific absorption rate (SAR for patient safety. SAR limits restrict high-field MRI applications, in particular. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. T2- and PD-weighted brain images of n = 40 Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients were acquired by CAT and TSE at 3 Tesla. Lesions were recorded by two blinded, board-certificated neuroradiologists. Diagnostic equivalence of CAT and TSE to detect MS lesions was evaluated along with their SAR, sound pressure level (SPL and sensations of acoustic noise, heating, vibration and peripheral nerve stimulation. RESULTS: Every MS lesion revealed on TSE was detected by CAT according to both raters (Cohen's kappa of within-rater/across-CAT/TSE lesion detection κCAT = 1.00, at an inter-rater lesion detection agreement of κLES = 0.82. CAT reduced the SAR burden significantly compared to TSE (p<0.001. Mean SAR differences between TSE and CAT were 29.0 (± 5.7 % for the T2-contrast and 32.7 (± 21.9 % for the PD-contrast (expressed as percentages of the effective SAR limit of 3.2 W/kg for head examinations. Average SPL of CAT was no louder than during TSE. Sensations of CAT- vs. TSE-induced heating, noise and scanning vibrations did not differ. CONCLUSION: T2-/PD-CAT is diagnostically equivalent to TSE for MS lesion detection yet substantially reduces the RF exposure. Such SAR reduction facilitates high-field MRI applications at 3 Tesla or above and corresponding protocol standardizations but CAT can also be used to scan faster, at higher resolution or with more slices. According to our data, CAT is no more uncomfortable than TSE scanning.

  17. A novel headspace gas chromatographic method for in situ monitoring of monomer conversion during polymerization in an emulsion environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhong, Jin-Feng; Hu, Hui-Chao

    2012-05-18

    This paper describes a novel multiple-headspace extraction/gas chromatographic (MHE-GC) technique for monitoring monomer conversion during a polymerization reaction in a water-based emulsion environment. The polymerization reaction of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in an aqueous emulsion is used as an example. The reaction was performed in a closed headspace sample vial (as a mini-reactor), with pentane as a tracer. In situ monitoring of the vapor concentration of the tracer, employing a multiple headspace extraction (sampling) scheme, coupled to a GC, makes it possible to quantitatively follow the conversion of MMA during the early stages of polymerization. Data on the integrated amount of the tracer vapor released from the monomer droplet phase during the polymerization is described by a mathematic equation from which the monomer conversion can be calculated. The present method is simple, automated and economical, and provides an efficient tool in the investigation of the reaction kinetics and effects of the reaction conditions on the early stage of polymerization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. W/O Emulsions in High Electric Fields as Studied by Means of Time Domain Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerdedal, Harald

    1995-11-01

    Since oil and brine coexist in the oil reservoirs, the crude oil produced contains free and emulsified water. The type of emulsion formed, water-in-oil or vice versa, generally depends on the amounts of water and oil before mixing. However, the presence of stabilisers, which occur naturally in crude oil, is also of major importance. It is found that dielectric spectroscopy is an appropriate experimental technique for investigating water-in-oil emulsion. When the instrumentation is equipped with an external power supply, information about the coalescence process can be obtained when the critical electric field is approached. Two distinctly different behaviours are observed. In model emulsions stabilised by commercial liquid surfactants a decrease in the static permittivity is observed as the electric field is applied. On the other hand, model emulsions stabilised by indigenous surfactants extracted from crude oils show an increase in the static permittivity as they are exposed to the external electric field. A quantitative parameter is derived for the emulsion stability. The value of the critical electric field is found to be sensitive to changes in the interfacial conditions, and multivariate analysis proves to be suitable for obtaining information about the general trends of variables on the emulsion stability. The stability of emulsions depends on several parameters, such as the amount and properties of the phases, the properties of the stabiliser, etc. Multivariate analysis reveals what variables are most important in characterising the stability/instability of emulsions.

  19. Stability Proxies for Water-in-Oil Emulsions and Implications in Aqueous-based Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Moradi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have proposed that mobility control mechanisms can positively contribute to oil recovery in the case of emulsions generated in Enhanced-Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Chemical EOR techniques that use alkaline components or/and surfactants are known to produce undesirable emulsions that create operational problems and are difficult to break. Other water-based methods have been less studied in this sense. EOR processes such as polymer flooding and LoSalTM injection require adjustments of water chemistry, mainly by lowering the ionic strength of the solution or by decreasing hardness. The decreased ionic strength of EOR solutions can give rise to more stable water-in-oil emulsions, which are speculated to improve mobility ratio between the injectant and the displaced oil. The first step toward understanding the connection between the emulsions and EOR mechanisms is to show that EOR conditions, such as salinity and hardness requirements, among others, are conducive to stabilizing emulsions. In order to do this, adequate stability proxies are required. This paper reviews commonly used emulsion stability proxies and explains the advantages and disadvantage of methods reviewed. This paper also reviews aqueous-based EOR processes with focus on heavy oil to contextualize in-situ emulsion stabilization conditions. This context sets the basis for comparison of emulsion stability proxies.

  20. ENVIRONMENT INDEPENDENT DIRECTIONAL GESTURE RECOGNITION TECHNIQUE FOR ROBOTS USING MULTIPLE DATA FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Abishek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A technique is presented here for directional gesture recognition by robots. The usual technique employed now is using camera vision and image processing. One major disadvantage with that is the environmental constrain. The machine vision system has a lot of lighting constrains. It is therefore only possible to use that technique in a conditioned environment, where the lighting is compatible with camera system used. The technique presented here is designed to work in any environment. It does not employ machine vision. It utilizes a set of sensors fixed on the hands of a human to identify the direction in which the hand is pointing. This technique uses cylindrical coordinate system to precisely find the direction. A programmed computing block in the robot identifies the direction accurately within the given range.

  1. Retrospective Study on Laser Treatment of Oral Vascular Lesions Using the "Leopard Technique": The Multiple Spot Irradiation Technique with a Single-Pulsed Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hidetaka; Ohshiro, Takafumi; Romeo, Umberto; Noguchi, Tadahide; Maruoka, Yutaka; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Tomov, Georgi; Wada, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Kae; Ohshiro, Toshio; Asamura, Shinichi

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser treatment of oral vascular lesions using the multiple spot irradiation technique with a single-pulsed wave. In laser therapy for vascular lesions, heat accumulation induced by excessive irradiation can cause adverse events postoperatively, including ulcer formation, resultant scarring, and severe pain. To prevent heat accumulation and side effects, we have applied a multiple pulsed spot irradiation technique, the so-called "leopard technique" (LT) to oral vascular lesions. This approach was originally proposed for laser treatment of nevi. It can avoid thermal concentration at the same spot and spare the epithelium, which promotes smooth healing. The goal of the study was to evaluate this procedure and treatment outcomes. The subjects were 46 patients with 47 oral vascular lesions treated with the LT using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), including 24 thick lesions treated using a combination of the LT and intralesional photocoagulation. All treatment outcomes were satisfactory without serious complications such as deep ulcer formation, scarring, bleeding, or severe swelling. Laser therapy with the LT is a promising less-invasive treatment for oral vascular lesions.

  2. Monitoring emulsion homopolymerization reactions using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Reis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a methodology for estimation of monomer concentration during homopolymerization reactions by Raman spectroscopy. The estimation is done using linear models based on two different approaches: a univariate approach and a multivariate approach (with principal component regression, PCR, or partial least squares regression, PLS. The linear models are fitted with data from spectra collected from synthetic samples, i.e., samples prepared by dispersing a known concentration of monomer in polymer emulsions. Homopolymerizations of butyl acrylate and of vinyl acetate were monitored by collecting samples from the reactor, and results show that the methodology is efficient for the model fitting and that Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for on-line monitoring of the emulsion polymerization process.

  3. Photoacoustic monitoring of inhomogeneous curing processes in polystyrene emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutierrez-Juarez, G.; Rodriguez-Vizcaino, J.M.; Varela-Nsjera, J.B.; Rodriguez-Palencia, J.M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Alvarado-Gil, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The time evolution of the inhomogeneous curing process of polystyrene emulsions is studied using a variant of the conventional photoacoustic (PA) technique. The thermal effusivity, as a function of time, is determined in order to monitor the sintering process of a styrene emulsion in different steps of the manufacturing procedure. PA measurements of thermal effusivity show a sigmoidal growth as a function of time during the curing process. The parameterization of these curves permits the determination of the characteristic curing time and velocity of the process. A decreasing of the curing time and an increasing curing velocity for the final steps of the manufacturing process are observed. The feasibility of our approach and its potentiality for the characterization of other curing process are discussed. (author)

  4. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...... with high purity, low fish oil content and high PL, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content. In addition, non-enzymatic browning reactions may also affect the oxidative stability of the marine PL emulsion. These reactions included Strecker degradation and pyrrolization, and their occurrence were due......Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...

  5. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Eric Thomas

    Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed

  7. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  8. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Interleaved Practice with Multiple Representations: Analyses with Knowledge Tracing Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina A.; Pardos, Zachary A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to use Knowledge Tracing to augment the results obtained from an experiment that investigated the effects of practice schedules using an intelligent tutoring system for fractions. Specifically, this experiment compared different practice schedules of multiple representations of fractions: representations were presented to…

  10. Using AVIRIS data and multiple-masking techniques to map urban forest trees species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; S.L. Ustin; E.G. McPherson

    2004-01-01

    Tree type and species information are critical parameters for urban forest management, benefit cost analysis and urban planning. However, traditionally, these parameters have been derived based on limited field samples in urban forest management practice. In this study we used high-resolution Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and multiple-...

  11. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, (4). Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Araki, Kunio (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1983-06-01

    Methyl methacrylate was polymerized in emulsion by Co-60 ..gamma..-rays below 19 deg C in a batch reactor by using sodium lauryl sulfate as emulsifier. The conversion-time curves of the polymerization system showed two rate regions, i.e., a fact conversion rate in early stage, and a much slower rate in latter stage. The change in rate occurred at about 70 % conversion. The molecular weight of product polymer decreased with increasing conversion during the course of polymerization in latter stage, in contrast to the behavior in early stage. The distribution of the monomer in emulsion in latter stage was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The decrease of the molecular weight with conversion is due to the radiation-induced degradation of product polymer accelerated by the monomers absorbed in the polymer particles.

  12. Demulsification of crude oil-in-water emulsions by means of fungal spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona

    Full Text Available The present feature describes for the first time the application of spores from Aspergillus sp. IMPMS7 to break out crude oil-in-water emulsions (O/W. The fungal spores were isolated from marine sediments polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The spores exhibited the ability to destabilize different O/W emulsions prepared with medium, heavy or extra-heavy Mexican crude oils with specific gravities between 10.1 and 21.2°API. The isolated fungal spores showed a high hydrophobic power of 89.3 ± 1.9% and with 2 g of spores per liter of emulsion, the half-life for emulsion destabilization was roughly 3.5 and 0.7 h for extra-heavy and medium crude oil, respectively. Then, the kinetics of water separation and the breaking of the O/W emulsion prepared with heavy oil through a spectrofluorometric technique were studied. A decrease in the fluorescence ratio at 339 and 326 nm (I339/I326 was observed in emulsions treated with spores, which is similar to previously reported results using chemical demulsifiers.

  13. Optimization of folic acid nano-emulsification and encapsulation by maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadpour, Elham; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Aalami, Mehran

    2016-05-01

    Due to susceptibility of folic acid like many other vitamins to environmental and processing conditions, it is necessary to protect it by highly efficient methods such as micro/nano-encapsulation. Our aim was to prepare and optimize real water in oil nano-emulsions containing folic acid by a low energy (spontaneous) emulsification technique so that the final product could be encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. A non ionic surfactant (Span 80) was used for making nano-emulsions at three dispersed phase/surfactant ratios of 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0. Folic acid content was 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0mg/mL of dispersed phase by a volume fraction of 5.0, 8.5, and 12%. The final optimum nano-emulsion formulation with 12% dispersed phase, a water to surfactant ratio of 0.9 and folic acid content of 3mg/mL in dispersed phase was encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. It was found that the emulsification time for preparing nano-emulsions was between 4 to 16 h based on formulation variables. Droplet size decreased at higher surfactant contents and final nano-emulsions had a droplet size<100 nm. Shear viscosity was higher for those formulations containing more surfactant. Our results revealed that spontaneous method could be used successfully for preparing stable W/O nano-emulsions containing folic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of perfluorochemical emulsions and carbogen breathing with fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulder, J.E.; Fish, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsions have been shown to enhance the response of experimental tumors to large single doses of radiation. Clinically, however, perfluorochemical emulsions will be used with only some fractions of multiple fraction radiation courses. To test the efficacy of a perfluorochemical emulsion (Fluosol-DA 20%, supplied by Alpha Therapeutic Co) under these conditions, BA1112 rat sarcomas were treated with three fractions/week of 6.25 Gy/fraction. Once a week, animals were given Fluosol-DA at 15 ml/kg, and allowed to breathe 95% O/sub 2/:5% CO/sub 2/ (carbogen) for 30 min prior to and during irradiation. The tumor regression rate during treatment was significantly greater in the Fluosol arm than in the control arm. Preliminary data analysis shows a 50% tumor control dose of 86.0 Gy (95% cl:78.0 - 94.3 Gy) in the control arm compared to 69.1 Gy (95% cl:58.3 - 77.3 Gy) in the Fluosol arm. The dose modification factor for intermittent Fluosol and carbogen breathing is 1.26 (95% cl:1.08 - 1.50). In the same fractionated schedule 0.4 mg/kg misonidazole, given once per week, gave a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.15 (95% cl:1.03 - 1.33)

  15. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  16. Application of stepwise multiple regression techniques to inversion of Nimbus 'IRIS' observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohring, G.

    1972-01-01

    Exploratory studies with Nimbus-3 infrared interferometer-spectrometer (IRIS) data indicate that, in addition to temperature, such meteorological parameters as geopotential heights of pressure surfaces, tropopause pressure, and tropopause temperature can be inferred from the observed spectra with the use of simple regression equations. The technique of screening the IRIS spectral data by means of stepwise regression to obtain the best radiation predictors of meteorological parameters is validated. The simplicity of application of the technique and the simplicity of the derived linear regression equations - which contain only a few terms - suggest usefulness for this approach. Based upon the results obtained, suggestions are made for further development and exploitation of the stepwise regression analysis technique.

  17. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  18. Exploration of machine learning techniques in predicting multiple sclerosis disease course

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yijun; Healy, Brian C.; Rotstein, Dalia; Guttmann, Charles R. G.; Bakshi, Rohit; Weiner, Howard L.; Brodley, Carla E.; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of machine learning methods for predicting multiple sclerosis disease course. Methods 1693 CLIMB study patients were classified as increased EDSS?1.5 (worsening) or not (non-worsening) at up to five years after baseline visit. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to build the classifier, and compared to logistic regression (LR) using demographic, clinical and MRI data obtained at years one and two to predict EDSS at five years follow-up. Results Baseline data...

  19. On the production of shower particles from light (Cno) and heavy (Ag Br) emulsion nuclei at Dubna energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Nagdy, M.S.; Abdel-Waged, Kh; Abdel-Halim, S.M.; Khalil, E.I.

    2000-01-01

    The reaction cross sections for p, d, He, C, Mg and S beams with different chemical components of emulsion nuclei at 4.5 A GeV/c have been studied with high statistics, and were compared with the calculations according to Glauber model. The multiplicity distributions of shower produced particles from these interactions with light and heavy emulsion nuclei are analyzed in terms of the negative binomial and Poisson distribution laws

  20. Multiple-output all-optical header processing technique based on two-pulse correlation principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, N.; Liu, Y.; Waardt, de H.; Hill, M.T.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    A serial all-optical header processing technique based on a two-pulse correlation principle in a semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror (SLALOM) configuration that can have a large number of output ports is presented. The operation is demonstrated experimentally at a 10Gbit/s Manchester

  1. Neutron/gamma dose separation by the multiple-ion-chamber technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetsch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many mixed n/γ dosimetry systems rely on two dosimeters, one composed of a tissue-equivalent material and the other made from a non-hydrogenous material. The paired chamber technique works well in fields of neutron radiation nearly identical in spectral composition to that in which the dosimeters were calibrated. However, this technique is drastically compromised in phantom due to the degradation of the neutron spectrum. The three-dosimeter technique allows for the fall-off in neutron sensitivity of the two non-hydrogenous dosimeters. Precise and physically meaningful results were obtained with this technique with a D-T source in air and in phantom and with simultaneous D-T neutron and 60 Co gamma ray irradiation in air. The MORSE-CG coupled n/γ three-dimensional Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in a water phantom. Gamma doses calculated in phantom with this code were generally lower than corresponding ion chamber measurements. This can be explained by the departure of irradiation conditions from ideal narrow-beam geometry. 97 references

  2. A novel technique to increase the capacity of code division multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linear parallel interference cancellation (WLPIC) technique for N = 64 at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-3 and 75% overloading at a BER of 10-2. The three-stage WLPIC scheme clearly outperforms matched filter detector, Conventional LPIC and the twostage WLPIC on Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel.

  3. Structured triglyceride emulsions in parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambrier, C; Lauverjat, M; Bouletreau, P

    2006-08-01

    Over the past 3 decades, various concepts for IV fat emulsions (IVFE) have been developed. A randomized, structured-lipid emulsion based on an old technology has recently become available. This structured-lipid emulsion is produced by mixing medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides, then allowing hydrolysis to form free fatty acids, followed by random transesterification of the fatty acids into mixed triglyceride molecules. Studies in animals have shown an improvement in nitrogen balance with the use of these lipid emulsions. Only 8 human clinical studies with these products have been performed. The results of these human clinical studies have been less promising than the animal studies; however, an improvement in nitrogen balance and lipid metabolism exceeds results associated with infusion of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) or a physical mixture of long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides (LCT-MCT). Structured-lipid emulsion seems to induce less elevation in serum liver function values compared with standard IVFEs. In addition, structured-lipid emulsions have no detrimental effect on the reticuloendothelial system. Further studies are necessary in order to recommend the use of structured-lipid emulsions. The clinical community hopes that chemically defined structured triglycerides will make it possible to determine the distribution of specific fatty acids on a specific position on the glycerol core and therefore obtain specific activity for a specific clinical situation.

  4. Kinetics of Crystallization in Polydisperse Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchiev; Kaneko; Sato

    1998-12-01

    The kinetics of isothermal crystallization of the droplets in polydisperse emulsions are analyzed under the condition that each emulsion droplet gives birth to one nucleus only. Expressions are derived for the time dependences of the number of crystallized droplets and the fraction of crystallized droplet volume in the cases of either volume or surface nucleation of the crystals in the droplets. The time for half-crystallization is determined as a function of the emulsion polydispersity, and it is found that the more polydisperse the emulsion, the shorter this time in comparison with that for the corresponding monodisperse emulsion. Formulae are also obtained for the change of the velocity Kv of propagation of ultrasound through polydisperse emulsions during the time t of isothermal crystallization of the droplets in them. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment in an analysis of available Kv(t) data for crystallization in polydisperse palm oil-in-water and n-hexadecane-in-water emulsions. The results obtained are directly applicable to devitrification and polymorphic transformation of disperse solid phases. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Hot-wire ignition of AN-based emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Richard; Goldthorp, Sandra; Badeen, Christopher M. [Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G1 (Canada); Chan, Sek Kwan [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Emulsions based on ammonium nitrate (AN) and water locally ignited by a heat source do not undergo sustained combustion when the pressure is lower than some threshold value usually called the Minimum Burning Pressure (MBP). This concept is now being used by some manufacturers as a basis of safety. However, before a technique to reliably measure MBP values can be designed, one must have a better understanding of the ignition mechanism. Clearly, this is required to avoid under ignitions which could lead to the erroneous interpretation of failures to ignite as failures to propagate. In the present work, facilities to prepare and characterize emulsions were implemented at the Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory. A calibrated hot-wire ignition system operated in a high-pressure vessel was also built. The system was used to study the ignition characteristics of five emulsion formulations as a function of pressure and ignition source current. It was found that these mixtures exhibit complicated pre-ignition stages and that the appearance of endotherms when the pressure is lowered below some threshold value correlates with the MBP. Thermal conductivity measurements using this hot-wire system are also reported. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Tannin-based monoliths from emulsion-templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, A.; Martinez de Yuso, A.; Fierro, V.; Pizzi, A.; Celzard, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient preparation procedures are presented for new and “green” tannin-based organic polyHIPEs. • Highest homogeneity and strength are obtained at an oil fraction near the close-packing value. • Structural and mechanical properties abruptly change above such critical value. - Abstract: Highly porous monoliths prepared by emulsion-templating, frequently called polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) in the literature, were prepared from “green” precursors such as Mimosa bark extract, sunflower oil and ethoxylated castor oil. Various oil fractions, ranging from 43 to 80 vol.%, were used and shown to have a dramatic impact on the resultant porous structure. A critical oil fraction around 70 vol.% was found to exist, close to the theoretical values of 64% and 74% for random and compact sphere packing, respectively, at which the properties of both emulsions and derived porous monoliths changed. Such change of behaviour was observed by many different techniques such as viscosity, electron microscopy, mercury intrusion, and mechanical studies. We show and explain why this critical oil fraction is the one leading to the strongest and most homogeneous porous monoliths

  7. Breaking emulsions in Navy bilge collection and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.C.; Patterson, R.L.

    1978-05-01

    A new bilge waste collection and treatment system, which serves as the collector, transporter, and gravity separator for ship's bilge waste, was used as a medium for the application of chemical demulsification techniques to emulsified oily wastes that are reluctant to separate into the constituent phases. Laboratory tests on 27 demulsifying agents showed that three cation active quaternary ammonium salts were acceptable. They were effective in breaking 5% oil-in-sea-water emulsions over a 20 hr period at 4/sup 0/-45/sup 0/C. The demuslifier concentration required to break the emulsions generally ranged from 1-2% at 4/sup 0/C to 0.1-0.2% at 45/sup 0/C. At 4/sup 0/C, the oil concentration in the separated water was in the 100-500 ppm range; at 45/sup 0/C, no more than 55 ppm was observed with most oil level readings of the order of 25 ppm or less. The demulsifiers were useful in breaking emulsions of Navy distillate oil, used motor oil, turbine oil, and bilge wastes containing unknown oil mixtures. A field demonstration supported the laboratory tests.

  8. Automatic read out system for superheated emulsion based neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.P.; Parihar, A.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Mohan, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ) has developed superheated emulsion technology for neutron and gamma measurements. The laboratory has attempted to develop reader system to display neutron dose and dose rate based on acoustic technique. The paper presents a microcontroller based automatic reader system for neutron measurements using indigenously developed superheated emulsion detector. The system is designed for real time counting of bubbles formed in superheated emulsion detector. A piezoelectric transducer is used for sensing bubble acoustic. The front end of system is mainly consisting of specially designed signal conditioning unit consisted of piezoelectric transducer, an amplifier, a high-pass filter, a differentiator, a comparator and monostable multivibrator. The system is based on PIC 18F6520 microcontroller having large internal SRAM, 10-bit internal ADC, I 2 C interface, UART/USART modules. The paper also describes the design of following peripheral units interfaced to microcontroller temperature and battery monitoring, display, keypad and a serial communication. The reader system measures and displays neutron dose and dose rate, number of bubble and elapsed time. The developed system can be used for detecting very low neutron leakage in the accelerators, nuclear reactors and nuclear submarines. The important features of system are compact, light weight, cost effective and high neutron sensitivity. The prototype was tested and evaluated by exposing to 241 Am-Be neutron source and results have been reported

  9. Extending temporary storage capacity with emulsion breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Guarino, A.; DeVitis, D.; Nolan, K.; Lewis, A.; Smith, B.; Lane, J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of emulsion breakers injected into an oil spill recovery system was examined in both laboratory testing and at the OHMSETT test facility. The tests were designed to assess the injection/mixing/settling regimes needed for optimum water-removal performance from a meso-stable water-in-oil emulsion with an oil spill demulsifier. Different types of injection locations and mixing technologies were examined, including skimmer heads, cargo lines, tank inlets, as well as static in-line and mechanical technologies. During laboratory testing, water-in-oil emulsions and free water was pumped through various lengths of piping loops, an in-line mixer and 8 settling tanks. Following the injection of a demulsifier, the fluid was decanted to observe the emulsion breaking. At the OHMSETT test facility, a Desmi Terminator skimmer recovered the same emulsion from a polluted water surface. Different slick thicknesses, wave heights and recovery rates were used. A demulsifier was also injected into the recovered fluid which was allowed to separate in recovery tanks. The demulsifier efficiency was then measured. It was determined that the demulsifier significantly reduced the volume of water in the recovery tanks and the water content of the remaining emulsion. If free water content was greater than 60 per cent, then the effect of the surfactant was greatly reduced. If no free water was present, the level of turbulence was insufficient to promote emulsion breaking. More than 33 per cent free water content is needed to reduce the bulk viscosity of the fluid and to promote emulsion breaking. The degree of emulsion breaking also increased with increasing mixing energy. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Nuclear techniques in the development of management practices for multiple cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The need for a new coordinated research programme was considered, aimed at the development of adequate fertilizer and water management practices for multiple cropping systems while taking into account soil properties and prevailing weather conditions. Ten papers were presented, followed by a summary of recommendations and a list of participants. Eight of the papers have been entered individually into the INIS data base. The remaining two papers, one on the role of legumes in intercropping systems (presented by Rajat De from New Delhi) and the other on the need for agroforestry and special considerations regarding field research (by P.A. Huxley from Nairobi) assess prevailing conditions but do not discuss isotope application

  11. The use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the multiple payload integration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Dannie E.; Widgren, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A maximum return of science and products with a minimum expenditure of time and resources is a major goal of mission payload integration. A critical component then, in successful mission payload integration is the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements from the principal investigator and payload element developer teams. One effort to use artificial intelligence techniques to improve the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements within the payload integration process is described.

  12. Combined neutron activation analysis techniques for multiple purposes at Portuguese research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Beasley, D.; Almeida, S.M.; Dionisio, I; Canha, N.H.; Galinha, C.; Marques, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Developments of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques using Compton suppression system (CSS), fast pneumatic irradiation facility (SIPRA), epithermal neutron and automatic sample changers (ASCs) associated with the traditional NAA for trace element determination in various sample types are described with reference to specific conditions at the 1 MW Portuguese research reactor (RPI). Experiences in application of k o -IAEA software for data processing in order to deduce the results are also discussed. A selected number of sample types which are intended to the application in biological and environmental areas as well as industrial and material samples are demonstrated which provide challenges in the irradiation, measurement and the interpretation of data to which in most cases a combined solution should be made. The role that each NAA technique can play in the combined scheme along with their optimized characteristics has been studied and shown. The combined NAA techniques at RPI established for on-going and potential projects as well as analysis service with respect to the element scope (48), typically Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, CI, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, I, In, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Vb, Zn and Zr along with detection limits, accuracies and precision's have been evaluated as a trace analysis method meeting the requirements of the intended applications

  13. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  14. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  15. The role of lecithin degradation on the pH dependent stability of halofantrine encapsulated fat nano-emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Iman; Harding, Ian H; Bowater, Ian C; Eldridge, Daniel S; Charman, William N

    2017-08-07

    We report on the successful incorporation of the antimalarial drug, halofantrine, into laboratory based soybean oil emulsions which were designed to mimic the commercially available parenteral fat emulsion, Intralipid ® . A high pH (minimum of pH 9, preferable pH of 11) was required for the drug laden emulsion to remain stable on storage and also to resist breaking under various stresses. Ageing of lecithin samples on storage was noted to result in degradation and a decrease in pH. We argue that this is the main reason for a similar decrease in pH for lecithin based emulsions and subsequent instability in drug laden emulsions. As expected, incorporation of the drug (halofantrine) resulted in lower stability. The (intensity weighted) particle size increased from 281nm for the drug free emulsion to 550nm following a loading of 1gL -1 of halofantrine, indicative of a lowering in stability and this was reflected in a shorter shelf life. Interestingly, incorporation of even higher concentrations of drug then resulted in better stability albeit never as stable as the drug free emulsion. We also report on unusual and complex surface tension behaviour for fresh lecithin where multiple critical concentration points were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Single- or multiple-visit endodontics: which technique results in fewest postoperative problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, six thesis databases (Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, Proquest Digital Dissertations, OAIster, Index to Theses, Australian Digital Thesis Program and Dissertation.com) and one conference report database (BIOSIS Previews) were searched. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if subjects had a noncontributory medical history; underwent nonsurgical root canal treatment during the study; there was comparison between single- and multiple-visit root canal treatment; and if outcome was measured in terms of pain degree or prevalence of flare-up. Data were extracted using a standard data extraction sheet. Because of variations in recorded outcomes and methodological and clinical heterogeneity, a meta-analysis was not carried out, although a qualitative synthesis was presented. Sixteen studies fitted the inclusion criteria in the review, with sample size varying from 60-1012 cases. The prevalence of postoperative pain ranged from 3-58%. The heterogeneity of the included studies was far too great to yield meaningful results from a meta-analysis. Compelling evidence is lacking to indicate any significantly different prevalence of postoperative pain or flare-up following either single- or multiple-visit root canal treatment.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-Ray Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Using novel X-ray techniques, based on grating-interferometry, new imaging modalities can be obtained simultaneously with absorption computed tomography (CT). These modalities, called phase contrast and dark field imaging, measure the electron density and the diffusion length of the sample....... Enhanced contrast capabilities of this X-ray technique makes studies on materials with similar attenuation properties possible. In this paper the focus is set on processing grating-based X-ray tomograms of meat emulsions to quantitatively measure micro-structural changes due to heat treatment. The emulsion...... samples were imaged both in a raw and cooked state. Additionally, different fat types were used in the emulsions in order to compare micro-structural differences when either pork fat or sunflower oil was used. From the reconstructed tomograms the different ingredients in the emulsions were segmented using...

  18. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Localized structures in vibrated emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Claudio; Bruggeman, Jake; Pasquali, Matteo; Deegan, Robert D.

    2012-04-01

    We report our observations of localized structures in a thin layer of an emulsion subjected to vertical oscillations. We observe persistent holes, which are voids that span the layer depth, and kinks, which are fronts between regions with and without fluid. These structures form in response to a finite amplitude perturbation. Combining experimental and rheological measurements, we argue that the ability of these structures to withstand the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding fluid is due to convection within their rim. For persistent holes the oscillatory component of the convection generates a normal stress which opposes contraction, while for kinks the steady component of the convection generates a shear stress which opposes the hydrostatic stress of the surrounding fluid.

  20. Security and reliability analysis of diversity combining techniques in SIMO mixed RF/FSO with multiple users

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of different diversity combining techniques on the security and reliability analysis of a single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) mixed radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic multiuser scheduling. In this model, the user of the best channel among multiple users communicates with a multiple antennas relay node over an RF link, and then, the relay node employs amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol in retransmitting the user data to the destination over an FSO link. Moreover, the authorized transmission is assumed to be attacked by a single passive RF eavesdropper equipped with multiple antennas. Therefore, the system security reliability trade-off analysis is investigated. Closed-form expressions for the system outage probability and the system intercept probability are derived. Then, the newly derived expressions are simplified to their asymptotic formulas at the high signal-to-noise- ratio (SNR) region. Numerical results are presented to validate the achieved exact and asymptotic results and to illustrate the impact of various system parameters on the system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  1. Security and reliability analysis of diversity combining techniques in SIMO mixed RF/FSO with multiple users

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of different diversity combining techniques on the security and reliability analysis of a single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) mixed radio frequency (RF)/free space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic multiuser scheduling. In this model, the user of the best channel among multiple users communicates with a multiple antennas relay node over an RF link, and then, the relay node employs amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol in retransmitting the user data to the destination over an FSO link. Moreover, the authorized transmission is assumed to be attacked by a single passive RF eavesdropper equipped with multiple antennas. Therefore, the system security reliability trade-off analysis is investigated. Closed-form expressions for the system outage probability and the system intercept probability are derived. Then, the newly derived expressions are simplified to their asymptotic formulas at the high signal-to-noise- ratio (SNR) region. Numerical results are presented to validate the achieved exact and asymptotic results and to illustrate the impact of various system parameters on the system performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. Fragmentation of Relativistic 56Fe Nuclei in Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, G.M.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gulyamov, U.G.; Navotny, V.Sh.; Petrov, N.V.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Jakobsson, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.

    1983-03-01

    Experimental data on general characteristics of projectile fragments in inelastic interactions of relativistic 56 Fe nuclei in emulsion (multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions, azimuthal correlations) are presented and discussed. A strong dependence on the mass number of the projectile nucleus is observed for the transverse momenta of the emitted projectile fragments. These fragments exhibit an azimuthal asymmetry caused by the transverse motion of the fragmenting residue, but it is shown that this motion can be responsible only for a part of the increase in the average transverse momentum of the fragments with increasing mass of the projectile. (author)

  3. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.

    2017-09-01

    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  4. Nail bed expansion: A new technique for correction of multiple isolated congenital micronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ghaffarpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital micronychia may involve big toes or may involve other nails. The etiology of micronychia is not clear but amniotic bands, teratogens (drugs, alcohol, Nail Patella Syndrome etc. A 44-year-old woman with multiple isolated congenital micronychia over her hands and feet was selected. The major affected nails were thumbs and Index fingers. Surgical method were done step by step: Anesthesia of the area, extraction of short nail, elevation of nail bed, longitudinal nail bed incisions, suturing the lateral nail bed to the nail wall, covering the nail bed by a splint of plastic suction tube, bandage with gauze Vaseline. Finally, we hypnotized that in congenital micronychia, the main pathology is in nail bed; through this theory by nail bed expansion better outcomes are coming.

  5. Aqueous immersion technique for the irradiation with photons Kaposi's sarcoma multiple foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Miranda, S.; Munoz Carmona, D. M.; Ortyiz Seidel, M.; Gomez-Millan Barrachina, J.; Delgado Gil, M. M.; Ortega Rodriguez, M. J.; Dominguez Rodriguez, M.; Marquez Garcia Salazar, M.; Bayo Lozano, E.

    2011-01-01

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma presents as asymptomatic red-violaceus plaques, usually on the legs below the knees, ankles and soles preferentially. When the disease is spread on the skin preferential treatment is radiation therapy at low doses. Homogeneous irradiation of the various lesions could be very complex due to the irregular geometry of the feet, interdigital lesions on different planes. To overcome this problem, and in the case of disseminated disease and low doses, we propose the technique of dipping the tip in Cuba expanded polystyrene filled with saline with a methacrylate plate 2 cm in depth and irradiation with parallel opposed fields.

  6. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA; Identification des particules par les emulsions nucleaires dans OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, K

    2007-10-15

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations by the appearance of the {nu}{sub {tau}} in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the {tau} lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  7. [Multiple colonic anastomoses in the surgical treatment of short bowel syndrome. A new technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Ogazón, Felipe; Becerril-Martínez, Guillermo; Hernández-Saldaña, Víctor; Zavala-Aznar, Marí Luisa; Bojalil-Durán, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Some surgical pathologies eventually require intestinal resection. This may lead to an extended procedure such as leaving 30 cm of proximal jejunum and left and sigmoid colon. One of the most important consequences of this type of resection is "intestinal failure" or short bowel syndrome. This complex syndrome leads to different metabolic and water and acid/base imbalances, as well as nutritional and immunological challenges along with the problem accompanying an abdomen subjected to many surgical procedures and high mortality. Many surgical techniques have been developed to improve quality of life of patients. We designed a non-transplant surgical approach and performed the procedure on two patients with postoperative short bowel syndrome with work can be performed by a large number of surgeons. The procedure has a low morbimortality rate and offers the opportunity for better control of metabolic and acid/base balance, intestinal transit and proper nutrition. We consider that this technique offers a new alternative for the complex management required by patients with short bowel syndrome and facilitates their long-term nutritional control.

  8. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  9. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) are believed to provide more advantages than fish oil from the same source. They are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic...... acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume...

  10. Locating seismicity on the Arctic plate boundary using multiple-event techniques and empirical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.; Harris, D. B.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Kværna, T.; Larsen, T. B.; Paulsen, B.; Voss, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    The oceanic boundary separating the Eurasian and North American plates between 70° and 84° north hosts large earthquakes which are well recorded teleseismically, and many more seismic events at far lower magnitudes that are well recorded only at regional distances. Existing seismic bulletins have considerable spread and bias resulting from limited station coverage and deficiencies in the velocity models applied. This is particularly acute for the lower magnitude events which may only be constrained by a small number of Pn and Sn arrivals. Over the past two decades there has been a significant improvement in the seismic network in the Arctic: a difficult region to instrument due to the harsh climate, a sparsity of accessible sites (particularly at significant distances from the sea), and the expense and difficult logistics of deploying and maintaining stations. New deployments and upgrades to stations on Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Hopen, and Bjørnøya have resulted in a sparse but stable regional seismic network which results in events down to magnitudes below 3 generating high-quality Pn and Sn signals on multiple stations. A catalogue of several hundred events in the region since 1998 has been generated using many new phase readings on stations on both sides of the spreading ridge in addition to teleseismic P phases. A Bayesian multiple event relocation has resulted in a significant reduction in the spread of hypocentre estimates for both large and small events. Whereas single event location algorithms minimize vectors of time residuals on an event-by-event basis, the Bayesloc program finds a joint probability distribution of origins, hypocentres, and corrections to traveltime predictions for large numbers of events. The solutions obtained favour those event hypotheses resulting in time residuals which are most consistent over a given source region. The relocations have been performed with different 1-D velocity models applicable to the Arctic region and

  11. A Review of the State-of-the-Art on Combining Multiple NDT Techniques in Terms of Precise Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Khaira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present industrial scenario demands optimum quality, feasible processing time and enhanced machine availability to cope-up with continuously increasing customer expectations. To achieve this target, it is mandatory to ensure the optimum performance and higher availability of machinery. Therefore, the present work begins with, review of the research work of different researchers, which includes the applied combinations from year 2000-2016 proceed with discussion on the parameters being checked before making combination of NDT and finally, covers the maintenance performance parameters for quantifying improvement in performance after combining NDT. The result indicates that very few researches uses combination of NDT’s, in areas like aeronautical, compressors etc., and most of the works done in composites to be tested without using any decision making technique.  The researchers and practitioners can use the outcome of this work as a guideline for combining multiple NDT technique to achieve precise fault prediction and forecasting of upcoming failures.

  12. Hierarchical sampling of multiple strata: an innovative technique in exposure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, J.E.; Gonzalez, Elisabeth J.

    2003-01-01

    Sampling of multiple strata, or hierarchical sampling of various exposure sources and activity areas, has been tested and is suggested as a method to sample (or to locate) areas with a high prevalence of elevated blood lead in children. Hierarchical sampling was devised to supplement traditional soil lead sampling of a single stratum, either residential or fixed point source, using a multistep strategy. Blood lead (n=1141) and soil lead (n=378) data collected under the USEPA/UCI Tijuana Lead Project (1996-1999) were analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of sampling soil lead from background sites, schools and parks, point sources, and residences. Results revealed that industrial emissions have been a contributing factor to soil lead contamination in Tijuana. At the regional level, point source soil lead was associated with mean blood lead levels and concurrent high background, and point source soil lead levels were predictive of a high percentage of subjects with blood lead equal to or greater than 10 μg/dL (pe 10). Significant relationships were observed between mean blood lead level and fixed point source soil lead (r=0.93; P 2 =0.72 using a quadratic model) and between residential soil lead and fixed point source soil lead (r=0.90; P 2 =0.86 using a cubic model). This study suggests that point sources alone are not sufficient for predicting the relative risk of exposure to lead in the urban environment. These findings will be useful in defining regions for targeted or universal soil lead sampling by site type. Point sources have been observed to be predictive of mean blood lead at the regional level; however, this relationship alone was not sufficient to predict pe 10. It is concluded that when apparently undisturbed sites reveal high soil lead levels in addition to local point sources, dispersion of lead is widespread and will be associated with a high prevalence of elevated blood lead in children. Multiple strata sampling was shown to be useful in

  13. MRI techniques and cognitive impairment in the early phase of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, R.; De Masi, R.; Nasuelli, D.; Monti Bragadin, L.; Cazzato, G.; Zorzon, M.; Ukmar, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Grop, A.

    2001-01-01

    Correlation studies between various conventional and non-conventional MRI parameters and cognitive impairment in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking, although it is known that a number of patients with early MS have mild cognitive impairment. Our aim was to explore whether this cognitive impairment is dependent on the extent and severity of the burden of disease, diffuse microscopic brain damage or both. We studied 63 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, duration of disease 1-10 years and Expanded disability status scale scores ≤ 5.0. Mean age was 35.4 years, mean duration of disease 5.8 years and median EDSS score 1.5. Neuropsychological performance, psychological function, neurological impairment and disability were assessed. The patients also underwent MRI, including magnetisation-transfer (MT) studies. We quantified the lesion load on T2- and T1-weighted images, the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). No significant difference was found between lesion loads in patients with and without cognitive impairment. In 15 patients (23.8 %) with overall cognitive impairment, median BPF and average NABT MTR were significantly lower than those in patients without cognitive impairment (0.868 vs 0.892, P = 0.02 and 28.3 vs 29.7 P = 0.046, respectively). Multiple regression analysis models demonstrated that the only variables independently correlated with cognitive impairment were: BPF (R = 0.89, P = 0.001) and average NABT MTR (R = 0.76, P = 0.012). Our findings support the hypothesis that, cognitive decline in patients with MS, a low disability score and short duration of disease is directly associated with the extent and severity of diffuse brain damage. The loss of brain parenchyma did not correlate with the severity of microscopic damage in the NABT, indicating that the two processes could be distinct in the early stages of the disease. (orig.)

  14. Statistical Analysis of Reactor Pressure Vessel Fluence Calculation Benchmark Data Using Multiple Regression Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, John F.; Finch, Stephen J.; Lois, Lambros

    2003-01-01

    The calculated >1-MeV pressure vessel fluence is used to determine the fracture toughness and integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. It is therefore of the utmost importance to ensure that the fluence prediction is accurate and unbiased. In practice, this assurance is provided by comparing the predictions of the calculational methodology with an extensive set of accurate benchmarks. A benchmarking database is used to provide an estimate of the overall average measurement-to-calculation (M/C) bias in the calculations ( ). This average is used as an ad-hoc multiplicative adjustment to the calculations to correct for the observed calculational bias. However, this average only provides a well-defined and valid adjustment of the fluence if the M/C data are homogeneous; i.e., the data are statistically independent and there is no correlation between subsets of M/C data.Typically, the identification of correlations between the errors in the database M/C values is difficult because the correlation is of the same magnitude as the random errors in the M/C data and varies substantially over the database. In this paper, an evaluation of a reactor dosimetry benchmark database is performed to determine the statistical validity of the adjustment to the calculated pressure vessel fluence. Physical mechanisms that could potentially introduce a correlation between the subsets of M/C ratios are identified and included in a multiple regression analysis of the M/C data. Rigorous statistical criteria are used to evaluate the homogeneity of the M/C data and determine the validity of the adjustment.For the database evaluated, the M/C data are found to be strongly correlated with dosimeter response threshold energy and dosimeter location (e.g., cavity versus in-vessel). It is shown that because of the inhomogeneity in the M/C data, for this database, the benchmark data do not provide a valid basis for adjusting the pressure vessel fluence.The statistical criteria and methods employed in

  15. Fovea sparing internal limiting membrane peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels for myopic foveoschisis: technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiying; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-10-18

    To introduce a modified surgical technique, the "parafoveal multiple curvelinear internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling", to preserve epi-foveal ILM in myopic foveoschisis surgery. Consecutive patients with myopic foveoschisis were enrolled in the present prospective interventional case series. The surgeries were performed using transconjunctival 23-gauge system. The macular area was divided into quadrants. ILM was peeled off in a curvilinear manner centered around the site that was away from the central fovea in each quadrant. Shearing forces were used to control the direction to keep the peeling away from central fovea. ILM at central fovea of about 500 to 1000 μm was preserved by this technique. This technique was performed in 20 eyes of 20 consecutive patients. Epi-foveal ILM was successfully preserved in all cases using the technique. Patients were followed up for more than 12 months. The mean postoperative logMAR visual acuity improved from 1.67 ± 0.65 preoperatively to 1.15 ± 0.49 (P = 0.015; paired t-test). Postoperative OCT examinations showed that full-thickness macular holes (MHs) did not developed in any case. Central fovea thickness decreased from 910 ± 261 μm preoperatively to 125 ± 85 postoperatively (P = 0.001; paired t-test). Fovea sparing ILM peeling using multiple parafoveal curvilinear peels prevents the development of postoperative full-thickness MHs in eyes with myopic foveoschisis.

  16. Special photographic emulsions for high LET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations into photographic emulsion dosimetry is to attempt to use the photographic emulsion to mimic the response of human tissues to high LET radiations. The program therefore requires that a systematic understanding of the response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiations be achieved. We have been concerned with differences in RBE and in radiation response to both high and LET radiations, and in the interrelationship between observations with these different radiations

  17. Exploration of machine learning techniques in predicting multiple sclerosis disease course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Zhao

    Full Text Available To explore the value of machine learning methods for predicting multiple sclerosis disease course.1693 CLIMB study patients were classified as increased EDSS≥1.5 (worsening or not (non-worsening at up to five years after baseline visit. Support vector machines (SVM were used to build the classifier, and compared to logistic regression (LR using demographic, clinical and MRI data obtained at years one and two to predict EDSS at five years follow-up.Baseline data alone provided little predictive value. Clinical observation for one year improved overall SVM sensitivity to 62% and specificity to 65% in predicting worsening cases. The addition of one year MRI data improved sensitivity to 71% and specificity to 68%. Use of non-uniform misclassification costs in the SVM model, weighting towards increased sensitivity, improved predictions (up to 86%. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy improved minimally with additional follow-up data. Predictions improved within specific groups defined by baseline EDSS. LR performed more poorly than SVM in most cases. Race, family history of MS, and brain parenchymal fraction, ranked highly as predictors of the non-worsening group. Brain T2 lesion volume ranked highly as predictive of the worsening group.SVM incorporating short-term clinical and brain MRI data, class imbalance corrective measures, and classification costs may be a promising means to predict MS disease course, and for selection of patients suitable for more aggressive treatment regimens.

  18. Choppers to optimise the repetition rate multiplication technique on a direct geometry neutron chopper spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickery, A.; Deen, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of repetition rate multiplication (RRM) on direct geometry neutron spectrometers has been established and is the common mode of operation on a growing number of instruments. However, the chopper configurations are not ideally optimised for RRM with a resultant 100 fold flux difference across a broad wavelength band. This paper presents chopper configurations that will produce a relative constant (RC) energy resolution and a relative variable (RV) energy resolution for optimised use of RRM. The RC configuration provides an almost uniform ΔE/E for all incident wavelengths and enables an efficient use of time as the entire dynamic range is probed with equivalent statistics, ideal for single shot measurements of transient phenomena. The RV energy configuration provides an almost uniform opening time at the sample for all incident wavelengths with three orders of magnitude in time resolution probed for a single European Spallation Source (ESS) period, which is ideal to probe complex relaxational behaviour. These two chopper configurations have been simulated for the Versatile Optimal Resolution direct geometry spectrometer, VOR, that will be built at ESS

  19. Modern imaging techniques in patients with multiple myeloma; Moderne Bildgebungsverfahren beim Multiplen Myelom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter; Adam, G.; Derlin, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kroeger, N. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Stammzelltransplantation

    2013-01-15

    Imaging studies are essential for both diagnosis and initial staging of multiple myeloma, as well as for differentiation from other monoclonal plasma cell diseases. Apart from conventional radiography, a variety of newer imaging modalities including whole-body low-dose-CT, whole-body MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT may be used for detection of osseous and extraosseous myeloma manifestations. Despite of known limitations such as limited sensitivity and specificity and the inability to detect extraosseous lesions, conventional radiography still remains the gold standard for staging newly diagnosed myeloma, partly due to its wide availability and low costs. Whole-body low-dose CT is increasingly used due to its higher sensitivity for the detection of osseous lesions and its ability to diagnose extraosseous lesions, and is replacing conventional radiography at selected centres. The highest sensitivity for both detection of bone marrow disease and extraosseous lesions can be achieved with whole-body MRI or 18F-FDG PET/CT. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration may be visualized by whole-body MRI with high sensitivity. Whole-body MRI is at least recommended in all patients with normal conventional radiography and in all patients with an apparently solitary plasmacytoma of bone. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of myeloma lesions are required. (orig.)

  20. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  1. Accuracy improvement techniques in Precise Point Positioning method using multiple GNSS constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileios Psychas, Dimitrios; Delikaraoglou, Demitris

    2016-04-01

    The future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including modernized GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou, offer three or more signal carriers for civilian use and much more redundant observables. The additional frequencies can significantly improve the capabilities of the traditional geodetic techniques based on GPS signals at two frequencies, especially with regard to the availability, accuracy, interoperability and integrity of high-precision GNSS applications. Furthermore, highly redundant measurements can allow for robust simultaneous estimation of static or mobile user states including more parameters such as real-time tropospheric biases and more reliable ambiguity resolution estimates. This paper presents an investigation and analysis of accuracy improvement techniques in the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method using signals from the fully operational (GPS and GLONASS), as well as the emerging (Galileo and BeiDou) GNSS systems. The main aim was to determine the improvement in both the positioning accuracy achieved and the time convergence it takes to achieve geodetic-level (10 cm or less) accuracy. To this end, freely available observation data from the recent Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service, as well as the open source program RTKLIB were used. Following a brief background of the PPP technique and the scope of MGEX, the paper outlines the various observational scenarios that were used in order to test various data processing aspects of PPP solutions with multi-frequency, multi-constellation GNSS systems. Results from the processing of multi-GNSS observation data from selected permanent MGEX stations are presented and useful conclusions and recommendations for further research are drawn. As shown, data fusion from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems is becoming increasingly significant nowadays resulting in a position accuracy increase (mostly in the less favorable East direction) and a large reduction of convergence

  2. Studies of lead pollution in the air of Shanghai by multiple techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, M.G.; Zhang, G.L.; Li, X.L.; Zhang, Y.X.; Yue, W.S.; Chen, J.M.; Wang, Y.S.; Li, A.G.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Shan, Z.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lead pollution in atmosphere has been one of the worrisome environmental problems since the tetraethyl lead was used as an antiknock agent in combustion engines. The presence of lead in urban air, even at low doses, may cause neurological impairments of fetuses and young children. Studies also show that lead may be a factor in high blood pressure and subsequent heart disease. Atmospheric lead has various origins, such as gasoline, industrial emissions and coal burning etc. The present work reports the lead levels in air particulate matter samples of PM 10 collected in recent years to evaluate the effect of the use of unleaded gasoline in Shanghai since 1997. The chemical species of lead in PM 10 and their origins were also studied. To our knowledge it is a first time to give an estimation of lead contribution to air in a city from different emission sources quantitatively. Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), proton microprobe (μ-PIXE), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques were used to study the concentration, the chemical species and the source assignment of Pb in the atmospheric aerosol particles of PM 10 . Average values of 369±74. ng/m 3 and 237±45 ng/m 3 of Pb concentration were obtained from the 19 monitor sites in Shanghai in the winter of 2002 and 2003, respectively. Comparing with the earlier data of 466 ng/m 3 in 1997 and 515 ng/m 3 in 2001, it can be observed that the yearly mean lead levels in PM 10 decline significantly. However, it is also found that rather high levels of lead still remain. in the air of Shanghai after the use of unleaded gasoline. The results of XAFS showed that PbCl 2 , PbSO 4 and PbO were probably the main chemical forms of Pb in atmospheric particulate matter. Based on the lead isotope ratios technique and chemical mass balance analysis, the calculation showed that the main emission sources of Pb in the atmosphere of Shanghai were coal combustors

  3. Analysis of vestibular schwannoma size in multiple dimensions: a comparative cohort study of different measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, J K; Wentzel-Larsen, T; Vassbotn, F; Moen, G; Lund-Johansen, M

    2010-04-01

    In this volumetric study of the vestibular schwannoma, we evaluated the accuracy and reliability of several approximation methods that are in use, and determined the minimum volume difference that needs to be measured for it to be attributable to an actual difference rather than a retest error. We also found empirical proportionality coefficients for the different methods. DESIGN/SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Methodological study with investigation of three different VS measurement methods compared to a reference method that was based on serial slice volume estimates. These volume estimates were based on: (i) one single diameter, (ii) three orthogonal diameters or (iii) the maximal slice area. Altogether 252 T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast, from 139 VS patients, were examined. The retest errors, in terms of relative percentages, were determined by undertaking repeated measurements on 63 scans for each method. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess the agreement between each of the approximation methods and the reference method. The tendency for approximation methods to systematically overestimate/underestimate different-sized tumours was also assessed, with the help of Bland-Altman plots. The most commonly used approximation method, the maximum diameter, was the least reliable measurement method and has inherent weaknesses that need to be considered. This includes greater retest errors than area-based measurements (25% and 15%, respectively), and that it was the only approximation method that could not easily be converted into volumetric units. Area-based measurements can furthermore be more reliable for smaller volume differences than diameter-based measurements. All our findings suggest that the maximum diameter should not be used as an approximation method. We propose the use of measurement modalities that take into account growth in multiple dimensions instead.

  4. Quantifying Uncertainty in Flood Inundation Mapping Using Streamflow Ensembles and Multiple Hydraulic Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.

  5. Wideband simulation of earthquake ground motion by a spectrum-matching, multiple-pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.; Pavlov, V.

    2006-04-01

    To simulate earthquake ground motion, we combine a multiple-point stochastic earthquake fault model and a suite of Green functions. Conceptually, our source model generalizes the classic one of Haskell (1966). At any time instant, slip occurs over a narrow strip that sweeps the fault area at a (spatially variable) velocity. This behavior defines seismic signals at lower frequencies (LF), and describes directivity effects. High-frequency (HF) behavior of source signal is defined by local slip history, assumed to be a short segment of pulsed noise. For calculations, this model is discretized as a grid of point subsources. Subsource moment rate time histories, in their LF part, are smooth pulses whose duration equals to the rise time. In their HF part, they are segments of non-Gaussian noise of similar duration. The spectral content of subsource time histories is adjusted so that the summary far-field signal follows certain predetermined spectral scaling law. The results of simulation depend on random seeds, and on particular values of such parameters as: stress drop; average and dispersion parameter for rupture velocity; rupture nucleation point; slip zone width/rise time, wavenumber-spectrum parameter defining final slip function; the degrees of non-Gaussianity for random slip rate in time, and for random final slip in space, and more. To calculate ground motion at a site, Green functions are calculated for each subsource-site pair, then convolved with subsource time functions and at last summed over subsources. The original Green function calculator for layered weakly inelastic medium is of discrete wavenumber kind, with no intrinsic limitations with respect to layer thickness or bandwidth. The simulation package can generate example motions, or used to study uncertainties of the predicted motion. As a test, realistic analogues of recorded motions in the epicentral zone of the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake were synthesized, and related uncertainties were

  6. Lycopene in Beverage Emulsions: Optimizing Formulation Design and Processing Effects for Enhanced Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Meroni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is a desired ingredient in food formulations, yet its beneficial effects on human health remain largely underexploited due to its poor chemical stability and bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer multiple advantages for the incorporation and delivery of this carotenoid species. Engineering and processing aspects for the development of emulsion-based delivery systems are of paramount importance for maintaining the structural integrity of lycopene. The selection of emulsifiers, pH, temperature, oil phase, particle size, homogenization conditions and presence of other antioxidants are major determinants for enhancing lycopene stability and delivery from a food emulsion. Process and formulation optimization of the delivery system is product-specific and should be tailored accordingly. Further research is required to better understand the underlying mechanisms of lycopene absorption by the human digestive system.

  7. Assessment of air quality in Haora River basin using fuzzy multiple-attribute decision making techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit Pratap; Chakrabarti, Sumanta; Kumar, Sumit; Singh, Anjaney

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with assessment of air quality in Haora River basin using two techniques. Initially, air quality indices were evaluated using a modified EPA method. The indices were also evaluated using a fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) method. The results obtained from the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were compared to that obtained from the modified EPA method. To illustrate the applicability of the methodology proposed herein, a case study has been presented. Air samples have been collected at 10 sampling sites located along Haora River. Six important air pollutants, namely, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 , and lead, were monitored continuously, and air quality maps were generated on the GIS platform. Comparison of the methodologies has clearly highlighted superiority and robustness of the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method in determining air quality indices under study. It has effectively addressed the inherent uncertainties involved in the evaluation, modeling, and interpretation of sampling data, which was beyond the scope of the traditional weighted approaches employed otherwise. The FCA method is robust and prepares a credible platform of air quality evaluation and identification, in face of the uncertainties that remain eclipsed in the traditional approaches like the modified EPA method. The insights gained through the present study are believed to be of pivotal significance in guiding the development and implementation of effective environmental remedial action plans in the study area.

  8. Caractérisation de quelques stabilisants naturels de l'émulsion d'eau dans le pétrole brut, grace à l'extension de la technique de "moussage" au système liquide-liquide eau-huile Characterising Several Natural Stabilizants of Water Emulsion in Crude Oil by Extending the "Foaming" Technique to Oil/Water Liquid-Liquid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste J. -F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'extension de la technique, de " moussage "au système liquide-liquide eau-pétrole brut a permis d'augmenter la concentration d'une fraction du pétrole en acides naphténiques, amines, asphaltènes et porphyrines, grâce à l'accroissement de l'aire de l'interface entre les deux phases non miscibles. Ces espèces chimiques présentes à l'interface favorisent la formation des films entre les gouttelettes de phase aqueuse dispersée. Elles sont à l'origine de la stabilité de I'émulsion d'eau dans le pétrole. The " foaming " technique was extended to a water/crude-oil liquid-liquid system so as to increase the concentration of naphthenic acids, amines, asphaltenes and porphyrins in an oil fraction by enlarging the interface orea between the two immiscible phases. The presence of these chemical species at the interface promotes the formation of films between the dispersed aqueuss-phase droplets. They are at the origin of the stability of a water in oil emulsion.

  9. A Novel Randomized Search Technique for Multiple Mobile Robot Paths Planning In Repetitive Dynamic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Behravesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Presented article is studying the issue of path navigating for numerous robots. Our presented approach is based on both priority and the robust method for path finding in repetitive dynamic. Presented model can be generally implementable and useable: We do not assume any restriction regarding the quantity of levels of freedom for robots, and robots of diverse kinds can be applied at the same time. We proposed a random method and hill-climbing technique in the area based on precedence plans, which is used to determine a solution to a given trajectory planning problem and to make less the extent of total track. Our method plans trajectories for particular robots in the setting-time scope. Therefore, in order to specifying the interval of constant objects similar to other robots and the extent of the tracks which is traversed. For measuring the hazard for robots to conflict with each other it applied a method based on probability of the movements of robots. This algorithm applied to real robots with successful results. The proposed method performed and judged on both real robots and in simulation. We performed sequence of100tests with 8 robots for comparing with coordination method and current performances are effective. However, maximizing the performance is still possible. These performances estimations performed on Windows operating system and 3GHz Intel Pentium IV with and compiles with GCC 3.4. We used our PCGA robot for all experiments.  For a large environment of 19×15m2where we accomplished 40tests, our model is competent to plan high-quality paths in a severely short time (less than a second. Moreover, this article utilized lookup tables to keep expenses the formerly navigated robots made, increasing the number of robots don’t expand computation time.

  10. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of benign thyroid nodules using a multiple overlapping shot technique in a 3-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Konstantin David; Korkusuz, Yücel; Gröner, Daniel; Erbelding, Christian; Happel, Christian; Luboldt, Wolfgang; Grünwald, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the decrease of benign thyroid nodules after bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in a 3-month follow-up using a multiple overlapping shot technique ('MOST'). Methods A total of 18 patients with 20 symptomatic benign thyroid nodules (17 cold nodules, 3 hyperfunctioning nodules) were treated in one single session by bipolar RFA. Bipolar ablation was performed using MOST. The nodule volumes were measured prior to ablation and 3 months after the procedure using ultrasound. The population consisted of either solid (>80% solid tissue within the volume of interest), complex, or cystic nodules (nodule volume (ΔV), median 5.3 mL (range 0.13-43.1 mL), corresponding to a relative reduction in mean of 56 ± 17.9%. Median initial volume was 8 mL (range 0.48-62 mL); 3 months after ablation a median volume of 2.3 mL (range 0.3-32 mL) was measured. Nodule growth ≥50% occurred in 70% (14 nodules). At the follow-up no complications such as infections, persisting pain, nerve injuries or immunogen stimulation occurred. Patients with cold nodules (15) remained euthyroid, with hyperfunctioning nodules either euthyroid (2) or latent hypofunctional (1). Conclusion The use of bipolar RFA is an effective, safe and suitable thermoablative technique to treat benign thyroid nodules. Combined with the multiple overlapping shot technique it allows sufficient ablation.

  11. IMPLANTABLE RESONATORS – A TECHNIQUE FOR REPEATED MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN AT MULTIPLE DEEP SITES WITH IN VIVO EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Hou, Huagang; Sucheta, Artur; Williams, Benjamin B.; Lariviere, Jean P.; Khan, Nadeem; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2013-01-01

    EPR oximetry using implantable resonators allow measurements at much deeper sites than are possible with surface resonators (> 80 mm vs. 10 mm) and have greater sensitivity at any depth. We report here the development of an improvement of the technique that now enables us to obtain the information from multiple sites and at a variety of depths. The measurements from the various sites are resolved using a simple magnetic field gradient. In the rat brain multi-probe implanted resonators measured pO2 at several sites simultaneously for over 6 months to record under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. This technique also facilitates measurements in moving parts of the animal such as the heart, because the orientation of the paramagnetic material relative to the sensitive small loop is not altered by the motion. The measured response is very fast, enabling measurements in real time of physiological and pathological changes such as experimental cardiac ischemia in the mouse heart. The technique also is quite useful for following changes in tumor pO2, including applications with simultaneous measurements in tumors and adjacent normal tissues. PMID:20204802

  12. Variable weight Khazani-Syed code using hybrid fixed-dynamic technique for optical code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah

    2016-10-01

    Future Internet consists of a wide spectrum of applications with different bit rates and quality of service (QoS) requirements. Prioritizing the services is essential to ensure that the delivery of information is at its best. Existing technologies have demonstrated how service differentiation techniques can be implemented in optical networks using data link and network layer operations. However, a physical layer approach can further improve system performance at a prescribed received signal quality by applying control at the bit level. This paper proposes a coding algorithm to support optical domain service differentiation using spectral amplitude coding techniques within an optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) scenario. A particular user or service has a varying weight applied to obtain the desired signal quality. The properties of the new code are compared with other OCDMA codes proposed for service differentiation. In addition, a mathematical model is developed for performance evaluation of the proposed code using two different detection techniques, namely direct decoding and complementary subtraction.

  13. Improving Conductivity Image Quality Using Block Matrix-based Multiple Regularization (BMMR Technique in EIT: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Block Matrix based Multiple Regularization (BMMR technique is proposed for improving conductivity image quality in EIT. The response matrix (JTJ has been partitioned into several sub-block matrices and the highest eigenvalue of each sub-block matrices has been chosen as regularization parameter for the nodes contained by that sub-block. Simulated boundary data are generated for circular domain with circular inhomogeneity and the conductivity images are reconstructed in a Model Based Iterative Image Reconstruction (MoBIIR algorithm. Conductivity images are reconstructed with BMMR technique and the results are compared with the Single-step Tikhonov Regularization (STR and modified Levenberg-Marquardt Regularization (LMR methods. It is observed that the BMMR technique reduces the projection error and solution error and improves the conductivity reconstruction in EIT. Result show that the BMMR method also improves the image contrast and inhomogeneity conductivity profile and hence the reconstructed image quality is enhanced. ;doi:10.5617/jeb.170 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 33-47, 2011

  14. Tri-fuel (diesel-biodiesel-ethanol) emulsion characterization, stability and the corrosion effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, M. H.; Mukhtar, N. A. M.; Yohaness Hagos, Ftwi; Noor, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the result of experimenting emulsified tri-fuel in term of stability, physico-chemical properties and corrosion effect on three common metals. The results were interpreted in terms of the impact of five minutes emulsification approach. Tri-fuel emulsions were varied in proportion ratio consist of biodiesel; 0%, 5%, 10%, and ethanol; 5%, 10%, 15%. Fuel characterization includes density, calorific value, flash point, and kinematic viscosity. Flash point of tri-fuel emulsion came with range catalog. Calorific value of tri-fuel emulsion appeared in declining pattern as more ethanol and biodiesel were added. Biodiesel promoted flow resistance while ethanol with opposite effect. 15% ethanol content in tri-fuel emulsion separated faster than 10% ethanol content but ethanol content with 5% yield no phase separation at all. Close cap under static immersion with various ratio of tri-fuel emulsions for over a month, corrosiveness attack was detected via weight loss technique on aluminum, stainless steel and mild steel.

  15. Study of v interactions and background estimation in the OPERA emulsion film detector

    CERN Document Server

    Janicskó-Csáthy, József

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus ) experiment or CNGS1 was approved in 2001 by CERN and presently is under construction. Data-taking is expected to start in 2006. The experiment is designated to the νμ  ντ oscillation search. OPERA is a hybrid detector comprising a number of electronic detectors and a specially designed nuclear emulsion stack interlaced with lead plates. The total target mass of the detector will be about 1.8 kt. This impressive mass needed for neutrino detection is combined with an even more impressive spatial resolution of about a m , characteristic of the nuclear emulsion technique. The detection of ντ is based on the observation of the decay of the τ lepton. The fine grained structure of nuclear emulsions offers the possibility to directly observe such a decay and by the means of kinematical analysis can be clearly separated from background events. Nuclear emulsions will be produced and processed in industrial quantities and the readout will be don...

  16. Comparison of two methods for extraction of volatiles from marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic headspace (DHS) thermal desorption principle using Tenax GR tube, as well as the solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) tool with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 50/30 µm CAR/PDMS SPME fiber, both coupled to GC/MS were implemented for the isolation and identification of both lipid...... and Strecker derived volatiles in marine phospholipids (PL) emulsions. Comparison of volatile extraction efficiency was made between the methods. For marine PL emulsions with a highly complex composition of volatiles headspace, a fiber saturation problem was encountered when using CAR/PDMS‐SPME for volatiles...... analysis. However, the CAR/PDMS‐SPME technique was efficient for lipid oxidation analysis in emulsions of less complex headspace. The SPME method extracted volatiles of lower molecular weights more efficient than the DHS method. On the other hand, DHS Tenax GR appeared to be more efficient in extracting...

  17. Track following of Ξ"- hyperons in nuclear emulsion for the E07 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Akihiro; Endo, Yoko; Hoshino, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The E07 experiment is expected to provide knowledge of S = -2 systems with ten times more statistics than that of the past E373 experiment. To achieve this in a reasonable time, an automated track following system is very important. This system consists of three techniques, 'emulsion surface detection', 'alignment of plate by plate connection with K"- beams' and 'followed track recognition in nuclear emulsion'. Ξ"- hyperon candidate tracks are followed from the entrance to the end point in the emulsion. If the system operates properly such that one track is processed in each plate within one minute, all Ξ"- candidate tracks can be followed successfully to their stopping points in a year. The development of softwares for the system is ongoing. (author)

  18. Investigation the physicochemical properties and stability of w/o emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Baloch, M.K.; Hameed, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the stability of W/O emulsions with respect to coalescence time. The various concentrations of water were dispersed in oil phase (soybean oil). The compositions of organic and aqueous phases were varied by adding emulsifier (Monoglyceride), sodium chloride and thickening agent (mango's pulp). The technique employed for the mixing of two phases was homogenization. The Emulsion Stability Index (ESI), Viscosity changes, separation of organic and aqueous phases as a function of storage time have been studied. It has been found that monoglyceride increases the stability and decreases the emulsion stability index (ESI) and also decreases the viscosity changes with storage time while electrolytes and mango's pulp encourage the coalescence process and enhance the instability of the system. On the other hand the system that contained all the organic and aqueous ingredients showed high stability. (author)

  19. Anisotropic and correlated emissions of short range charged particles in anti pAg/Br reactions of 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1983-12-01

    Anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum were studied by means of the emulsion technique. A group of short range charged particles was observed. For the events with one short track, a backward and transversal emission was seen, probably due to some very fast process. For the events with two short tracks, a back-to-back emission was seen, indicating some two-body decay where the target nucleus possibly behaves spectator-like. The rates and forward collimations suggest that the same physical process causes the different multiplicities

  20. An Innovative Technique to Assess Spontaneous Baroreflex Sensitivity with Short Data Segments: Multiple Trigonometric Regressive Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Rüdiger, Heinz; Haase, Rocco; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2018-01-01

    Objective: As the multiple trigonometric regressive spectral (MTRS) analysis is extraordinary in its ability to analyze short local data segments down to 12 s, we wanted to evaluate the impact of the data segment settings by applying the technique of MTRS analysis for baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) estimation using a standardized data pool. Methods: Spectral and baroreflex analyses were performed on the EuroBaVar dataset (42 recordings, including lying and standing positions). For this analysis, the technique of MTRS was used. We used different global and local data segment lengths, and chose the global data segments from different positions. Three global data segments of 1 and 2 min and three local data segments of 12, 20, and 30 s were used in MTRS analysis for BRS. Results: All the BRS-values calculated on the three global data segments were highly correlated, both in the supine and standing positions; the different global data segments provided similar BRS estimations. When using different local data segments, all the BRS-values were also highly correlated. However, in the supine position, using short local data segments of 12 s overestimated BRS compared with those using 20 and 30 s. In the standing position, the BRS estimations using different local data segments were comparable. There was no proportional bias for the comparisons between different BRS estimations. Conclusion: We demonstrate that BRS estimation by the MTRS technique is stable when using different global data segments, and MTRS is extraordinary in its ability to evaluate BRS in even short local data segments (20 and 30 s). Because of the non-stationary character of most biosignals, the MTRS technique would be preferable for BRS analysis especially in conditions when only short stationary data segments are available or when dynamic changes of BRS should be monitored.

  1. Enhancing saltiness in emulsion based foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Mita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of enhancing saltiness perception in emulsions and a liquid food formulated with the emulsions (ambient vegetable soup through increasing salt concentration in the continuous phase while retaining the fat content of the (aqueous continuous product was evaluated. This was accomplished by increasing the droplet phase volume using duplex emulsion technology. Viscosity and droplet size distribution was measured. Saltiness evaluation was based on simple paired comparison testing (2-Alternate Forced Choice tests, BS ISO 5495:2007. Results Single and duplex emulsions and emulsion-based products had comparable mean oil droplet diameters (25 to 30 μm; however, viscosity of the duplex emulsion systems was considerably higher. Sensory assessment of saltiness of emulsion pairs (2AFC indicated duplex technology enhanced saltiness perception compared to a single emulsion product at the same salt content (6.3 g/100 g in both simple emulsions and the formulated food product (P = 0.0596 and 0.0004 respectively although assessors noted the increased viscosity of the duplex systems. The formulated food product also contained pea starch particles which may have aided product mixing with saliva and thus accelerated tastant transport to the taste buds. Lowering salt content in the duplex systems (to levels of aqueous phase salt concentration similar to the level in the single systems resulted in duplex systems being perceived as less salty than the single system. It appears that the higher viscosity of the duplex systems could not be “overruled” by enhanced mixing through increased droplet phase volume at lowered salt content. Conclusions The results showed that salt reduction may be possible despite the added technology of duplex systems increasing the overall measured viscosity of the product. The changes in viscosity behavior impact mouthfeel, which may be exploitable in addition to the contribution towards salt

  2. Comparison of Enzymatic Assay and Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique in the Assessment of Microbial Quality of the Karoon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Nikaeen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological monitoring of surface waters designated for use as drinking water is essential by water utilities for the design and operation of drinking water treatment plants. Enzymatic assays have been applied as a rapid alternative approach to assess the microbiological quality of freshwater. In this study, the LMX broth (LMX as an enzymatic assay was compared with the standard method of multiple tube fermentation technique (MTF for the microbial monitoring of the Karoon River. Enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli averaged 9928 and 6684 MPN/ 100 ml by the LMX and 7564 and 6546 MPN/ 100 ml for the MTF, respectively. This difference was statistically significant for TC but the overall analysis revealed no difference between E. coli recoveries on LMX and MTF. In conclusion, LMX can be used for the enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in surface waters as it is less lobar-intensive, yields faster result, and simultaneously detects both total coliforms and E. coli.

  3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF COSMETIC MULTI- PLE EMULSIONS LOADED WITH ASCORBYL PALMITATE AND SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE SALTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hira; Akhtar, Naveed; Ali, Atif; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Sohail, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Nawaz, Zarqa

    2016-09-01

    Stability of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives for quenching synergistic antioxidant activities and to treat oxidative related diseases is a major issue. This study was aimed to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives (ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as functional ingredients in a newly formulated multiple emulsion of the W//W type to attain the synergistic antioxidant effects and the resultant system's long term physical and chemical stability. Several multiple emulsions using the same concentration of emulsifiers but different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were developed. Three finally selected multiple emulsions (ME₁, ME₂ and ME₃) were evaluated for physical stability in terms of rheology, microscopy, conductivity, pH, and organoleptic characteristics under different storage conditions for 3 months. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on Sykam GmbH HPLC system (Germany), equipped with a variable UV detector. Results showed that at accelerated storage conditions all the three multiple emulsions had shear thinning behavior of varying shear stress with no influence of location of functional ingredients in a carrier system. Conductivity values increased and pH values remained within the skin pH range for 3 months. Microscopic analysis showed an increase in globule size with the passage of time, especially at higher temperatures while decreased at low temperatures. Centrifugation test did not cause phase separation till the 45th day, but little effects after 2 months. Chemical stability analysis by HPLC at the end of 3 months showed that ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were almost stable in all multiple emulsions with no influence of their location in a carrier system. Multiple emulsions were found a stable carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives to enhance their desired effects. Considering that many topical formulations

  4. A comparison of multiple regression and neural network techniques for mapping in situ pCO2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nathalie; Watson, Andrew J.; Watson, Adam R.

    2005-01-01

    Using about 138,000 measurements of surface pCO 2 in the Atlantic subpolar gyre (50-70 deg N, 60-10 deg W) during 1995-1997, we compare two methods of interpolation in space and time: a monthly distribution of surface pCO 2 constructed using multiple linear regressions on position and temperature, and a self-organizing neural network approach. Both methods confirm characteristics of the region found in previous work, i.e. the subpolar gyre is a sink for atmospheric CO 2 throughout the year, and exhibits a strong seasonal variability with the highest undersaturations occurring in spring and summer due to biological activity. As an annual average the surface pCO 2 is higher than estimates based on available syntheses of surface pCO 2 . This supports earlier suggestions that the sink of CO 2 in the Atlantic subpolar gyre has decreased over the last decade instead of increasing as previously assumed. The neural network is able to capture a more complex distribution than can be well represented by linear regressions, but both techniques agree relatively well on the average values of pCO 2 and derived fluxes. However, when both techniques are used with a subset of the data, the neural network predicts the remaining data to a much better accuracy than the regressions, with a residual standard deviation ranging from 3 to 11 μatm. The subpolar gyre is a net sink of CO 2 of 0.13 Gt-C/yr using the multiple linear regressions and 0.15 Gt-C/yr using the neural network, on average between 1995 and 1997. Both calculations were made with the NCEP monthly wind speeds converted to 10 m height and averaged between 1995 and 1997, and using the gas exchange coefficient of Wanninkhof

  5. Automated batch emulsion copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mballa Mballa, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Herk, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method for carrying out emulsion copolymerization using an automated synthesizer. For this purpose, batch emulsion copolymerizations of styrene and butyl acrylate were investigated. The optimization of the polymerization system required tuning the liquid transfer method,

  6. Application of the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) technique to subcritical reactivity worth measurements in thermal and fast reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, P.; Fougeras, P.; Mellier, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Amplified Source Multiplication (ASM) method and its improved Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method have been widely used in the CEA's EOLE and MASURCA critical facilities over the past decades for the determination of reactivity worths by using fission chambers in subcritical configurations. They have been successfully applied to absorber (single or clusters) worth measurement in both thermal and fast spectra, or for (sodium or water) void reactivity worths. The ASM methodology, which is the basic technique to estimate a reactivity worth, uses relatively simple relationships between count rates of efficient miniature fission chambers located in slightly subcritical reference and perturbed configurations. If this method works quite well for small reactivity variation (a few effective delayed neutron fraction), its raw results needs to be corrected to take into account the flux perturbation in the fission chamber. This is performed by applying to the measurement a correction factor called MSM. Its characteristics is to take into account the local space and energy variation of the spectrum in the fission chamber, through standard perturbation theory applied to neutron transport calculation in the perturbed configuration. The proposed paper describes in details both methodologies, with their associated uncertainties. Applications on absorber cluster worth in the MISTRAL-4 full MOX mock-up core and the last core loaded in MASURCA show the importance of the MSM correction on raw data. (authors)

  7. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and high dynamic pressure on stability and rheological properties of model oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigikocin, Erman; Mert, Behic; Alpas, Hami

    2011-09-01

    Both static and dynamic high pressure applications provide interesting modifications in food structures which lead to new product formulations. In this study, the effects of two different treatments, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high dynamic pressure (HDP), on oil-in-water emulsions were identified and compared. Microfluidization was selected from among the HDP homogenization techniques. The performance of each process was analyzed in terms of rheological modifications and emulsion stability improvements compared with the coarse emulsions. The stability of the emulsions was determined comparatively by using an analytical photo-centrifuge device employing novel analysis technology. Whey protein isolate (WPI) in combination with a food polysaccharide (xanthan gum, guar gum or locust bean gum) were used as emulsifying and stabilizing ingredients. The effective disruption of oil droplets and the degradation of polysaccharides by the shear forces under high pressure in HDP microfluidization yielded finer emulsions with lower viscosities, leading to distinctive improvements in emulsion stability. On the other hand, improvements in stability obtained with HHP treatment were due to the thickening of the emulsions mainly induced by protein unfolding. The corresponding increases in viscosity were intensified in emulsion formulations containing higher oil content. Apart from these, HHP treatment was found to be relatively more contributive to the enhancements in viscoelastic properties.

  8. Microfluidic preparation and self diffusion PFG-NMR analysis of monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Eric; Maan, Abid Aslam; Acquistapace, Simone; Burbidge, Adam; Johns, Michael L; Gunes, Deniz Z; Clausen, Pascal; Syrbe, Axel; Hugo, Julien; Schroen, Karin; Miralles, Vincent; Atkins, Tim; Gray, Richard; Homewood, Philip; Zick, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) double emulsions have been prepared using microfluidic glass devices designed and built primarily from off the shelf components. The systems were easy to assemble and use. They were capable of producing double emulsions with an outer droplet size from 100 to 40 μm. Depending on how the devices were operated, double emulsions containing either single or multiple water droplets could be produced. Pulsed-field gradient self-diffusion NMR experiments have been performed on the monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions to obtain information on the inner water droplet diameter and the distribution of the water in the different phases of the double emulsion. This has been achieved by applying regularization methods to the self-diffusion data. Using these methods the stability of the double emulsions to osmotic pressure imbalance has been followed by observing the change in the size of the inner water droplets over time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of multiple molecular subtyping techniques to investigate a Legionnaires' disease outbreak due to identical strains at two tourist lodges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolen, M; Breiman, R F; Barbaree, J M; Gunn, R A; Stone, K M; Spika, J S; Dennis, D T; Mao, S H; Vogt, R L

    1993-10-01

    A multistate outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred among nine tour groups of senior citizens returning from stays at one of two lodges in a Vermont resort in October 1987. Interviews and serologic studies of 383 (85%) of the tour members revealed 17 individuals (attack rate, 4.4%) with radiologically documented pneumonia and laboratory evidence of legionellosis. A survey of tour groups staying at four nearby lodges and of Vermont-area medical facilities revealed no additional cases. Environmental investigation of common tour stops revealed no likely aerosol source of Legionella infection outside the lodges. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from water sources at both implicated lodges, and the monoclonal antibody subtype matched those of the isolates from six patients from whom clinical isolates were obtained. The cultures reacted with monoclonal antibodies MAB1, MAB2, 33G2, and 144C2 to yield a 1,2,5,7 or a Benidorm 030E pattern. The strains were also identical by alloenzyme electrophoresis and DNA ribotyping techniques. The epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that concurrent outbreaks occurred following exposures to the same L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strain at two separate lodges. Multiple molecular subtyping techniques can provide essential information for epidemiologic investigations of Legionnaires' disease.

  10. An alkyl polyglucoside-mixed emulsifier as stabilizer of emulsion systems: the influence of colloidal structure on emulsions skin hydration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Snezana; Lukic, Milica; Jaksic, Ivana; Reichl, Stephan; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Müller-Goymann, Christel

    2011-06-01

    To be considered as a suitable vehicle for drugs/cosmetic actives, an emulsion system should have a number of desirable properties mainly dependent on surfactant used for its stabilization. In the current study, C(12-14) alkyl polyglucoside (APG)-mixed emulsifier of natural origin has been investigated in a series of binary (emulsifier concentration 10-25% (w/w)) and ternary systems with fixed emulsifier content (15% (w/w)) with or without glycerol. To elucidate the systems' colloidal structure the following physicochemical techniques were employed: polarization and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (WAXD and SAXD), thermal analysis (DSC and TGA), complex rheological, pH, and conductivity measurements. Additionally, the emulsion vehicles' skin hydration potential was tested in vivo, on human skin under occlusion. In a series of binary systems with fixed emulsifier/water ratios ranging from 10/90 to 25/75 the predominance of a lamellar mesophase was found, changing its character from a liquid crystalline to a gel crystalline type. The same was observed in gel emulsions containing equal amounts of emulsifier and oil (15% (w/w)), but varying in glycerol content (0-25%). Different emulsion samples exhibited different water distribution modes in the structure, reflecting their rheological behavior and also their skin hydration capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Supralinearity and particle discrimination in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Larsson, L.; Pinkerton, F.E.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear emulsions may be desensitized in manufacture and/or may be so processed as to discriminate against small latent image sites; to yield supralinear sensitometric response after x-irradiation; and to discriminate against lightly ionizing radiations in favor of heavily ionizing particles. In a circumstance where one electron passing through an emulsion grain is unlikely to generate a latent image sufficiently large to yield a visible grain after development, some larger number of electrons is required, resulting in 'many-hit' statistics, supralinearity, and particle discrimination: for lightly ionizing particles are not likely to generate more than one delta-ray (secondary electron) in their passage through or near a grain. Since these properties are analogous to the response of many biological cells to ionizing radiations, such emulsion-developer combinations have the potential to mimic the response of biological systems to particulate radiations of different charge and speed. (author)

  12. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1983-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion copolymerization of strong acid monomer was investigated to reduce the curing temperature of core shell particle emulsion having N-(n-butoxymethyl) acrylamide (NBM) moities in shell part. The strong acid monomers used were 3-chloro-2-acidphosphoxypropyl methacrylate, acid-phosphoxyethyl methacrylate, 2-acrylamide-2-methyl-propane sulfonic acid, and sodium p-styrenesulfonate. Curing was remarkably promoted by the presence of copolymerized strong acid monomer in shell part. Tensile strength of the film cured at 120 0 C was identical with that of conventional NBM core-shell emulsion film cured at 160 0 C. However, the water absorbing capacity of the film cured at 120 0 C was extremely high. The water resistance was found to increase with decreasing the amount of adsorbed polyelectrolyte on the particle surface. (author)

  13. Decoupling Solar Variability and Instrument Trends Using the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Harder, Jerald; Snow, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The solar spectral irradiance (SSI) dataset is a key record for studying and understanding the energetics and radiation balance in Earth's environment. Understanding the long-term variations of the SSI over timescales of the 11-year solar activity cycle and longer is critical for many Sun-Earth research topics. Satellite measurements of the SSI have been made since the 1970s, most of them in the ultraviolet, but recently also in the visible and near-infrared. A limiting factor for the accuracy of previous solar variability results is the uncertainties for the instrument degradation corrections, which need fairly large corrections relative to the amount of solar cycle variability at some wavelengths. The primary objective of this investigation has been to separate out solar cycle variability and any residual uncorrected instrumental trends in the SSI measurements from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission and the Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere, Energetic, and Dynamics (TIMED) mission. A new technique called the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) analysis has been developed, which examines an SSI time series at different levels of solar activity to provide long-term trends in an SSI record, and the most common result is a downward trend that most likely stems from uncorrected instrument degradation. This technique has been applied to each wavelength in the SSI records from SORCE (2003 - present) and TIMED (2002 - present) to provide new solar cycle variability results between 27 nm and 1600 nm with a resolution of about 1 nm at most wavelengths. This technique, which was validated with the highly accurate total solar irradiance (TSI) record, has an estimated relative uncertainty of about 5% of the measured solar cycle variability. The MuSIL results are further validated with the comparison of the new solar cycle variability results from different solar cycles.

  14. The advantages, and challenges, in using multiple techniques in the estimation of surface water-groundwater fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, M.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    When estimating surface water-groundwater fluxes, the use of complimentary techniques helps to fill in uncertainties in any individual method, and to potentially gain a better understanding of spatial and temporal variability in a system. It can also be a way of preventing the loss of data during infrequent and unpredictable flow events. For example, much of arid Australia relies on groundwater, which is recharged by streamflow through ephemeral streams during flood events. Three recent surface water/groundwater investigations from arid Australian systems provide good examples of how using multiple field and analysis techniques can help to more fully characterize surface water-groundwater fluxes, but can also result in conflicting values over varying spatial and temporal scales. In the Pilbara region of Western Australia, combining streambed radon measurements, vertical heat transport modeling, and a tracer test helped constrain very low streambed residence times, which are on the order of minutes. Spatial and temporal variability between the methods yielded hyporheic exchange estimates between 10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.2 x 10-2 m2 s-1. In South Australia, three-dimensional heat transport modeling captured heterogeneity within 20 square meters of streambed, identifying areas of sandy soil (flux rates of up to 3 m d-1) and clay (flux rates too slow to be accurately characterized). Streamflow front modeling showed similar flux rates, but averaged over 100 m long stream segments for a 1.6 km reach. Finally, in central Australia, several methods are used to decipher whether any of the flow down a highly ephemeral river contributes to regional groundwater recharge, showing that evaporation and evapotranspiration likely accounts for all of the infiltration into the perched aquifer. Lessons learned from these examples demonstrate the influences of the spatial and temporal variability between techniques on estimated fluxes.

  15. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  16. The role of electrostatics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Norde, Willem; Van Aken, George A.

    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson

  17. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Bonnet, A; Cohen, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui empeche toute observation. (M.B.)

  18. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takemi; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Fijihara, Mitsuteru; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between (10)B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of (10)B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared (10)BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), (10)BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. The (10)B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that (10)B entrapped WOW emulsion could be applied to novel intra-arterial boron delivery carrier

  19. 3D confocal Raman imaging of oil-rich emulsion from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of extruded soybean powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longkun; Wang, Limin; Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Xiaonan; Chen, Fusheng; Li, Yang; Sui, Xiaonan; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2018-05-30

    The understanding of the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion from enzyme-assisted extraction processing (EAEP) was a critical step to break the oil-rich emulsion structure in order to recover oil. Albeit EAEP method has been applied as an alternative way to conventional solvent extraction method, the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion was still unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion from EAEP using 3D confocal Raman imaging technique. With increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis duration from 1 to 3 h, the stability of oil-rich emulsion was decreased as visualized in the 3D confocal Raman images that the protein and oil were mixed together. The subsequent Raman spectrum analysis further revealed that the decreased stability of oil-rich emulsion was due to the protein aggregations via SS bonds or protein-lipid interactions. The conformational transfer in protein indicated the formation of a compact structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Behavior and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Phytic Acid Alone and Incorporated in Cosmetic Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Máximo Daneluti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the thermal behavior and antioxidant properties of phytic acid alone and into cosmetic emulsions. The thermal behavior of this substance was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and the free-radical-scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of phytic acid. These results showed that the substance presented four stages of mass loss. Thermal decomposition of the material initiated at 150 °C. Thermal behavior of the cosmetic emulsions detected that the addition of phytic acid decreased the thermal stability of the system. DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity showed that phytic acid incorporated into emulsion had no antioxidant capacity compared to BHT. In summary, we concluded that the thermoanalytical techniques (TG and DSC were efficient and reliable in the characterization of phytic acid alone and incorporated into cosmetic emulsions.

  1. Imaging of Nuclear Fragmentation in Nuclear Track Emulsion Relativistic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, I.G. JINR

    2011-01-01

    The method of nuclear track emulsion provides a uniquely complete observation of multiple fragment systems produced in dissociation of relativistic nuclei. The most valuable events of coherent dissociation of nuclei in narrow jets of light and the lightest nuclei with a net charge as in the initial nucleus, occurring without the production of fragments of the target nuclei and mesons (the so-called w hite s tars), comprise a few percent among the observed interactions. The data on this phenomenon are fragmented, and the interpretation is not offered. The dissociation degree of light O, Ne, Mg and Si, and as well as heavy Au, Pb and U nuclei may reach a complete destruction to light and the lightest nuclei and nucleons, resulting in cluster systems of an unprecedented complexity. Studies with relativistic neutron-deficient nuclei have special advantages due to more complete observations. An extensive collection of macro videos of such interactions in nuclear track emulsion gathered by the Becquerel collaboration is presented

  2. The comparison of oxidative thermokinetics between emulsion and microemulsion diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Hou; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microemulsion fuel (>90 days) was much more stable than emulsion (≈2 days). • Microemulsification decreased activation energy of the fuel system by 5 kJ mol −1 . • Emulsification increased activation energy of the fuel system by 15 kJ mol −1 . • Microemulsification was more competitive for fuel upgrading than emulsification. - Abstract: Water fuel emulsion has been widely studied with the advantages of saving energy, enhancing engine torque, improving engine performance, and reducing the pollutant emissions. However, it has unfavorable disadvantages such as phase separation and long ignition delay. Water fuel microemulsion with rhamnolipid as the surfactant was formed in this study and characterized in comparison to water fuel emulsion. Water fuel microemulsion was thermodynamically stable without phase separation after 90 days vs. the milky-white emulsion fuel, separated within 2 days. In the thermogravimetric analysis, the TG and DTG curves were shifted to higher temperatures as the increment of heating rate. However, the shift for emulsion at 40 K min −1 was inconspicuous, which implies the reduction in heat transfer, mass transfer, and vaporization rates and further the lengthened ignition delay upon combustion in diesel engine. The activation energies (E a ) predicted by Ozawa–Flynn–Wall (OFW), Kissinger–Akhira–Sunose (KAS), and Starink’s methods indicate that the formation of microemulsion could decrease the activation energy of the fuel by about 5 kJ mol −1 , while the formation of emulsion would increase by 15 kJ mol −1 . The lower activation energy of microemulsion fuel is an indication of easy ignition or shortened ignition delay. Thus, microemulsification may be a more competitive technique for fuel upgrading compared to emulsification

  3. The use of multiple respiratory inhalers requiring different inhalation techniques has an adverse effect on COPD outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosnic-Anticevich S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich,1 Henry Chrystyn,2 Richard W Costello,3,4 Myrna B Dolovich,5 Monica J Fletcher,6 Federico Lavorini,7 Roberto Rodríguez-Roisin,8 Dermot Ryan,9,10 Simon Wan Yau Ming,2 David B Price2,11 1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd, Singapore; 3RCSI Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons, 4RCSI Education & Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont, Dublin, Ireland; 5Department of Medicine, Respirology, McMaster University, ON, Canada; 6Education for Health, Warwick, UK; 7Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 8Respiratory Institute, Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 9Optimum Patient Care, Cambridge, 10Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, 11Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Background: Patients with COPD may be prescribed multiple inhalers as part of their treatment regimen, which require different inhalation techniques. Previous literature has shown that the effectiveness of inhaled treatment can be adversely affected by incorrect inhaler technique. Prescribing a range of device types could worsen this problem, leading to poorer outcomes in COPD patients, but the impact is not yet known. Aims: To compare clinical outcomes of COPD patients who use devices requiring similar inhalation technique with those who use devices with mixed techniques. Methods: A matched cohort design was used, with 2 years of data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database. Matching variables were established from a baseline year of follow-up data, and two cohorts were formed: a “similar-devices cohort” and a “mixed-devices cohort”. COPD-related events were recorded during an outcome year of follow-up. The primary outcome measure was an

  4. Distribution of cyclosporine A in ocular tissues after topical administration of cyclosporine A cationic emulsions to pigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daull, Philippe; Lallemand, Frédéric; Philips, Betty; Lambert, Grégory; Buggage, Ronald; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ocular and systemic distribution of cyclosporine A (CsA) in rabbits after the instillation of preservative-free CsA cationic and anionic emulsions. For the single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) study, rabbits were instilled with 50 μL of the test material. For the multiple-dose PK study, rabbits were instilled twice daily with Restasis or once daily with NOVA22007 for 10 days. At each time point, the cornea, conjunctiva, and whole blood were harvested for CsA quantification. Ocular and systemic distribution were determined after 4 times daily instillations with 50 μL of 3H-CsA cationic and anionic emulsions for 7 days. Restasis was used as a reference in all studies. Single-dose PK data demonstrated that NOVA22007 0.1% and 0.05% delivered higher CsA concentrations to the cornea than Restasis [concentration maximum (C max): 2692, 1372, and 748 ng/g, respectively] and have a better exposition (area under the curve). Conjunctival Cmax values were 1914, 696, and 849 ng/g and area under the curve values were 3984, 2796, and 2515 ng/g · h, for either dose of the cationic emulsions and Restasis, respectively. The multiple-dose PK and the 3H-CsA distribution data demonstrated that the systemic distribution after repeated instillations was low and comparable for all emulsions. These data demonstrate that the CsA cationic emulsions were more effective than Restasis at delivering CsA to target tissues, thus confirming the potential advantage of cationic emulsions over anionic emulsions as vehicle for ocular drug delivery for the treatment of ocular surface diseases.

  5. Phase recording for formation of holographic optical elements on silver-halide photographic emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzherli, Nina M.; Gulyaev, Sergey N.; Maurer, Irina A.; Chernykh, Dmitrii F.

    2009-05-01

    Holographic fabrication methods of regular and nonregular relief-phase structures on silver-halide photographic emulsions are considered. Methods of gelatin photodestruction under short-wave ultra-violet radiation and chemical hardening with the help of dichromated solutions were used as a technique for surface relief formation. The developed techniques permitted us to study specimens of holographic diffusers and microlens rasters with small absorption and high light efficiency.

  6. Nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsions and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Shuji; Togawa, Eiji; Kuroda, Katsushi

    2017-01-01

    Pickering emulsion, which is an emulsion stabilized by solid particles, offers a wide range of potential applications because it generally provides a more stable system than surfactant-stabilized emulsion. Among various solid stabilizers, nanocellulose may open up new opportunities for future Pickering emulsions owing to its unique nanosizes, amphiphilicity, and other favorable properties (e.g. chemical stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and renewability). In this review, the preparation and properties of nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsions are summarized. We also provide future perspectives on their applications, such as drug delivery, food, and composite materials.

  7. Multiple inert gas elimination technique by micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry--a comparison with reference gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Moritz; Schilling, Thomas; Vogt, Andreas; Rothen, Hans Ulrich; Borges, João Batista; Hachenberg, Thomas; Larsson, Anders; Baumgardner, James E; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2013-10-15

    The mismatching of alveolar ventilation and perfusion (VA/Q) is the major determinant of impaired gas exchange. The gold standard for measuring VA/Q distributions is based on measurements of the elimination and retention of infused inert gases. Conventional multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET) uses gas chromatography (GC) to measure the inert gas partial pressures, which requires tonometry of blood samples with a gas that can then be injected into the chromatograph. The method is laborious and requires meticulous care. A new technique based on micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MMIMS) facilitates the handling of blood and gas samples and provides nearly real-time analysis. In this study we compared MIGET by GC and MMIMS in 10 piglets: 1) 3 with healthy lungs; 2) 4 with oleic acid injury; and 3) 3 with isolated left lower lobe ventilation. The different protocols ensured a large range of normal and abnormal VA/Q distributions. Eight inert gases (SF6, krypton, ethane, cyclopropane, desflurane, enflurane, diethyl ether, and acetone) were infused; six of these gases were measured with MMIMS, and six were measured with GC. We found close agreement of retention and excretion of the gases and the constructed VA/Q distributions between GC and MMIMS, and predicted PaO2 from both methods compared well with measured PaO2. VA/Q by GC produced more widely dispersed modes than MMIMS, explained in part by differences in the algorithms used to calculate VA/Q distributions. In conclusion, MMIMS enables faster measurement of VA/Q, is less demanding than GC, and produces comparable results.

  8. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  9. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as potential drug carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhas, J.M.; Goodman, R.L.; Moore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    PFC emulsions have excellent oxygen transporting properties and have been reported to enhance the response of murine tumors to both radiation and BCNU. While the presently available emulsions are far too toxic to the immune system to be used in cancer therapy, they can be used to investigate the overall potential of this approach. As an example, the authors have found that these emulsions can alter drug availability. The lipophilicity of both the PFC and the drug in question determine the partitioning of the drug between the organic and aqueous phases of an emulsion. In vitro, this can reduce drug effectiveness by reducing the amount of drug available to the cells. In vivo, however, this partitioning may produce sustained drug exposure, which could be of benefit in cancer therapy and other applications. In brief, as the drug is absorbed from the circulating aqueous phase, additional drug would leach from the PFC, thereby providing a sustained drug exposure similar to that obtained with liposomes. While a great deal more work will be required to evaluate the practicality of this approach, the existence of this phenomenon must be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of efficacy studies in which anesthetics, chemotherapeutics, etc are employed

  10. CMS emulsion pictures during LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Ferdinando, Donato

    2013-01-01

    These images were taken at the CMS experimental cavern during Long Shutdown 1, installing pinhole cameras at different points of the cavern and exposing them for days. The development of the film was done by Donato di Ferdinando from INFN Bologna. A pinhole camera is a light-tight box where a small hole is made (diameter of the order of microns); a light-sensitive material is set in the back of the hole. As sensitive material a nuclear emulsion film from the OPERA experiment was used. It is a special photographic emulsion optimized (silver grains enriched) for the detection of charged particles. A very large amount of nuclear emulsions where used in Opera experiment, at the Gran Sasso Underground Labs; nuclear emulsions must detect the charged tau-leptons emerging from the interaction between the "oscillated" tau-neutrino coming from the pure muon-neutrino beam produced at CERN (the CNGS beam). The oscillations theory of neutrino expects that muon neutrinos oscillate to tau-neutrinos and due to this behavior ...

  11. HEAVY-OIL PRODUCTION USING EMULSION FLOODING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... American Petroleum Institute, EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery, GOR = Gas Oil Ratio ... concentration, 166.003 is the constant (molar mass of ... (molar mass of CaCO3),1M is the constant value. ... volume of prepared oil-in-water emulsion, that.

  12. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as 'superheated drop detectors' or 'bubble (damage) detectors', have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry

  13. Characteristics of Nano-emulsion for Cold Thermal Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is novel kind of heat storage and heat transfer fluids. It has characteristics as follows; greater apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer abilities in the phase change temperature range than conventional single phase heat transfer fluid. In this paper, a phase change emulsion, which has droplet diameter distribution of nanometer, were prepared. The Nano-emulsion was formed by low energy emulsification methods, as known the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method. Physical properties, such as viscosity, diameter and its distribution of emulsion were investigated. Especially, the relationships between preparation method and the concentration of surfactant have been discussed in detail. The results show that the viscosity of the Nano-emulsion is lower than the micro-emulsion, which was made by same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. In addition, the Nano-emulsion clarified that stability was higher than microemulsions.

  14. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  15. Rehabilitation of motor function after stroke: a multiple systematic review focused on techniques to stimulate upper extremity recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M Hatem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients’ mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed.At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  16. Measuring Temperature-Dependent Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Fan Loops Using Multiple SDO-AIA Channels and Surfing Transform Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritskiy, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Ofman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A set of co-aligned high resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling quantitative description of sub visual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional surfing signals extracted from position-timeplots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency - velocity space which exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square root dependence predicted for the slow mode magneto-acoustic wave which seems to be the dominating wave mode in the studied loop structures. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. (2012) to a more general class of fan loop systems not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  17. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs.

  18. Locating non-volcanic tremor along the San Andreas Fault using a multiple array source imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, C.H.; Fuis, G.S.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Shelly, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been observed at several subduction zones and at the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Tremor locations are commonly derived by cross-correlating envelope-transformed seismic traces in combination with source-scanning techniques. Recently, they have also been located by using relative relocations with master events, that is low-frequency earthquakes that are part of the tremor; locations are derived by conventional traveltime-based methods. Here we present a method to locate the sources of NVT using an imaging approach for multiple array data. The performance of the method is checked with synthetic tests and the relocation of earthquakes. We also applied the method to tremor occurring near Cholame, California. A set of small-aperture arrays (i.e. an array consisting of arrays) installed around Cholame provided the data set for this study. We observed several tremor episodes and located tremor sources in the vicinity of SAF. During individual tremor episodes, we observed a systematic change of source location, indicating rapid migration of the tremor source along SAF. ?? 2010 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  19. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  20. Package for the BESM-6 computer for particles momenta measuring in nuclei emulsions by semiautomatic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskin, V.A.; Saltykov, A.I.; Shabratova, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Computer codes for using on the BESM-6 computer have been developed. The information obtained by semiautomatic measuring in nuclear emulsions are processed, and then the information from paper tape are checked and the diagnostics are printed if the errors in the information occu.,. Data input to the BESM-6 computer is written to the magnetic tape as the direct access files. The data not containing errors are used in calculations of particle momentum by multiple-scattering method

  1. Solid-stabilized emulsion formation using stearoyl lactylate coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2014-10-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles can exhibit highly tunable physicochemical properties that are extremely important in applications such as catalysis, biomedicine and environmental remediation. The small size of iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to stabilize oil-in-water Pickering emulsions due to their high energy of adsorption at the interface of oil droplets in water. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of the primary particle characteristics and stabilizing agent chemistry on the stability of oil-in-water Pickering emulsions. Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method using stoichiometric amounts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ salts. Sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), a Food and Drug Administration approved food additive, was used to functionalize the iron oxide nanoparticles. SSL is useful in the generation of fat-in-water emulsions due to its high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance and its bilayer-forming capacity. Generation of a monolayer or a bilayer coating on the nanoparticles was controlled through systematic changes in reagent concentrations. The coated particles were then characterized using various analytical techniques to determine their size, their crystal structure and surface functionalization. The capacity of these bilayer coated nanoparticles to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions under various salt concentrations and pH values was also systematically determined using various characterization techniques. This study successfully demonstrated the ability to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles (20-40 nm) coated with SSL in order to generate stable Pickering emulsions that were pH-responsive and resistant to significant destabilization in a saline environment, thereby lending themselves to applications in advanced oil spill recovery and remediation.

  2. chemical studies on the extraction of certain metal ions from aqueous solution by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis four systems are addressed related to the use of liquid emulsion membranes (ELM) based on Co(III)dicarbiolide and. The system was dedicated for permeation of cadmium , cobalt Nickel and lead for use of this system for preconcentration and separation of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. The work carried out in this thesis is presented in three parts, namely; introduction, experimental and results and discussion.The first chapter is the introduction which includes aim of work, basic concepts of liquid membranes; liquid emulsion membranes; different models of emulsion permeation, literature survey of extraction chemistry of cadmium, cobalt, nickel and lead. Chapter two includes the experimental part. In this part detailed outlines on the chemicals and different elements used were given. Different instruments as well as analytical techniques were outlines. The preparation of liquid emulsion membrane and the permeation techniques were presented in details. The third chapter deals with the results and discussion. This chapter is divided into four main parts, the four parts is concerned with cadmium/Co(III) dicarbolide/NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA systems. In this part the permeation of Cd(II) aqueous solution by the membrane used was experimented based on liquid-liquid extraction studies of cadmium from different sodium chloride molarities (from 0.01 to 0.1 M) by 0.01 M Cobalt(III) dicarbolides. It was found that the extraction of with cadmium is higher following in the first system, the permeation of the toxic elements, Cd(II) from HCl/sodium chloride medium was carried out using liquid emulsion membrane containing Co(III)dicarbiolide in xylene as carrier, Spain 80/ Spain 85(1:3) as surfactant and NTA, EDTA, DPTA and DCTA as a stripping solutions.

  3. Measurements of the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the Po Valley using multiple spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, S.; Allan, J.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Williams, B. J.; Paglione, M.; Facchini, M. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Gietl, J. K.; Coe, H.; Giulianelli, L.; Gobbi, G. P.; Lanconelli, C.; Carbone, C.; Worsnop, D.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Moretti, F.; Tagliavini, E.; Elste, T.; Gilge, S.; Zhang, Y.; Dall'Osto, M.

    2014-11-01

    The use of co-located multiple spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed information on the atmospheric processes regulating aerosol chemical composition and mixing state. So far, field campaigns heavily equipped with aerosol mass spectrometers have been carried out mainly in large conurbations and in areas directly affected by their outflow, whereas lesser efforts have been dedicated to continental areas characterised by a less dense urbanisation. We present here the results obtained at a background site in the Po Valley, Italy, in summer 2009. For the first time in Europe, six state-of-the-art spectrometric techniques were used in parallel: aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), two aerosol mass spectrometers (high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer - HR-ToF-AMS and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer - SP-AMS), thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG), chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) and (offline) proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that, under high-pressure conditions, atmospheric stratification at night and early morning hours led to the accumulation of aerosols produced by anthropogenic sources distributed over the Po Valley plain. Such aerosols include primary components such as black carbon (BC), secondary semivolatile compounds such as ammonium nitrate and amines and a class of monocarboxylic acids which correspond to the AMS cooking organic aerosol (COA) already identified in urban areas. In daytime, the entrainment of aged air masses in the mixing layer is responsible for the accumulation of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and also for the recycling of non-volatile primary species such as black carbon. According to organic aerosol source apportionment, anthropogenic aerosols accumulating in the lower layers overnight accounted for 38% of organic aerosol mass on average, another 21% was accounted for by aerosols recirculated in

  4. Synthesis of Covalently Cross-Linked Colloidosomes from Peroxidized Pickering Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiya Popadyuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to the formation of cross-linked colloidosomes was developed on the basis of Pickering emulsions that were stabilized exclusively by peroxidized colloidal particles. Free radical polymerization and a soft template technique were used to convert droplets of a Pickering emulsion into colloidosomes. The peroxidized latex particles were synthesized in the emulsion polymerization process using amphiphilic polyperoxide copolymers poly(2-tert-butylperoxy-2-methyl-5-hexen-3-ine-co-maleic acid (PM-1-MAc or poly[N-(tert-butylperoxymethylacrylamide]-co-maleic acid (PM-2-MAc, which were applied as both initiators and surfactants (inisurfs. The polymerization in the presence of the inisurfs results in latexes with a controllable amount of peroxide and carboxyl groups at the particle surface. Peroxidized polystyrene latex particles with a covalently grafted layer of inisurf PM-1-MAc or PM-2-MAc were used as Pickering stabilizers to form Pickering emulsions. A mixture of styrene and/or butyl acrylate with divinylbenzene and hexadecane was applied as a template for the synthesis of colloidosomes. Peroxidized latex particles located at the interface are involved in the radical reactions of colloidosomes formation. As a result, covalently cross-linked colloidosomes were obtained. It was demonstrated that the structure of the synthesized (using peroxidized latex particles colloidosomes depends on the amount of functional groups and pH during the synthesis. Therefore, the size and morphology of colloidosomes can be controlled by latex particle surface properties.

  5. Concentrated emulsion pathway to novel composite polymeric membranes and their use in pervaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckenstein, E.; Sun, F. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    Pervaporation is becoming recognized as an energy-efficient alternative to distillation and other separation methods of liquid mixtures, especially in cases in which the traditional separation techniques are not efficient, such as the separation of azeotropic mixtures, close-boiling-point components, isomeric components, and recovery or removal of trace organic substances from aqueous solutions. Novel composite polymeric membranes have been prepared, using concentrated emulsions as precursors, and employed in the pervaporation of various liquid mixtures. In order to improve the stability of the concentrated emulsion, the hydrophilicity and/or the hydrophobicity of the phases involved must be increased by replacing them with their solutions in water and/or in a hydrocarbon, respectively. Another possibility of improving the stability is to increase the viscosity of the phases, by partial polymerization of one or both phases before preparing the concentrated emulsion. The emulsion gel was subsequently transformed into a polymer composite by polymerizing both phases. The dispersed phase should be selected to yield a hydrophobic (hydrophilic) polymer which is compatible with the components selected for separation and incompatible with the other components, while the continuous phase should be selected to yield a hydrophilic (hydrophobic) polymer which is incompatible with all of the components of the mixture, and thus it can ensure the integrity of the membrane. As examples, several composite polymeric membranes were designed, prepared, and employed in the separation by pervaporation of water-ethanol,aromatics-paraffinics, and aromatics-alcohol mixtures.

  6. Spectral analysis in overmodulated holographic reflection gratings recorded with BB640 ultrafine grain emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Abellán, P.; Madrigal, R.; Fimia, A.

    2015-05-01

    Silver halide emulsions have been considered one of the most energetic sensitive materials for holographic applications. Nonlinear recording effects on holographic reflection gratings recorded on silver halide emulsions have been studied by different authors obtaining excellent experimental results. In this communication specifically we focused our investigation on the effects of refractive index modulation, trying to get high levels of overmodulation. We studied the influence of the grating thickness on the overmodulation and its effects on the transmission spectra for a wide exposure range by use of two different thickness ultrafine grain emulsion BB640, thin films (6 μm) and thick films (9 μm), exposed to single collimated beams using a red He-Ne laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) with Denisyuk configuration obtaining a spatial frequency of 4990 l/mm recorded on the emulsion. The experimental results show that high overmodulation levels of refractive index could offer some benefits such as high diffraction efficiency (reaching 90 %), increase of grating bandwidth (close to 80 nm), making lighter holograms, or diffraction spectra deformation, transforming the spectrum from sinusoidal to approximation of square shape. Based on these results, we demonstrate that holographic reflection gratings spectra recorded with overmodulation of refractive index is formed by the combination of several non-linear components due to very high overmodulation. This study is the first step to develop a new easy multiplexing technique based on the use of high index modulation reflection gratings.

  7. In-situ burning of emulsions: The effects of varying water content and degree of evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, C.; Sveum, P.; Buist, I.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of oil is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for rapid removal of large quantities of oil at sea, particularly in ice-infested waters. A series of field experiments was conducted in Spitsbergen, circular basins cut in sea ice, to study the effect of water content, evaporation, thickness of the emulsion layer, and environmental factors on the burn efficiency of Statfjord crude oil and emulsions. Results from the experiments are presented along with preliminary results concerning the dynamics of burning emulsions and the efficiency of conventional and novel igniters. Water-in-oil emulsions with 40% water content could be burned. However, for oils evaporated more than 18% and with a water content of over 20%, conventional gelled gasoline was not a very effective igniter. Ignition success was improved when gelled crude oil was used as the igniter. The results imply that for practical in-situ burning, the igniter technology needs to be improved. 5 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total cyanide was determined using the silver nitrate titration method. Regression analysis and optimization of the conditions were conducted using the Design-Expert software and response surface methodology (RSM). The actual cyanide removals and the removals predicted using RSM analysis were in close agreement, and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: the volume fraction of Span-80, 4% (v/v); the volume fraction of TOA, 4% (v/v); the concentration of NaOH, 1% (w/v); and the emulsion-to-external-phase volume ratio, 1:7. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of total cyanide was 95.07%, and the RSM predicted removal was 94.90%, with a small exception. The treatment of cyanide wastewater using an ELM is an effective technique for application in industry.

  9. Genome-Wide Screening of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients Using Array-CGH Technique: A Czech Multicenter Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Smetana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91. Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91; del(13(q14 was detected in 57.1% (52/91; gain(1(q21 occurred in 58.2% (53/91; del(17(p13 was observed in 15.4% (14/91; and t(4;14(p16;q32 was found in 18.6% (16/86. Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91. Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%, 1p (39.6%, and 8p (31.1%, whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%. Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients.

  10. Emulsion-Based RIR-MAPLE Deposition of Conjugated Polymers: Primary Solvent Effect and Its Implications on Organic Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wangyao; Li, Nan K; McCormick, Ryan D; Lichtenberg, Eli; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D

    2016-08-03

    Emulsion-based, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been demonstrated as an alternative technique to deposit conjugated polymer films for photovoltaic applications; yet, a fundamental understanding of how the emulsion target characteristics translate into film properties and solar cell performance is unclear. Such understanding is crucial to enable the rational improvement of organic solar cell (OSC) efficiency and to realize the expected advantages of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE for OSC fabrication. In this paper, the effect of the primary solvent used in the emulsion target is studied, both experimentally and theoretically, and it is found to determine the conjugated polymer cluster size in the emulsion as well as surface roughness and internal morphology of resulting polymer films. By using a primary solvent with low solubility-in-water and low vapor pressure, the surface roughness of deposited P3HT and PCPDTBT polymer films was reduced to 10 nm, and the efficiency of P3HT:PC61BM OSCs was increased to 3.2% (∼100 times higher compared to the first MAPLE OSC demonstration [ Caricato , A. P. ; Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012 , 100 , 073306 ]). This work unveils the mechanism of polymer film formation using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE and provides insight and direction to determine the best ways to take advantage of the emulsion target approach to control film properties for different applications.

  11. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.; Nilsson, G.; Adamovic, O.; Juric, M.; Areti, H.; Hebert, C.J.D.; Hebert, J.; Baumann, G.; Devienne, R.; Bolta, J.M.; Sanchis, M.A.; Bravo, L.; Niembro, R.; Ruiz, A.; Villar, E.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nuclei reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular they present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, γ, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black track particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). It is observed that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, it is found that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1+0.5( )-1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form =nsub(ch)>Asup(α) with α=0.14 or α=0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower-particle multiplicity in the 'central region' increases linearly with but faster than 0.5(γ) times the corresponding multiplicity in pp reactions. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.

    1978-04-01

    We report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nucleus reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular we present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, ν, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). We observe that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, we find that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1 + 0.5 ( - 1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form = A sup(α) with α = 0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower particle multiplicity in the ''central region'' increases linearily with but faster than 0.5 times the corresponding multiplicity in pp-reactions. (author)

  13. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.

    1978-04-01

    We report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nucleus reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular we present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, ν, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black track particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). We observe that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, we find that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1 + 0.5 ( - 1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form = Asup(α) with α = 0.14 or α = 0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower particle multiplicity in the ''central region'' increases linearily with but faster than 0.5 times the corresponding multiplicity in pp-reactions. (author)

  14. Investigation of Central Pb-Pb Interactions at Energies of 160 GeV/Nucleon with the Help of the Emulsion Magnetic Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU15 \\\\ \\\\ The aim of this experiment is to investigate high energy heavy ion central collisions by the use of emulsion magnetic chamber with high spatial resolution. The emulsion chamber consists of 50~emulsion layers 50~microns thick each coated on 25~microns mylar base. A thin lead target plate 300~microns thick is installed immediately in front of the first emulsion layer. It is placed in the transverse magnetic field B~$\\sim$~2~Tesla and is to be installed perpendicularly to Pb nucleus beam. This set-up enables to measure full 3-momenta and charge signs of secondary particles. \\\\ \\\\Specific goal is to carry out detailed analysis of individual events with super high multiplicity of secondaries. These data are to be used for investigation of properties of super hot/dense matter, in particular to look for and analyze possible manifestations of quark-gluon plasma in central Pb-Pb collisions at energies of 160~GeV/nucleon.

  15. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation

  16. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  17. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple-Choice Testing Using Immediate Feedback--Assessment Technique (IF AT®) Forms: Second-Chance Guessing vs. Second-Chance Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrel, Jeremy D.; Cirillo, Pier F.; Schwartz, Pauline M.; Webb, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice testing is a common but often ineffective method for evaluating learning. A newer approach, however, using Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF AT®, Epstein Educational Enterprise, Inc.) forms, offers several advantages. In particular, a student learns immediately if his or her answer is correct and, in the case of an…

  19. The therapeutic effect of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion forms of carvacrol on experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jihan; El-Banna, Mona; Mahmoud, Khaled F; Morsy, Safaa; Abdel Latif, Yasmin; Medhat, Dalia; Refaat, Eman; Farrag, Abdel Razik; El-Daly, Sherien M

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiency of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol administration on liver injury in thioacetamide (TAA) treated rats. To fulfill our target, we used sixty male albino rats classified into six groups as follow: control, nano-encapsulated carvacrol, nano-emulsion carvacrol, thioacetamide, treated nano-encapsulated carvacrol and treated nano-emulsion carvacrol groups. Blood samples were collected from all groups and the separated serum was used for analysis of the following biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), S100 B protein, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and caspase-3. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and hydroxyproline content were all evaluated in liver tissue homogenate. Histopathological examinations for liver tissues were also performed. Thioacetamide induced hepatic damage in rats as revealed by the significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and produced oxidative stress as displayed by the significant elevation in the levels of hepatic MDA and NO concomitant with a significant decrease in GSH. In addition, thioacetamide significantly increased serum S100B protein, alpha fetoprotein and caspase-3 along with hepatic MCP-1 and hydroxyproline; these results were confirmed by the histopathological investigation. In contrast, nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol were able to ameliorate these negative changes in the thioacetamide injected rats. However, the effect of the nano-encapsulated form of carvacrol was more prominent than the nano-emulsion form. Nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol can ameliorate thioacetamide induced liver injury. These results could be attributed to the potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities of carvacrol in addition to the effectiveness of the encapsulation technique that can protect

  20. Co-delivery of antigen and a lipophilic anti-inflammatory drug to cells via a tailorable nanocarrier emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Yap Pang; Zeng, Bi Yun; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Thomas, Ranjeny; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2012-02-15

    Nanotechnology promises new drug carriers that can be tailored to specific applications. Here we report a new approach to drug delivery based on tailorable nanocarrier emulsions (TNEs), motivated by a need to co-deliver a protein antigen and a lipophilic drug for specific inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Co-delivery for NF-κB inhibition holds promise as a strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We used a highly surface-active peptide (SAP) to prepare a nanosized emulsion having defined surface properties predictable from the SAP sequence. Incorporating the lipophilic drug into the oil phase at the time of emulsion formation enabled its facile packaging. The SAP is depleted from bulk during emulsification, allowing simple subsequent addition of the drug-loaded oil-in-water emulsion to a solution of protein antigen. Decoration of emulsion surface with antigen was achieved via electrostatic deposition. In vitro data showed that the TNE prepared this way was internalized and well-tolerated by model APCs, and that good suppression of NF-κB expression was achieved. This work reports a new type of nanotechnology-based carrier, a TNE, which can potentially be tailored for co-delivery of multiple therapeutic components, and can be made using simple methods using only biocompatible materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinematical analysis with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber in the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Capua, F

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA experiment aims at measuring for the first time neutrino oscil- lation in appearance mode through the detection of ni-tau in an almost pure niμ beam produced at CERN SPS (CNGS), 730 km far from the detector. The ni-tau appearance signal is identified through the measurement of the decay daughter particles of the " lepton produced in CC ni-tau interactions. Since the short-lived " particle has, at the energy of the beam, an average decay length shorter than a 1 mm, a micrometric detection resolution is needed. The OPERA appara- tus is hybrid, using nuclear emulsion as high precision tracker and electronic detectors for the time stamp, event localization in the target and muon recon- struction. The Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique fulfils the requirement of a microscopic resolution together with a large target mass. The kinematical analysis allowed by this technique is described.

  2. Hydrophilic Surface Modification of PDMS Microchannel for O/W and W/O/W Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Bashir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification method for bonded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannels is presented herein. Polymerization of acrylic acid was performed on the surface of a microchannel using an inline atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier microplasma technique. The surface treatment changes the wettability of the microchannel from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is a challenging task due to the fast hydrophobic recovery of the PDMS surface after modification. This modification allows the formation of highly monodisperse oil-in-water (O/W droplets. The generation of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W double emulsions was successfully achieved by connecting in series a hydrophobic microchip with a modified hydrophilic microchip. An original channel blocking technique to pattern the surface wettability of a specific section of a microchip using a viscous liquid comprising a mixture of honey and glycerol, is also presented for generating W/O/W emulsions on a single chip.

  3. Track theory and nuclear photographic emulsions for Dark Matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditlov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of possibilities of nuclear emulsions for Dark Matter search, particles of which can produce slow recoil-nuclei. Tracks of such recoil-nuclei in developed nuclear emulsion consist from several emulsion grains. The analysis was carried out with Monte-Carlo calculations made on the basis of the Track Theory and the various factors influencing Dark Matter particles registration efficiency were investigated. Problems, which should be solved for optimal utilization of nuclear emulsions in Dark Matter search, were formulated. B ody - Highlights: ► Specific features of Dark Matter Search in nuclear photographic emulsions. ► Track theory for WIMP search in nuclear emulsions. ► Primary efficiency for single WIMP registration. ► Properties of primary WIMP registration efficiency. ► Primary registration efficiency of WIMP flow

  4. Relativistic nuclear photographic emulsion for multilayer piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, K.S.; Romanovskaya, K.M.; Razorenova, I.F.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear photoemulsion layers having a high sensitivity to relativistic singly charged particles, a high sensitivity stability, time stability of the latent image, as well as a high constancy of the emulsion thickness within the limits of the layer, were developed and fabricated for a large nuclear photoemulsion stack that was exposed in space during the experiments carried out on the artificial earth satellite ''Intercosmos-6''

  5. Perfection of the individual photographic emulsion dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudain, G.

    1960-01-01

    A photographic dosimeter making possible the measurement of γ radiation doses of from 10 mr up to 800 r by means of 3 emulsion bands of varying sensitivity stuck to the same support is described. The dosimeter has also a zone for marking and a test film insensitive to radiation. This requires a photometric measurement by diffuse reflection an d makes it possible to measure doses with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [fr

  6. Online observation of emulsion polymerization by fluorescence technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rudschuck, S; Fuhrmann, J

    1999-01-01

    An online observation of local polarity via fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the formation and growth of polymer particles during an emulsifier-free heterogeneous polymerization. The reaction mixture consisted of styrene dispersed in water and the polymerization was initiated by a macro-initiator (hydrolyzed propene-maleic acid copolymer with t-butyl perester groups). Pyrenyl probes were attached to the backbone of the initiator to analyze the heterogeneous reaction. The experimental results allow a clear distinction of different time regions during the heterogeneous polymerization. Information about the heating period, the latex formation, the particle growth and the final stage of the polymerization process (gel point) were obtained. (11 refs).

  7. Microencapsulation of Bacterial Cells by Emulsion Technique for Probiotic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Surajit; Hati, Subrota

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are dietary concepts to improve the dynamics of intestinal microbial balance favorably. Careful screening of probiotic strains for their technological suitability can also allow selection of strains with the best manufacturing and food technology characteristics. However, even the most robust probiotic bacteria are currently in the range of food applications to which they can be applied. Additionally, bacteria with exceptional functional heath properties are ruled out due to technological limitations. New process and formulation technologies will enable both expansion of the range of products in to which probiotics can be applied and the use of efficacious stains that currently cannot be manufactured or stored with existing technologies. Viability of probiotics has been both a marketing and technological concern for many industrial produces. Probiotics are difficult to work with, the bacteria often die during processing, and shelf life is unpredictable. Probiotics are extremely susceptible environmental conditions such as oxygen, processing and preservation treatments, acidity, and salt concentration, which collectively affect the overall viability of probiotics. Manufacturers have long been fortifying products with probiotics; they have faced significant processing challenges regarding the stability and survivability of probiotics during processing and preservation treatments, storage as well during their passage through GIT. Application of microencapsulation significantly improves the stability of probiotics during food processing and gastrointestinal transit.

  8. Characterisation of crude oil components, asphaltene aggregation and emulsion stability by means of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aske, Narve

    2002-06-01

    Effective separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a central challenge for the oil industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, especially with the future increase in subsea and even down-hole processing of well fluids. The mechanisms and properties governing emulsion stability are far from fully understood but the indigenous surface active crude oil components are believed to play a major role. In this work a thorough physico-chemical characterisation of a set of crude oils originating from a variety of production fields has been performed. Crude oil properties responsible for emulsion stability were identified by use of multivariate analysis techniques like partial least squares regression (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). Interfacial elasticity along with both asphaltene content and asphaltene aggregation state were found to be main contributors to emulsion stability. Information on a crude oils ability to form elastic crude oil-water interfaces was found to be especially crucial when discussing emulsion stability. However, measured values of interfacial elasticity were highly dependent on asphaltene aggregation state. Several experimental techniques was utilised and partly developed for the crude oil characterisation. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) scheme was developed for SARA-fractionation of crude oils and an oscillating pendant drop tensiometer was used for characterisation of interfacial rheological properties. For emulsion stability a cell for determining the stability as a function of applied electric fields was used. In addition, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used throughout the work both for chemical and physical characterisation of crude oils and model systems. High pressure NIR was used to study the aggregation of asphaltenes by pressure depletion. A new technique for detection of asphaltene aggregation onset pressures based on NIR combined with PCA was developed. It was also found that asphaltene aggregation is

  9. α-Tocopherol/chitosan-based nanoparticles: characterization and preliminary investigations for emulsion systems application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2014-02-01

    The processes of lipids oxidation represent a great concern for the consumer health because they are one of the major causes of quality deterioration in fat-containing products. One of the most effective methods of delaying lipid oxidation consists in incorporating antioxidants. The present investigation describes the formulation of chitosan and novel glycol chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with α-Tocopherol (αToc-NPs). The obtained NPs were characterized by various techniques, such as particle size (showing mean diameters in the range 335-503 nm) and zeta potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were, then, added in the preparation of oil-in-water simple emulsion both to make the lipophilic αToc available in an aqueous medium and to prevent emulsion oxidation. For this purpose, a new highly sensitive, simple and solvent-free method based on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of αToc in aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing SPME, including fiber coating, time and temperature extraction, pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions, have been carefully screened. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vitamin in the αToc-NPs and its release from NPs-enriched simple emulsion formulations. SPME provided high recovery yields and the limits of detection and of quantification in emulsion were 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mg, respectively. The precision of the method has been also estimated. The delay of the lipid oxidation by the proposed formulations has been evaluated exploiting the Kreis test on αToc-NPs-enriched emulsions.

  10. A novel approach for fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with continuous motion of the microscope stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, A., E-mail: andrey@na.infn.it [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tioukov, V. [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear emulsions have been used in particle physics experiments for many decades because of their unique spatial resolution. The use of nuclear emulsions as precise tracking detectors in large experiments has recently been made possible due to advances in the production of emulsion films and to the development of very fast automatic scanning devices. The present scanning speed of the European Scanning System (ESS), which has been developed within the OPERA Collaboration, is about 20 cm{sup 2}/h. In addition to the scanning of OPERA films, the ESS is used for other applications with ever-growing demands for scanning speed, such as the muon radiography of volcanoes. In order to further increase the scanning speed of the ESS, we are testing a novel approach different from the standard stop-and-go motion of the microscope stage in the horizontal plane. Indeed we perform data acquisition with the stage moving at constant speed, using an objective lens with wide field of view. Unlike the implementation realized in Japan where the movement of objective lens and stage are synchronized to pile up images of the same view in a vertical stack, in this approach only the stage is moving horizontally. Thus images at different depths are not fully overlapped and special care is needed in the reconstruction. This approach can give a substantial increase in the scanning speed, especially for thin emulsion layers and wide field of view. In this paper we demonstrate that, after applying special corrections, the emulsion data quality can be as good as with the standard stop-and-go approach. This technique allows to double the scanning speed of the ESS, bringing it to 40 cm{sup 2}/h without any hardware modification.

  11. Single, double or multiple-injection techniques for non-ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block in adults undergoing surgery of the lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ki Jinn; Alakkad, Husni; Cubillos, Javier E

    2013-08-08

    Regional anaesthesia comprising axillary block of the brachial plexus is a common anaesthetic technique for distal upper limb surgery. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and updated in 2011. To compare the relative effects (benefits and harms) of three injection techniques (single, double and multiple) of axillary block of the brachial plexus for distal upper extremity surgery. We considered these effects primarily in terms of anaesthetic effectiveness; the complication rate (neurological and vascular); and pain and discomfort caused by performance of the block. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists of trials. We contacted trial authors. The date of the last search was March 2013 (updated from March 2011). We included randomized controlled trials that compared double with single-injection techniques, multiple with single-injection techniques, or multiple with double-injection techniques for axillary block in adults undergoing surgery of the distal upper limb. We excluded trials using ultrasound-guided techniques. Independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by at least two investigators. We undertook meta-analysis. The 21 included trials involved a total of 2148 participants who received regional anaesthesia for hand, wrist, forearm or elbow surgery. Risk of bias assessment indicated that trial design and conduct were generally adequate; the most common areas of weakness were in blinding and allocation concealment.Eight trials comparing double versus single injections showed a statistically significant decrease in primary anaesthesia failure (risk ratio (RR 0.51), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.85). Subgroup analysis by method of nerve location showed that the effect size was greater when neurostimulation was used rather than the transarterial technique.Eight trials comparing multiple with single

  12. Mathematical Approach in Rheological Characterizing of Asphalt Emulsion Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different emulsion residues, such as SS1HP, HFE90, and SS-1VH (trackless, and a base asphalt binder (PG 64-22 are compared to characterize rheological properties by using DSR test. In order to capture the emulsion properties, different frequencies (from 1 to 100 rad/sec at a 10% constant shear rate and temperatures (from −45°C to 75°C with 15°C increments were applied. Then, a master curve for shear modulus was plotted for each emulsion. The transition of the HFE90 emulsion from viscous to elastic behavior occurs at lower temperatures, compared to the other materials. This emulsion is known for performing in a wider temperature range as shown in the results. The trackless emulsion presents an elastic behavior at intermediate temperatures. This product is known as having very fast setting and high resistance to shear stresses. The trackless emulsion presents the highest viscous and elastic modulus, followed by the PG 64-22 binder, SS1HP, and HFE90 emulsion. Shear strength test results show a behavior between trackless emulsion and SS1HP similar to the frequency sweep test results performed by DSR.

  13. Studies with a safflower oil emulsion in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. H.; Deitel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency and the provision of adequate amounts of energy are two major concerns in total parenteral nutrition. Since earlier preparations of fat emulsion used to supplement the usual regimen of hypertonic glucose and amino acids have widely varying clinical acceptability, a new product, a safflower oil emulsion available in two concentrations (Liposyn), was evaluated. In four clinical trials the emulsion was used as a supplement to total parenteral nutrition. In five surgical patients 500 ml of the 10% emulsion infused every third day prevented or corrected essential fatty acid deficiency; however, in some cases in infusion every other day may be necessary. In 40 patients in severe catabolic states the emulsion provided 30% to 50% of the energy required daily: 10 patients received the 10% emulsion for 14 to 42 days, 9 patients received each emulsion in turn for 7 days, and 21 patient received the 20% emulsion for 14 to 28 days. All the patients survived and tolerated the lipid well; no adverse clinical effects were attributable to the lipid infusions. Transient mild, apparently clinically insignificant abnormalities in the results of one or more liver function tests and eosinophilia were observed in some patients. Thus, the safflower oil emulsion, at both concentrations, was safe and effective as a source of 30% to 50% of the energy required daily by seriously ill patients. PMID:6799182

  14. Increasing of registering capacity of nuclear emulsion for autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskaya, K.M.; Savvateeva, J.P.; Tolkacheva, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    The ways of increasing detecting power of the type M nuclear emulsion gel have been investigated in these studies. There have been found conditions under which type M emulsion sensitivity increased by 15 to 20% without increasing fog grain background. The stability of photographic sensitivity during emulsion gel storage increased by two times. The prevention of latent image fading (by means of layer moisture content) decreased to 1.2% and increasing the detecting power of the emulsion (by means of exposure temperature) by up to 37 0 C. The exposure time of tritium labelled autographs has been decreased to about 20%. (author)

  15. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  16. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10 -6 cm 2 /s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  17. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  18. Laboratory effectiveness testing of water-in-oil emulsion breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Bier, I.; Conrod, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and chemistry of water-in-oil emulsions dominate the development of effectiveness tests. Emulsions are variable in stability--this variability is largely dependent on oil type and degree of weathering. These factors complicate the development of a test. Emulsions which have low stability will apparently break easily with chemical emulsion breakers. Broken emulsions will form a foam-like material, called rag, which retains water which is not part of the stable emulsions. Analytical methods used to determine the final stability of the broken or unbroken emulsion were evaluated. Measurements of water content and viscosity measurements show correlation to emulsion stability. Viscosity provides a more reliable measure of emulsion stability but water content measurements are more convenient and are largely used in this study. Twelve tests were developed in the past. Two testing methods have been developed to a usable stage. These tests are described and data using them provided. The effects of mixing time, agent amount, settling time and mixing energy on effectiveness results are presented

  19. Analysis of micro-structure in raw and heat treated meat emulsions from multimodal X-ray microtomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel non-destructive X-ray technique for analyzing meat emulsions before and after heat treatment. The method is based on X-ray grating-interferometry where three complementary imaging modalities are obtained simultaneously measuring the absorption, refraction and scatterin...

  20. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  1. ICAMS: a new system for automated emulsion data acquisition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, A.A.; Brown, W.L. Jr.; Friedlander, E.M.; Heckman, H.H.; Jones, R.W.; Karant, Y.J.; Turney, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    A general difficulty with visual techniques in high energy physics has been the relatively slow data-taking rate caused by the labor-intensive nature of the experiments and the resulting low statistics of the final data base. On the other hand, visual techniques, and especially research emulsion, have the intrinsic advantages of essentially complete 4π coverage of all charged particles from the target-, mid-, and projectile-rapidity regions. Emulsion has excellent charge resolution, since in one target/detector, charges of minimum ionizing tracks from charge 1 to charge 92 can be determined. With these intrinsic advantages of emulsion, it seemed reasonable to use modern data acquisition and reduction techniques to relieve the labor-intensive functions. The Interactive Computer Assisted Measurement System (ICAMS) is the answer to this. It is a distributed network system. The system has two major components, the central computer and individual data-taking stations, called Optical Data Stations (ODS). The central computer is a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/23 with a 22-bit address space (of which 1 Mbyte is currently implemented) running under RSX-11M V4

  2. Particle identification by nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, Kais

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment will try to confirm the ν μ →ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the OPERA detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the OPERA experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in OPERA and to decrease the contamination by 30 pour cent. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (Author)

  3. Research on Innovating, Applying Multiple Paths Routing Technique Based on Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm for Routing Messages in Service - Oriented Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MANET (short for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network consists of a set of mobile network nodes, network configuration changes very fast. In content based routing, data is transferred from source node to request nodes is not based on destination addresses. Therefore, it is very flexible and reliable, because source node does not need to know destination nodes. If We can find multiple paths that satisfies bandwidth requirement, split the original message into multiple smaller messages to transmit concurrently on these paths. On destination nodes, combine separated messages into the original message. Hence it can utilize better network resources, causes data transfer rate to be higher, load balancing, failover. Service Oriented Routing is inherited from the model of content based routing (CBR, combined with several advanced techniques such as Multicast, multiple path routing, Genetic algorithm to increase the data rate, and data encryption to ensure information security. Fuzzy logic is a logical field study evaluating the accuracy of the results based on the approximation of the components involved, make decisions based on many factors relative accuracy based on experimental or mathematical proof. This article presents some techniques to support multiple path routing from one network node to a set of nodes with guaranteed quality of service. By using these techniques can decrease the network load, congestion, use network resources efficiently.

  4. Further study of helium production at large impact parameters in 6.4 TeV 32S emulsion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, S.

    1999-01-01

    Further study of helium production in electromagnetic and inelastic peripheral interactions of 32 S nuclei at 200 AGeV in nuclear emulsion is presented. The multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions of relativistic He fragments, and their parameters in both interactions are measured. The effect of the multiple helium production on the present obtained evidence of two different temperatures is investigated. The main characteristics of transverse momentum distributions show a certain dependence on the peripherality degree of the interactions

  5. A lyophilized etoposide submicron emulsion with a high drug loading for intravenous injection: preparation, evaluation, and pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Shi, Shuai; Zhao, Mingming; Zhang, Ling; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2010-12-01

    To develop a submicron emulsion for etoposide with a high drug loading capacity using a drug-phospholipid complex combined with drug freeze-drying techniques. An etoposide-phospholipid complex (EPC) was prepared and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. A freeze-drying technique was used to produce lyophilized etoposide emulsions (LEPE), and LEPE was investigated with regard to their appearance, particle size, and zeta potential. The pharmacokinetic study in vivo was determined by the UPLC/MS/MS system. It showed that EPC significantly improved the liposolubility of etoposide, indicating a high drug loading intravenous emulsion could be easily prepared by EPC. Moreover, the obtained loading of etoposide in the submicron emulsion was 3.0 mg/mL, which was three times higher than that of the previous liquid emulsions. The optimum cryoprotectant was trehalose (15%) in freeze-drying test. The median diameter, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the optimum formulation of LEPE were 226.1 ± 5.1 nm, 0.107 ± 0.011, and -36.20 ± 1.13 mV, respectively. In addition, these parameters had no significant change during 6 months storage at 4 ± 2°C. The main pharmacokinetic parameters exhibited no significant differences between LEPE and etoposide commercial solution except for area under the concentration-time curve and clearance. The stable etoposide emulsion with a high drug loading was successfully prepared, indicating the amount of excipients such as the oil phase and emulsifiers significantly decreased following administration of the same dose of drug, effectively reducing the metabolism by patients while increasing their compliance. Therefore, LEPE has a great potential for clinical applications.

  6. A novel 3D volumetric voxel registration technique for volume-view-guided image registration of multiple imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guang; Xie Huchen; Ning, Holly; Capala, Jacek; Arora, Barbara C.; Coleman, C. Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide more clinically useful image registration with improved accuracy and reduced time, a novel technique of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric voxel registration of multimodality images is developed. Methods and Materials: This technique can register up to four concurrent images from multimodalities with volume view guidance. Various visualization effects can be applied, facilitating global and internal voxel registration. Fourteen computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR) image sets and two computed tomography/positron emission tomography (CT/PET) image sets are used. For comparison, an automatic registration technique using maximization of mutual information (MMI) and a three-orthogonal-planar (3P) registration technique are used. Results: Visually sensitive registration criteria for CT/MR and CT/PET have been established, including the homogeneity of color distribution. Based on the registration results of 14 CT/MR images, the 3D voxel technique is in excellent agreement with the automatic MMI technique and is indicatory of a global positioning error (defined as the means and standard deviations of the error distribution) using the 3P pixel technique: 1.8 deg ± 1.2 deg in rotation and 2.0 ± 1.3 (voxel unit) in translation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such positioning error has been addressed. Conclusion: This novel 3D voxel technique establishes volume-view-guided image registration of up to four modalities. It improves registration accuracy with reduced time, compared with the 3P pixel technique. This article suggests that any interactive and automatic registration should be safeguarded using the 3D voxel technique

  7. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  8. From water-in-oil to oil-in-water emulsions to optimize the production of fatty acids using ionic liquids in micellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luísa D F; Coutinho, João A P; Ventura, Sónia P M

    2015-01-01

    Biocatalysis is nowadays considered as one of the most important tools in green chemistry. The elimination of multiple steps involved in some of the most complex chemical synthesis, reducing the amounts of wastes and hazards, thus increasing the reaction yields and decreasing the intrinsic costs, are the major advantages of biocatalysis. This work aims at improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil to produce valuable fatty acids through emulsion systems formed by long alkyl chain ionic liquids (ILs). The optimization of the emulsion and the best conditions to maximize the production of fatty acids were investigated. The stability of the emulsion was characterized considering the effect of several parameters, namely, the IL and its concentration and different water/olive oil volumetric ratios. ILs from the imidazolium and phosphonium families were evaluated. The results suggest that the ILs effect on the hydrolysis performance varies with the water concentration and the emulsion system formed, that is, water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. Although at low water concentrations, the presence of ILs does not present any advantages for the hydrolysis reaction, at high water contents (in oil-in-water emulsions), the imidazolium-based IL acts as an enhancer of the lipase catalytic capacity, super-activating 1.8 times the enzyme, and consequently promoting the complete hydrolysis of the olive oil for the highest water contents [85% (v/v)]. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : testing of emulsion formation in OHMSETT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the stability of water-in-oil emulsions in the OHMSETT tank facility. The results were then compared with previous laboratory studies which suggested that the stability of emulsions can be grouped into four categories, stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. It has been determined that entrained emulsions can retain oil by viscous forces long enough for interfacial agents, resins and asphaltenes to stabilize the droplets. This paper also described the difference in viscosity between the 4 categories of emulsion stability. The OHMSETT tests were conducted in two series of one week each. The first series of tests were conducted in July and involved 12 experiments on 2 different types of oils which were placed at varying thicknesses on the water. The second set of tests were conducted in November and involved 12 experiments on 6 oils. The rheological properties of the oils were measured and compared to the same oils undergoing emulsification in the laboratory. The oils and water-in-oil states produced were found to have analogous properties between the laboratory and the first set of tests at the OHMSETT facility. All the oils tested produced entrained water-in-oil states in both the laboratory and the test tank. The energy in the two test conditions was found to be similar, with the OHMSETT emulsions similar to one produced in the laboratory at high energies. The second series of tests at OHMSETT did not result in the expected water in-oil- states. This unexpected result was most likely due to the residual surfactant from an earlier dispersant experiment. The study showed that the conditions for emulsion formation are analogous in the OHMSETT tank and in the laboratory tests. The level of energy is considered to be the major variant. It was concluded that the energy levels between the laboratory mixing experiments and the OHMSETT is similar. It was shown that surfactants left over from dispersant testing inhibited the formation

  10. A simplified approach for the simulation of water-in-oil emulsions in gravity separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakehal, D.; Narayanan, C. [ASCOMP GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland); Vilagines, R.; Akhras, A.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research and Development Center

    2009-07-01

    A new method of simulating 3-phase flow separation processes in a crude oil product was presented. The aim of the study was to increase the liquid capacity of the vessels and develop methods of testing variable flow entry procedures. The simulated system was based on gravity separation. Oil well streams were injected into large tanks where gas, oil and water were separated under the action of inertia and gravity. An interface tracking technique was combined with a Euler-Euler model developed as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Emulsion physics were modelled by interface tracking between the gas and oil-in-water liquid mixture. Additional scalar transport equations were solved in order to account for the diffusive process between the oil and water. Various settling velocity models were used to consider the settling of the dispersed water phase in oil. Changes in viscosity and non-Newtonian emulsion behaviour were also considered. The study showed that the interface tracking technique accurately predicted flow when combined with an emulsion model designed to account for the settling of water in the oil phase. Further research is now being conducted to validate computational results against in situ measurements. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  11. The FEDRA-Framework for emulsion data reconstruction and analysis in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tioukov, V.; Kreslo, I.; Petukhov, Y.; Sirri, G.

    2006-01-01

    OPERA is a massive lead/emulsion target for a long-baseline neutrino oscillation search. More than 90% of the useful experimental data in OPERA will be produced by the scanning of emulsion plates with the automatic microscopes. The main goal of the data processing in OPERA will be the search, analysis and identification of primary and secondary vertices produced by neutrino in lead-emulsion target. The volume of middle- and high-level data to be analysed and stored is expected to be of the order of several Gb per event. The storage, calibration, reconstruction, analysis and visualization of this data is the task of FEDRA system written in C ++ and based on ROOT framework. The system is now actively used for processing of test beams and simulation data. Several interesting algorithmic solutions permits us to make effective code for fast pattern recognition in heavy signal/noise conditions. The system consists of the storage part, intercalibration and segments linking part, track finding and fitting, vertex finding and fitting and kinematical analysis parts. Kalman Filtering technique is used for tracks and vertex fitting. ROOT-based event display is used for interactive analysis of the special events. iltering technique is used for tracks and vertex fitting. ROOT-based event display is used for interactive analysis of the special events

  12. Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attention. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in tuning the amphiphilicity of particles for controlling the stability and type of Pickering emulsions. The amphiphilicity of three types of particles including rigid particles, soft particles, and Janus particles are tailored by means of different mechanisms and discussed here in detail. The stabilization-destabilization interconversion and phase inversion of Pickering emulsions have been successfully achieved by changing the surface properties of these particles. This article provides a comprehensive review of controllable Pickering emulsions, which is expected to stimulate inspiration for designing and preparing novel Pickering emulsions, and ultimately directing the preparation of functional materials.

  13. Interplay between Colloids and Interfaces : Emulsions, Foams and Microtubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interplay between colloids and interfaces. The adsorption of colloids at fluid-fluid interfaces is the main topic and covers Chapters 2-6. Pickering emulsions where colloidal particles act as emulsion stabilizers in the absence of surfactants are studied in a

  14. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 5 milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000859 in § 510...

  15. Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteillet, H.; Workamp, M.; Li, X.; Schuur, Boelo; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.; Sprakel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be

  16. Pickering Emulsions for Food Applications: Background, Trends, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are

  17. Aqueous polymer emulsions by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous polymer emulsions were prepared by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones in a one-pot reaction. Polymeric amines derived from the polyketones can act as polymeric surfactants for the self-emulsification of polyketones. The stability and structure of the emulsions

  18. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  19. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Food Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant effects in food emulsions are influenced by many different factors, such as the composition of the aqueous phase and interface, the partitioning of the antioxidants between the different phases of the emulsion system, the antioxidant properties, and others. This ch...

  20. Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haorong [Albuquerque, NM; Song, Yujiang [Albuquerque, NM; Shelnutt, John A [Tijeras, NM; Medforth, Craig J [Winters, CA

    2011-12-13

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  1. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster ...

  2. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  3. Emulsion polymerization with high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy radiation, particularly that of cobalt-60 or caesium-137 gamma-rays, provides in principle an ideal initiator for emulsion polymerization. The high free radical yields from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase combined with the high kinetic chain lengths associated with emulsion polymerization lead to a highly effective utilization of the radiation. There are other important advantages compared with the use of chemical initiators such as potassium persulfate. These are outlined in the chapter, together with some attendant disadvantages. Radiation-induced initiation is temperature independent, and low temperature polymerizations can be conducted with ease. Monomers that mainly terminate their growing chains by chain transfer to monomer give higher molecular weights at lower temperatures. Industrially, vinyl acetate is an important example of such a monomer, and it has been studied using radiation initiation. Both laboratory and pilot plant studies have been carried out and reported. The results are summarized in this chapter. Styrene is the classical example of a material that under a number of conditions closely obeys the so-called ideal Smith-Ewart kinetics. It has been found that under similar conditions but substituting radiation for potassium persulfate as the initiator, ideal kinetics were closely followed. Most of the conventional and some non-standard vinyl and diene monomers have been studied to some extent with radiation-initiated polymerizations in emulsion. To conserve space however, this chapter presents and discusses the results obtained only with styrene and vinyl acetate, both in laboratory and pilot plant investigations. Other monomers and special situations are referenced either directly or to the other available reviews. (orig.)

  4. Study on uranium-water multiplicative means of the (RESUCO-Subcritical experimental reactor of uranium with oxygen) subcritical assembly by pulsed neutron technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Barbosa, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    The effective multiplication factor and the nuclear parameters associated with the variation of (RESUCO- Subcritical Experimental Reactor of Uranium with Oxygen) Subcritical Assembly Configuration, using pulsed neutron technique are analysed. BF3 detectors were used to detect the variation of thermal neutrons in the system, positioned parallelly to fuel elements, and a proton recoil detector was used for monitoring the neutron generation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Treatment of severe mitral regurgitation caused by lesions in both leaflets using multiple mitral valve plasty techniques in a small dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Yokoyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitral valve plasty (MVP is preferred over mitral valve replacement (MVR for mitral regurgitation in humans because of its favorable effect on quality of life. In small dogs, it is difficult to repair multiple lesions in both leaflets using MVP. Herein, we report a case of severe mitral regurgitation caused by multiple severe lesions in the posterior leaflet (PL in a mixed Chihuahua. Initially, we had planned MVR with an artificial valve. However, MVP combined with artificial chordal reconstruction of both leaflets, semicircular suture annuloplasty, and valvuloplasty using a newly devised direct scallop suture for the PL was attempted in this dog. The dog recovered well and showed no adverse cardiac signs, surviving two major operations. The dog died 4 years and 10 months after the MVP due to non-cardiovascular disease. Our additional technique of using a direct scallop suture seemed useful for PL repair involving multiple scallops in a small dog.

  6. Study of the diffusion of some emulsions in the human skin by pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahjomri, F; Benamar, N; Chatri, E; Leblanc, R M

    2003-01-01

    We previously used pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy (PPAS) to quantify sunscreen diffusion into human skin, and suggested a methodology to evaluate the time and the depth diffusion profile. These results were obtained by the analysis of the photoacoustic maximum response signal P max decrease, the time delay t max and the Fourier transform representation of the photoacoustic signal. In this study we present the results obtained for diffusion of four typical emulsions used in sunscreen compositions that show, for the first time, a particular behaviour for one of these emulsions due to a chemical reaction inside the skin during the diffusion process. This result provides a particularly interesting technique through the PPAS, to evaluate in situ the eventual chemical reactions that can occur during drug diffusion into human skin

  7. Economical and environmentally safe treatment of emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, V

    1978-05-01

    The steady increase in the cost of the removal of emulsions and oil-containing liquid waste, as well as the rigid requirements concerning limiting values for discharge, have turned the disposal of spent cooling lubricants and oil-containing working fluids into a problem. The petroleum content in liquid waste is controlled with particular rigidity by the authorities. Ultrafiltration systems can keep the petroleum content at a very low level (< 2 mg/l) with great reliability. Ultrafiltration systems are easy to maintain, they have low operation costs and are easy to manipulate. The efficiency of a system is largely independent of its manipulation by the operating personnel.

  8. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  9. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques

  10. Cold in-place recycling using solventless emulsion - phase IV (emulsion qualification and long-term field performance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report looks into how a successful Cold In-Place solventless emulsion behaves and how the emulsion : break test developed in Phase III of this project demonstrates that behavior. Modifications to the test have been : made to improve the consiste...

  11. Application of the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) Technique to Subcritical Reactivity Worth Measurements in Thermal and Fast Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, P.; Fougeras, Ph.; Mellier, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Amplified Source Multiplication (ASM) method and its improved Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method have been widely used in the CEA's EOLE and MASURCA critical facilities over the past decades for the determination of reactivity worths by using fission chambers in subcritical configurations. The ASM methodology uses relatively simple relationships between count rates of efficient miniature fission chambers located in slightly subcritical reference and perturbed configurations. While this method works quite well for small reactivity variations, the raw results need to be corrected to take into account the flux perturbation at the fission chamber location. This is performed by applying to the measurement a correction factor called MSM. This paper describes in detail both methodologies, with their associated uncertainties. Applications on absorber cluster worth in the MISTRAL-4 full MOX mock-up core and the last core loaded in MASURCA show the importance of the MSM correction on raw ASM data. (authors)

  12. Acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride emulsions provides cardioprotection in murine models after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylde Zirpoli

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We questioned whether acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride (TG emulsions could preserve cardiac function and decrease injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R insult. We used two different experimental models: in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD, and ex-vivo, C57BL/6 murine hearts were perfused using Langendorff technique (LT. In the LAD model, mice treated with n-3 TG emulsion (1.5 g/kg body weight, immediately after ischemia and 1 h later during reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct size and maintained cardiac function (p<0.05. In the LT model, administration of n-3 TG emulsion (300 mg TG/100 ml during reperfusion significantly improved functional recovery (p<0.05. In both models, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels, as a marker of injury, were significantly reduced by n-3 TG emulsion. To investigate the mechanisms by which n-3 FAs protects hearts from I/R injury, we investigated changes in key pathways linked to cardioprotection. In the ex-vivo model, we showed that n-3 FAs increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β proteins (p<0.05. Acute n-3 TG emulsion treatment also increased Bcl-2 protein level and reduced an autophagy marker, Beclin-1 (p<0.05. Additionally, cardioprotection by n-3 TG emulsion was linked to changes in PPARγ protein expression (p<0.05. Rosiglitazone and p-AKT inhibitor counteracted the positive effect of n-3 TG; GSK3β inhibitor plus n-3 TG significantly inhibited LDH release. We conclude that acute n-3 TG injection during reperfusion provides cardioprotection. This may prove to be a novel acute adjunctive reperfusion therapy after treating patients with myocardial infarction.

  13. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Haojie; Zhang, Shouchun; Lu, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES

  14. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Haojie [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shouchun, E-mail: zschun@sxicc.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lu, Chunxiang [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.

  15. Effect of capillary number on the oil recovery using oil-water emulsion injection in core flooding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Nunez, Victor Raul; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msn@puc-rio.br; Basante, Vladimir Alvarado [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical/Petroleum Engineering], E-mail: valvard@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Water injection flooding is a common method to improve reservoir sweep and pressure maintenance. The heavy-oil-recovery efficiency is in part limited by the high water-to-oil mobility ratio. Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed as more efficient alternatives to water flooding. Dispersion injection, in particular oil-water emulsion injection, has been tried with relative success as an enhanced oil recovery method, but the technique is not fully developed or understood. If emulsion injection proves to be an effective EOR method, its use would bring the added benefit of disposing produced water with small oil content that could be modified to serve as the injected oil-water emulsion. The use of such methods requires a detailed analysis of the different flow regimes of emulsions through the porous space of a reservoir rock. If the drop size of the disperse phase is of the same order of magnitude as the pore size, the drops may agglomerate and partially block water flow through pores. This flow regime may be used to control the mobility of the injected liquid, leading to higher recovery factor. We have shown in recent experiments of oil displacement in a sandstone core that, the oil recovery factor could be raised from approximately 40 %, obtained with water injection only, up to approximately 75 % by alternating water and emulsion injection. Although these results clearly show the improvement in the recovery factor, the mechanisms responsible for the phenomenon have not been clearly elucidated. In this work, two sandstone cores were used to demonstrate the effect of flow rate (capillary number) on the mobility control by emulsion injection. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the experiment set-up. The experiments show that raising the flow rate by a factor of 10 (0.03 ml/min to 0.3 ml/min), the oil recovered factor decreases considerably. (author)

  16. Use of modified lip repositioning technique associated with esthetic crown lengthening for treatment of excessive gingival display: A case report of multiple etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Matheus Bortoluzzi; Souza, Eduardo Clemente; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Corrêa, Giovani Oliveira; Progiante, Patrícia Saram; Silva, Cléverson Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gingival display during smile can result in compromised esthetics. This study aims to report a case of excessive gingival display with multiple etiologies treated by means of modified lip repositioning technique associated with esthetic crown lengthening. A 23-year-old female patient, with 5-mm gingival display during smile caused by altered passive eruption and hypermobility of the upper lip, underwent the modified lip repositioning technique associated with gingivectomy followed by flap elevation and ostectomy/osteoplasty. Seven months after the second procedure, the patient had her esthetic complaint solved appearing stable in the observation period. The modified lip repositioning technique is an effective procedure employed to reduce gingival display and when associated with esthetic clinical crown lengthening, can appropriately treat cases of gummy smile. PMID:27041845

  17. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2017-10-01

    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  18. Conventional and dense gas techniques for the production of liposomes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meure, Louise A; Foster, Neil R; Dehghani, Fariba

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review paper is to compare the potential of various techniques developed for production of homogenous, stable liposomes. Traditional techniques, such as Bangham, detergent depletion, ether/ethanol injection, reverse-phase evaporation and emulsion methods, were compared with the recent advanced techniques developed for liposome formation. The major hurdles for scaling up the traditional methods are the consumption of large quantities of volatile organic solvent, the stability and homogeneity of the liposomal product, as well as the lengthy multiple steps involved. The new methods have been designed to alleviate the current issues for liposome formulation. Dense gas liposome techniques are still in their infancy, however they have remarkable advantages in reducing the use of organic solvents, providing fast, single-stage production and producing stable, uniform liposomes. Techniques such as the membrane contactor and heating methods are also promising as they eliminate the use of organic solvent, however high temperature is still required for processing.

  19. End-range mobilization techniques in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder joint: a multiple-subject case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.M.; Obermann, W.R.; Burger, B.J.; Kok, G.J.; Rozing, P.M.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of end-range mobilization techniques in the management of patients with adhesive capsulitis. CASE DESCRIPTION: Four men and 3 women (mean age=50.2 years, SD=6.0, range=41-65) with adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral

  20. Increasing the Fine Flaky Graphite Recovery in Flotation via a Combined MultipleTreatments Technique of Middlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Peng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the residual flaky graphite ores become miscellaneous and fine, a single treatment technique for the middlings from the flotation process of graphite ore cannot efficiently recover the valuable graphite in the multistage grinding-flotation technology. In the study, the existence form of graphite and relationship of graphite with the associated gangue minerals were estimated by optical microscope analysis. The results indicated that the fine flaky graphite particles embedded with gangue minerals like a honeycomb, making it difficult to be beneficiated using the typical flotation technique. A combination technique of individual process and concentrated returning for the treatment of middlings was used to increase the graphite recovery based on the co-existing relationship between graphite and gangue minerals in the middlings. The graphite recovery of the final concentrate upgraded from 51.81% to 91.14% at a fixed carbon (FC content of 92.01% by a beneficiation process consisted of once coarse (94.41% passing 74 μm and rougher, five stages regrinding and six stages cleaning. The proposed treatment technique for middlings is of great significance to increase the recovery of fine flaky graphite.

  1. Comparison of implant cast accuracy of multiple implant impression technique with different splinting materials: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunantha Selvaraj

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The master cast obtained by both the splinting material exhibits no difference from the reference model. So bis-GMA can be used, which is easy to handle, less time consuming, less technique sensitive, rigid, and readily available material in clinics.

  2. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  3. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  4. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H.; Bonnet, A.; Cohen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui

  5. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Kumada, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Takemi; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Fijihara, Mitsuteru; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of 10 B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), 10 BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion could be

  6. Feasibility evaluation of neutron capture therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using selective enhancement of boron accumulation in tumour with intra-arterial administration of boron-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagie, Hironobu, E-mail: yanagie@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, Hiroaki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, Syushi [Dept of Surgery, Ebihara Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)] [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Ikushima, Ichiro [Dept of Radiology, Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Morishita, Yasuyuki [Dept of Human and Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Atsuko [Dept of Humanities, Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Fijihara, Mitsuteru [SPG Techno Ltd. Co., Miyazaki (Japan); Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Sugiyama, Hirotaka [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kajiyama, Tetsuya [Kyushu Industrial Sources Foundation, Miyazaki (Japan); Nishimura, Ryohei [Dept of Veternary Surgery, University of Tokyo Veternary Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru [Dept of Cardiothracic Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, Masazumi [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Shin-Yamanote Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [Dept of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult to cure with surgery, chemotherapy, or other combinational therapies. In the treatment of HCC, only 30% patients can be operated due to complication of liver cirrhosis or multiple intrahepatic tumours. Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between {sup 10}B atoms and thermal neutrons, so it is necessary to accumulate a sufficient quantity of {sup 10}B atoms in tumour cells for effective tumour cell destruction by BNCT. Water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion has been used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on intra-arterial injections in clinical. In this study, we prepared {sup 10}BSH entrapped WOW emulsion by double emulsifying technique using iodized poppy-seed oil (IPSO), {sup 10}BSH and surfactant, for selective intra-arterial infusion to HCC, and performed simulations of the irradiation in order to calculate the dose delivered to the patients. Materials and methods: WOW emulsion was administrated with intra-arterial injections via proper hepatic artery on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour models. We simulated the irradiation of epithermal neutron and calculated the dose delivered to the tissues with JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) at JRR4 reactor of Japan Atomic Research Institute, using the CT scans of a HCC patient. Results and discussions: The {sup 10}B concentrations in VX-2 tumour obtained by delivery with WOW emulsion were superior to those by conventional IPSO mix emulsion. According to the rabbit model, the boron concentrations (ppm) in tumour, normal liver tissue, and blood are 61.7, 4.3, and 0.1, respectively. The results of the simulations show that normal liver biologically weighted dose is restricted to 4.9 Gy-Eq (CBE; liver tumour: 2.5, normal liver: 0.94); the maximum, minimum, and mean tumour weighted dose are 43.1, 7.3, and 21.8 Gy-Eq, respectively, in 40 min irradiation. In this study, we show that {sup 10}B

  7. ‘Inverted Y’ field radiotherapy planning with multi-leaf collimator: A single isocentric technique using multiple fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to describe a planning technique using multi-leaf collimator and asymmetric fields for irradiating an ‘inverted Y’ shaped geometry in a patient with testicular seminoma. The entire target area covering the para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal nodal regions was split into three fields. Single isocenter half-beam block technique was employed. The fields were planned with antero-posterior and postero-anterior portals with a differential weightage. The dose was prescribed at the respective reference points of the fields. A uniform dose distribution for the entire portal was achieved without any under- or over-dosing at the field junctions.  

  8. Fast helium production in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24Mg with emulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilany, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the properties of the relativistic helium fragments emitted from the projectile in the interactions of 24 Mg ions accelerated at an energy of 3.7 A GeV with emulsion nuclei. The total, partial nuclear cross-sections and production rates of helium fragmentation channels in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and their dependence on the mass and energy of the incident projectile nucleus are investigated. The yields of multiple helium projectile fragments disrupted from the interactions of 24 Mg projectile nuclei with hydrogen H, light CNO and heavy AgBr groups of target emulsion nuclei are discussed and they indicate that the breakup mechanism of the projectile seems to be independent of the target mass. Limiting fragmentation behavior of fast-moving helium fragments is observed in both the projectile and target nuclei. The multiplicity distributions of helium projectile fragments emitted in the interactions of 24 Mg projectile nuclei with the different target nuclei of the emulsion are well described by the KNO scaling presentation. The mean multiplicities of the different charged secondary particles, normally defined shower, grey and black (left angle n s right angle, left angle n g right angle and left angle n b right angle) emitted in the interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24 Mg with the different groups of emulsion nuclei at different ranges of projectile fragments are decreasing when the number of He fragments stripped from projectile increases. These values of left angle n i right angle (i=s, g, band h particles) in the events where the emission of fast helium fragments were accompanied by heavy fragments having Z≥3 seem to be constant as the He multiplicity increases, and exhibit a behavior independent of the He multiplicity. (orig.)

  9. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Ho Park, Xin Zhang, Seon-Yong Hwang, Sang Hyun Jung, Semin Kang, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Hyung-Ho Park, Ross H Hill and Chul Ki Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL. The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm−2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  10. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of size-tunable zinc oxide architectures by multiple size reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Seon-Yong; Jung, Sang Hyun; Kang, Semin; Shin, Hyun-Beom; Kang, Ho Kwan; Ko, Chul Ki; Zhang Xin; Hill, Ross H; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple size reduction technique for fabricating 400 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) architectures using a silicon master containing only microscale architectures. In this approach, the overall fabrication, from the master to the molds and the final ZnO architectures, features cost-effective UV photolithography, instead of electron beam lithography or deep-UV photolithography. A photosensitive Zn-containing sol–gel precursor was used to imprint architectures by direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The resulting Zn-containing architectures were then converted to ZnO architectures with reduced feature sizes by thermal annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. The imprinted and annealed ZnO architectures were also used as new masters for the size reduction technique. ZnO pillars of 400 nm diameter were obtained from a silicon master with pillars of 1000 nm diameter by simply repeating the size reduction technique. The photosensitivity and contrast of the Zn-containing precursor were measured as 6.5 J cm −2 and 16.5, respectively. Interesting complex ZnO patterns, with both microscale pillars and nanoscale holes, were demonstrated by the combination of dose-controlled UV exposure and a two-step UV-NIL.

  11. Rheological Behaviour of Water-in-Light Crude Oil Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Taju Ariffin, T. S.; Yahya, E.

    2018-05-01

    Basically, emulsions consist of two immiscible liquids which have different density. In petroleum industry, emulsions are undesirable due to their various costly problems in term of transportation difficulties and production loss. A study of the rheological behaviour of light crude oil and its mixture from Terengganu were carried out using Antoon Paar MCR 301 rheometer operated at pressure of 2.5 bar at temperature C. Water in oil emulsions were prepared by mixing light crude oil with different water volume fractions (20%, 30% and 40%). The objectives of present paper are to study the rheological behaviour of emulsion as a fuction of shear rate and model analysis that fitted with the experimental data. The rheological models of Ostwald-De-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley were fitted to the experimental results. All models represented well the rheological data, with high values for the correlation coefficients. The result indicated that variation of water content influenced shear rate-shear stress rheogram of the prepared emulsions. In the case of 100% light crude oil, the study demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior. However, for emulsion with different volume water ratios, the rheological behaviour could be well described by Herschel-Bulkley models due to the present of yield stress parameter (R2 = 0.99807). As a conclusion, rheological studies showed that volume water ratio have a great impact on the shear stress and viscosity of water in oil emulsion and it is important to understand these factors to avoid various costly problems.

  12. Minimum pressure for sustained combustion in AN-based emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthorp, S.; Turcotte, R.; Badeen, C.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory; Chan, S.K. [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, PQ (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    AN-based emulsions have been involved in a relatively high number of accidental explosions related to pumping operations during their manufacture, transfer and handling. The minimum burning pressure (MBP) of emulsions is used to estimate safe operating pressures for pumping and mixing equipment. This study examined testing protocols conducted to measure MBP values. Factors contributing to uncertainties in MBP data were examined, and a measurement methodology designed to incorporate the uncertainties was presented. MBP measurements obtained for 5 different AN-based emulsions in high pressure vessels were also provided, and the impact of various ingredients on MBP values was discussed. Bench-scale experiments and time current pulse tests were conducted to examine thermal ignition behaviour. The emulsions exhibited MBP values that ranged from 580 to 6510 kPa. Results of the study suggested that ingredients play a significant role on MBP values. A relatively high energy flux was required to induce stable combustion fronts in the emulsions. Large air voids containing flammable atmospheres were able to provide sufficient energy to ignite the emulsions. It was concluded that a knowledge of the MBP of emulsions is needed to ensure that corresponding pumping operations are conducted at pressures below the MBP. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  14. A new generation of models for water-in-oil emulsion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions form after oil or petroleum products are spilled, and can make the cleanup of oil spills difficult. This paper discussed new modelling schemes designed for the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Density, viscosity, asphaltene and resin contents were used to compute a class index for unstable, entrained water-in-oil states, meso-stable, or stable emulsions. Prediction schemes were used to estimate the water content and viscosity of the water-in-oil states and the time to formation with wave height inputs. A numerical values was used for each type of water-in-oil type. The properties of the starting oil were correlated with the numerical scheme. New regressions were then performed using a Gaussian-style regression expansion technique. Data obtained from the models suggested that water-in-oil types are stabilized by both asphaltenes and resins. The optimized model was then compared with earlier models. The study showed that the new model has the capacity to accurately predict oil-in-water types approximately 90 per cent of the time using only resin, saturate, asphaltene, viscosity, and density data. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  15. A Nuclear Emulsion Detector for the Muon Radiography of a Glacier Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitaka Ariga

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray muons can be used to image the interior of geological sites provided that one employs detectors able to operate in the specific harsh conditions of the mountain environment. We designed and developed a detector exploiting the nuclear emulsion technique to assess the bedrock profile underneath an alpine glacier. Nuclear emulsions do not need any electric power supply or maintenance and allow for the measurement of the muon flux and direction behind a large target volume. The 3D density distribution of the material traversed by muons can then be assessed, bringing relevant information on the shape of the boundary between the glacial ice and the underlying bedrock. This new methodology in the geological field was recently tested in a campaign of measurements in the Jungfrau region of the central Swiss Alps. It was shown that the bedrock surface position can be measured with a resolution of about 5 % when the traversed target is about 100 m thick. Characteristics and performance of the method are reported here and demonstrate that muon radiography based on emulsion detectors represents a powerful tool for the geological study of glaciers.

  16. Ant colony optimisation-direct cover: a hybrid ant colony direct cover technique for multi-level synthesis of multiple-valued logic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Barr, Mostafa

    2010-12-01

    The use of non-binary (multiple-valued) logic in the synthesis of digital systems can lead to savings in chip area. Advances in very large scale integration (VLSI) technology have enabled the successful implementation of multiple-valued logic (MVL) circuits. A number of heuristic algorithms for the synthesis of (near) minimal sum-of products (two-level) realisation of MVL functions have been reported in the literature. The direct cover (DC) technique is one such algorithm. The ant colony optimisation (ACO) algorithm is a meta-heuristic that uses constructive greediness to explore a large solution space in finding (near) optimal solutions. The ACO algorithm mimics the ant's behaviour in the real world in using the shortest path to reach food sources. We have previously introduced an ACO-based heuristic for the synthesis of two-level MVL functions. In this article, we introduce the ACO-DC hybrid technique for the synthesis of multi-level MVL functions. The basic idea is to use an ant to decompose a given MVL function into a number of levels and then synthesise each sub-function using a DC-based technique. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared to those obtained using existing techniques reported in the literature. A benchmark set consisting of 50,000 randomly generated 2-variable 4-valued functions is used in the comparison. The results obtained using the proposed ACO-DC technique are shown to produce efficient realisation in terms of the average number of gates (as a measure of chip area) needed for the synthesis of a given MVL function.

  17. Perfection of the individual photographic emulsion dosimeter; Perfectionnements dans la dosimetrie individuelle par emulsion photographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A photographic dosimeter making possible the measurement of {gamma} radiation doses of from 10 mr up to 800 r by means of 3 emulsion bands of varying sensitivity stuck to the same support is described. The dosimeter has also a zone for marking and a test film insensitive to radiation. This requires a photometric measurement by diffuse reflection an d makes it possible to measure doses with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [French] On decrit un dosimetre photographique permettant la mesure des doses de rayonnement {gamma} depuis 10 mroentgens jusqu'a 800 roentgens, au moyen de trois bandes d'emulsions de sensibilites differentes collees sur le meme support. Le dosimetre comporte egalement une plage de marquage et un temoin de developpement insensibles au rayonnement. Ceci impose la mesure photometrique par reflexion diffuse et permet l'appreciation visuelle des doses a 20 pour cent pres. (auteur)

  18. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel/conceptual floating pulsatile system using high internal phase emulsion based porous material intended for chronotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Praveen; Ingavle, Ganesh; Ponrathnam, Surendra; Benson, James R; Li, Nai-Hong; Pawar, Atmaram P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design a novel/conceptual delivery system using ibuprofen, anticipated for chronotherapy in arthritis with porous material to overcome the formulation limits (multiple steps, polymers, excipients) and to optimize drug loading for a desired release profile suitable for in vitro investigations. The objective of this delivery system lies in the availability of maximum drug amount for absorption in the wee hours as recommended. Drug loading using 3(2) factorial design on porous carrier, synthesized by high internal phase emulsion technique using styrene and divinylbenzene, was done via solvent evaporation using methanol and dichloromethane. The system was evaluated in vitro for drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and surface characterization by scanning electron, atomic force microscopy, and customized drug release study. This study examined critical parameters such as solvent volume, drug amount, and solvent polarity on investigations related to drug adsorption and release mostly favoring low-polarity solvent dichloromethane. Overall release in all batches ranged 0.98-52% in acidic medium and 71-94% in basic medium. These results exhibit uniqueness in achieving the least drug release of 0.98%, an ideal one, without using any release modifiers, making it distinct from other approaches/technologies for time and controlled release and for chronotherapy.

  20. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  1. A Robust Oil-in-Oil Emulsion for the Nonaqueous Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaocun; Katz, Joshua S; Schmitt, Adam K; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2018-03-14

    Compartmentalized structures widely exist in cellular systems (organelles) and perform essential functions in smart composite materials (microcapsules, vasculatures, and micelles) to provide localized functionality and enhance materials' compatibility. An entirely water-free compartmentalization system is of significant value to the materials community as nonaqueous conditions are critical to packaging microcapsules with water-free hydrophilic payloads while avoiding energy-intensive drying steps. Few nonaqueous encapsulation techniques are known, especially when considering just the scalable processes that operate in batch mode. Herein, we report a robust oil-in-oil Pickering emulsion system that is compatible with nonaqueous interfacial reactions as required for encapsulation of hydrophilic payloads. A major conceptual advance of this work is the notion of the partitioning inhibitor-a chemical agent that greatly reduces the payload's distribution between the emulsion's two phases, thus providing appropriate conditions for emulsion-templated interfacial polymerization. As a specific example, an immiscible hydrocarbon-amine pair of liquids is emulsified by the incorporation of guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) as a partitioning inhibitor into the dispersed phase. Polyisobutylene (PIB) is added into the continuous phase as a viscosity modifier for suitable modification of interfacial polymerization kinetics. The combination of GuHCl and PIB is necessary to yield a robust emulsion with stable morphology for 3 weeks. Shell wall formation was accomplished by interfacial polymerization of isocyanates delivered through the continuous phase and polyamines from the droplet core. Diethylenetriamine (DETA)-loaded microcapsules were isolated in good yield, exhibiting high thermal and chemical stabilities with extended shelf-lives even when dispersed into a reactive epoxy resin. The polyamine phase is compatible with a variety of basic and hydrophilic actives, suggesting that this

  2. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  3. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  4. Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

    2009-04-01

    Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

  5. Evaluation of the feasibility for detecting hidden corrosion damage in multi-layer gusset plates using multiple inspection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Adam C.; Duffer, Charles E.; Light, Glenn M.

    2014-01-01

    Gusset plates are used to connect the members in truss bridges and they are usually inspected using calipers or conventional thickness measurement ultrasonic testing (UT) devices. The damage mechanism of particular concern in gusset plates is corrosion and the regions most susceptible to corrosion damage are on the gusset interior surface where it intersects the chord, diagonal, and vertical members from water collecting at the interfaces. For heavily loaded gusset plates, one or more shingle plates are used to reinforce the gusset plate, creating a multi-layer structure. While the areas with corrosion damage remain near the members on the gusset plate, the shingle plates cover the gusset plate and greatly limit the surface access to the gusset plate, making UT thickness measurement impractical. Because of the critical nature of the gussets, a viable inspection strategy for multi-layer gusset assemblies must be developed. The premise of this research and development effort was to develop viable, field-deployable inspection approaches for this problem area. This paper presents three separate inspection approaches: two ultrasonic-based techniques and one radiographic approach. Each of these techniques was evaluated on a mock-up specimen provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) that is representative of gusseted connection from a truss bridge

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility for detecting hidden corrosion damage in multi-layer gusset plates using multiple inspection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Adam C.; Duffer, Charles E.; Light, Glenn M. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238-5166 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Gusset plates are used to connect the members in truss bridges and they are usually inspected using calipers or conventional thickness measurement ultrasonic testing (UT) devices. The damage mechanism of particular concern in gusset plates is corrosion and the regions most susceptible to corrosion damage are on the gusset interior surface where it intersects the chord, diagonal, and vertical members from water collecting at the interfaces. For heavily loaded gusset plates, one or more shingle plates are used to reinforce the gusset plate, creating a multi-layer structure. While the areas with corrosion damage remain near the members on the gusset plate, the shingle plates cover the gusset plate and greatly limit the surface access to the gusset plate, making UT thickness measurement impractical. Because of the critical nature of the gussets, a viable inspection strategy for multi-layer gusset assemblies must be developed. The premise of this research and development effort was to develop viable, field-deployable inspection approaches for this problem area. This paper presents three separate inspection approaches: two ultrasonic-based techniques and one radiographic approach. Each of these techniques was evaluated on a mock-up specimen provided by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) that is representative of gusseted connection from a truss bridge.

  7. Efficient Time-Domain Ray-Tracing Technique for the Analysis of Ultra-Wideband Indoor Environments including Lossy Materials and Multiple Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saez de Adana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient application of the Time-Domain Uniform Theory of Diffraction (TD-UTD for the analysis of Ultra-Wideband (UWB mobile communications for indoor environments. The classical TD-UTD formulation is modified to include the contribution of lossy materials and multiple-ray interactions with the environment. The electromagnetic analysis is combined with a ray-tracing acceleration technique to treat realistic and complex environments. The validity of this method is tested with measurements performed inside the Polytechnic building of the University of Alcala and shows good performance of the model for the analysis of UWB propagation.

  8. Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Takeshi

    1979-10-01

    The radiation-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) has been studied at initial pressure 2 - 25 kg/cm 2 and temperature 30 0 - 110 0 C for dose rate 0.57 x 10 4 - 3.0 x 10 4 rad/hr. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a hydrophobic polymer, forms as a stable latex in the absence of an emulsifier. Stability of the latex is governed by the dose rate/TFE pressure ratio; it increases with sufficient TFE monomer. PTFE particles produced in this polymerization system are stable due to the carboxyl end groups and adsorption of OH - and HF on the particles. PTFE latex of molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 is obtained by addition of a radical scavenger such as hydroquinone. The molecular weight of PTFE can be measured from the heat of crystallization conveniently with high reliability, which was found in the course of study on the melting and crystallization behavior. (author)

  9. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  10. Omega-3s in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take into considera...... into consideration when developing food emulsions enriched with omega-3 oils and examples on how oxidation can be reduced in products such as mayonnaise, spreads, milk, yoghurt are also given.......There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take...

  11. The structure of omega3 food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    Fish oil is rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) which are generally recognized as being beneficial to the health [1]. The addition of fish oil to food products is attractive to both the consumers and the food industry. Indeed, these components will improve nutritional value...... and add product value. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds in their fatty acid chains and this attribute renders them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Omega-3 PUFAs can be added to food products as neat oil or as a delivery system such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this last configuration...... and the prooxidants. But this protective aspect is a really complex process and it is dependent on the food matrix to which the oil is added [2]. Oxidation is presumed to be initiated at the emulsifier layer, i.e. the interface layer between the oil and water where the oil is most likely to come into contact...

  12. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  13. TDM/FM/FDMA - A modulation technique for multiple-beam satellites which precludes cochannel interference and allows non-uniform geographic distribution of user channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springett, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The technique outlined in this paper is intended to eliminate the problems of cochannel interference and uniform geographic distribution of user channels which arise in conventional designs for a multiple spot beam communication satellite to serve mobile telephony users across the CONUS. By time multiplexing FM/FDMA signal ensembles so that only those beams operating on distinct frequency subbands are allowed to transmit concurrently, cochannel interference arising from simultaneous frequency subband reuse is precluded. Thus, time disjoint frequency reuse is accomplished over a repetitive sequence of fixed time slots. By assigning different size subbands to each time slot, a market of nonuniform users can be accommodated. The technique results in a greatly simplified antenna feed system design for the satellite, at a cost of imposing the need for time slot synchronization on the mobile FM receivers whose ability for rejecting adjacent channel interference is somewhat diminished.

  14. TDM/FM/FDMA - A modulation technique for multiple-beam satellites which precludes cochannel interference and allows non-uniform geographic distribution of user channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springett, J. C.

    The technique outlined in this paper is intended to eliminate the problems of cochannel interference and uniform geographic distribution of user channels which arise in conventional designs for a multiple spot beam communication satellite to serve mobile telephony users across the CONUS. By time multiplexing FM/FDMA signal ensembles so that only those beams operating on distinct frequency subbands are allowed to transmit concurrently, cochannel interference arising from simultaneous frequency subband reuse is precluded. Thus, time disjoint frequency reuse is accomplished over a repetitive sequence of fixed time slots. By assigning different size subbands to each time slot, a market of nonuniform users can be accommodated. The technique results in a greatly simplified antenna feed system design for the satellite, at a cost of imposing the need for time slot synchronization on the mobile FM receivers whose ability for rejecting adjacent channel interference is somewhat diminished.

  15. Investigations of Archaeological Glass Bracelets and Perfume Bottles Excavated in Ancient Ainos (Enez) by Multiple Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, S.; Akyuz, T.; Akyuz, S.; Ozel, A. E.; Kecel-Gunduz, S.; Basaran, S.

    2018-03-01

    Fragments of two perfume bottles belonging to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and five bracelets belonging to the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman periods, excavated in the archaeological site of Enez during the excavations in 2000, have been investigated. The samples were analyzed using micro-Raman, FTIR, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, in order to study the ancient technology of glass production and to determine chemical compositions of the basic components and coloring elements of the glassware. All the investigated glasses can be characterized as low-magnesia-soda-lime silicate glasses, whose colors are induced by metal ions. The melting points of the investigated glasses are estimated to be quite close to each other and around 1000°C.

  16. Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series. PMID:24895666

  17. Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI, has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  18. Crude oil price forecasting based on hybridizing wavelet multiple linear regression model, particle swarm optimization techniques, and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  19. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L.

    2007-10-01

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the ν μ → ν τ oscillation, through the ν τ appearance in a pure ν μ beam. The Opera experiment, with its ∼ 100000 m 2 of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm 2 /hour per emulsion layer (44 μm thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  20. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haojie; Zhang, Shouchun; Lu, Chunxiang

    2014-10-01

    Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of -52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.