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Sample records for multiple control groups

  1. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus......). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use...

  2. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  3. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed to investigate personality traits and coping strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who were admitted to Sina hospital compared with healthy individuals. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and coping strategies between patients with MS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods The study sample included 55 patients with MS and 57 matched healthy control individuals. The data were gathered via a demographic form, the ways of coping questionnaire, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. Results No significant differences in personality characteristics were observed between patients and healthy controls (all P > 0.05. Only the coping strategy subscale of Distancing was significant between patients and healthy controls (P 0.05. Only the Neuroticism personality trait and the Distancing coping strategy were predictive of group membership (i.e., healthy or patient. Conclusions Our study suggests that the personality traits of patients with MS and healthy individuals are not significantly different. Patients with MS are likely to use the same coping strategies as healthy individuals, except in the subscale of Distancing.

  4. Comparing Treatment and Control Groups on Multiple Outcomes: Robust Procedures for Testing a Directional Alternative Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lix, Lisa M.; Deering, Kathleen N.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Manivong, Phongsack

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the problem of testing the difference between treatment and control groups on m [greater than or equal to] 2 measures when it is assumed a priori that the treatment group will perform better than the control group on all measures. Two procedures are investigated that do not rest on the assumptions of covariance homogeneity or…

  5. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). © FPI, Inc.

  6. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  7. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  8. Multiple group membership and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...

  9. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Bagheri, Parisa; Karimi, Negar; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and can cause problems for individuals in all aspects of life, including social and personal dimensions. To study the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of OCD symptoms in female participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted from May 2012 to December 2014. The participants included 75 patients with MS who suffered from OCD and were referred to the Loghman Hakim and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Thirty participants had been diagnosed through Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (Y-BOCS). The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Eleven sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy were provided for the experimental group. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Hypotheses were tested using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A significant reduction was found in the experimental group's obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral therapy (pcognitive-behavioral therapy could considerably reduce OCD symptoms in women with MS. The application of this method by therapists, especially Iranian clinicians, is recommended.

  10. CoDuSe group exercise programme improves balance and reduces falls in people with multiple sclerosis: A multi-centre, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Anna; Forsberg, Anette; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2017-09-01

    Imbalance leading to falls is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). To evaluate the effects of a balance group exercise programme (CoDuSe) on balance and walking in PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, 4.0-7.5). A multi-centre, randomized, controlled single-blinded pilot study with random allocation to early or late start of exercise, with the latter group serving as control group for the physical function measures. In total, 14 supervised 60-minute exercise sessions were delivered over 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest analyses were conducted for self-reported near falls and falls in the group starting late. Primary outcome was Berg Balance Scale (BBS). A total of 51 participants were initially enrolled; three were lost to follow-up. Post-intervention, the exercise group showed statistically significant improvement ( p = 0.015) in BBS and borderline significant improvement in MS Walking Scale ( p = 0.051), both with large effect sizes (3.66; -2.89). No other significant differences were found between groups. In the group starting late, numbers of falls and near falls were statistically significantly reduced after exercise compared to before ( p balance and reduced perceived walking limitations, compared to no exercise. The intervention reduced falls and near falls frequency.

  11. Group control of elevators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Yasukazu; Hikita, Shiro; Tuji, Sintaro (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-05

    Items to be evaluated in the group control of elevators, and a typical control system are described. A new system in which the fuzzy rule base is employed is introduced together with the configuration. The items to be evaluated are waiting time, riding time, accuracy of forecasting, energy saving, and ease of usage. The everage waiting time of less than 20 seconds with less than 3% waiting rate of more than 60 seconds is accepted as a satisfactory service condition. There are many conflicting matters in group-controlling, and the study for the controlling must deal with the optimization of multi-purpose problems. The standards for group-control evaluation differ according to building structures and the tastes of users, and an important problem is where to give emphasis of the evaluation. The TRAFFIC PATTERN LEARNING METHOD has been applied in the system for careful control to accommodate the traffic. No specific function is provided for the evaluation, but the call allocation is made by fuzzy rule-base. The configuration of a new group-control system is introduced. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  12. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  13. The Multiple In-group Identity Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lock, Daniel; Funk, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of team identification on sport consumer behaviour are well established. Recent research, however, has moved beyond this perspective to examine how groups within and beyond the team identity influence consumption. Assimilating previous research findings, we advance a Multiple In-group Identity Framework (MIIF), which consists of three levels: (1) superordinate (e.g., team identity), (2) subgroup (e.g., specific stadium area), and (3) relational group (e.g., friends or family). In ...

  14. Multiple nuclear ADC controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovett, A; Rapaport, M S [Center for Nuclear Research, Soreq (Israel)

    1980-12-01

    A controller for an on-line three parameter coincidence and multispectra scaling system has been developed. It has been designed to control, event-by-event, the outputs of three nuclear analog-to-digital converters used at the SOLIS facility. The system utilizes an HP minicomputer with a 32k-word core memory, a disc drive and magnetic tape units.

  15. Renormalization group equations with multiple coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghika, G.; Visinescu, M.

    1975-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the renormalization group equations of a renormalizable field theory with multiple coupling constants. A method for the investigation of the asymptotic stability is presented. This method is applied to a gauge theory with Yukawa and self-quartic couplings of scalar mesons in order to find the domains of asymptotic freedom. An asymptotic expansion for the solutions which tend to the origin of the coupling constants is given

  16. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Methods - English PDF How to Switch Birth Control Methods - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ... Reproductive Health Access Project Non-Contraceptive Indications for Hormonal Contraceptive Products - English PDF Non- ...

  17. Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Craig; Meiser, Karin; David, Olivier J; Schmouder, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0.5-mg dose. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation. The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group, 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg, or to placebo. The authors compared T-cell dependent and independent responses to the neoantigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine (PPV-23), respectively, and additionally recall antigen response (tetanus toxoid [TT]) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to KLH, TT, and Candida albicans. Fingolimod caused mild to moderate decreases in anti-KLH and anti-PPV-23 IgG and IgM levels versus placebo. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0.5-mg groups for anti-KLH IgG (both > 90%) and comparable for anti-PPV-23 IgG (55% and 41%, respectively). Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.5-mg groups. Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

  18. Coordinated Control of Vehicle Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    .... There are three main objectives: (1) to develop a theoretical paradigm for formalizing the concepts of a group, a team, and control of groups, with specified tasks such as exploring, mapping, searching, and transporting objects; (2...

  19. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREEN, M.T.; PONCE, D.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; ELLIS, R.A.; GROSNICKLE, W.H.; HUMPHREY, R.L.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future

  20. Multiple Family Group Therapy: An Interpersonal/Postmodern Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorngren, Jill M.; Kleist, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple Family Group Therapy has been identified as a viable treatment model for a variety of client populations. A combination of family systems theories and therapeutic group factors provide the opportunity to explore multiple levels of intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships between families. This article depicts a Multiple Family Group…

  1. Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Group Credit Unions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) to diversify, credit unions now have the opportunity to market their services to specific employee groups or industries which can reduce the overall risk to the credit unions' health or solvency...

  2. Efficacy of group cognitive rehabilitation therapy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, A; Chohedri, E; Ravanfar, P; Mowla, A; Nikseresht, A

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs in 40%-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Several techniques for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) in these patients have been evaluated; however, the results have been controversial. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of group compensatory CR in patients with MS-related cognitive impairment. Thirty-four female patients with diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS and evidence of impaired cognitive function were included and randomized to intervention (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. CR intervention consisted of eight 2-hour sessions of comprehensive group CR over a 4-week period that focused on improvement of memory, attention, and executive function. As placebo, the control group received the same number of non-therapeutic group sessions. Assessment of cognitive function was performed before intervention (pretest), at the end of intervention (post-test), and 3 months later (follow-up). The study population included 34 patients with a mean age of 35.5 years. Statistical comparison of memory assessments at 3-month follow-up showed significantly higher scores in the CR group than in the control group (93.33 vs 86.40 for Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination test and 16.58 vs 12.00 for visual memory, 19.32 vs 14.05 for verbal memory, and 51.28 vs 44.41 for general scores on the Memory Functioning Questionnaire test, respectively). Wisconsin card sorting test score comparison showed significantly lower total time consumption in the CR group than in the control group (308.1 vs 340.8 seconds, respectively). Behavior rating inventory of executive function-adult scores in all four subtests were significantly higher in the CR group than in the control group (40.25 vs 55.4 for behavioral regulation index, 51.16 vs 68.6 for metacognition index, and 97.41 vs 124.00 for global executive composite, respectively). Attention was the only domain in which we did not observe any significant variation between groups in terms of post

  3. Multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands. 7. Results of a case control questionnaire with multiple controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzke, J F; Hyllested, K; Arbuckle, J D

    1997-01-01

    Detailed questionnaires were completed in 1978-79 by 23 of the 28 then known resident Faroese multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 127 controls. These controls were divided into 69 Group A (patient sibs and other relatives), 37 Group B (matched neighbor controls, their spouses and sibs, plus...... facilities, and nature of house construction or heating. Detailed dietary histories, available for half the subjects, revealed no differences, cases versus controls, for four age periods between age 0 and 30 years, and for 16 specified foodstuffs. Animal exposures showed overall no consistent differences...

  4. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  5. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Using Multiple Control Groups and Matching to Address Unobserved Biases in Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Observational Study of the Effectiveness of Mental Health Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Frank B; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Alisa B; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2011-06-21

    Studies of large policy interventions typically do not involve randomization. Adjustments, such as matching, can remove the bias due to observed covariates, but residual confounding remains a concern. In this paper we introduce two analytical strategies to bolster inferences of the effectiveness of policy interventions based on observational data. First, we identify how study groups may differ and then select a second comparison group on this source of difference. Second, we match subjects using a strategy that finely balances the distributions of key categorical covariates and stochastically balances on other covariates. An observational study of the effect of parity on the severely ill subjects enrolled in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program illustrates our methods.

  7. Teacher regulation of multiple computer-supported collaborating groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, Anouschka; Janssen, Jeroen; Erkens, Gijsbert; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Teachers regulating groups of students during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) face the challenge of orchestrating their guidance at student, group, and class level. During CSCL, teachers can monitor all student activity and interact with multiple groups at the same time. Not much is

  8. Experiences of patients with multiple sclerosis from group counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Mazaheri, Mina; Fanian, Nasrin; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group counseling is one of the most important methods in somatic and psychological rehabilitation of the multiple sclerosis (M.S.) patients. Knowing these patients? experiences, feelings, believes and emotion based on learning in group is necessary to indicate the importance of group discussion on quality of life of the patients. This study was done to achieve experiences of M.S. patients from group training. METHODS: This was a qualitative study using phenomenological method. The...

  9. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...) to require the presence of two levels of controlled entities for a controlled group to exist, and... changes would add a new example to illustrate both the mechanics of the controlled group rules as applied...

  10. Multivariate sparse group lasso for the multivariate multiple linear regression with an arbitrary group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanming; Nan, Bin; Zhu, Ji

    2015-06-01

    We propose a multivariate sparse group lasso variable selection and estimation method for data with high-dimensional predictors as well as high-dimensional response variables. The method is carried out through a penalized multivariate multiple linear regression model with an arbitrary group structure for the regression coefficient matrix. It suits many biology studies well in detecting associations between multiple traits and multiple predictors, with each trait and each predictor embedded in some biological functional groups such as genes, pathways or brain regions. The method is able to effectively remove unimportant groups as well as unimportant individual coefficients within important groups, particularly for large p small n problems, and is flexible in handling various complex group structures such as overlapping or nested or multilevel hierarchical structures. The method is evaluated through extensive simulations with comparisons to the conventional lasso and group lasso methods, and is applied to an eQTL association study. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Group performance and group learning at dynamic system control tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewes, Sylvana

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of dynamic systems (e.g. cooling systems of nuclear power plants or production and warehousing) is important to ensure public safety and economic success. So far, research has provided broad evidence for systematic shortcomings in individuals' control performance of dynamic systems. This research aims to investigate whether groups manifest synergy (Larson, 2010) and outperform individuals and if so, what processes lead to these performance advantages. In three experiments - including simulations of a nuclear power plant and a business setting - I compare the control performance of three-person-groups to the average individual performance and to nominal groups (N = 105 groups per experiment). The nominal group condition captures the statistical advantage of aggregated group judgements not due to social interaction. First, results show a superior performance of groups compared to individuals. Second, a meta-analysis across all three experiments shows interaction-based process gains in dynamic control tasks: Interacting groups outperform the average individual performance as well as the nominal group performance. Third, group interaction leads to stable individual improvements of group members that exceed practice effects. In sum, these results provide the first unequivocal evidence for interaction-based performance gains of groups in dynamic control tasks and imply that employers should rely on groups to provide opportunities for individual learning and to foster dynamic system control at its best.

  12. Group Positive Psychotherapy and Depression of Females Affected by Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Khayatan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most important and prevalent central nervous system diseases, causing disorders such as depression among affected patients. Positive psychotherapy is also a new approach that can be effective in reducing the depression of these people. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of group positive psychotherapy for decreasing the depression among females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. Methods: A samples of 30 females affected by Multiple Sclerosis with mild to moderate depression were participated, and were divided into two groups, intervention and control. Both groups completed Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II at the beginning, he intervention group received six sessions of positive psychotherapy. After the intervention both group completed the questionnaire again. Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: The result demonstrated that, the decline of depression was more in the intervention group than the control group. Moreover in the intervention group than control group, there was obtained significant reduction in both sub-scales of Beck Depression Inventory II. Discussion: Results of this study indicated that group positive psychotherapy is effective in reducing the depression of females affected by Multiple Sclerosis. This treatment can be widely used in the caring centers for treatment of people affected by Multiple Sclerosis and this can be justified because of its low cost and good efficiency.

  13. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  14. Experiences of patients with multiple sclerosis from group counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mina; Fanian, Nasrin; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Group counseling is one of the most important methods in somatic and psychological rehabilitation of the multiple sclerosis (M.S.) patients. Knowing these patients' experiences, feelings, believes and emotion based on learning in group is necessary to indicate the importance of group discussion on quality of life of the patients. This study was done to achieve experiences of M.S. patients from group training. This was a qualitative study using phenomenological method. The samples were selected using purposeful sampling. Ten patients from M.S. society who had passed group training were included in the study. The group training was done through seven sessions weekly and voluntarily. The participants were interviewed using in-depth interview. The average time of each interview was between 30-50 minutes which has been recorded digitally and moved to a compact disc to transcribe and analysis. The data analyzed using 7-step Colaizzi method. The data were transformed into 158 codes, 12 sub-concepts and 4 main concepts including emotional consequences, communication, quality of life and needs. M.S can lead to multiple problems in patients such as somatic, behavioral, emotional and social disorders. Group psychotherapy is one of the methods which can decrease these problems and improve rehabilitation of the patients. Group discussion helps patients to overcome adverse feelings, behaviors and thoughts and guides them to move in a meaningful life. It also can improve quality of life and mental health of the patients.

  15. Control of multiple robots using vision sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...

  16. Conceptual design of multiple parallel switching controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, D.; Yoshikawa, S.; Ozawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design and the development of a preliminary model of a multiple parallel switching (MPS) controller. The introduction of several advanced controllers has widened and improved the control capability of nonlinear dynamical systems. However, it is not possible to uniquely define a controller that always outperforms the others, and, in many situations, the controller providing the best control action depends on the operating conditions and on the intrinsic properties and behavior of the controlled dynamical system. The desire to combine the control action of several controllers with the purpose to continuously attain the best control action has motivated the development of the MPS controller. The MPS controller consists of a number of single controllers acting in parallel and of an artificial intelligence (AI) based selecting mechanism. The AI selecting mechanism analyzes the output of each controller and implements the one providing the best control performance. An inherent property of the MPS controller is the possibility to discard unreliable controllers while still being able to perform the control action. To demonstrate the feasibility and the capability of the MPS controller the simulation of the on-line operation control of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) evaporator is presented. (author)

  17. Delegation control of multiple unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Susan R.; Shively, Robert J.

    2010-04-01

    Maturing technologies and complex payloads coupled with a future objective to reduce the logistics burden of current unmanned aerial systems (UAS) operations require a change to the 2-crew employment paradigm. Increased automation and operator supervisory control of unmanned systems have been advocated to meet the objective of reducing the crew requirements, while managing future technologies. Specifically, a delegation control employment strategy has resulted in reduced workload and higher situation awareness for single operators controlling multiple unmanned systems in empirical studies1,2. Delegation control is characterized by the ability for an operator to call a single "play" that initiates prescribed default actions for each vehicle and associated sensor related to a common mission goal. Based upon the effectiveness of delegation control in simulation, the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) developed a Delegation Control (DelCon) operator interface with voice recognition implementation for play selection, real-time play modification, and play status with automation transparency to enable single operator control of multiple unmanned systems in flight. AFDD successfully demonstrated delegation control in a Troops-in-Contact mission scenario at Ft. Ord in 2009. This summary showcases the effort as a beneficial advance in single operator control of multiple UAS.

  18. Multiplicity: discussion points from the Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry multiplicity expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alan; Fletcher, Chrissie; Atkinson, Gary; Channon, Eddie; Douiri, Abdel; Jaki, Thomas; Maca, Jeff; Morgan, David; Roger, James Henry; Terrill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Committee of Health and Medicinal Products issued a concept paper on the need to review the points to consider document on multiplicity issues in clinical trials. In preparation for the release of the updated guidance document, Statisticians in the Pharmaceutical Industry held a one-day expert group meeting in January 2013. Topics debated included multiplicity and the drug development process, the usefulness and limitations of newly developed strategies to deal with multiplicity, multiplicity issues arising from interim decisions and multiregional development, and the need for simultaneous confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding to multiple test procedures. A clear message from the meeting was that multiplicity adjustments need to be considered when the intention is to make a formal statement about efficacy or safety based on hypothesis tests. Statisticians have a key role when designing studies to assess what adjustment really means in the context of the research being conducted. More thought during the planning phase needs to be given to multiplicity adjustments for secondary endpoints given these are increasing in importance in differentiating products in the market place. No consensus was reached on the role of simultaneous CIs in the context of superiority trials. It was argued that unadjusted intervals should be employed as the primary purpose of the intervals is estimation, while the purpose of hypothesis testing is to formally establish an effect. The opposing view was that CIs should correspond to the test decision whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Multiple model adaptive control with mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Matthew

    Despite the remarkable theoretical accomplishments and successful applications of adaptive control, the field is not sufficiently mature to solve challenging control problems requiring strict performance and safety guarantees. Towards addressing these issues, a novel deterministic multiple-model adaptive control approach called adaptive mixing control is proposed. In this approach, adaptation comes from a high-level system called the supervisor that mixes into feedback a number of candidate controllers, each finely-tuned to a subset of the parameter space. The mixing signal, the supervisor's output, is generated by estimating the unknown parameters and, at every instant of time, calculating the contribution level of each candidate controller based on certainty equivalence. The proposed architecture provides two characteristics relevant to solving stringent, performance-driven applications. First, the full-suite of linear time invariant control tools is available. A disadvantage of conventional adaptive control is its restriction to utilizing only those control laws whose solutions can be feasibly computed in real-time, such as model reference and pole-placement type controllers. Because its candidate controllers are computed off line, the proposed approach suffers no such restriction. Second, the supervisor's output is smooth and does not necessarily depend on explicit a priori knowledge of the disturbance model. These characteristics can lead to improved performance by avoiding the unnecessary switching and chattering behaviors associated with some other multiple adaptive control approaches. The stability and robustness properties of the adaptive scheme are analyzed. It is shown that the mean-square regulation error is of the order of the modeling error. And when the parameter estimate converges to its true value, which is guaranteed if a persistence of excitation condition is satisfied, the adaptive closed-loop system converges exponentially fast to a closed

  20. ASSISTments Dataset from Multiple Randomized Controlled Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selent, Douglas; Patikorn, Thanaporn; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dataset consisting of data generated from 22 previously and currently running randomized controlled experiments inside the ASSISTments online learning platform. This dataset provides data mining opportunities for researchers to analyze ASSISTments data in a convenient format across multiple experiments at the same time.…

  1. Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-03

    I I Final Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cooperative Control of Multiple Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles F49620-01-1-0337 6. AUTHOR(S... Autonomous Vehicles Final Report Kendall E. Nygard Department of Computer Science and Operations Research North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5164

  2. Automatic feature-based grouping during multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Keane, Brian P; Mettler, Everett; Horowitz, Todd S; Kellman, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Contour interpolation automatically binds targets with distractors to impair multiple object tracking (Keane, Mettler, Tsoi, & Kellman, 2011). Is interpolation special in this regard or can other features produce the same effect? To address this question, we examined the influence of eight features on tracking: color, contrast polarity, orientation, size, shape, depth, interpolation, and a combination (shape, color, size). In each case, subjects tracked 4 of 8 objects that began as undifferentiated shapes, changed features as motion began (to enable grouping), and returned to their undifferentiated states before halting. We found that intertarget grouping improved performance for all feature types except orientation and interpolation (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Most importantly, target-distractor grouping impaired performance for color, size, shape, combination, and interpolation. The impairments were, at times, large (>15% decrement in accuracy) and occurred relative to a homogeneous condition in which all objects had the same features at each moment of a trial (Experiment 2), and relative to a "diversity" condition in which targets and distractors had different features at each moment (Experiment 3). We conclude that feature-based grouping occurs for a variety of features besides interpolation, even when irrelevant to task instructions and contrary to the task demands, suggesting that interpolation is not unique in promoting automatic grouping in tracking tasks. Our results also imply that various kinds of features are encoded automatically and in parallel during tracking.

  3. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  4. Hesitant Probabilistic Multiplicative Preference Relations in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Bashir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The preference of one alternative over another is a useful way to express the opinion of the decision-maker. In the process of group decision-making, preference relations are used in preference modeling of the alternatives under given criteria. The probability is an important tool to deal with uncertainty and, in many scenarios of decision-making problems, the probabilities of different events affect the decision-making process directly. In order to deal with this issue, the hesitant probabilistic multiplicative preference relation (HPMPR is defined in this paper. Furthermore, consistency of the HPMPR and consensus among decision makers are studied here. In this respect, many algorithms are developed to achieve consistency of HPMPRs, reasonable consensus between decision-makers and a final algorithm is proposed comprehending all other algorithms, presenting a complete decision support model for group decision-making. Lastly, we present a case study with complete illustration of the proposed model and discuss the effects of probabilities on decision-making validating the importance of the introduction of probability in hesitant multiplicative preference relations.

  5. Sparse Group Penalized Integrative Analysis of Multiple Cancer Prognosis Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Xie, Yang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In cancer research, high-throughput profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with prognosis. Because of the “large d, small n” characteristic, results generated from the analysis of a single dataset can be unsatisfactory. Recent studies have shown that integrative analysis, which simultaneously analyzes multiple datasets, can be more effective than single-dataset analysis and classic meta-analysis. In most of existing integrative analysis, the homogeneity model has been assumed, which postulates that different datasets share the same set of markers. Several approaches have been designed to reinforce this assumption. In practice, different datasets may differ in terms of patient selection criteria, profiling techniques, and many other aspects. Such differences may make the homogeneity model too restricted. In this study, we assume the heterogeneity model, under which different datasets are allowed to have different sets of markers. With multiple cancer prognosis datasets, we adopt the AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. This model may have the lowest computational cost among popular semiparametric survival models. For marker selection, we adopt a sparse group MCP (minimax concave penalty) approach. This approach has an intuitive formulation and can be computed using an effective group coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation study shows that it outperforms the existing approaches under both the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. Data analysis further demonstrates the merit of heterogeneity model and proposed approach. PMID:23938111

  6. Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Spiteri, Antoine; Horner, Victoria; Bonnie, Kristin E; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-06-19

    Field reports provide increasing evidence for local behavioral traditions among fish, birds, and mammals. These findings are significant for evolutionary biology because social learning affords faster adaptation than genetic change and has generated new (cultural) forms of evolution. Orangutan and chimpanzee field studies suggest that like humans, these apes are distinctive among animals in each exhibiting over 30 local traditions. However, direct evidence is lacking in apes and, with the exception of vocal dialects, in animals generally for the intergroup transmission that would allow innovations to spread widely and become evolutionarily significant phenomena. Here, we provide robust experimental evidence that alternative foraging techniques seeded in different groups of chimpanzees spread differentially not only within groups but serially across two further groups with substantial fidelity. Combining these results with those from recent social-diffusion studies in two larger groups offers the first experimental evidence that a nonhuman species can sustain unique local cultures, each constituted by multiple traditions. The convergence of these results with those from the wild implies a richness in chimpanzees' capacity for culture, a richness that parsimony suggests was shared with our common ancestor.

  7. Decentralized fuzzy control of multiple nonholonomic vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.

    1997-09-01

    This work considers the problem of controlling multiple nonholonomic vehicles so that they converge to a scent source without colliding with each other. Since the control is to be implemented on simple 8-bit microcontrollers, fuzzy control rules are used to simplify a linear quadratic regulator control design. The inputs to the fuzzy controllers for each vehicle are the (noisy) direction to the source, the distance to the closest neighbor vehicle, and the direction to the closest vehicle. These directions are discretized into four values: Forward, Behind, Left, and Right, and the distance into three values: Near, Far, Gone. The values of the control at these discrete values are obtained based on the collision-avoidance repulsive forces and the change of variables that reduces the motion control problem of each nonholonomic vehicle to a nonsingular one with two degrees of freedom, instead of three. A fuzzy inference system is used to obtain control values for inputs between the small number of discrete input values. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate that the fuzzy control law performs well compared to the exact controller. In fact, the fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise.

  8. Improving of the Drones Group Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yurievna Morozova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of drone group control, in particular, the problem of formation damage drone ensure safe movement of the group. To solve this problem is proposed to use multi-agent approach to the implementation of the overall strategy of management and metric routing algorithm for communication and the formation of the group. In general, the action of the control algorithms are shown and controlled drones in the formation of groups and roles. The conditions for the safe distance of the drone relative to each other in the group. It is shown that the combined use of these mechanisms can improve the efficiency of group management drone resistance groups to failures and failures, resulting in an increased probability of the assignment.

  9. Multiple descriptions for packetized predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jan; Quevedo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    be reliably reconstructed at the plant side. For the particular case of LTI plant models and i.i.d. channels, we show that the overall system forms a Markov jump linear system. We provide conditions for mean square stability and derive upper bounds on the operational bit rate of the quantizer to guarantee......In this paper, we propose to use multiple descriptions (MDs) to achieve a high degree of robustness towards random packet delays and erasures in networked control systems. In particular, we consider the scenario, where a data-rate limited channel is located between the controller and the plant...

  10. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

    . This study was a direct reaction to the first recruitment attempt that had a 10% response rate. This study consisted of four groups of randomly selected elderly married people (65-81 years) receiving a postal questionnaire measuring depression, social support, coping style, adult attachment, life......  Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  11. Controllability of partial differential equations governed by multiplicative controls

    CERN Document Server

    Khapalov, Alexander Y

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this monograph is to address the issue of the global controllability of partial differential equations in the context of multiplicative (or bilinear) controls, which enter the model equations as coefficients. The mathematical models we examine include the linear and nonlinear parabolic and hyperbolic PDE's, the Schrödinger equation, and coupled hybrid nonlinear distributed parameter systems modeling the swimming phenomenon. The book offers a new, high-quality and intrinsically nonlinear methodology to approach the aforementioned highly nonlinear controllability problems.

  12. Control of complex physically simulated robot groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, David C.

    2001-10-01

    Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

  13. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Partin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, S.; Zanca, P.

    2005-01-01

    Active magnetic feedback suppression of resistive wall modes is of common interest for several fusion concepts relying on close conducting walls for stabilization of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. In the advanced tokamak without plasma rotation the kink mode is not completely stabilized, but rather converted into an unstable resistive wall mode (RWM) with a growth time comparable to the wall magnetic flux penetration time. The reversed field pinch (RFP) is similar to the advanced tokamak in the sense that it uses a conducting wall for kink mode stabilization. Also both configurations are susceptible to resonant field error amplification of marginally stable modes. However, the RFP has a different RWM spectrum and, in general, a range of modes is unstable. Hence, the requirement for simultaneous feedback stabilization of multiple independent RWMs arises for the RFP configuration. Recent experiments on RWM feedback stabilization, performed in the RFP device EXTRAP T2R [1], are presented. The experimental results obtained are the first demonstration of simultaneous feedback control of multiple independent RWMs [2]. Using an array of active magnetic coils, a reproducible suppression of several RWMs is achieved for the duration of the discharge, 3-5 wall times, through feedback action. An array with 64 active saddle coils at 4 poloidal times 16 toroidal positions is used. The important issues of side band generation by the active coil array and the accompanying coupling of different unstable modes through the feedback action are addressed in this study. Open loop control experiments have been carried out to quantitatively study resonant field error amplification. (Author)

  14. The Multiplicative Group Generated by the Lehmer Numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luca, F.; Porubský, Štefan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2003), s. 122-132 ISSN 0015-0517 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Lehmer numbers * primitive prime divisor * multiplicative subgroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.180, year: 2003

  15. Control groups in recent septic shock trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter B; Jakob, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. METHODS: We searched for original articles presenting......, and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. RESULTS: A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58...... % the proportion of patients with elevated lactate values. Five studies (21 %) provided data to estimate the proportion of septic shock patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition. The mean data completeness score was 19 out of 36 (range 8-32). Of 18 predefined control group characteristics, a mean of 8 (range 2...

  16. Export Control in the AREVA Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero, S.

    2013-01-01

    After the Second World War the nuclear technology was mostly considered inappropriate for the export. It remains strictly regulated today, but the development of the civil applications urged states to facilitate the peaceful uses while establishing a strict control in the domains of the internal security and the nuclear proliferation. AREVA decided to set up an Export Control program applied to all the products and in all the countries where the group operates. AREVA can export products or make transfer of technology considered as sensitive for the non-proliferation and the risks linked to the terrorism. This sensitiveness results from the nature of the products or from the country of destination and in certain cases both of them. AREVA has set up an Export Control program and an interactive e-learning training within the Group to make exports of sensitive products, raw materials and technologies more secure. The subject is rather complex, the regulations are constantly evolving, and becoming familiar with them is necessarily a gradual process, but it must be made in-depth, hence the idea of regular training sessions. The implementation of the Export Control in the AREVA Group declines in four fundamental stages: -) Policy and procedure; -) Appointment of Export Control Officers (ECO); -) Training; and -) Audit and Self Assessment. The training program is composed by the following elements: Ethics (Value Charter) of the Group, Non-proliferation, international regulations and more particularly those that are applicable in Europe (Germany and France) and in the United States. Particular attention is devoted to the Export Control practice in China, Japan and India. (A.C.)

  17. A New Achiral Linker Reagent for the Incorporation of Multiple Amino Groups Into Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new functionalized achiral linker reagent for incorporating multiple primary amino groups or reporter groups into oligonucleotides following the phosphoramidite methodology. It is possible to substitute any ribodeoxynucleotide, deoxynucleotide, or nucleotide......-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine), TEMPO (N-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), dinitrophenyl, texas red, tetramethyl rhodamine, 7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1-diazole (NBD), or pyrene. The present invention also relates to a solid phase support, e.g. a Controlled Pore Glass (CPG), immobilized linker reagent...

  18. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  19. Multiple attachments and group psychotherapy: implications for college counseling centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2009-10-01

    A large body of literature has supported the application of attachment theory to the understanding of college student development and the process of individual psychotherapy. Despite group treatment being one of the major methods of intervention in college counseling centers, there has been very little research guided by attachment theory that has been applied to the area of group psychotherapy. Many current assessment instruments used in college counseling centers can be supported with attachment theory, and many group therapy interventions are aimed at facilitating secure working models of self, other, and groups. This paper explores the importance of personal and group attachments in group psychotherapy and specifically addresses implications for clinical training and research in university counseling centers.

  20. Utilizing the Zero-One Linear Programming Constraints to Draw Multiple Sets of Matched Samples from a Non-Treatment Population as Control Groups for the Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2005-01-01

    The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be…

  1. A Forward-secure Grouping-proof Protocol for Multiple RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ya-li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing secure and robust grouping-proof protocols based on RFID characteristics becomes a hotspot in the research of security in Internet of Things (IOT. The proposed grouping-proof protocols recently have security and/or privacy omission and these schemes afford order-dependence by relaying message among tags through an RFID reader. In consequence, aiming at enhancing the robustness, improving scalability, reducing the computation costs on resource-constrained devices, and meanwhile combing Computational Intelligence (CI with Secure Multi-party Communication (SMC, a Forward-Secure Grouping-Proof Protocol (FSGP for multiple RFID tags based on Shamir's (, secret sharing is proposed. In comparison with the previous grouping-proof protocols, FSGP has the characteristics of forward-security and order-independence addressing the scalability issue by avoiding relaying message. Our protocol provides security enhancement, performance improvement, and meanwhile controls the computation cost, which equilibrates both security and low cost requirements for RFID tags.

  2. Haemoglobins with multiple reactive sulfhydryl groups: reactions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH dependence profile of kapp for the slow phase resembles the titration curve of a monoprotic acid. Quantitative analysis indicates that the sulfhydryl group to which this phase may be attributed is linked to a single ionizable group with a pKa of 6.1 0.2. Examination of the structure of guinea pig haemoglobin near the ...

  3. Haemoglobins with multiple reactive sulfhydryl groups: reactions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH dependence profile of kapp, the apparent second-order rate constant, for the fast phase resembles the titration curve of a diprotic acid. Quantitative analysis indicates that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group to which this phase may be attributed is linked to two ionizable groups with pKas of 6.4 0.1 and 7.8 0.2.

  4. Effect of pamidronate 30 mg versus 90 mg on physical function in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Nordic Myeloma Study Group): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Peter; Carlson, Kristina; Turesson, Ingemar

    2010-01-01

    Compared with placebo, prophylactic treatment with bisphosphonates reduces risk of skeletal events in patients with multiple myeloma. However, because of toxicity associated with long-term bisphosphonate treatment, establishing the lowest effective dose is important. This study compared the effec...

  5. Relative null controllability of linear systems with multiple delays in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varying multiple delays in state and control are developed. If the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable, and if the linear system is controllable, then the linear system is null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  6. Optimization of Inventories for Multiple Companies by Fuzzy Control Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Koichi; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Fuzzy control theory is applied to the inventory control of the supply chain between multiple companies. The proposed control method deals with the amountof inventories expressing supply chain between multiple companies. Referring past demand and tardiness, inventory amounts of raw materials are determined by Fuzzy inference. The method that an appropriate inventory control becomes possible optimizing fuzzy control gain by using SA method for Fuzzy control. The variation of ...

  7. Pharmacokinetic comparison of controlled-release and immediate-release oral formulations of simvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Park, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Bong-Ju; Woo, Jong Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Min Soo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Kyungsoo

    2010-01-01

    A controlled-release (CR) formulation of simvastatin was recently developed in Korea. The formulation is expected to yield a lower C(max) and similar AUC values compared with the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the new CR formulation and an IR formulation of simvastatin after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, open-label, parallelgroup, 2-part study. Eligible subjects were healthy male or female volunteers between the ages of 19 and 55 years and within 20% of their ideal weight. In part I, each subject received a single dose of the CR or IR formulation of simvastatin 40 mg orally (20 mg x 2 tablets) after fasting. In part II, each subject received the same dose of the CR or IR formulation for 8 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained for 48 hours after the dose in part I and after the first and the last dose in part II. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both simvastatin (the inactive prodrug) and simvastatin acid (the active moiety). An adverse event (AE) was defined as any unfavorable sign (including an abnormal laboratory finding) or symptom, regardless of whether it had a causal relationship with the study medication. Serious AEs were defined as any events that are considered life threatening, require hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, cause persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or result in congenital abnormality, birth defect, or death. AEs were determined based on patient interviews and physical examinations. Twenty-four healthy subjects (17 men, 7 women; mean [SD] age, 29 [7] years; age range, 22-50 years) were enrolled in part I, and 29 subjects (17 men, 12 women; mean age, 33 [9] years; age range, 19-55 years) were enrolled in part II. For simvastatin acid, C

  8. Network formation under heterogeneous costs: The multiple group model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J.J.A.; van der Laan, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the shape of networks influences both individual and aggregate behavior. This raises the question which types of networks are likely to arise. In this paper we investigate a model of network formation, where players are divided into groups and the costs of a link between

  9. Determining the IgM and IgG antibody titer against CMV and helicobacter pylori in the serum of multiple sclerosis patients comparing to the control group in Hamadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Masome Afiati; Eftekharian, Mohammad Mahdi; Taheri, Mohammad; Yousef Alikhani, Mohammad

    2017-07-19

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that disables central nervous system (CNS) system. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) probably has an important role in the MS pathology. The infection with helicobacter pylori also is recognized as a protective agent against MS in female. Serum samples were isolated and frozen at -70∘C. The earlier mentioned anti-virus antibodies and antibacterial antibodies were quantified by Elisa kit. The results showed that IgG antibody average value against cytomegalovirus in the blood of multiple sclerosis patients not only decreased but also was significant statistically (pmultiple sclerosis patients against helicobacter pylori shown a statistically significant decrease (pmultiple sclerosis patients.

  10. Multiple-Vehicle Longitudinal Collision Mitigation by Coordinated Brake Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rear-end collision often leads to serious casualties and traffic congestion. The consequences are even worse for multiple-vehicle collision. Many previous works focused on collision warning and avoidance strategies of two consecutive vehicles based on onboard sensor detection only. This paper proposes a centralized control strategy for multiple vehicles to minimize the impact of multiple-vehicle collision based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication technique. The system is defined as a coupled group of vehicles with wireless communication capability and short following distances. The safety relationship can be represented as lower bound limit on deceleration of the first vehicle and upper bound on maximum deceleration of the last vehicle. The objective is to determine the desired deceleration for each vehicle such that the total impact energy is minimized at each time step. The impact energy is defined as the relative kinetic energy between a consecutive pair of vehicles (approaching only. Model predictive control (MPC framework is used to formulate the problem to be constrained quadratic programming. Simulations show its effectiveness on collision mitigation. The developed algorithm has the potential to be used for progressive market penetration of connected vehicles in practice.

  11. The effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy on stress, anxiety, and depression of women with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Pahlavanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the factors that could influence the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is usually overlooked, is its psychological aspects. Considering the increasing acceptance of complementary medicine in the health system, this study was designed and conducted to determine the effect of group cognitive therapy on the stress, anxiety, and depression of women suffering from multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 70 women suffering from multiple sclerosis who were referred to the health centers of Isfahan. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and control, each containing 35 patients. The intervention group received cognitive behavioral therapy as 8 90-minute group sessions (a session per week, and the control group participated in 4 group sessions to express their feelings and experiences. Data were gathered using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-24. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean score of stress (P = 0.03, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 of the intervention and the control group immediately after and 1 month after the intervention. Least squares difference test showed that the mean score of stress (P = 0.02, anxiety (P = 0.02, and depression (P = 0.03 immediately and 1 month after the intervention was significantly lower in the intervention group. Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, cognitive behavioral therapy could decrease stress, anxiety, and depression in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis.

  12. Inventory control with multiple setup costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, O.; Huh, W.T.; Tan, T.

    2014-01-01

    We consider an infinite-horizon, periodic-review, single-item production/inventory system with random demand and backordering, where multiple setups are allowed in any period and a separate fixed cost is associated for each setup. Contrary to the majority of the literature on this topic, we do not

  13. Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed hierarchical control framework to ensure reliable operation of dc Microgrid (MG) clusters. In this hierarchy, primary control is used to regulate the common bus voltage inside each MG locally. An adaptive droop method is proposed for this level which determines...

  14. Multiple-Group Analysis Using the sem Package in the R System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evermann, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-group analysis in covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important technique to ensure the invariance of latent construct measurements and the validity of theoretical models across different subpopulations. However, not all SEM software packages provide multiple-group analysis capabilities. The sem package for the R…

  15. Multiple Property Cross Direction Control of Paper Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Ohenoja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross direction (CD control in sheet-forming process forms a challenging problem with high dimensions. Accounting the interactions between different properties and actuators, the dimensionality increases further and also computational issues arise. We present a multiple property controller feasible to be used especially with imaging measurements that provide high sampling frequency and therefore enable short control interval. The simulation results state the benefits of multiple property CD control over single property control and single property control using full feedforward compensation. The controller presented may also be tuned in automated manner and the results demonstrate the effect of tuning on input saturation.

  16. Supporting multiple control systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Fermilab control system, ACNET, is used for controlling the Tevatron and all of its pre-accelerators. However, other smaller experiments at Fermilab have been using different controls systems, in particular DOOCS and EPICS. This paper reports some of the steps taken at Fermilab to integrate support for these outside systems. We will describe specific tools that we have built or adapted to facilitate interaction between the architectures. We also examine some of the difficulties that arise from managing this heterogeneous environment. Incompatibilities as well as common elements will be described.

  17. Managers’ Use of Multiple Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Jeanette

    This dissertation addresses the topic Management Control Systems (MCS) as a Package. Many research studies investigate management and control systems individually, whereas fewer research studies take a holistic view and include a larger part of all the MCS managers use to guide and direct...... subordinates behaviour in the best interest of their companies. In the MCS literature, it is stressed that knowledge is particularly lacking about how managers design and use MCS as a package, and the effectiveness of using the MCS. This dissertation responds to this call by carrying out a large survey among...... executive managers in large companies, a survey that investigates the subject: Effective Management and Control Systems. The focus in the survey is to explore how executive management in large companies design and use their management control systems package. Further, this study is supplemented...

  18. Flight mission control for multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert E.

    1990-10-01

    A plan developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for mission control of unmanned spacecraft is outlined. A technical matrix organization from which, in the past, project teams were formed to uniquely support a mission is replaced in this new plan. A cost effective approach was needed to make best use of limited resources. Mission control is a focal point operations and a good place to start a multimission concept. Co-location and sharing common functions are the keys to obtaining efficiencies at minimum additional risk. For the projects, the major changes are sharing a common operations area and having indirect control of personnel. The plan identifies the still direct link for the mission control functions. Training is a major element in this plan. Personnel are qualified for a position and certified for a mission. This concept is more easily accepted by new missions than the ongoing missions.

  19. Simultaneous Multiple-Location Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of controlling a shear layer for a fluid dynamic body introduces first periodic disturbances into the fluid medium at a first flow separation location. Simultaneously, second periodic disturbances are introduced into the fluid medium at a second flow separation location. A phase difference between the first and second periodic disturbances is adjusted to control flow separation of the shear layer as the fluid medium moves over the fluid dynamic body.

  20. Teaching Group Processes through Multiple Group Leadership Opportunities in a Masters Level Counselor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Marc B.; Winters, Ryan C.; Esters, Irvin E.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing an experiential component in group work training is a prominent feature in Counselor Education programs. Although numerous models have been proposed, the vast majority offer limited explanations of incorporating the number of hours of group participation and observation recommended by the Professional Standards for the Training of Group…

  1. Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

    CERN Document Server

    Brubaker, Ben; Friedberg, Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. Like the Riemann zeta function, they are Dirichlet series with analytic continuation and functional equations, having applications to analytic number theory. By contrast, these Weyl group multiple Dirichlet series may be functions of several complex variables and their groups of functional equations may be arbitrary finite Weyl groups. Furthermore, their coefficients are multiplicative up to roots of unity, generalizing the notion of Euler products. This book proves foundational results about these series an

  2. Least squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging using the reverse time migration of multiples generates inherent crosstalk artifacts due to the interference among different order multiples. Traditionally, least-square fitting has been used to address this issue by seeking the best objective function to measure the amplitude differences between the predicted and observed data. We have developed an alternative objective function by decomposing multiples into different orders to minimize the difference between Born modeling predicted multiples and specific-order multiples from observational data in order to attenuate the crosstalk. This method is denoted as the least-squares reverse time migration of controlled order multiples (LSRTM-CM). Our numerical examples demonstrated that the LSRTM-CM can significantly improve image quality compared with reverse time migration of multiples and least-square reverse time migration of multiples. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41430321 and 41374138).

  3. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  4. Control of multiple filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, Gadi; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ilan, Boaz; Zigler, Arie

    2004-08-01

    In this Letter we provide what is believed to be the first experimental evidence of suppression of the number of filaments for high-intensity laser pulses propagating in air by beam astigmatism. We also show that the number, pattern, and spatial stability of the filaments can be controlled by varying the angle that a focusing lens makes with the axial direction of propagation. This new methodology can be useful for applications involving atmospheric propagation, such as remote sensing.

  5. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manoj R.; Lewandowski, Chad R.

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  6. Control of Multiple Robotic Sentry Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.; Lewis, C.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories is developing and testing the feasibility of using of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform surround and diversion tasks. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight ''Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rover'' (RATLER{trademark}) vehicles, a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. We have also demonstrated the ability to drive multiple vehicles in formation via tele-operation or by waypoint GPS navigation. This is currently being extended to include mission planning capabilities. At the base-station, the operator can draw on an aerial map the goal regions to be surrounded and the repulsive regions to be avoided. A potential field path planner automatically generates a path from the vehicles' current position to the goal regions while avoiding the repulsive regions and the other vehicles. This path is previewed to the operator before the regions are downloaded to the vehicles. The same potential field path planner resides on the vehicle, except additional repulsive forces from on-board proximity sensors guide the vehicle away from unplanned obstacles.

  7. An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Composing Cooperative Learning Groups for Multiple Grouping Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Hwang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is known to be an effective educational strategy in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning efficacy. This is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve…

  8. Youth crowds and substance use: The impact of perceived group norm and multiple group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, K.T.; Vries, de N.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of group identity on adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use was examined through a postal survey. The study included adolescents who identified with 1 subgroup (n = 1425) as well as adolescents who identified with 2 (n = 895) or 3 (n = 339) subgroups. The results showed that

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene Kay; Kim, Eric H; Li, Benjamin; Joelsson, Bo; Youssef, Nader N

    2014-02-12

    Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support. Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLP-2-dependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects, as measured by the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. This double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study enrolled and randomized 36 healthy subjects (22 men, 14 women) to receive subcutaneous doses of teduglutide 4 mg or placebo (2:1 ratio; 23:13) once daily on Days 1 through 10 in the morning. Gastric emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal was assessed by measuring acetaminophen levels predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen on Days 0 and 10. The primary study endpoint was a pharmacokinetic analysis of acetaminophen absorption in subjects receiving teduglutide or placebo. No significant differences in gastric emptying of liquids (acetaminophen area under the concentration [AUC] vs time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration [Cmax], and time to Cmax) were observed on Day 10 in subjects receiving teduglutide 4 mg versus subjects receiving placebo. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), deaths, or discontinuations due to an AE reported during the study. Teduglutide 4 mg/day for 10 days does not affect gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects as measured by acetaminophen pharmacokinetics. No unexpected safety signals were observed. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01209351.

  10. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the ease with which prior knowledge can be incorporated. It is interesting to note that researchers in Control Theory, Neural Networks,Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic have more or less independently developed very similar modelling methods, calling them Local ModelNetworks, Operating......, and allows direct incorporation of high-level and qualitative plant knowledge into themodel. These advantages have proven to be very appealing for industrial applications, and the practical, intuitively appealing nature of the framework isdemonstrated in chapters describing applications of local methods...... to problems in the process industries, biomedical applications and autonomoussystems. The successful application of the ideas to demanding problems is already encouraging, but creative development of the basic framework isneeded to better allow the integration of human knowledge with automated learning...

  11. Striving for Group Agency: Threat to Personal Control Increases the Attractiveness of Agentic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine eStollberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93 that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects. Turning to groups people are not (yet part of, Study 2 (N = 47 showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78 replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  12. Altered expression patterns of group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, J. J. G.; Wolswijk, G.; Bö, L.; van der Valk, P.; Polman, C. H.; Troost, D.; Aronica, E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a role for glutamate receptors in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we have focused specifically on the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in multiple sclerosis brain tissue. The expression of group I (mGluR1alpha and

  13. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  14. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  15. Multilateral Telecoordinated Control of Multiple Robots With Uncertain Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Di-Hua; Xia, Yuanqing

    2017-06-06

    This paper addresses the telecoordinated control of multiple robots in the simultaneous presence of asymmetric time-varying delays, nonpassive external forces, and uncertain kinematics/dynamics. To achieve the control objective, a neuroadaptive controller with utilizing prescribed performance control and switching control technique is developed, where the basic idea is to employ the concept of motion synchronization in each pair of master-slave robots and among all slave robots. By using the multiple Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals method, the state-independent input-to-output practical stability of the closed-loop system is established. Compared with the previous approaches, the new design is straightforward and easier to implement and is applicable to a wider area. Simulation results on three pairs of three degrees-of-freedom robots confirm the theoretical findings.

  16. Performance effect of multiple control forms in a Lean organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Lean has developed into a prominent management philosophy reaching beyond shop floor tools. However, substantial support of performance effects from Lean is still scarce and at best with mixed results. Recently, research has turned its focus towards perceiving Lean...... as a control package. In this paper we present statistical support for enhanced performance coming from Lean. Furthermore, our results strongly support the perception of Lean as a set of multiple control forms (output, behavioral, and social controls) that complement each other. Therefore, performance...... is increased if the average level of control forms is increased, and performance is further increased if the control forms are balanced at the same level representing a complementary effect between them. Our data are archival data spanning multiple years in a strong Lean organization. The dependent performance...

  17. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of group I and group II metal complexes with Boc-hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Ryan P; Gresham, Gary; Groenewold, Gary S; Steill, Jeffrey D; Oomens, Jos; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2013-08-30

    Hydroxamates are essential growth factors for some microbes, acting primarily as siderophores that solubilize iron for transport into a cell. Here we determined the intrinsic structure of 1:1 complexes between Boc-protected hydroxylamine and group I ([M(L)](+)) and group II ([M(L-H)](+)) cations, where M and L are the cation and ligand, respectively, which are convenient models for the functional unit of hydroxamate siderphores. The relevant complex ions were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) and isolated and stored in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Infrared spectra of the isolated complexes were collected by monitoring (infrared) photodissociation yield as a function of photon energy. Experimental spectra were then compared to those predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra collected are in good agreement with those predicted to be lowest-energy by DFT. The spectra for the group I complexes contain six resolved absorptions that can be attributed to amide I and II type and hydroxylamine N-OH vibrations. Similar absorptions are observed for the group II cation complexes, with shifts of the amide I and amide II vibrations due to the change in structure with deprotonation of the hydroxylamine group. IRMPD spectroscopy unequivocally shows that the intrinsic binding mode for the group I cations involves the O atoms of the amide carbonyl and hydroxylamine groups of Boc-hydroxylamine. A similar binding mode is preferred for the group II cations, except that in this case the metal ion is coordinated by the O atom of the deprotonated hydroxylamine group. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Group-Sequential Strategies in Clinical Trials with Multiple Co-Primary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Asakura, Koko; Evans, Scott R; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Sozu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the decision-making frameworks for clinical trials with multiple co-primary endpoints in a group-sequential setting. The decision-making frameworks can account for flexibilities such as a varying number of analyses, equally or unequally spaced increments of information and fixed or adaptive Type I error allocation among endpoints. The frameworks can provide efficiency, i.e., potentially fewer trial participants, than the fixed sample size designs. We investigate the operating characteristics of the decision-making frameworks and provide guidance on constructing efficient group-sequential strategies in clinical trials with multiple co-primary endpoints. PMID:25844122

  19. Beyond Group: Multiple Person Tracking via Minimal Topology-Energy-Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Ye, Qixiang; Xing, Junliang; Kuijper, Arjan; Han, Zhenjun; Jiao, Jianbin; Ji, Xiangyang

    2017-12-01

    Tracking multiple persons is a challenging task when persons move in groups and occlude each other. Existing group-based methods have extensively investigated how to make group division more accurately in a tracking-by-detection framework; however, few of them quantify the group dynamics from the perspective of targets' spatial topology or consider the group in a dynamic view. Inspired by the sociological properties of pedestrians, we propose a novel socio-topology model with a topology-energy function to factor the group dynamics of moving persons and groups. In this model, minimizing the topology-energy-variance in a two-level energy form is expected to produce smooth topology transitions, stable group tracking, and accurate target association. To search for the strong minimum in energy variation, we design the discrete group-tracklet jump moves embedded in the gradient descent method, which ensures that the moves reduce the energy variation of group and trajectory alternately in the varying topology dimension. Experimental results on both RGB and RGB-D data sets show the superiority of our proposed model for multiple person tracking in crowd scenes.

  20. Accelerated spike resampling for accurate multiple testing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Matthew T

    2013-02-01

    Controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using standard spike resampling techniques often requires prohibitive amounts of computation. Importance sampling techniques can be used to accelerate the computation. The general theory is presented, along with specific examples for testing differences across conditions using permutation tests and for testing pairwise synchrony and precise lagged-correlation between many simultaneously recorded spike trains using interval jitter.

  1. Chance Events in Career Development: Influence, Control and Multiplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jim E. H.; Pryor, Robert G. L.; Chan, Eva Wing Man; Rijanto, Jeniyanti

    2009-01-01

    This article reports three studies on the nature and impact of chance events. The first study investigated chance events in terms of the dimensions of influence and control. The second and third studies investigated the effects of multiplicity of chance events on career development are in terms of respondents' own careers and then in terms of…

  2. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect o...

  3. Efficient traffic grooming with dynamic ONU grouping for multiple-OLT-based access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizong; Gu, Rentao; Ji, Yuefeng; Wang, Hongxiang

    2015-12-01

    Fast bandwidth growth urges large-scale high-density access scenarios, where the multiple Passive Optical Networking (PON) system clustered deployment can be adopted as an appropriate solution to fulfill the huge bandwidth demands, especially for a future 5G mobile network. However, the lack of interaction between different optical line terminals (OLTs) results in part of the bandwidth resources waste. To increase the bandwidth efficiency, as well as reduce bandwidth pressure at the edge of a network, we propose a centralized flexible PON architecture based on Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexing PON (TWDM PON). It can provide flexible affiliation for optical network units (ONUs) and different OLTs to support access network traffic localization. Specifically, a dynamic ONU grouping algorithm (DGA) is provided to obtain the minimal OLT outbound traffic. Simulation results show that DGA obtains an average 25.23% traffic gain increment under different OLT numbers within a small ONU number situation, and the traffic gain will increase dramatically with the increment of the ONU number. As the DGA can be deployed easily as an application running above the centralized control plane, the proposed architecture can be helpful to improve the network efficiency for future traffic-intensive access scenarios.

  4. A new achiral reagent for the incorporation of multiple amino groups into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Carsten; Petersen, Kenneth H.; Egholm, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of a new functionalized achiral linker reagent (10) for the incorporation of multiple primary amino groups into oligonucleotides is described. The linker reagent is compatible with conventional DNA-synthesis following the phosphoramidite methodology, and the linker can be incorporated...

  5. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  6. Stepwise Analysis of Differential Item Functioning Based on Multiple-Group Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    Extended an Item Response Theory (IRT) method for detection of differential item functioning to the partial credit model and applied the method to simulated data using a stepwise procedure. Then applied the stepwise DIF analysis based on the multiple-group partial credit model to writing trend data from the National Assessment of Educational…

  7. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties: Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…

  8. Competing failure analysis in phased-mission systems with multiple functional dependence groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Peng, Rui; Pan, Zhusheng

    2017-01-01

    A phased-mission system (PMS) involves multiple, consecutive, non-overlapping phases of operation. The system structure function and component failure behavior in a PMS can change from phase to phase, posing big challenges to the system reliability analysis. Further complicating the problem is the functional dependence (FDEP) behavior where the failure of certain component(s) causes other component(s) to become unusable or inaccessible or isolated. Previous studies have shown that FDEP can cause competitions between failure propagation and failure isolation in the time domain. While such competing failure effects have been well addressed in single-phase systems, only little work has focused on PMSs with a restrictive assumption that a single FDEP group exists in one phase of the mission. Many practical systems (e.g., computer systems and networks), however may involve multiple FDEP groups during the mission. Moreover, different FDEP groups can be dependent due to sharing some common components; they may appear in a single phase or multiple phases. This paper makes new contributions by modeling and analyzing reliability of PMSs subject to multiple FDEP groups through a Markov chain-based methodology. Propagated failures with both global and selective effects are considered. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method. - Highlights: • Reliability of phased-mission systems subject to competing failure propagation and isolation effects is modeled. • Multiple independent or dependent functional dependence groups are considered. • Propagated failures with global effects and selective effects are studied. • Four case studies demonstrate generality and application of the proposed Markov-based method.

  9. A Telerehabilitation Program Improves Postural Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Spanish Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ortiz-Gutiérrez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25 received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session. Experimental group (n = 25 received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session.The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available.

  10. A Telerehabilitation Program Improves Postural Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Spanish Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Rosa; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Galán-del-Río, Fernando; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Postural control disorders are among the most frequent motor disorder symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. This study aims to demonstrate the potential improvements in postural control among patients with multiple sclerosis who complete a telerehabilitation program that represents a feasible alternative to physical therapy for situations in which conventional treatment is not available. Fifty patients were recruited. Control group (n = 25) received physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 min per session). Experimental group (n = 25) received monitored telerehabilitation treatment via videoconference using the Xbox 360® and Kinect console. Experimental group attended 40 sessions, four sessions per week (20 min per session).The treatment schedule lasted 10 weeks for both groups. A computerized dynamic posturography (Sensory Organization Test) was used to evaluate all patients at baseline and at the end of the treatment protocol. Results showed an improvement over general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information yielded significant differences in the experimental group. Our results demonstrated that a telerehabilitation program based on a virtual reality system allows one to optimize the sensory information processing and integration systems necessary to maintain the balance and postural control of people with multiple sclerosis. We suggest that our virtual reality program enables anticipatory PC and response mechanisms and might serve as a successful therapeutic alternative in situations in which conventional therapy is not readily available. PMID:24185843

  11. Dynamic coordinated control laws in multiple agent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, David S.; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2005-01-01

    We present an active control scheme of a kinetic model of swarming. It has been shown previously that the global control scheme for the model, presented in [Systems Control Lett. 52 (2004) 25], gives rise to spontaneous collective organization of agents into a unified coherent swarm, via steering controls and utilizing long-range attractive and short-range repulsive interactions. We extend these results by presenting control laws whereby a single swarm is broken into independently functioning subswarm clusters. The transition between one coordinated swarm and multiple clustered subswarms is managed simply with a homotopy parameter. Additionally, we present as an alternate formulation, a local control law for the same model, which implements dynamic barrier avoidance behavior, and in which swarm coherence emerges spontaneously

  12. Realization of quantum gates with multiple control qubits or multiple target qubits in a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Shahid

    2015-06-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a three-qubit controlled phase gate and a multi-qubit controlled NOT gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling n-target qubits with a four-level quantum system in a cavity. The implementation time for multi-qubit controlled NOT gate is independent of the number of qubit. Three-qubit phase gate is generalized to n-qubit phase gate with multiple control qubits. The number of steps reduces linearly as compared to conventional gate decomposition method. Our scheme can be applied to various types of physical systems such as superconducting qubits coupled to a resonator and trapped atoms in a cavity. Our scheme does not require adjustment of level spacing during the gate implementation. We also show the implementation of Deutsch-Joza algorithm. Finally, we discuss the imperfections due to cavity decay and the possibility of physical implementation of our scheme.

  13. The Multiplicity of Controls and the Making of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    are mediated by unique sets of technologies of control. In this process the innovation changes and adapts. This thesis is drawn from the case of Italian Autostrade's innovation Telepass which was an automatic toll collection devise developed to make traffic fast, safe and fluid. Throughout its development...... satisfaction, productivity and highly pointed achievement targets. This multiplicity of controls changed and adapted to the innovation as the innovation unfolds. The controls were part of the innovation more likely than an external device to make it transparent. They engaged the individual trials and changed...

  14. Exploring change in a group-based psychological intervention for multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Martina; Bonino, Silvia; Graziano, Federica; Calandri, Emanuela

    2018-07-01

    The study is focused on a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at promoting the quality of life and psychological well-being of multiple sclerosis patients. The study investigates how the group intervention promoted change among participants and fostered their adjustment to the illness. The intervention involved six groups of patients (a total of 41 patients) and included four consecutive sessions and a 6-month follow-up. To explore change, verbatim transcripts of the intervention sessions were analyzed using a mixed-methods content analysis with qualitative data combined with descriptive statistics. The categories of resistance and openness to change were used to describe the process of change. Resistance and openness to change coexisted during the intervention. Only in the first session did resistance prevail over openness to change; thereafter, openness to change gradually increased and stabilized over time, and openness to change was then always stronger than resistance. The study builds on previous research on the effectiveness of group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients and gives methodological and clinical suggestions to health care professionals working with multiple sclerosis patients. Implications for rehabilitation The study suggests that a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention for multiple sclerosis patients focused on the promotion of identity redefinition, a sense of coherence and self-efficacy in dealing with multiple sclerosis fosters the process of change and may be effective in promoting patients' adjustment to their illness. Health care professionals leading group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients should be aware that resistance and openness to change coexist in the process of change. The study suggests that the duration of the intervention is a crucial factor: a minimum of three sessions appears to be necessary for group participants to develop greater openness

  15. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists.

  16. 78 FR 68779 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-114122-12] RIN 1545-BK96 Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... controlled group rules related to regulated investment companies. DATES: The public hearing originally...

  17. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-118761-09] RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... deferred losses on the sale or exchange of property between members of a controlled group. DATES: The...

  18. 76 FR 30052 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-118761-09] RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... deferred losses on the sale or exchange of property between members of a controlled group. FOR FURTHER...

  19. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.382-8 Section 1.382-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-8 Controlled groups. (a) Introduction. This section...

  20. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    K???k, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra ?o?kuner; ?diman, Egemen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression ...

  1. Promotion of Self-Transcendence in a Multiple Sclerosis Peer Support Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ashktorab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-transcendence can organize the challenges of multiple sclerosis patients to achieve and maintain a constant state of well-being and sense of integrity in the disease process. As a research based on self-transcendence didn't done in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of peer groups on promoting selftranscendence level in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a before and after quasi-experimental study that was conducted on 33 patients with confirmed MS participated in three peer support groups: 10 men in male group, 11 women in female group and 12 men and women in mixed group. Eight weekly sessions and each session was 2 hours were held. Data collection tool was Self-Transcendence Scale (STS with 15 item and Cronbach's coefficient was 0.68 that after modifying, it increased to 0.81. Patients completed self administered questionnaires pre- and post of sessions. Results: Results showed that peer support groups promote the self-transcendence (p=0.001 with increases in mean self-transcendence scores in all 3 groups (men group: 0.008, women group 0.005 and mixed group: 0.003. Comparing scores before and after intervention demonstrated that self-transcendence increased equally in all groups. Conclusion: The results showed an improving in self-transcendence in peer support group participants at the end of the intervention. The results can be used in areas of nursing education and management. It is proposed that the self-transcendence assessment to be done in other chronic disease in order to evaluate its efficiency.

  2. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Selim Hossain

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM, which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST. The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance ([Formula: see text] and Area × Time × Energy (ATE product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature.

  3. Nonresonant Multiple-Pulse Control of Molecular Motions in Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiforov V.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the implementation of the multiple-pulse excitation for manipulation of the molecular contributions to the optically-heterodyne-detected optical-Kerr-effect. The key parameters controlling the specificity of the multiple-pulse excitation scenarios are the pulses durations, the delays between pulses, the relation between the pump pulses amplitudes and the pulses polarizations. We model the high-order optical responses and consider some principles of the scenarios construction. We show that it is possible to adjust the excitation scenario in such a way that the some responses can be removed from detected signal along with the enhancement of the interested response amplitude. The theoretical analysis and first experimental data reveal that the multiple-pulse excitation technique can be useful for the selective spectroscopy of the molecular vibrations and rotations in liquid.

  4. Co-administration of Albendazole and Levamisole to control multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were co-administered to evaluate their ability to control natural helminth infections in a sheep farm where resistance to the individual anthelmintic had previously been reported. Thirty two sheep of mixed ages and sex were randomly allocated to four equal groups. Group 1 and 2 ...

  5. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated

  6. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, Julie; Evers, Kris; de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-03-30

    Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age. In addition to its importance for typical development, these results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in this regard. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The origin of the Gestalt principles is still an ongoing debate: Are they innate, learned over time, or both? Developmental research has revealed how each Gestalt principle has its own trajectory and unique relationship to visual experience. Both connectedness and object-based grouping play an important role in object formation during childhood. What does this study add? The study identifies how sensitivity to connectedness and object-based grouping evolves in individuals, aged 9-21 years old. Using multiple-object tracking, results reveal that the ability to track multiple objects increases with age. These results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in different types of grouping. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  7. Memory-guided attention: Control from multiple memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is strongly influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this useful dichotomy does not readily capture the ubiquitous and often automatic contribution of past experience stored in memory. We review recent evidence about how multiple memory systems control attention, consider how such interactions are manifested in the brain, and highlight how this framework for ‘memory-guided attention’ might help systematize previous findings and guide future research.

  8. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Neubauer [54][55]. 87 VII. LQR/APF CONTROL ALGORITHM APPROACH The LQR approach can be recursively applied to the multiple spacecraft close... Neubauer and Swartwout’s research [55]. It is generally possible to select a closed map over which the algorithm is stable and robust. For these...can be easily edited and transferred into video format for presentations. Modifications of camera key frames ( camera position and angle) and

  9. Effects of Multiple Cleaning and Disinfection Interventions on Infectious Diseases in Children: A Group Randomized Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Hai Qun; Li, Tao; Shen, Jin; Li, Jin; Peng, Pin Zhang; Ye, Heng Ping; Zhang, Liu Bo

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of multiple cleaning and disinfection interventions in the homes and kindergartens, in reducing gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses of children. From October 2010 to September 2011, we performed a prospective, controlled study in China. 408 children under 5 years old were recruited and group randomized into intervention and control groups. Families and kindergartens in the intervention group were provided with antibacterial products for hand hygiene and surface cleaning or disinfection for one year. Each child's illness symptoms and sick leave were recorded every day. A total of 393 children completed the study, with similar baseline demographics in each of the 2 groups. Except for abdominal pain, the odds of symptoms (fever, cough and expectoration, runny nose and nasal congestion, diarrhea), illness (acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal illness), and sick leave per person each month were significantly reduced by interventions. The rates of fever, diarrhea, acute respiratory illness, gastrointestinal illness and sick leave per person per year were significantly decreased as well. Not only the acute respiratory and gastrointestinal illness but the sick leave rate in children were significantly reduced by multiple interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. A Semiparametric Bayesian Approach for Analyzing Longitudinal Data from Multiple Related Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kiranmoy; Afriyie, Prince; Spirko, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Often the biological and/or clinical experiments result in longitudinal data from multiple related groups. The analysis of such data is quite challenging due to the fact that groups might have shared information on the mean and/or covariance functions. In this article, we consider a Bayesian semiparametric approach of modeling the mean trajectories for longitudinal response coming from multiple related groups. We consider matrix stick-breaking process priors on the group mean parameters which allows information sharing on the mean trajectories across the groups. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to the more traditional approaches. We analyze data from a one-year follow-up of nutrition education for hypercholesterolemic children with three different treatments where the children are from different age-groups. Our analysis provides more clinically useful information than the previous analysis of the same dataset. The proposed approach will be a very powerful tool for analyzing data from clinical trials and other medical experiments.

  11. Hydrotherapy for the Treatment of Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-we...

  12. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  13. Stability analysis of multiple-robot control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    In a space telerobotic service scenario, cooperative motion and force control of multiple robot arms are of fundamental importance. Three paradigms to study this problem are proposed. They are distinguished by the set of variables used for control design. They are joint torques, arm tip force vectors, and an accelerated generalized coordinate set. Control issues related to each case are discussed. The latter two choices require complete model information, which presents practical modeling, computational, and robustness problems. Therefore, focus is on the joint torque control case to develop relatively model independent motion and internal force control laws. The rigid body assumption allows the motion and force control problems to be independently addressed. By using an energy motivated Lyapunov function, a simple proportional derivative plus gravity compensation type of motion control law is always shown to be stabilizing. The asymptotic convergence of the tracing error to zero requires the use of a generalized coordinate with the contact constraints taken into account. If a non-generalized coordinate is used, only convergence to a steady state manifold can be concluded. For the force control, both feedforward and feedback schemes are analyzed. The feedback control, if proper care has been taken, exhibits better robustness and transient performance.

  14. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  15. Phase transitions in distributed control systems with multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Nicolas; Bamieh, Bassam; Mitra, Partha; Sire, Clément

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary technological challenges often involve many degrees of freedom in a distributed or networked setting. Three aspects are notable: the variables are usually associated with the nodes of a graph with limited communication resources, hindering centralized control; the communication is subject to noise; and the number of variables can be very large. These three aspects make tools and techniques from statistical physics particularly suitable for the performance analysis of such networked systems in the limit of many variables (analogous to the thermodynamic limit in statistical physics). Perhaps not surprisingly, phase-transition like phenomena appear in these systems, where a sharp change in performance can be observed with a smooth parameter variation, with the change becoming discontinuous or singular in the limit of infinite system size. In this paper, we analyze the so called network consensus problem, prototypical of the above considerations, that has previously been analyzed mostly in the context of additive noise. We show that qualitatively new phase-transition like phenomena appear for this problem in the presence of multiplicative noise. Depending on dimensions, and on the presence or absence of a conservation law, the system performance shows a discontinuous change at a threshold value of the multiplicative noise strength. In the absence of the conservation law, and for graph spectral dimension less than two, the multiplicative noise threshold (the stability margin of the control problem) is zero. This is reminiscent of the absence of robust controllers for certain classes of centralized control problems. Although our study involves a ‘toy’ model, we believe that the qualitative features are generic, with implications for the robust stability of distributed control systems, as well as the effect of roundoff errors and communication noise on distributed algorithms.

  16. Synthesis of Control Algorithm for a Leaderheaded UAVs Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Samodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a defense sphere uses unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. UAVs have several advantages over manned aircrafts such as small size, reduced combat losses of personnel, etc. In addition, in threat environment, it is necessary to arrange both bringing together distant from each other UAVs in a group and their undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.However, the task to control a UAVs group is much more difficult than to control a single UAV, since it is necessary not only to control the aircraft, but also take into account the relative position of objects in the group.To solve this problem two ways are possible: using a network exchange between members of the group on the "everyone with everyone" principle and organizing the leader-headed flight.The aim of the article is to develop and study a possible option of the UAVs group control with arranging a leader-headed flight to provide the undetected in radar fields compact flying in terms of the joint flight security.The article develops a universal algorithm to control leader-headed group, based on a new modification of the statistical theory of optimal control. It studies effectiveness of the algorithm. While solving this task, a flight of seven UAVs was simulated in the horizontal plane in a rectangular coordinate system. Control time, linear errors of desired alignment of UAV, and control errors with respect to angular coordinates are used as measures of merit.The study results of the algorithm to control a leader-headed group of UAVs confirmed that it is possible to fulfill tasks of flying free-of-collision group of UAVs with essentially reduced computational costs.

  17. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  18. Applying voting theory in natural resource management: a case of multiple-criteria group decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Sanna; Kangas, Annika; Kangas, Jyrki

    2002-02-01

    Voting theory has a lot in common with utility theory, and especially with group decision-making. An expected-utility-maximising strategy exists in voting situations, as well as in decision-making situations. Therefore, it is natural to utilise the achievements of voting theory also in group decision-making. Most voting systems are based on a single criterion or holistic preference information on decision alternatives. However, a voting scheme called multicriteria approval is specially developed for decision-making situations with multiple criteria. This study considers the voting theory from the group decision support point of view and compares it with some other methods applied to similar purposes in natural resource management. A case study is presented, where the approval voting approach is introduced to natural resources planning and tested in a forestry group decision-making process. Applying multicriteria approval method was found to be a potential approach for handling some challenges typical for forestry group decision support. These challenges include (i) utilising ordinal information in the evaluation of decision alternatives, (ii) being readily understandable for and treating equally all the stakeholders in possession of different levels of knowledge on the subject considered, (iii) fast and cheap acquisition of preference information from several stakeholders, and (iv) dealing with multiple criteria.

  19. Management systems, control and motivation methods used at enterprises groups

    OpenAIRE

    Leugaudaitė, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, CONTROL AND MOTIVATION METHODS USED AT ENTERPRISES GROUPS 69 pages, 3 tables, 25 pictures, 39 literature references. The aim of the Master's paper is to determine the implementation impact of the motivation and controlling methods to achieve efficiency in management systems. As a result of the scientific literature analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the management systems were selected. These statements were used for the primary survey of the initial group of co...

  20. Reliability Analysis Multiple Redundancy Controller for Nuclear Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Gwangseop; Kim, Donghoon; Son, Choulwoong

    2013-01-01

    This controller is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). The architecture of MRC is briefly described, and the Markov model is developed. Based on the model, the reliability and Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) are analyzed. In this paper, the architecture of MRC for nuclear safety systems is described. The MRC is configured for multiple modular redundancy (MMR) composed of dual modular redundancy (DMR) and triple modular redundancy (TMR). Markov models for MRC architecture was developed, and then the reliability was analyzed by using the model. From the reliability analyses for the MRC, it is obtained that the failure rate of each module in the MRC should be less than 2 Χ 10 -4 /hour and the MTTF average increase rate depending on FCF increment, i. e. ΔMTTF/ΔFCF, is 4 months/0.1

  1. Multiple levels of epigenetic control for bone biology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Martin; Stein, Gary; Stein, Janet; Zaidi, Kaleem; Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Multiple dimensions of epigenetic control contribute to regulation of gene expression that governs bone biology and pathology. Once confined to DNA methylation and a limited number of post-translational modifications of histone proteins, the definition of epigenetic mechanisms is expanding to include contributions of non-coding RNAs and mitotic bookmarking, a mechanism for retaining phenotype identity during cell proliferation. Together these different levels of epigenetic control of physiological processes and their perturbations that are associated with compromised gene expression during the onset and progression of disease, have contributed to an unprecedented understanding of the activities (operation) of the genomic landscape. Here, we address general concepts that explain the contribution of epigenetic control to the dynamic regulation of gene expression during eukaryotic transcription. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Epigenetics and Bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. To Make Good Decision: A Group DSS for Multiple Criteria Alternative Rank and Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a recursive process and usually involves multiple decision criteria. However, such multiple criteria decision making may have a problem in which partial decision criteria may conflict with each other. An information technology, such as the decision support system (DSS and group DSS (GDSS, emerges to assist decision maker for decision-making process. Both the DSS and GDSS should integrate with a symmetrical approach to assist decision maker to take all decision criteria into consideration simultaneously. This study proposes a GDSS architecture named hybrid decision-making support model (HDMSM and integrated four decision approaches (Delphi, DEMATEL, ANP, and MDS to help decision maker to rank and select appropriate alternatives. The HDMSM consists of five steps, namely, criteria identification, criteria correlation calculation, criteria evaluation, critical criteria selection, and alternative rank and comparison. Finally, to validate the proposed feasibility of the proposed model, this study also conducts a case study to find out the important indexes of corporate social responsibility (CSR from multiple perspectives. As the case study demonstrates the proposed HDMSM enables a group of decision makers to implement the MCDM effectively and help them to analyze the relation and degree of mutual influence among different evaluation factors.

  4. Local Action Groups and Rural Sustainable Development. A spatial multiple criteria approach for efficient territorial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... and a Weakness factors and decision alternatives, as well as impossibility of ranking the decision alternatives. Thus, this research aims to overcome the drawbacks of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to support Local Action Group partnerships in the sustainability evaluation...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...

  5. Multiplicative surrogate standard deviation: a group metric for the glycemic variability of individual hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Susan S; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    Group metrics are described to quantify blood glucose (BG) variability of hospitalized patients. The "multiplicative surrogate standard deviation" (MSSD) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the standard deviations (SDs) of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. The "geometric group mean" (GGM) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the means of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. Before reverse transformation is performed, the mean of means and mean of SDs each has its own SD, which becomes a multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) after reverse transformation. Statistical predictions and comparisons of parametric or nonparametric tests remain valid after reverse transformation. A subset of a previously published BG data set of 20 critically ill patients from the first 72 h of treatment under the SPRINT protocol was transformed logarithmically. After rank ordering according to the SD of the logarithmically transformed BG data of each patient, the cohort was divided into two equal groups, those having lower or higher variability. For the entire cohort, the GGM was 106 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, and MSSD was 1.24 (÷/× 1.07). For the subgroups having lower and higher variability, respectively, the GGM did not differ, 104 (÷/× 1.07) versus 109 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, but the MSSD differed, 1.17 (÷/× 1.03) versus 1.31 (÷/× 1.05), p = .00004. By using the MSSD with its MSD, groups can be characterized and compared according to glycemic variability of individual patient members. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Self-help group and the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis - Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Eliášová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal of the pilot study was to compare the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis in the Presov region with or without the support of a self-help group. Design: The character of this pilot study on patients with MS was related to the use of self-help groups and their impact on the assessment of the quality of life of the respondents, with the help of a questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF. Methods: The research was carried out in the Prešov region with the help of the standardized WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Ninety-one patients with MS participated in the pilot study (46 respondents attended a self-help group and 35 did not. Results: The groups, when compared, aided by the statistically evaluated WHOQOL-BREF domains, were found to show significant differences in their evaluation of quality of life in three domains: domain one: physical health; domain two: surviving; domain three: social relations. Better scores were achieved in these domains by those who attended a group. In the physical sphere, we noticed significant differences in sleep quality, and sexual satisfaction (p < 0.001, while in social and economic areas, there were significant differences in satisfaction with personal relationships (p < 0.001, and economic circumstances (p < 0.01, self-contentment (p < 0.01, and coping with negative feelings (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Patients with multiple sclerosis can live normal lives provided they are supported by their families, friends, health care professionals, and self-help groups.

  7. An Overview on SDN Architectures with Multiple Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmane Blial

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking offers several benefits for networking by separating the control plane from the data plane. However, networks’ scalability, reliability, and availability remain as a big issue. Accordingly, multicontroller architectures are important for SDN-enabled networks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of SDN multicontroller architectures. It presents SDN and its main instantiation OpenFlow. Then, it explains in detail the differences between multiple types of multicontroller architectures, like the distribution method and the communication system. Furthermore, it provides already implemented and under research examples of multicontroller architectures by describing their design, their communication process, and their performance results.

  8. Glucose uptake heterogeneity of the leg muscles is similar between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    Difficulties in ambulation are one of the main problems reported by patients with multiple sclerosis. A previous study by our research group showed increased recruitment of muscle groups during walking, but the influence of skeletal muscle properties, such as muscle fiber activity, has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this investigation was to use the novel method of calculating glucose uptake heterogeneity in the leg muscles of patients with multiple sclerosis and compare these results to healthy controls. Eight patients with multiple sclerosis (4 men) and 8 healthy controls (4 men) performed 15 min of treadmill walking at a comfortable self-selected speed following muscle strength tests. Participants were injected with ≈ 8 mCi of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose during walking after which positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was performed. No differences in muscle strength were detected between multiple sclerosis and control groups (P>0.27). Within the multiple sclerosis, group differences in muscle volume existed between the stronger and weaker legs in the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus (Pmuscle group or individual muscle of the legs (P>0.16, P≥0.05). Patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls showed similar muscle fiber activity during walking. Interpretations of these results, with respect to our previous study, suggest that walking difficulties in patients with multiple sclerosis may be more associated with altered central nervous system motor patterns rather than alterations in skeletal muscle properties. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-01-01

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices

  11. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Fruk, Ljiljana [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hung, Yu-Chueh, E-mail: ychung@ee.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-21

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  12. Aggregation operators of neutrosophic linguistic numbers for multiple attribute group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Based on the concept of neutrosophic linguistic numbers (NLNs) in symbolic neutrosophic theory presented by Smarandache in 2015, the paper firstly proposes basic operational laws of NLNs and the expected value of a NLN to rank NLNs. Then, we propose the NLN weighted arithmetic average (NLNWAA) and NLN weighted geometric average (NLNWGA) operators and discuss their properties. Further, we establish a multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) method by using the NLNWAA and NLNWGA operators under NLN environment. Finally, an illustrative example on a decision-making problem of manufacturing alternatives in the flexible manufacturing system is given to show the application of the proposed MAGDM method.

  13. VIKOR Method for Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Han Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will extend the VIKOR (VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje method to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM with interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs. Firstly, the basic concepts of INNs are briefly presented. The method first aggregates all individual decision-makers’ assessment information based on an interval neutrosophic weighted averaging (INWA operator, and then employs the extended classical VIKOR method to solve MAGDM problems with INNs. The validity and stability of this method are verified by example analysis and sensitivity analysis, and its superiority is illustrated by a comparison with the existing methods.

  14. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  16. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  17. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational

  18. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants.

  19. The effect of multiple sclerosis on the professional life of a group of Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yára Dadalti Fragoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS on the professional life of Brazilian patients. METHOD: One hundred MS patients were randomly selected from the database of the Brazilian Multiple Sclerosis Association (ABEM. An individual interview was carried out by telephone by a member of ABEM, who collected data on the patients' clinical status, educational level and professional lives. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained from 96 patients (27 males and 69 females aged 55.0±14.1 years, with average disease duration of 4.6±4.0 years. Eighty percent had eleven or more years of schooling. Among the whole group, 66% did not present limitations on walking. The longer the disease duration and the older the patient were, the higher the chances were that the patient was retired or receiving workers' compensation benefits. However, even among patients with MS for less than five years, the rate of non-participation in the workforce was 47.7%. Fatigue, paresthesia, cognitive dysfunction and pain were often cited as the motives for not working. CONCLUSION: MS patients presented high levels of unemployment, retirement and receipt of workers' compensation benefits, despite their high schooling levels. Age, disease duration and disability influenced these results for the whole group. However, even among younger patients with shorter disease duration and low disability, this finding remained.

  20. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  1. Quality control for a group of pyrophosphate-Sn kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Hernandez, I.; Leyva, R.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control for a group of Pyrophosphate-Sn kits for labeling with 99 m Tc is carry out at the Isotope Center. A general discussion takes place about the instrumental techniques for the determination of the kit constituent such as ligands, Sn(II), water, etc, as well as the control table for the evaluation of the warranty time. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  2. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  3. Observability of linear control systems on Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, V.; Hacibekiroglu, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we study the observability problem for a linear control system Σ on a Lie group G. The drift vector field of Σ is an infinitesimal automorphism of G and the control vectors are elements in the Lie algebra of G. We establish algebraic conditions to characterize locally and globally observability for Σ. As in the linear case on R n , these conditions are independent of the control vector. We give an algorithm on the co-tangent bundle of G to calculate the equivalence class of the neutral element. (author). 6 refs

  4. A controller for controlling a group of lighting devices and a method thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2017-01-01

    A controller (100) for controlling a group (110) of lighting devices (112, 114) is disclosed. The group (110) comprises a first lighting device (112) and a second lighting device (114). The controller (100) comprises a communication unit (102) for communicating with the first and second lighting

  5. Are medical treatments for individuals and groups like single-play and multiple-play gambles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. DeKay

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available People are often more likely to accept risky monetary gambles with positive expected values when the gambles will be played more than once. We investigated whether this distinction between single-play and multiple-play gambles extends to medical treatments for individual patients and groups of patients. Resident physicians and medical students (extit{n} = 69 and undergraduates (extit{n} = 99 ranked 9 different flu shots and a no-flu-shot option in 1 of 4 combinations of perspective (individual patient vs. group of 1000 patients and uncertainty frame (probability vs. frequency. The rank of the no-flu-shot option (a measure of preference for treatment vs. no treatment was not significantly related to perspective or participant population. The main effect of uncertainty frame and the interaction between perspective and uncertainty frame approached significance (0.1 {extgreater} extit{p} {extgreater} 0.05, with the no-flu-shot option faring particularly poorly (treatment faring particularly well when decisions about many patients were based on frequency information. Undergraduate participants believed that the no-flu-shot option would be less attractive (treatment would be more attractive in decisions about many patients, but these intuitions were inconsistent with the actual ranks. These results and those of other studies suggest that medical treatments for individuals and groups are not analogous to single-play and multiple-play monetary gambles, perhaps because many people are unwilling to aggregate treatment outcomes over patients in the same way that they would compute net gains or losses over monetary gambles.

  6. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS...

  7. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government...

  8. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group... simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users..., and email address) to [email protected]us.af.mil and have your security personnel submit your VAR...

  9. 76 FR 22336 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... intercompany loss when B recognizes a corresponding gain. For example, if S sells 30 percent of T's stock to B... occurrence of either of two events. The deferred loss is taken into account to the extent of any... Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of...

  10. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  11. Decentralized Formation Flying Control in a Multiple-Team Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph .; Thomas, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple-team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of manageable size, so that the communication and computational demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high-level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using MANTA (Messaging Architecture for Networking and Threaded Applications). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The prototype system, which is implemented in MATLAB, emulates the object-oriented and message-passing features of the MANTA software. In this paper, the multiple-team organization of the cluster is described, and the modular software architecture is presented. The relative dynamics in eccentric reference orbits is reviewed, and families of periodic, relative trajectories are identified, expressed as sets of static geometric parameters. The guidance law design is presented, and an example reconfiguration scenario is used to illustrate the distributed process of assigning geometric goals to the cluster. Next, a decentralized maneuver planning approach is presented that utilizes linear-programming methods to enact reconfiguration and coarse formation keeping maneuvers. Finally, a method for performing online collision avoidance is discussed, and an example is provided to gauge its performance.

  12. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years, and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England.

  13. Dancing multiplicity states supported by a carboxylated group in dicopper structures bonded to O2

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-01-29

    The present study pretends to assign the correct multiplicity state to dinuclear copper complexes when interacting with free molecular oxygen. Recently, the formation of a bridge butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo dicopper core structure stabilized by the direct interaction of the counterion, a carboxylate group that allows the double bridge linking both metal-centre atoms, was characterized by crystallography. This system was assigned as a diradical singlet with Ms = 0. However, after new calculations it has turned out to be triplet (Ms = 1) despite the stabilization for this latter multiplicity state is not high. Here, the factors that contribute to make this structure display a multiplicity different with respect to the previously expected diradical singlet are described. In the present theoretical study, the roles of the αSp ligand constraints and the counterion are unravelled. On the other hand, the relative stability between the butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo structure and the isomeric bis(μ-oxo) species is also on discussion. Despite the relative stabilities of all these either structural or electronic isomeric species are supposed to depend on the computational method, which is a difficulty to reach a definite conclusion about the nature of the active species, all DFT methods using either pure or not pure DFT functionals here reach the same conclusion, favoring the triplet as the ground state for the butterfly μ-η2: η2-peroxo dicopper core structure, and the bis(μ-oxo) species when removing the benzoate counterion. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  14. Controllability of linear vector fields on Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, V.; Tirao, J.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper, we shall deal with a linear control system Σ defined on a Lie group G with Lie algebra g. The dynamic of Σ is determined by the drift vector field which is an element in the normalizer of g in the Lie algebra of all smooth vector field on G and by the control vectors which are elements in g considered as left-invariant vector fields. We characterize the normalizer of g identifying vector fields on G with C ∞ -functions defined on G into g. For this class of control systems we study algebraic conditions for the controllability problem. Indeed, we prove that if the drift vector field has a singularity then the Lie algebra rank condition is necessary for the controllability property, but in general this condition does not determine this property. On the other hand, we show that the rank (ad-rank) condition is sufficient for the controllability of Σ. In particular, we extend the fundamental Kalman's theorem when G is an Abelian connected Lie group. Our work is related with a paper of L. Markus and we also improve his results. (author). 7 refs

  15. Three-dimensional multiple reciprocity boundary element method for one-group neutron diffusion eigenvalue computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1996-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity method (MRM) in conjunction with the boundary element method has been employed to solve one-group eigenvalue problems described by the three-dimensional (3-D) neutron diffusion equation. The domain integral related to the fission source is transformed into a series of boundary-only integrals, with the aid of the higher order fundamental solutions based on the spherical and the modified spherical Bessel functions. Since each degree of the higher order fundamental solutions in the 3-D cases has a singularity of order (1/r), the above series of boundary integrals requires additional terms which do not appear in the 2-D MRM formulation. The critical eigenvalue itself can be also described using only boundary integrals. Test calculations show that Wielandt's spectral shift technique guarantees rapid and stable convergence of 3-D MRM computations. (author)

  16. Controlling energy transfer between multiple dopants within a single nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Sabatier, Clément; Kokuoz, Baris; Ballato, John

    2008-01-01

    Complex core-shell architectures are implemented within LaF3 nanoparticles to allow for a tailored degree of energy transfer (ET) between different rare earth dopants. By constraining specific dopants to individual shells, their relative distance to one another can be carefully controlled. Core-shell LaF3 nanoparticles doped with Tb3+ and Eu3+ and consisting of up to four layers were synthesized with an outer diameter of ≈10 nm. It is found that by varying the thicknesses of an undoped layer between a Tb3+-doped layer and a Eu3+-doped layer, the degree of ET can be engineered to allow for zero, partial, or total ET from a donor ion to an acceptor ion. More specifically, the ratio of the intensities of the 541-nm Tb3+ and 590 nm Eu3+ peaks was tailored from core-shell configuration that restricts ET is used. Beyond simply controlling ET, which can be limiting when designing materials for optical applications, this approach can be used to obtain truly engineered spectral features from nanoparticles and composites made from them. Further, it allows for a single excitation source to yield multiple discrete emissions from numerous lanthanide dopants that heretofore would have been quenched in a more conventional active optical material. PMID:18250307

  17. Facial exercises for facial rejuvenation: a control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Marie-Camille; Van den Brande, Helen; Boone, Barbara; Van Borsel, John

    2013-01-01

    Facial exercises are a noninvasive alternative to medical approaches to facial rejuvenation. Logopedists could be involved in providing these exercises. Little research has been conducted, however, on the effectiveness of exercises for facial rejuvenation. This study assessed the effectiveness of 4 exercises purportedly reducing wrinkles and sagging of the facial skin. A control group study was conducted with 18 participants, 9 of whom (the experimental group) underwent daily training for 7 weeks. Pictures taken before and after 7 weeks of 5 facial areas (forehead, nasolabial folds, area above the upper lip, jawline and area under the chin) were evaluated by a panel of laypersons. In addition, the participants of the experimental group evaluated their own pictures. Evaluation included the pairwise presentation of pictures before and after 7 weeks and scoring of the same pictures by means of visual analogue scales in a random presentation. Only one significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. In the experimental group, the picture after therapy of the upper lip was more frequently chosen to be the younger-looking one by the panel. It cannot be concluded that facial exercises are effective. More systematic research is needed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A controller for controlling a group of lighting devices and a method thereof

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    A controller (100) for controlling a group (110) of lighting devices (112, 114) is disclosed. The group (110) comprises a first lighting device (112) and a second lighting device (114). The controller (100) comprises a communication unit (102) for communicating with the first and second lighting devices (112, 114), and for receiving a first current light setting of the first lighting device (112) and a second current light setting of the second lighting device (114). The controller (100) furt...

  19. Massage therapy and exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Rezaie, Solmaz; Goharpey, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the comparative effects of massage therapy and exercise therapy on patients with multiple sclerosis. The secondary aim was to investigate whether combination of both massage and exercise has an additive effect. Randomized controlled pilot trial with repeated measurements and blinded assessments. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 48 patients with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to four equal subgroups labelled as massage therapy, exercise therapy, combined massage-exercise therapy and control group. The treatment group received 15 sessions of supervised intervention for five weeks. The massage therapy group received a standard Swedish massage. The exercise therapy group was given a combined set of strength, stretch, endurance and balance exercises. Patients in the massage-exercise therapy received a combined set of massage and exercise treatments. Patients in the control group were asked to continue their standard medical care. Pain, fatigue, spasticity, balance, gait and quality of life were assessed before and after intervention. Massage therapy resulted in significantly larger improvement in pain reduction (mean change 2.75 points, P = 0.001), dynamic balance (mean change, 3.69 seconds, P = 0.009) and walking speed (mean change, 7.84 seconds, P = 0.007) than exercise therapy. Patients involved in the combined massage-exercise therapy showed significantly larger improvement in pain reduction than those in the exercise therapy (mean change, 1.67 points, P = 0.001). Massage therapy could be more effective than exercise therapy. Moreover, the combination of massage and exercise therapy may be a little more effective than exercise therapy alone.

  20. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion [Fusion Working Group (FWG)] was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project

  1. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Ramanathan, Murali; Benedict, Ralph; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive reserve has been implicated as a possible protective factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but to date no study has compared reserve-building activities across disease course or to healthy controls. This study aims to describe differences in reserve-building activities across the MS disease course and healthy controls. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional cohort study that included 276 healthy controls, and subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS; n = 67), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 358) and secondary progressive MS (PMS; n = 109). Past reserve-building activities were operationalized as occupational attainment and education. Current activities comprised 6 strenuous and 6 non-strenuous activities, including 5 reserve-building activities and television-watching. Multivariate Analysis of Variance models examined group differences in past and current activities, after adjusting for covariates. There were group differences in past and current reserve-building activities. SPMS patients had lower past reserve-building activities than healthy controls. All forms of MS engaged in fewer strenuous current reserve-building pursuits than healthy controls. RRMS read less than healthy controls. SPMS engaged in fewer job-related non-strenuous activities. All MS groups watched more television than healthy controls. MS patients show significantly fewer past and present reserve-building activities. Although it is difficult to establish causality without future prospective studies, lifestyle-modifying interventions should prioritize expanding MS patients' repertoire of strenuous and non-strenuous activities.

  2. Heterogenic control groups in randomized, controlled, analgesic trials of total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anders P; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2018-03-01

    Postoperative analgesic interventions are often tested adjunct to basic non-opioid analgesics in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Consequently, treatment in control groups, and possible assay sensitivity, differs between trials. We hypothesized that postoperative opioid requirements and pain intensities vary between different control groups in analgesic trials. Control groups from RCTs investigating analgesic interventions after total hip and knee arthroplasty were categorized based on standardized basic analgesic treatment. Morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively, and resting pain scores at 6 and 24 hours for subgroups of basic treatments, were compared with ANOVA. In an additional analysis, we compared pain and opioid requirements in trials where a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was administered as an intervention with trial where NSAID was administered in a control group. We included 171 RCTs employing 28 different control groups with large variability in pain scores and opioid requirements. Four types of control groups (comprising 78 trials) were eligible for subgroup comparisons. These subgroups received "opioid" alone, "NSAID + opioid", "acetaminophen + opioid", or "NSAID + acetaminophen + opioid", respectively. Morphine consumption and pain scores varied substantially between these groups, with no consistent superior efficacy in any subgroup. Additionally, trials administering NSAID as an intervention demonstrated lower pain scores and opioid requirements than trials where NSAID was administered in a control group. Analgesic treatment in RCT control groups varies considerably. Control groups receiving various combinations of opioid, NSAID and acetaminophen did not differ consistently in pain and opioid requirements. Pain and opioid requirements were lower in trials administering NSAID as an intervention compared with trials administering NSAID in a control group.

  3. Design and selection of load control strategies using a multiple objective model and evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Alvaro; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Martins, Antonio Gomes

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a multiple objective model to evaluate the attractiveness of the use of demand resources (through load management control actions) by different stakeholders and in diverse structure scenarios in electricity systems. For the sake of model flexibility, the multiple (and conflicting) objective functions of technical, economical and quality of service nature are able to capture distinct market scenarios and operating entities that may be interested in promoting load management activities. The computation of compromise solutions is made by resorting to evolutionary algorithms, which are well suited to tackle multiobjective problems of combinatorial nature herein involving the identification and selection of control actions to be applied to groups of loads. (Author)

  4. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  5. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  6. Integrating CERN e-groups into TWiki access control.

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, PL; Hoymr, N; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    Wikis allow for easy collaborative editing of documents on the web for users located in different buildings, cities or even countries. TWiki culture lends to open free form editing and most pages are world readable and editable by CERN authenticated users, however access control is possible and is used to protect sensitive documents. This note discusses the integration of E-groups for authorisation purposes at CERN.

  7. On decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Liu, Chao; Su, Housheng; Zhang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control framework is proposed for the robust synchronized formation motion of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to system uncertainty. First, a full-order sliding mode surface in a decentralized manner is designed to incorporate both the individual position tracking error and the synchronized formation error while the UAV group is engaged in building a certain desired geometric pattern in three dimensional space. Second, a decentralized virtual plant controller is constructed which allows the embedded low-pass filter to attain the chattering free property of the sliding mode controller. In addition, robust adaptive technique is integrated in the decentralized chattering free sliding control design in order to handle unknown bounded uncertainties, without requirements for assuming a priori knowledge of bounds on the system uncertainties as stated in conventional chattering free control methods. Subsequently, system robustness as well as stability of the decentralized full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs is synthesized. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control framework to achieve robust 3D formation flight of the multi-UAV system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  9. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of group I and group II metal complexes with Boc-hydroxylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dain, R.P.; Gresham, G.; Groenewold, G.S.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.; van Stipdonk, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hydroxamates are essential growth factors for some microbes, acting primarily as siderophores that solubilize iron for transport into a cell. Here we determined the intrinsic structure of 1:1 complexes between Boc-protected hydroxylamine and group I ([M(L)](+)) and group II ([M(L-H)](+))

  10. The semantic category-based grouping in the Multiple Identity Tracking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Zhen; Liu, Jingyao

    2018-01-01

    In the Multiple Identity Tracking (MIT) task, categorical distinctions between targets and distractors have been found to facilitate tracking (Wei, Zhang, Lyu, & Li in Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 589, 2016). The purpose of this study was to further investigate the reasons for the facilitation effect, through six experiments. The results of Experiments 1-3 excluded the potential explanations of visual distinctiveness, attentional distribution strategy, and a working memory mechanism, respectively. When objects' visual information was preserved and categorical information was removed, the facilitation effect disappeared, suggesting that the visual distinctiveness between targets and distractors was not the main reason for the facilitation effect. Moreover, the facilitation effect was not the result of strategically shifting the attentional distribution, because the targets received more attention than the distractors in all conditions. Additionally, the facilitation effect did not come about because the identities of targets were encoded and stored in visual working memory to assist in the recovery from tracking errors; when working memory was disturbed by the object identities changing during tracking, the facilitation effect still existed. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that observers grouped targets together and segregated them from distractors on the basis of their categorical information. By doing this, observers could largely avoid distractor interference with tracking and improve tracking performance. Finally, Experiment 6 indicated that category-based grouping is not an automatic, but a goal-directed and effortful, strategy. In summary, the present findings show that a semantic category-based target-grouping mechanism exists in the MIT task, which is likely to be the major reason for the tracking facilitation effect.

  11. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  12. Habitual caffeine consumption and its relation to memory, attention, planning capacity and psychomotor performance across multiple age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameleers, P. A. H. M; Van Boxtel, M. P. J; Hogervorst, E; Riedel, W. J; Houx, P. J; Buntinx, F; Jolles, J

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated the association between habitual caffeine intake via coffee and tea and cognitive performance. This was done as part of a larger research programme into the determinants of cognitive ageing (the Maastricht Aging Study: MAAS). Possible withdrawal effects that may have explained in part the positive association between performance and intake in an earlier study were controlled for. In addition, all cognitive tests in this study were administered under strict laboratory conditions. A group of 1875 healthy adults, stratified for age (range 24 - 81 years), sex, and general ability, were screened for habitual intake of coffee and tea and took part in extensive cognitive testing. Multiple regression analysis with control for age, sex, socio-demographic variables, and substance use showed that habitual caffeine consumption was significantly related to better long-term memory performance and faster locomotor speed. No relationships were found between habitual caffeine consumption and short-term memory, information processing, planning, and attention as measured with the Stroop Test. Moreover, no difference in sensitivity to caffeine intake between different age groups was found, suggesting that caffeine intake did not counteract age-related cognitive decline. Several recommendations are made to improve the design of future studies in this field. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J.; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C.; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M.; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F.; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  14. Parent-only Group Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Control Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Elham; Shahrivar, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Shirazi, Elham; Sepasi, Mitra

    2018-04-01

    Parents play an important role in development and continuation of anxiety disorders in children. Yet the evidence on parent contribution in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety is limited. This open randomized trial examined the effectiveness of a parent-directed group CBT to manage children with anxiety disorders. Parents of 42 children aged 6-12 with primary anxiety disorders were allocated to a six, two-hour weekly intervention and a wait-list (WL) control. The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety, Children's Depression Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Home Version, Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale, Children Global Assessment Scale, and Global Relational Assessment of Functioning were used to assess children's and parents' functioning and emotional symptoms. Parents completed consumer satisfaction questionnaire. Parents in the CBT group reported significant improvement in their depressive symptoms (p=0.006) and the family functioning (p=0.04), as well as reduction in children's emotional symptoms (p=0.007). Clinician rating of children's functioning showed significant improvement in the CBT group(p=0.001). There was no significant difference in children rating of their anxiety within groups from pre- to post-intervention. Parents were satisfied mostly with the intervention. A brief parent-only CBT based intervention can be effective in the management of childhood anxiety.

  15. Impact of Pilates Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Andrushko, Justin W; Renshaw, Doug W; Chilibeck, Philip D; Farthing, Jonathan P; Danielson, Jana; Evans, Charity D

    2018-01-01

    Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group). The Pilates was delivered in a group setting (five to ten participants per session). The primary outcome was change in walking performance (6-Minute Walk Test) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included functional ability (Timed Up and Go test), balance (Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale), flexibility (sit and reach test), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), core endurance (plank-hold test), and muscle strength and voluntary activation (quadriceps). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Walking distance increased by a mean (SD) of 52.4 (40.2) m in the Pilates group versus 15.0 (34.1) m in the control group (group × time, P = .01). Mean (SD) time to complete the Timed Up and Go test decreased by 1.5 (2.8) seconds in the Pilates group versus an increase of 0.3 (0.9) seconds in the control group (group × time, P = .03). There were no other significant differences between groups over time. Pilates improved walking performance and functional ability in persons with MS and is a viable exercise option to help manage the disease.

  16. Pythagorean Fuzzy Muirhead Mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple-Criteria Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghong Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS, a Pythagorean fuzzy set has more flexibility than IFS in expressing uncertainty and fuzziness in the process of multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM. Meanwhile, the prominent advantage of the Muirhead mean (MM operator is that it can reflect the relationships among the various input arguments through changing a parameter vector. Motivated by these primary characters, in this study, we introduced the MM operator into the Pythagorean fuzzy context to expand its applied fields. To do so, we presented the Pythagorean fuzzy MM (PFMM operators and Pythagorean fuzzy dual MM (PFDMM operator to fuse the Pythagorean fuzzy information. Then, we investigated their some properties and gave some special cases related to the parameter vector. In addition, based on the developed operators, two MCGDM methods under the Pythagorean fuzzy environment are proposed. An example is given to verify the validity and feasibility of our proposed methods, and a comparative analysis is provided to show their advantages.

  17. A novel QC-LDPC code based on the finite field multiplicative group for optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Xu, Liang; Tong, Qing-zhen

    2013-09-01

    A novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) code is proposed based on the finite field multiplicative group, which has easier construction, more flexible code-length code-rate adjustment and lower encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, a regular QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is constructed. The simulation results show that the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code can gain better error correction performance under the condition of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with iterative decoding sum-product algorithm (SPA). At the bit error rate (BER) of 10-6, the net coding gain (NCG) of the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is 1.8 dB, 0.9 dB and 0.2 dB more than that of the classic RS(255,239) code in ITU-T G.975, the LDPC(32640,30592) code in ITU-T G.975.1 and the SCG-LDPC(3969,3720) code constructed by the random method, respectively. So it is more suitable for optical communication systems.

  18. Management of relapsed multiple myeloma: recommendations of the International Myeloma Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, J; Garderet, L; Mahindra, A; Gahrton, G; Caers, J; Sezer, O; Voorhees, P; Leleu, X; Johnsen, H E; Streetly, M; Jurczyszyn, A; Ludwig, H; Mellqvist, U-H; Chng, W-J; Pilarski, L; Einsele, H; Hou, J; Turesson, I; Zamagni, E; Chim, C S; Mazumder, A; Westin, J; Lu, J; Reiman, T; Kristinsson, S; Joshua, D; Roussel, M; O'Gorman, P; Terpos, E; McCarthy, P; Dimopoulos, M; Moreau, P; Orlowski, R Z; Miguel, J S; Anderson, K C; Palumbo, A; Kumar, S; Rajkumar, V; Durie, B; Richardson, P G

    2016-05-01

    The prognosis for patients multiple myeloma (MM) has improved substantially over the past decade with the development of new, more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens that possess a high level of anti-tumor activity. In spite of this important progress, however, nearly all MM patients ultimately relapse, even those who experience a complete response to initial therapy. Management of relapsed MM thus represents a vital aspect of the overall care for patients with MM and a critical area of ongoing scientific and clinical research. This comprehensive manuscript from the International Myeloma Working Group provides detailed recommendations on management of relapsed disease, with sections dedicated to diagnostic evaluation, determinants of therapy, and general approach to patients with specific disease characteristics. In addition, the manuscript provides a summary of evidence from clinical trials that have significantly impacted the field, including those evaluating conventional dose therapies, as well as both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Specific recommendations are offered for management of first and second relapse, relapsed and refractory disease, and both autologous and allogeneic transplant. Finally, perspective is provided regarding new agents and promising directions in management of relapsed MM.

  19. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  20. Synthesis of Carbon Dots with Multiple Color Emission by Controlled Graphitization and Surface Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiang; Qu, Dan; Yang, Dongxue; Nie, Bing; Zhao, Yikang; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2018-01-01

    Multiple-color-emissive carbon dots (CDots) have potential applications in various fields such as bioimaging, light-emitting devices, and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDots to date exhibit excitation-wavelength-dependent emissions with their maximum emission limited at the blue-light region. Here, a synthesis of multiple-color-emission CDots by controlled graphitization and surface function is reported. The CDots are synthesized through controlled thermal pyrolysis of citric acid and urea. By regulating the thermal-pyrolysis temperature and ratio of reactants, the maximum emission of the resulting CDots gradually shifts from blue to red light, covering the entire light spectrum. Specifically, the emission position of the CDots can be tuned from 430 to 630 nm through controlling the extent of graphitization and the amount of surface functional groups, COOH. The relative photoluminescence quantum yields of the CDots with blue, green, and red emission reach up to 52.6%, 35.1%, and 12.9%, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CDots can be uniformly dispersed into epoxy resins and be fabricated as transparent CDots/epoxy composites for multiple-color- and white-light-emitting devices. This research opens a door for developing low-cost CDots as alternative phosphors for light-emitting devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  2. The Langer-Improved Wald Test for DIF Testing with Multiple Groups: Evaluation and Comparison to Two-Group IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2]…

  3. Falls prevention and balance rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis: a bi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Davide; Rasova, Kamila; Gervasoni, Elisa; Dobrovodská, Gabriela; Montesano, Angelo; Jonsdottir, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) have a high incidence of accidental falls that have a potentially detrimental effect on their daily life participation. The effect of balance specific rehabilitation on clinical balance measures and frequency of falls in PwMS was studied. A bi-centre randomised rater-blinded controlled trial. Participants in both groups received 20 treatment sessions. Participants in the intervention group received treatment aimed at improving balance and mobility. Participants in the control group received treatments to reduce limitations at activity and body function level. Primary measures were frequency of fallers (>1 fall in two months) and responders (>3 points improvement) at the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Data was analysed according to an intention to treat approach. One hundred and nineteen participants were randomised. Following treatment frequency of fallers was 22% in the intervention group and 23% in the control group, odds ratio (OR) and (confidence limits): 1.05 (0.41 to 2.77). Responders on the BBS were 28% in the intervention group and 33% in the control group, OR = 0.75 (0.30 to 1.91). At follow up ORs for fallers and responders at BBS were 0.98 (0.48 to 2.01) and 0.79 (0.26 to 2.42), respectively. Twenty sessions 2-3 times/week of balance specific rehabilitation did not reduce fall frequency nor improve balance suggesting the need for more frequent and challenging interventions. Implications for Rehabilitation Programs for balance rehabilitation can improve balance but their effects in fall prevention are unclear. Twenty treatments sessions 2/3 times per week did not reduced frequency of falls in MS. The comparison with similar studies suggests that higher intensity of practice of highly challenging balance activities appears to be critical to maximizing effectiveness.

  4. Having a Lot of a Good Thing: Multiple Important Group Memberships as a Source of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Jones, Janelle M.; Cui, Lijuan; Dingle, Genevieve; Liu, James; Murphy, Sean; Thai, Anh; Walter, Zoe; Zhang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem. PMID:26017554

  5. Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Jetten

    Full Text Available Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a, older adults (Study 1b, and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c. Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem.

  6. Group Targets Tracking Using Multiple Models GGIW-CPHD Based on Best-Fitting Gaussian Approximation and Strong Tracking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma Gaussian inverse Wishart cardinalized probability hypothesis density (GGIW-CPHD algorithm was always used to track group targets in the presence of cluttered measurements and missing detections. A multiple models GGIW-CPHD algorithm based on best-fitting Gaussian approximation method (BFG and strong tracking filter (STF is proposed aiming at the defect that the tracking error of GGIW-CPHD algorithm will increase when the group targets are maneuvering. The best-fitting Gaussian approximation method is proposed to implement the fusion of multiple models using the strong tracking filter to correct the predicted covariance matrix of the GGIW component. The corresponding likelihood functions are deduced to update the probability of multiple tracking models. From the simulation results we can see that the proposed tracking algorithm MM-GGIW-CPHD can effectively deal with the combination/spawning of groups and the tracking error of group targets in the maneuvering stage is decreased.

  7. A Spanish pillbox app for elderly patients taking multiple medications: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Navarro, Isabel; Botella, Federico; Borrás, Fernando; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Orozco, Domingo; Iglesias-Alonso, Fuencisla; Pérez-Pérez, Pastora; Lorenzo, Susana; Toro, Nuria

    2014-04-04

    Nonadherence and medication errors are common among patients with complex drug regimens. Apps for smartphones and tablets are effective for improving adherence, but they have not been tested in elderly patients with complex chronic conditions and who typically have less experience with this type of technology. The objective of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a medication self-management app (called ALICE) for elderly patients taking multiple medications with the intention of improving adherence and safe medication use. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with a control and an experimental group (N=99) in Spain in 2013. The characteristics of ALICE were specified based on the suggestions of 3 nominal groups with a total of 23 patients and a focus group with 7 professionals. ALICE was designed for Android and iOS to allow for the personalization of prescriptions and medical advice, showing images of each of the medications (the packaging and the medication itself) together with alerts and multiple reminders for each alert. The randomly assigned patients in the control group received oral and written information on the safe use of their medications and the patients in the experimental group used ALICE for 3 months. Pre and post measures included rate of missed doses and medication errors reported by patients, scores from the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4), level of independence, self-perceived health status, and biochemical test results. In the experimental group, data were collected on their previous experience with information and communication technologies, their rating of ALICE, and their perception of the level of independence they had achieved. The intergroup intervention effects were calculated by univariate linear models and ANOVA, with the pre to post intervention differences as the dependent variables. Data were obtained from 99 patients (48 and 51 in the control and experimental groups, respectively

  8. Hydrotherapy for the Treatment of Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent 40 sessions of Ai-Chi exercise in swimming pool and the control group 40 sessions of abdominal breathing and contraction-relaxation exercises in therapy room. Outcome variables were pain, disability, spasm, depression, fatigue, and autonomy, which were assessed before the intervention and immediately and at 4 and 10 weeks after the last treatment session. Results. The experimental group showed a significant (P<0.028 and clinically relevant decrease in pain intensity versus baseline, with an immediate posttreatment reduction in median visual analogue scale scores of 50% that was maintained for up to 10 weeks. Significant improvements were also observed in spasm, fatigue, disability, and autonomy. Conclusion. According to these findings, an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program improves pain, spasms, disability, fatigue, depression, and autonomy in MS patients.

  9. Hydrotherapy for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent 40 sessions of Ai-Chi exercise in swimming pool and the control group 40 sessions of abdominal breathing and contraction-relaxation exercises in therapy room. Outcome variables were pain, disability, spasm, depression, fatigue, and autonomy, which were assessed before the intervention and immediately and at 4 and 10 weeks after the last treatment session. Results. The experimental group showed a significant (P < 0.028) and clinically relevant decrease in pain intensity versus baseline, with an immediate posttreatment reduction in median visual analogue scale scores of 50% that was maintained for up to 10 weeks. Significant improvements were also observed in spasm, fatigue, disability, and autonomy. Conclusion. According to these findings, an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program improves pain, spasms, disability, fatigue, depression, and autonomy in MS patients.

  10. Multiple Genes Cause Postmating Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation in the Drosophila virilis Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H

    2016-12-07

    Understanding the genetic basis of speciation is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Studies of reproductive isolation have provided several insights into the genetic causes of speciation, especially in taxa that lend themselves to detailed genetic scrutiny. Reproductive barriers have usually been divided into those that occur before zygote formation (prezygotic) and after (postzygotic), with the latter receiving a great deal of attention over several decades. Reproductive barriers that occur after mating but before zygote formation [postmating prezygotic (PMPZ)] are especially understudied at the genetic level. Here, I present a phenotypic and genetic analysis of a PMPZ reproductive barrier between two species of the Drosophila virilis group: D. americana and D. virilis This species pair shows strong PMPZ isolation, especially when D. americana males mate with D. virilis females: ∼99% of eggs laid after these heterospecific copulations are not fertilized. Previous work has shown that the paternal loci contributing to this incompatibility reside on two chromosomes, one of which (chromosome 5) likely carries multiple factors. The other (chromosome 2) is fixed for a paracentric inversion that encompasses nearly half the chromosome. Here, I present two results. First, I show that PMPZ in this species cross is largely due to defective sperm storage in heterospecific copulations. Second, using advanced intercross and backcross mapping approaches, I identify genomic regions that carry genes capable of rescuing heterospecific fertilization. I conclude that paternal incompatibility between D. americana males and D. virilis females is underlain by four or more genes on chromosomes 2 and 5. Copyright © 2016 Ahmed-Braimah.

  11. Hippotherapy for patients with multiple sclerosis: A multicenter randomized controlled trial (MS-HIPPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermöhlen, Vanessa; Schiller, Petra; Schickendantz, Sabine; Drache, Marion; Hussack, Sabine; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Pöhlau, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Evidence-based complementary treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) are limited. To investigate the effect of hippotherapy plus standard care versus standard care alone in MS patients. A total of 70 adults with MS were recruited in five German centers and randomly allocated to the intervention group (12 weeks of hippotherapy) or the control group. Primary outcome was the change in the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) after 12 weeks, and further outcome measures included fatigue, pain, quality of life, and spasticity. Covariance analysis of the primary endpoint resulted in a mean difference in BBS change of 2.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-4.63, p = 0.047) between intervention ( n = 32) and control ( n = 38) groups. Benefit on BBS was largest for the subgroup with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ⩾ 5 (5.1, p = 0.001). Fatigue (-6.8, p = 0.02) and spasticity (-0.9, p = 0.03) improved in the intervention group. The mean difference in change between groups was 12.0 ( p Hippotherapy plus standard care, while below the threshold of a minimal clinically important difference, significantly improved balance and also fatigue, spasticity, and quality of life in MS patients.

  12. Multiple-source multiple-harmonic active vibration control of variable section cylindrical structures: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Chen, Xuefeng; Gao, Jiawei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2016-12-01

    Air vehicles, space vehicles and underwater vehicles, the cabins of which can be viewed as variable section cylindrical structures, have multiple rotational vibration sources (e.g., engines, propellers, compressors and motors), making the spectrum of noise multiple-harmonic. The suppression of such noise has been a focus of interests in the field of active vibration control (AVC). In this paper, a multiple-source multiple-harmonic (MSMH) active vibration suppression algorithm with feed-forward structure is proposed based on reference amplitude rectification and conjugate gradient method (CGM). An AVC simulation scheme called finite element model in-loop simulation (FEMILS) is also proposed for rapid algorithm verification. Numerical studies of AVC are conducted on a variable section cylindrical structure based on the proposed MSMH algorithm and FEMILS scheme. It can be seen from the numerical studies that: (1) the proposed MSMH algorithm can individually suppress each component of the multiple-harmonic noise with an unified and improved convergence rate; (2) the FEMILS scheme is convenient and straightforward for multiple-source simulations with an acceptable loop time. Moreover, the simulations have similar procedure to real-life control and can be easily extended to physical model platform.

  13. Magnetic resonance appearance of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The GRI Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, L; Laredo, J D; Lioté, F; Koeger, A C; Hamze, B; Ziza, J M; Pertuiset, E; Bardin, T; Tubiana, J M

    1997-11-01

    A prospective multicenter study. To evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma has been studied extensively with magnetic resonance imaging, to the authors' knowledge, no study has evaluated the clinical interest of magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma. The magnetic resonance examinations of the thoracolumbar spine in 24 patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were compared with those performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed nontreated multiple myeloma. All findings on magnetic resonance examination performed in patients with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance were normal, whereas findings on 38 (86%) of the 44 magnetic resonance examinations performed in patients with multiple myeloma were abnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging can be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in differentiating between monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance and multiple myeloma, which may be helpful when routine criteria are not sufficient. An abnormal finding on magnetic resonance examination in a patient with monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance should suggest the diagnosis of multiple myeloma after other causes of marrow signal abnormalities are excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging also may be proposed in the long-term follow-up of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance when a new biologic or clinical event suggests the diagnosis of malignant monoclonal gammopathy.

  14. Resilience of Urban Smart Grids Involving Multiple Control Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent control of energy distribution grids is implemented via a hierarchy of control loops with different input values and different control targets, which also work on different time-scales. This control is enabled by a bi-directional communication flow, which can be interrupted due to ICT...

  15. Coordination of networked systems on digraphs with multiple leaders via pinning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Lewis, Frank L.

    2012-02-01

    It is well known that achieving consensus among a group of multi-vehicle systems by local distributed control is feasible if and only if all nodes in the communication digraph are reachable from a single (root) node. In this article, we take into account a more general case that the communication digraph of the networked multi-vehicle systems is weakly connected and has two or more zero-in-degree and strongly connected subgraphs, i.e. there are two or more leader groups. Based on the pinning control strategy, the feasibility problem of achieving second-order controlled consensus is studied. At first, a necessary and sufficient condition is given when the topology is fixed. Then the method to design the controller and the rule to choose the pinned vehicles are discussed. The proposed approach allows us to extend several existing results for undirected graphs to directed balanced graphs. A sufficient condition is proposed in the case where the coupling topology is variable. As an illustrative example, a second-order controlled consensus scheme is applied to coordinate the movement of networked multiple mobile robots.

  16. Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control for Multiple Distributed Generators Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babqi, Abdulrahman Jamal

    This dissertation proposes two control strategies for AC microgrids that consist of multiple distributed generators (DGs). The control strategies are valid for both grid-connected and islanded modes of operation. In general, microgrid can operate as a stand-alone system (i.e., islanded mode) or while it is connected to the utility grid (i.e., grid connected mode). To enhance the performance of a micrgorid, a sophisticated control scheme should be employed. The control strategies of microgrids can be divided into primary and secondary controls. The primary control regulates the output active and reactive powers of each DG in grid-connected mode as well as the output voltage and frequency of each DG in islanded mode. The secondary control is responsible for regulating the microgrid voltage and frequency in the islanded mode. Moreover, it provides power sharing schemes among the DGs. In other words, the secondary control specifies the set points (i.e. reference values) for the primary controllers. In this dissertation, Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control (FCS-MPC) was proposed for controlling microgrids. FCS-MPC was used as the primary controller to regulate the output power of each DG (in the grid-connected mode) or the voltage of the point of DG coupling (in the islanded mode of operation). In the grid-connected mode, Direct Power Model Predictive Control (DPMPC) was implemented to manage the power flow between each DG and the utility grid. In the islanded mode, Voltage Model Predictive Control (VMPC), as the primary control, and droop control, as the secondary control, were employed to control the output voltage of each DG and system frequency. The controller was equipped with a supplementary current limiting technique in order to limit the output current of each DG in abnormal incidents. The control approach also enabled smooth transition between the two modes. The performance of the control strategy was investigated and verified using PSCAD/EMTDC software

  17. Polarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3 -AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.

  18. Review on Control of DC Microgrids and Multiple Microgrid Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Shafiee, Qobad; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs an extensive review on control schemes and architectures applied to DC microgrids. It covers multi-layer hierarchical control schemes, coordinated control strategies, plug-and-play operations, stability and active damping aspects as well as nonlinear control algorithms....... Islanding detection, protection and microgrid clusters control are also briefly summarized. All the mentioned issues are discussed with the goal of providing control design guidelines for DC microgrids. The future research challenges, from the authors’ point of view, are also provided in the final...

  19. Muscle Synergies Control during Hand-Reaching Tasks in Multiple Directions Post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Israely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A muscle synergies model was suggested to represent a simplifying motor control mechanism by the brainstem and spinal cord. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of such control mechanisms in the rehabilitation of post-stroke individuals during the execution of hand-reaching movements in multiple directions, compared to non-stroke individuals.Methods: Twelve non-stroke and 13 post-stroke individuals participated in the study. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG data that was recorded during hand reaching tasks, using the NMF algorithm. The optimal number of synergies was evaluated in both groups using the Variance Accounted For (VAF and the Mean Squared Error (MSE. A cross validation procedure was carried out to define a representative set of synergies. The similarity index and the K-means algorithm were applied to validate the existence of such a set of synergies, but also to compare the modulation properties of synergies for different movement directions between groups. The similarity index and hierarchical cluster analysis were also applied to compare between group synergies.Results: Four synergies were chosen to optimally capture the variances in the EMG data, with mean VAF of 0.917 ± 0.034 and 0.883 ± 0.046 of the data variances, with respective MSE of 0.007 and 0.016, in the control and study groups, respectively. The representative set of synergies was set to be extracted from movement to the center of the reaching space. Two synergies had different muscle activation balance between groups. Seven and 17 clusters partitioned the muscle synergies of the control and study groups. The control group exhibited a gradual change in the activation in the amplitude in the time domain (modulation of synergies, as reflected by the similarity index, whereas the study group exhibited consistently significant differences between all movement directions and the representative set of synergies. The study findings support

  20. Automatic diagnosis of multiple alarms for reactor-control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmy, K.L.; Nomm, E.

    1981-01-01

    A system has been developed at the Savannah River Plant to help reactor operators respond to multiple alarms in a developing incident situation. The need for such systems has become evident in recent years, particularly after the three Mile Island incident

  1. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure in patients with multiple sclerosis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Wittrin, Anna; Kånåhols, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2016-11-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure are often recommended to patients with advanced neurological deficits, but the potential benefit in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with mild and moderate symptoms has not yet been investigated in randomized controlled trials. To study the effects of 2 months of home-based breathing exercises for patients with mild to moderate MS on respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and subjective breathing and health status outcomes. Forty-eight patients with MS according to the revised McDonald criteria were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Patients performing breathing exercises (n = 23) were compared with a control group (n = 25) performing no breathing exercises. The breathing exercises were performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cmH 2 O) and consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed twice a day for 2 months. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth), spirometry, oxygenation, thoracic excursion, subjective perceptions of breathing and self-reported health status were evaluated before and after the intervention period. Following the intervention, there was a significant difference between the breathing group and the control group regarding the relative change in lung function, favoring the breathing group (vital capacity: P < 0.043; forced vital capacity: P < 0.025). There were no other significant differences between the groups. Breathing exercises may be beneficial in patients with mild to moderate stages of MS. However, the clinical significance needs to be clarified, and it remains to be seen whether a sustainable effect in delaying the development of respiratory dysfunction in MS can be obtained. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Presentation of Malaria Epidemics Using Multiple Optimal Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Lashari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An existing model is extended to assess the impact of some antimalaria control measures, by re-formulating the model as an optimal control problem. This paper investigates the fundamental role of three type of controls, personal protection, treatment, and mosquito reduction strategies in controlling the malaria. We work in the nonlinear optimal control framework. The existence and the uniqueness results of the solution are discussed. A characterization of the optimal control via adjoint variables is established. The optimality system is solved numerically by a competitive Gauss-Seidel-like implicit difference method. Finally, numerical simulations of the optimal control problem, using a set of reasonable parameter values, are carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed control measures.

  3. The Role of Clinical and Instrumented Outcome Measures in Balance Control of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kanekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in balance control between individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS and healthy control subjects using clinical scales and instrumented measures of balance and determine relationships between balance measures, fatigue, and disability levels in individuals with MS with and without a history of falls. Method. Twelve individuals with MS and twelve healthy controls were evaluated using the Berg Balance and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scales, Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, and Limits of Stability Tests as well as Fatigue Severity Scale and Barthel Index. Results. Mildly affected individuals with MS had significant balance performance deficits and poor balance confidence levels (P<0.05. MS group had higher sway velocities and diminished stability limits (P<0.05, significant sensory impairments, high fatigue and disability levels (P<0.05. Sway velocity was a significant predictor of balance performance and the ability to move towards stability limits for the MS group. For the MS-fallers group, those with lower disability levels had faster movement velocities and better balance performance. Conclusion. Implementation of both clinical and instrumented tests of balance is important for the planning and evaluation of treatment outcomes in balance rehabilitation of people with MS.

  4. Flocking Control of Multiple Mobile Agents with the Rules of Avoiding Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the flocking and the coordinative control problems of multiple mobile agents with the rules of avoiding collision. We propose a set of control laws using hysteresis in adding new links and applying new potential function to guarantee that the fragmentation of the network can be avoided, under which all agents approach a common velocity vector, and asymptotically converge to a fixed value of interagent distances and collisions between agents can be avoided throughout the motion. Furthermore, we extend the flocking algorithm to solve the flocking situation of the group with a virtual leader agent. The laws can make all agents asymptotically approach the virtual leader and collisions can be avoided between agents in the motion evolution. Finally, some numerical simulations are showed to illustrate the theoretical results.

  5. Finite-time tracking control for multiple non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Meiying; Li, Shihua; Wang, Chaoli

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates finite-time tracking control problem of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots via visual servoing. It is assumed that the pinhole camera is fixed to the ceiling, and camera parameters are unknown. The desired reference trajectory is represented by a virtual leader whose states are available to only a subset of the followers, and the followers have only interaction. First, the camera-objective visual kinematic model is introduced by utilising the pinhole camera model for each mobile robot. Second, a unified tracking error system between camera-objective visual servoing model and desired reference trajectory is introduced. Third, based on the neighbour rule and by using finite-time control method, continuous distributed cooperative finite-time tracking control laws are designed for each mobile robot with unknown camera parameters, where the communication topology among the multiple mobile robots is assumed to be a directed graph. Rigorous proof shows that the group of mobile robots converges to the desired reference trajectory in finite time. Simulation example illustrates the effectiveness of our method.

  6. Small functional groups for controlled differentiation of hydrogel-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Schwartz, Michael P.; Durney, Andrew R.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2008-10-01

    Cell-matrix interactions have critical roles in regeneration, development and disease. The work presented here demonstrates that encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be induced to differentiate down osteogenic and adipogenic pathways by controlling their three-dimensional environment using tethered small-molecule chemical functional groups. Hydrogels were formed using sufficiently low concentrations of tether molecules to maintain constant physical characteristics, encapsulation of hMSCs in three dimensions prevented changes in cell morphology, and hMSCs were shown to differentiate in normal growth media, indicating that the small-molecule functional groups induced differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where synthetic matrices are shown to control induction of multiple hMSC lineages purely through interactions with small-molecule chemical functional groups tethered to the hydrogel material. Strategies using simple chemistry to control complex biological processes would be particularly powerful as they could make production of therapeutic materials simpler, cheaper and more easily controlled.

  7. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has opposite effects on memory circuits of multiple sclerosis patients and controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fera

    Full Text Available Episodic memory deficits are frequent symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis and have been associated with dysfunctions of the hippocampus, a key region for learning. However, it is unclear whether genetic factors that influence neural plasticity modulate episodic memory in MS. We thus studied how the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val(66Met genotype, a common polymorphism influencing the hippocampal function in healthy controls, impacted on brain networks underlying episodic memory in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess how the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val(66Met polymorphism modulated brain regional activity and functional connectivity in 26 cognitively unimpaired Multiple Sclerosis patients and 25 age- and education-matched healthy controls while performing an episodic memory task that included encoding and retrieving visual scenes. We found a highly significant group by genotype interaction in the left posterior hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampus, and left posterior cingulate cortex. In particular, Multiple Sclerosis patients homozygous for the Val(66 allele, relative to Met(66 carriers, showed greater brain responses during both encoding and retrieval while the opposite was true for healthy controls. Furthermore, a robust group by genotype by task interaction was detected for the functional connectivity between the left posterior hippocampus and the ipsilateral posterior cingulate cortex. Here, greater hippocampus-posterior cingulate cortex connectivity was observed in Multiple Sclerosis Met(66 carriers relative to Val(66 homozygous during retrieval (but not encoding while, again, the reverse was true for healthy controls. The Val(66Met polymorphism has opposite effects on hippocampal circuitry underlying episodic memory in Multiple Sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Enhancing the knowledge of how genetic factors influence cognitive functions may improve the clinical

  8. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  9. Multiple Estimation Architecture in Discrete-Time Adaptive Mixing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Baldi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mixing control (AMC is a recently developed control scheme for uncertain plants, where the control action coming from a bank of precomputed controller is mixed based on the parameter estimates generated by an on-line parameter estimator. Even if the stability of the control scheme, also in the presence of modeling errors and disturbances, has been shown analytically, its transient performance might be sensitive to the initial conditions of the parameter estimator. In particular, for some initial conditions, transient oscillations may not be acceptable in practical applications. In order to account for such a possible phenomenon and to improve the learning capability of the adaptive scheme, in this paper a new mixing architecture is developed, involving the use of parallel parameter estimators, or multi-estimators, each one working on a small subset of the uncertainty set. A supervisory logic, using performance signals based on the past and present estimation error, selects the parameter estimate to determine the mixing of the controllers. The stability and robustness properties of the resulting approach, referred to as multi-estimator adaptive mixing control (Multi-AMC, are analytically established. Besides, extensive simulations demonstrate that the scheme improves the transient performance of the original AMC with a single estimator. The control scheme and the analysis are carried out in a discrete-time framework, for easier implementation of the method in digital control.

  10. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in the TFT-LCD Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Tsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need for environmental protection is increasing throughout the world. The focuses of green supplier selection are on considering environmental criteria and strengthening the competitiveness of the entire supply chain. The purpose of this study is to develop a green supplier selection procedure for the thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD industry using polarizer suppliers as an example. First, a decision framework for green supplier selection is developed based on literatures and the supplier audit forms provided by an anonymous flat panel display manufacturer in Taiwan. Then, a hybrid multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM method is proposed based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP, entropy, elimination and choice expressing the reality III (ELECTRE III, and the linear assignment method to assist the manufacturer in choosing among four polarizer suppliers. The final ranking results for green supplier selection and different opinions from each department are provided. An improvement report is suggested to enhance suppliers’ performance. For the evaluation procedure, most managers emphasize the importance of current capability and the capability of research and development. Furthermore, we found that the subsidiary supplier should improve quality control competence immediately to be considered as the potential candidate of primary supplier.

  11. [Physiotherapy and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, L; Tombal, B; Opsomer, R-J; Castille, Y; Van Pesch, V; Detrembleur, C

    2014-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial compare the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training vs. transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation. Inclusion criteria were EDSS scoreurinary tract symptoms. Exclusion criteria were multiple sclerosis relapse during the study, active urinary tract infection and pregnancy. The primary outcome was quality of life (SF-Qualiveen questionnaire). Secondary outcomes included overactive bladder (USP questionnaire) score and frequency of urgency episodes (3-day bladder diary). Sample size was calculated after 18 patients were included. Data analysis was blinded. Each patient received 9 sessions of 30 minutes weekly. Patients were randomized in pelvic floor muscles exercises with biofeedback group (muscle endurance and relaxation) or transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group (rectangular alternative biphasic current with low frequency). A total of 31 patients were included. No difference appeared between groups for quality of life, overactive bladder and frequency of urgency episodes (respectively P=0.197, P=0.532 et P=0.788). These parameters were significantly improved in pelvic floor muscle training group (n=16) (respectively P=0.004, P=0.002 et P=0.006) and in transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group (n=15) (respectively P=0.001, P=0.001 et P=0.031). Pelvic floor muscle training and transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation improved in the same way symptoms related to urgency in MS patients with mild disability. 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of conservation management on the community composition of multiple organism groups in eutrophic interconnected man-made ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.; Mergeay, J.; Van Wichelen, J.; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, S.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative

  13. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is the study of controllability of quantum mechanical systems and feedback control of de-coherence in order to gain an insight on the structure of control of quantum systems...

  14. Evaluation of Hemodynamic Properties of Cerebral Venous Drainage in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandaghi, Ali Babaei; Amanian, Dayan; Roudbari, Seyed Ali; Kanafi, Alireza Rajabzadeh; Pourghorban, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy control subjects as regards hemodynamics of cerebral venous drainage. Between December 2012 and May 2013, 44 consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent the B-mode, color Doppler, and duplex Doppler evaluations of the internal jugular vein (IJV) and vertebral vein. The following four parameters were investigated: IJV stenosis, reversal of postural control of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, absence of detectable blood flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins, and reflux in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins in the sitting or supine position. In the study group, IJV stenosis, postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways, and absence of flow in the IJVs and/or vertebral veins were found in 3 (6.8%), 2 (4.5%), and 3 (6.8%) patients, respectively. In the control group, IJV stenosis (P=0.12), postural control reversal of the cerebral venous outflow pathways (P=0.50), and absence of flow (P=0.12) were not detected. Abnormal reflux was found neither in multiple sclerosis patients nor in healthy subjects. No significant difference in the cerebral venous drainage through the IJV or vertebral vein was found between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects within any of the investigated ultrasonographic parameters

  15. Defining hotspots of characteristic species for multiple taxonomic groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Barendregt, A.; Verweij, P.A.; Kalkman, V.J.; Kleukers, R.J.M.C.; Lenders, H.J.R.; Siebel, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical zonation based on single taxa poses major limitations on planning for nature conservation. This paper identifies biogeographical patterns of multiple taxa in the Netherlands, where no endemics are present at species level, on the basis of characteristic species. We used occurrence

  16. Modeling Group Perceptions Using Stochastic Simulation: Scaling Issues in the Multiplicative AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; van den Honert, Robin; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decision support approach for applying stochastic simulation to the multiplicative analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to deal with issues concerning the scale parameter. The paper suggests a new approach that captures the influence from the scale parameter by maki...

  17. Multiple Model Adaptive Control Using Dual Youla-Kucera Factorisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-model adaptive control scheme for uncertain linear plants based on the concept of model unfalsification. The approach relies on examining the ability of a pre-computed set of plant-controller candidates and choosing the one that is best able to reproduce observed in- and output...

  18. Circadian phase resetting via single and multiple control targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Bagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian entrainment is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-hour day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with sleep and neuro-behavioral impairments as well as cancer. To date, light is widely accepted to be the most powerful circadian synchronizer, motivating its use as a key control input for phase resetting. Through sensitivity analysis, we identify additional control targets whose individual and simultaneous manipulation (via a model predictive control algorithm out-perform the open-loop light-based phase recovery dynamics by nearly 3-fold. We further demonstrate the robustness of phase resetting by synchronizing short- and long-period mutant phenotypes to the 24-hour environment; the control algorithm is robust in the presence of model mismatch. These studies prove the efficacy and immediate application of model predictive control in experimental studies and medicine. In particular, maintaining proper circadian regulation may significantly decrease the chance of acquiring chronic illness.

  19. Assessing cross-cultural differences through use of multiple-group invariance analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Lee, Jerry W; Jones, Patricia S

    2006-12-01

    The use of structural equation modeling in cross-cultural personality research has become a popular method for testing measurement invariance. In this report, we present an example of testing measurement invariance using the Sense of Coherence Scale of Antonovsky (1993) in 3 ethnic groups: Chinese, Japanese, and Whites. In a series of increasingly restrictive constraints on the measurement models of the 3 groups, we demonstrate how to assess differences among the groups. We also provide an example of construct validation.

  20. Internet-based home training is capable to improve balance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frevel, D; Mäurer, M

    2015-02-01

    Balance disorders are common in multiple sclerosis. Aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of an Internet-based home training program (e-Training) to improve balance in patients with multiple sclerosis. A randomized, controlled study. Academic teaching hospital in cooperation with the therapeutic riding center Gut Üttingshof, Bad Mergentheim. Eighteen multiple sclerosis patients (mean EDSS 3,5) took part in the trial. Outcome of patients using e-Training (N.=9) was compared to the outcome of patients receiving hippotherapy (N.=9), which can be considered as an advanced concept for the improvement of balance and postural control in multiple sclerosis. After simple random allocation patients received hippotherapy or Internet-based home training (balance, postural control and strength training) twice a week for 12 weeks. Assessments were done before and after the intervention and included static and dynamic balance (primary outcome). Isometric muscle strength of the knee and trunk extension/flexion (dynamometer), walking capacity, fatigue and quality of life served as secondary outcome parameters. Both intervention groups showed comparable and highly significant improvement in static and dynamic balance capacity, no difference was seen between the both intervention groups. However looking at fatigue and quality of life only the group receiving hippotherapy improved significantly. Since e-Training shows even comparable effects to hippotherapy to improve balance, we believe that the established Internet-based home training program, specialized on balance and postural control training, is feasible for a balance and strength training in persons with multiple sclerosis. We demonstrated that Internet-based home training is possible in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  1. Effectiveness of energy conservation management on fatigue and participation in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikman, Lyan Jm; van Meeteren, Jetty; Twisk, Jos Wr; de Laat, Fred Aj; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes Bj

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a frequently reported and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the effectiveness of an individual energy conservation management (ECM) intervention on fatigue and participation in persons with primary MS-related fatigue. A total of 86 severely fatigued and ambulatory adults with a definite diagnosis of MS were randomized in a single-blind, two-parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to the ECM group or the information-only control group in outpatient rehabilitation departments. Blinded assessments were carried out at baseline and at 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes were fatigue (fatigue subscale of Checklist Individual Strength - CIS20r) and participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale - IPA). Modified intention-to-treat analysis was based on 76 randomized patients (ECM, n = 36; MS nurse, n=40). No significant ECM effects were found for fatigue (overall difference CIS20r between the groups = -0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), -3.71 to 2.11) or for four out of five IPA domains. An overall unfavourable effect was found in the ECM group for the IPA domain social relations (difference between the groups = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35). The individual ECM format used in this study did not reduce MS-related fatigue and restrictions in participation more than an information-only control condition.

  2. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  3. Dynamic pipe control with a multiple digit automatic measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenzer, P.

    1984-01-01

    With the flow rotating method, thin-walled pipes can be produced with very tight tolerances and high mechanical sturdiness. The measuring device permits a dynamic control of these pipes, the outer diameter of which can lie between 70 and 300 mm, the length between 500 and 2000 mm and the wall thickness between 0,5 and 10 mm. Depending on the pipe type, up to 27 measurements in a maximum of 5 measuring levels are to be controlled. (orig.) [de

  4. Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Ann L.; Ma, Deqiong; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Martin, Eden R.; Wright, Harry H.; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hussman, John P.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of complex genetics, characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence, including alterations in levels of GABA and GABA receptors in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system, which is responsible for synaptic inhibition in the adult brain, may be involved in autism. Previous studies in our lab indicated association of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SN...

  5. Bayesian evaluation of constrained hypotheses on variances of multiple independent groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böing-Messing, F.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Hofman, A.D.; Hoijtink, H.; Mulder, J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that independent groups often differ not only in their means, but also in their variances. Comparing and testing variances is therefore of crucial importance to understand the effect of a grouping variable on an outcome variable. Researchers may have specific expectations

  6. Quality control procedures for equipment: The EORTC radiotherapy group experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavaglia, G.; Mijnheer, B.

    1997-01-01

    The QA program of the Radiotherapy Co-operative Group of the EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) has included quality control procedures for equipment from its starting date in 1982. During on-site visits carded out by a team of radiotherapists and physicists the following equipment checks and measurements were performed: mechanical and beam alignment checks of simulator and therapy units; measurements of the dose homogeneity for X-ray and electron beams; intercomparison of ionization chambers; measurements of the depth dose distribution at several depths; absorbed dose determination in specific points in water for several combinations of field sizes and accessories, for photon and electron beams. In addition calculations of treatment time and monitor units were carried out for reference cases and the relevant beam data from all machines in use were collected. In order to provide a follow-up of the on-site visits, a mailed TLD program was then established in 1986. The program has been very successful, the centers are eager to participate since it constitutes an independent check of the measurements performed by the local physicists. It also allows to detect dosimetric problems in centers not yet included in the site visit program. To date, all participating centers have been monitored by mailed TLD, several more than once. This has led to the decision of stopping the site visits unless large deviations cannot be resolved by a second TLD mailing. The Radiation Physics Department of the Goeteborg, University Hospital has been the main partner in this QA effort. Since 1993 the mailed TLD program continues in co-operation with the Institut Gustave Roussy in Villejuif. Besides water phantom measurements on the beam axis, the IGR, in collaboration with the Radiation Physics Center in Houston, is planning a procedure to check off-axis doses by means of a TLD-loaded multi-purpose phantom. (author)

  7. The impact of self-transcendence on physical health status promotion in multiple sclerosis patients attending peer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JadidMilani, Maryam; Ashktorab, Tahereh; AbedSaeedi, Zhila; AlaviMajd, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-transcendence on the physical health of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients attending peer support groups. This study was a quasi-experimental before-and-after design including 33 MS patients in three groups: 10 men in the men-only group, 11 women in the women-only group, and 12 men and women in the mixed group. Participants were required to attend eight weekly sessions of 2 h each. Instruments included the physical health section of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. Peer support group attendance was found to have a significant positive effect on the physical health and self-transcendence of MS patients when comparing average scores before and after attendance. Regression analysis showed that improvement in self-transcendence predicted improvement in physical health. Results show the positive effects of peer support groups on self-transcendence and physical health in MS patients, and suggest that improvement in well-being can be gained by promoting self-transcendence and physical health. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Bashir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the phylogenetic characterization of local clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. coli with respect to drug resistance. A total of 59 uropathogenic E. coli responsible for community acquired urinary tract infections were included in this study. A triplex PCR was employed to segregate each isolate into four different phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. Drug resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion method. The drugs used were ampicillin, aztreonam, cefixime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephradine among β-lactam group; amikacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin among aminoglycosides; nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from quinolones; trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, and tetracycline. Among 59 uropathogenic E. coli isolates majority belonged to phylogenetic group B2 (50% where as 19% each belonged to groups A and B1, and 12% to group D. All the isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR. Most effective drugs against Group A, B1, and B2 were gentamicin, amikacin and cefixime; ceftriaxone and quinolones; and ceftriaxone and amikacin, respectively. Group D isolates were found to be highly resistant to all drugs. Our results have shown emergence of MDR isolates among uropathogenic E. coli with dominance of phylogenetic group B2. However, it was found that group D isolates were though less frequent, more drug resistant as compared with group B2. Groups A and B1 were relatively uncommon. Amikacin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin were the most effective drugs in general.

  9. Multiple hereditary exostoses and ischiofemoral impingement: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoong, Philip; Mansour, Ramy; Teh, James L.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether there is a significant difference in the ischiofemoral space in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses affecting the proximal femora compared to normal patients. Ischiofemoral impingement is an increasingly recognized cause of hip and buttock pain. This causes narrowing of the ischiofemoral space resulting in an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. We performed a retrospective search for individuals with MHE with proximal femoral involvement on pelvic MRI over a 7-year period (2006-2013). Suitable patients were age- and sex-matched with a control group. The minimum ischiofemoral space (MIFS) was recorded in each hip, as was the presence of edema and atrophy of quadratus femoris and concomitant hip osteoarthrosis. MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were defined as MIFS less than 10 mm or an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. Twenty-one hips in 11 individuals with MHE were included in the study. A total of 42 hips were analyzed. The mean age was 37 years (range, 13-72 years) and 55 % were male. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the MIHS in individuals with MHE (mean, 10.7 mm, range, 0-21 mm) compared to a control group (mean, 18.1 mm, range, 10.5-26.5 mm). MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were seen in 13/21 (62 %) hips in the MHE group and 0/21 (0 %) in the control group. The reduced ischiofemoral space and associated quadratus femoris abnormalities in patients with MHE involving the proximal femora may account for hip/buttock symptoms in the absence of significant degenerative change. (orig.)

  10. Multiple hereditary exostoses and ischiofemoral impingement: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoong, Philip; Mansour, Ramy; Teh, James L. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    To assess whether there is a significant difference in the ischiofemoral space in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses affecting the proximal femora compared to normal patients. Ischiofemoral impingement is an increasingly recognized cause of hip and buttock pain. This causes narrowing of the ischiofemoral space resulting in an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. We performed a retrospective search for individuals with MHE with proximal femoral involvement on pelvic MRI over a 7-year period (2006-2013). Suitable patients were age- and sex-matched with a control group. The minimum ischiofemoral space (MIFS) was recorded in each hip, as was the presence of edema and atrophy of quadratus femoris and concomitant hip osteoarthrosis. MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were defined as MIFS less than 10 mm or an abnormal quadratus femoris muscle. Twenty-one hips in 11 individuals with MHE were included in the study. A total of 42 hips were analyzed. The mean age was 37 years (range, 13-72 years) and 55 % were male. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the MIHS in individuals with MHE (mean, 10.7 mm, range, 0-21 mm) compared to a control group (mean, 18.1 mm, range, 10.5-26.5 mm). MRI features suggestive of ischiofemoral impingement were seen in 13/21 (62 %) hips in the MHE group and 0/21 (0 %) in the control group. The reduced ischiofemoral space and associated quadratus femoris abnormalities in patients with MHE involving the proximal femora may account for hip/buttock symptoms in the absence of significant degenerative change. (orig.)

  11. Hierarchical Control for Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    DC microgrids (MGs) have gained research interest during the recent years because of many potential advantages as compared to the ac system. To ensure reliable operation of a low-voltage dc MG as well as its intelligent operation with the other DC MGs, a hierarchical control is proposed in this p......DC microgrids (MGs) have gained research interest during the recent years because of many potential advantages as compared to the ac system. To ensure reliable operation of a low-voltage dc MG as well as its intelligent operation with the other DC MGs, a hierarchical control is proposed...

  12. Cooperative Control for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Using Descriptor Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niccolini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel methodology for the control management of a swarm of autonomous vehicles. The vehicles, or agents, may have different skills, and be employed for different missions. The methodology is based on the definition of descriptor functions that model the capabilities of the single agent and each task or mission. The swarm motion is controlled by minimizing a suitable norm of the error between agents’ descriptor functions and other descriptor functions which models the entire mission. The validity of the proposed technique is tested via numerical simulation, using different task assignment scenarios.

  13. Comparison of natural drainage group and negative drainage groups after total thyroidectomy: prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Shim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Ho Joong; Won, Seong Jun; Son, Hee Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Son, Young-Ik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a negative pressure drain with a natural drain in order to determine whether a negative pressure drainage tube causes an increase in the drainage volume. Sixty-two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were enrolled in the study between March 2010 and August 2010 at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The patients were prospectively and randomly assigned to two groups, a negative pressure drainage group (n=32) and natural drainage group (n=30). Every 3 hours, the volume of drainage was checked in the two groups until the tube was removed. The amount of drainage during the first 24 hours postoperatively was 41.68 ± 3.93 mL in the negative drain group and 25.3 ± 2.68 mL in the natural drain group (pdrain group was 35.19 ± 4.26 mL and natural drain groups 21.53 ± 2.90 mL (pdrain may increase the amount of drainage during the first 24-48 hours postoperatively. Therefore, it is not necessary to place a closed suction drain when only a total thyroidectomy is done.

  14. Multiple Model Adaptive Attitude Control of LEO Satellite with Angular Velocity Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrooei, Abolfazl; Kazemi, Mohammad Hosein

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the multiple model adaptive control is utilized to improve the transient response of attitude control system for a rigid spacecraft. An adaptive output feedback control law is proposed for attitude control under angular velocity constraints and its almost global asymptotic stability is proved. The multiple model adaptive control approach is employed to counteract large uncertainty in parameter space of the inertia matrix. The nonlinear dynamics of a low earth orbit satellite is simulated and the proposed control algorithm is implemented. The reported results show the effectiveness of the suggested scheme.

  15. An agent-based negotiation approach for balancing multiple coupled control domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umair, Aisha; Clausen, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Solving multi-objective multi-issue negotiation problems involving interdependent issues distributed among multiple control domains is inherent to most non-trivial cyber-physical systems. In these systems, the coordinated operation of interconnected subsystems performing autonomous control....... The proposed approach can solve negotiation problems with interdependent issues across multiple coupled control domains. We demonstrate our approach by solving a coordination problem where a Combined Heat and Power Plant must allocate electricity for three commercial greenhouses to ensure the required plant...

  16. Synthesis for robust synchronization of chaotic systems under output feedback control with multiple random delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Guilin; Wang Qingguo; Lin Chong; Han Xu; Li Guangyao

    2006-01-01

    Synchronization under output feedback control with multiple random time delays is studied, using the paradigm in nonlinear physics-Chua's circuit. Compared with other synchronization control methods, output feedback control with multiple random delay is superior for a realistic synchronization application to secure communications. Sufficient condition for global stability of delay-dependent synchronization is established based on the LMI technique. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach, in spite of the random delays

  17. Multiple Primary LED Lamp Colour Controller with Inherent Brightness Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barcena, R.; Ackermann, B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong interest in using LEDs for general illumination due to the potential they offer for energy saving, environmental friendliness, new opportunities in lighting design, and control of the intensity, colour, and spatial distribution of light. General illumination requires primarily

  18. Quality control for retinal OCT in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippling, S; Balk, Lj; Costello, F

    2015-01-01

    to provide guidance on the use of validated quality control (QC) criteria for the use of OCT in MS research and clinical trials. METHODS: A prospective multi-centre (n = 13) study. Peripapillary ring scan QC rating of an OCT training set (n = 50) was followed by a test set (n = 50). Inter-rater agreement...

  19. Integrative analysis of multiple diverse omics datasets by sparse group multitask regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong eLin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of high throughput genome-wide assays enable the exploration of genetic risk factors underlying complex traits. Although these studies have remarkable impact on identifying susceptible biomarkers, they suffer from issues such as limited sample size and low reproducibility. Combining individual studies of different genetic levels/platforms has the promise to improve the power and consistency of biomarker identification. In this paper, we propose a novel integrative method, namely sparse group multitask regression, for integrating diverse omics datasets, platforms and populations to identify risk genes/factors of complex diseases. This method combines multitask learning with sparse group regularization, which will: 1 treat the biomarker identification in each single study as a task and then combine them by multitask learning; 2 group variables from all studies for identifying significant genes; 3 enforce sparse constraint on groups of variables to overcome the ‘small sample, but large variables’ problem. We introduce two sparse group penalties: sparse group lasso and sparse group ridge in our multitask model, and provide an effective algorithm for each model. In addition, we propose a significance test for the identification of potential risk genes. Two simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance of our integrative method by comparing it with conventional meta-analysis method. The results show that our sparse group multitask method outperforms meta-analysis method significantly. In an application to our osteoporosis studies, 7 genes are identified as significant genes by our method and are found to have significant effects in other three independent studies for validation. The most significant gene SOD2 has been identified in our previous osteoporosis study involving the same expression dataset. Several other genes such as TREML2, HTR1E and GLO1 are shown to be novel susceptible genes for osteoporosis, as confirmed

  20. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Individual Development of Professionalism in Educational Peer Group Supervision: A Multiple Case Study of GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holge-Hazelton, B.; Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values of profe......Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values...

  2. Multiple Comparison of Age Groups in Bone Mineral Density under Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sezer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a silent disease because individuals may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so fragile. Bone mineral density (BMD test helps to detect osteoporosis and determine the risk fractures. This study covers bone measurement data from total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons who participated in the 1996–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in USA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA method is known as the primary method for detecting osteoporosis because of its high precision and accuracy. Testing the equality of the means of normal populations when the variances are unknown and unequal is a fundamental problem in clinical trials and biomedical research. In this study we compare age groups based upon BMD in case of unequal variance being present among the groups. First we test equality of variances among the age groups by the Hartley test. And then Scott-Smith test is used to test equality of BMD means for the age groups. Finally, Tukey-Cramer confidence intervals are constructed to detect which groups start to differ from the reference group in which BMD reaches the peak level.

  3. Detecting and accounting for multiple sources of positional variance in peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelter, Andrey; Rouchka, Eric C; Moseley, Hunter N B

    2017-08-01

    Peak lists derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are commonly used as input data for a variety of computer assisted and automated analyses. These include automated protein resonance assignment and protein structure calculation software tools. Prior to these analyses, peak lists must be aligned to each other and sets of related peaks must be grouped based on common chemical shift dimensions. Even when programs can perform peak grouping, they require the user to provide uniform match tolerances or use default values. However, peak grouping is further complicated by multiple sources of variance in peak position limiting the effectiveness of grouping methods that utilize uniform match tolerances. In addition, no method currently exists for deriving peak positional variances from single peak lists for grouping peaks into spin systems, i.e. spin system grouping within a single peak list. Therefore, we developed a complementary pair of peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping algorithms designed to overcome these limitations. We have implemented these algorithms into an approach that can identify multiple dimension-specific positional variances that exist in a single peak list and group peaks from a single peak list into spin systems. The resulting software tools generate a variety of useful statistics on both a single peak list and pairwise peak list alignment, especially for quality assessment of peak list datasets. We used a range of low and high quality experimental solution NMR and solid-state NMR peak lists to assess performance of our registration analysis and grouping algorithms. Analyses show that an algorithm using a single iteration and uniform match tolerances approach is only able to recover from 50 to 80% of the spin systems due to the presence of multiple sources of variance. Our algorithm recovers additional spin systems by reevaluating match tolerances in multiple iterations. To facilitate evaluation of the

  4. Controls of Multiple Stressors on the Black Sea Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Oguz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea is one of the most severely degraded and exploited large marine ecosystems in the world. For the last 50 years after the depletion of large predatory fish stocks, anchovy (with the partial contribution of sprat has been acting as the main top predator species and experienced a major stock collapse at the end of 1990s. After the collapse, eastern part of the southern Black Sea became the only region sustaining relatively high anchovy catch (400,000 tons whereas the total catch within the rest of the sea was reduced to nearly its one-third. The lack of recovery of different fish stocks under a slow ecosystem rehabilitation may be attributed, on the one hand, to inappropriate management measures and the lack of harmonized fishery policy among the riparian countries. On the other hand, impacts of multiple stressors (eutrophication, alien species invasions, natural climatic variations on the food web may contribute to resilience of the system toward its recovery. The overfishing/recovery problem therefore cannot be isolated from rehabilitation efforts devoted to the long-term chronic degradation of the food web structure, and alternative fishery-related management measures must be adopted as a part of a comprehensive ecosystem-based management strategy. The present study provides a data-driven ecosystem assessment, underlines the key environmental issues and threats, and points to the critical importance of holistic approach to resolve the fishery-ecosystem interactions. It also stresses the transboundary nature of the problem.

  5. Identity crisis: user perspectives on multiplicity and control in federated identitymanagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Steve; Satchell, C; Shanks, G

    2009-01-01

    Federated identity management systems synthesise complex and fragmented user information into a single entity. Literature from the provider’s perspective notes this integration extends many benefits to the end user and the privileges provided by digital identity authentication schemes have been...... well documented from this perspective. Less explored are the perceptions of federation from the user’s perspective. This study reports an empirical user study that examines the relationship between identity and technology using contextual interviews, focus groups and cultural probes. It emerges...... that while current federated systems satisfy user needs by allowing the construction of multiple digital data sets that are moored to a central identifier, they fail to provide the user with control over the capability to act in the ‘hatch’, ‘match’ and ‘dispatch’ phases of the digital identity lifecycle...

  6. Quantized flocking control for second-order multiple agents with obstacle avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantized flocking control for a group of second-order multiple agents with obstacle avoidance is proposed to address the problem of the exchange of information needed for quantification. With a reasonable assumption, a logarithmic or uniform quantizer is used for the exchange of relative position and velocity information between adjacent agents and the virtual leader, moving at a steady speed along a straight line, and a distributed flocking algorithm with obstacle avoidance capability is designed based on the quantitative information. The Lyapunov stability criterion of nonsmooth systems and the invariance principle are used to prove the stability of these systems. The simulations and experiments are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Pointright: a system to redirect mouse and keyboard control among multiple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Bradley E [Palo Alto, CA; Winograd, Terry A [Stanford, CA; Hutchins, Gregory M [Mountain View, CA

    2008-09-30

    The present invention provides a software system, PointRight, that allows for smooth and effortless control of pointing and input devices among multiple displays. With PointRight, a single free-floating mouse and keyboard can be used to control multiple screens. When the cursor reaches the edge of a screen it seamlessly moves to the adjacent screen and keyboard control is simultaneously redirected to the appropriate machine. Laptops may also redirect their keyboard and pointing device, and multiple pointers are supported simultaneously. The system automatically reconfigures itself as displays go on, go off, or change the machine they display.

  8. Impact of a Pelvic Floor Training Program Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Paula Silva; Pegorare, Ana Beatriz Gomes de Souza; Salgado, Pedro Rippel; Casafus, Filemón Silva; Christofoletti, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two programs for strengthening the pelvic floor on the urinary incontinence of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This is a prospective study of the clinical trial type, monitored for 6 mos, in which 24 women in the moderate stage of MS participated in a program of exercises for strengthening the pelvic floor-associated (experimental group) or not (control group) with electrotherapy. The variables analyzed were as follows: quality-of-life, overactivity of the bladder, perineal contraction, and level of anxiety and depression. The statistical procedures involved multivariate analyses of repeated measurements, with a significance of 5%. Initial homogeneity being observed in the anthropometric and clinical variables, both protocols resulted in improvements in quality-of-life (P = 0.001), overactive bladder (P = 0.001), perineal contraction (P = 0.004), and level of anxiety (P = 0.001) and depression (P = 0.001), in relation to the initial comparison. The association of electrotherapy with strengthening exercises increased the improvement of the patients regarding overactive bladder (P = 0.039) and perineal contraction (P = 0.001), in comparison with the control group. The results reinforce the benefit of exercises for strengthening the musculature of the pelvic floor in women with overactive bladder in MS and demonstrate a potential of the action when associated with electrotherapy. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES:: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Identify common dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract in women with multiple sclerosis; (2) Discuss the relationship between quality-of-life, level of anxiety and depression, degree of perineal contraction, and overactive bladder; and (3) Recognize the benefits promoted by physical therapy for strengthening the pelvic floor in patients with

  9. Ready, set, go: a cross-sectional survey to understand priorities and preferences for multiple health behaviour change in a highly disadvantaged group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Natasha; Paul, Christine; Sanson-Fisher, Robert; Turon, Heidi; Turner, Nicole; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-09-13

    Socially disadvantaged groups, such as Aboriginal Australians, tend to have a high prevalence of multiple lifestyle risk factors, increasing the risk of disease and underscoring the need for services to address multiple health behaviours. The aims of this study were to explore, among a socially disadvantaged group of people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS): a) readiness to change health behaviours; b) acceptability of addressing multiple risk factors sequentially or simultaneously; and c) preferred types of support services. People attending an ACCHS in regional New South Wales (NSW) completed a touchscreen survey while waiting for their appointment. The survey assessed participant health risk status, which health risks they would like to change, whether they preferred multiple health changes to be made together or separately, and the types of support they would use. Of the 211 participants who completed the survey, 94 % reported multiple (two or more) health risks. There was a high willingness to change, with 69 % of current smokers wanting to cut down or quit, 51 % of overweight or obese participants wanting to lose weight and 44 % of those using drugs in the last 12 months wanting to stop or cut down. Of participants who wanted to make more than one health change, over half would be willing to make simultaneous or over-lapping health changes. The most popular types of support were help from a doctor or Health Worker and seeing a specialist, with less than a quarter of participants preferring telephone or electronic (internet or smart phone) forms of assistance. The importance of involving family members was also identified. Strategies addressing multiple health behaviour changes are likely to be acceptable for people attending an ACCHS, but may need to allow flexibility in the choice of initial target behaviour, timing of changes, and the format of support provided.

  10. Saturation flow mathematical model based on multiple combinations of lane groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racila, L.

    2016-07-01

    The ideal value of the traffic stream that can pass through an intersection is known as the saturation flow rate per hour on vehicle green time. The saturation flow is important in the understanding of the traffic light cycle and from there the understanding the Level of Service. The paper wishes to evaluate through a series of applied mathematical methods the effect of different lane grouping and critical lane group concept on the saturation flow rate. The importance of this method is that it creates a base for a signalized intersections timing plan. (Author)

  11. Matrix-type multiple reciprocity boundary element method for solving three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1997-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity boundary element method has been applied to three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion problems. A matrix-type boundary integral equation has been derived to solve the first and the second group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously. The matrix-type fundamental solutions used here satisfy the equation which has a point source term and is adjoint to the neutron diffusion equations. A multiple reciprocity method has been employed to transform the matrix-type domain integral related to the fission source into an equivalent boundary one. The higher order fundamental solutions required for this formulation are composed of a series of two types of analytic functions. The eigenvalue itself is also calculated using only boundary integrals. Three-dimensional test calculations indicate that the present method provides stable and accurate solutions for criticality problems. (author)

  12. Efficacy of rasagiline in patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J; Wenning, Gregor K; Gilman, Sid; Low, Phillip A; Giladi, Nir; Barone, Paolo; Sampaio, Cristina; Eyal, Eli; Rascol, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a complex neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective treatment exists. We aimed to assess the effect of rasagiline on symptoms and progression of the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial between Dec 15, 2009, and Oct 20, 2011, at 40 academic sites specialised in the care of patients with multiple systemic atrophy across 12 countries. Eligible participants aged 30 years or older with possible or probable parkinsonian variant multiple system atrophy were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated block randomisation (block size of four), to receive either rasagiline 1 mg per day or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by study centre. The investigators, study funder, and personnel involved in patient assessment, monitoring, analysis and data management were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to study end in total Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) score (parts I and II). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00977665. We randomly assigned 174 participants to the rasagiline group (n=84) or the placebo group (n=90); 21 (25%) patients in the rasagiline group and 15 (17%) in the placebo group withdrew from the study early. At week 48, patients in the rasagiline group had progressed by an adjusted mean of 7·2 (SE 1·2) total UMSARS units versus 7·8 (1·1) units in those in the placebo group. This treatment difference of -0·60 (95% CI -3·68 to 2·47; p=0·70) was not significant. 68 (81%) patients in the rasagiline group and 67 (74%) patients in the placebo group reported adverse events, and we recorded serious adverse events in 29 (35%) versus 23 (26%) patients. The most common adverse events in the rasagiline group were dizziness (n=10 [12%]), peripheral oedema (n=9 [11%]), urinary tract infections (n=9 [11%]), and orthostatic

  13. Determinants of species richness patterns in the Netherlands across multiple taxonomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Barendrecht, A.; Kleukers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the species richness patterns of five different species groups (mosses, reptiles and amphibians, grasshoppers and crickets, dragonflies, and hoverflies) in the Netherlands (41,500 km2) using sampling units of 5 × 5 km. We compared the spatial patterns of species richness of the five

  14. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E.R. van der Hallen (Ruth); Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); L. de-Wit (Lee); J. Wagemans (Johan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based

  15. Predictors of Glycemic Control in Adolescents of Various Age Groups With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Li; Lo, Fu-Sung; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the predictors of glycemic control in adolescents of various age groups with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is crucial for nurses to cultivate developmental-specific interventions to improve glycemic control in this age group. However, research has rarely addressed this issue, particularly in the context of Asian populations. We explored the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, self-care behaviors, family conflict, and parental involvement on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels 6 months after the baseline measurement in adolescents of various age groups with T1D in Taiwan. A prospective survey design was applied. At baseline, adolescents with T1D completed a self-care behavior scale. Parents or guardians finished scales of parental involvement and family conflict. The HbA1C levels 6 months after baseline measurement were collected from medical records. Two hundred ten adolescent-parent/guardian pairs were enrolled as participants. Multiple stepwise regressions examined the significant predictors of HbA1C levels 6 months after the baseline measurement in the three adolescent age groups: 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years. Family conflict was a significant predictor of HbA1C level within the 10-12 years of age group 6 months after the baseline measurement. Self-care behaviors were a significant predictor of HbA1C level within the 13-15 years of age group 6 months after the baseline measurement. Being female and self-care behaviors were each significant predictors of HbA1C level in the 16-18 years of age group 6 months after the baseline measurement. Nurses should design specific interventions to improve glycemic control in adolescents of various age groups with T1D that are tailored to their developmental needs. For adolescents with T1D aged 10-12 years, nurses should actively assess family conflict and provide necessary interventions. For adolescents with T1D aged 13-18 years, nurses should exert special efforts to improve their self

  16. Cohesive Motion Control Algorithm for Formation of Multiple Autonomous Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Atta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a motion control strategy for a rigid and constraint consistent formation that can be modeled by a directed graph whose each vertex represents individual agent kinematics and each of directed edges represents distance constraints maintained by an agent, called follower, to its neighbouring agent. A rigid and constraint consistent graph is called persistent graph. A persistent graph is minimally persistent if it is persistent, and no edge can be removed without losing its persistence. An acyclic (free of cycles in its sensing pattern minimally persistent graph of Leader-Follower structure has been considered here which can be constructed from an initial Leader-Follower seed (initial graph with two vertices, one is Leader and another one is First Follower and one edge in between them is directed towards Leader by Henneberg sequence (a procedure of growing a graph containing only vertex additions. A set of nonlinear optimization-based decentralized control laws for mobile autonomous point agents in two dimensional plane have been proposed. An infinitesimal deviation in formation shape created continuous motion of Leader is compensated by corresponding continuous motion of other agents fulfilling the shortest path criteria.

  17. Grupos sanguíneos ABO, RhD y esclerosis múltiple ABO and RhD blood groups in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Pérez-Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La fisiopatología de la esclerosis múltiple es incierta; la hipótesis más fundada es la existencia de un proceso autoinmune en el que existe predisposición genética. El sistema de grupos sanguíneos está compuesto por antígenos fácilmente detectables, por lo que constituye excelente marcador genético. Para determinar frecuencia de distribución de los grupos sanguíneos en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple, se estudiaron 70 enfermos, de quienes se obtuvieron datos demográficos, clínicos y de escalas evolutivas. Se seleccionaron 180 controles al azar simple mediante muestreo multietápico del universo integrado por 4 747 donantes de sangre. Se determinaron los grupo sanguíneos ABO y RhD. Se calculó X² con precisión del 95 % e intervalo de confianza de las diferencias porcentuales. En ambos grupos fue más frecuente el RhD+ (85,7 % casos y 90 % controles. El grupo sanguíneo A estuvo en el 60 % de los pacientes y el grupo O predominó en los donantes (55 %, con diferencia significativa p=0,003 y OR=2,85. De acuerdo con este estudio, existe una asociación entre el grupo sanguíneo A con la esclerosis múltiple.The physiopathology of multiple sclerosis is uncertain. The best founded hypothesis is the existence of an autoimmune process in which genetic predisposition plays a role. The system of blood groups consists of easily detectable antigens; therefore, it is an excellent genetic marker. To determine the distribution frequency of blood groups in patients with multiple sclerosis, 70 ill persons were studied, about whom demographic, clinical and evolutionary scale data were obtained. 180 controls were selected by simple random multistage sampling of a universe of 4 747 blood donors. Blood groups ABO and RhD were determined. X² was calculated with a 95% accuracy and confidence interval of percent differences. RhD+ was more frequent in both groups (85.7 % cases and 90% controls. Blood group A was found in 60 % patients, whereas

  18. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  19. H-infty Control of systems with multiple i/o delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agoes Ariffin Moelja, A.A.; Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the standard (four-block) H-infty control problem for systems with multiple i/o delays in the feedback loop is studied. The central idea is to see the multiple delay operator as a special series connection of elementary delay operators, called the adobe delay operators. The adobe delay

  20. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  1. Multiple cognitive control mechanisms associated with the nature of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chobok; Chung, Chongwook; Kim, Jeounghoon

    2010-06-07

    Cognitive control is required to regulate conflict. The conflict monitoring theory suggests that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is involved in detecting response conflict and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays a critical role in regulating conflict. Recent studies, however, have suggested that rostral dACC (rdACC) responds to response conflict whereas caudal dACC (cdACC) is associated with perceptual conflict. Moreover, DLPFC has been engaged only in regulation of response conflict. A neural network involved in perceptual conflict, however, remains unclear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an attempt to reveal monitor-controller networks corresponding to either perceptual conflict or response conflict. A version of the Stroop color matching task was used to manipulate perceptual conflict, response conflict was manipulated by an arrow. The results demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were engaged in response conflict whereas cdACC and the dorsal portion of premotor cortex (pre-PMd) were involved in perceptual conflict. Interestingly, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was activated by both types of conflict. Correlation analyses between behavioral conflict effects and neural responses demonstrated that rdACC and DLPFC were associated with response conflict whereas cdACC and pre-PMd were associated with perceptual conflict. PPC was not correlated with either perceptual conflict or response conflict. We suggest that cdACC and pre-PMd play critical roles in perceptual conflict processing, and this network is independent from the rdACC/DLPFC network for response conflict processing. We also discussed the function of PPC in conflict processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with carboxyl and amino groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhiyuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Zhanhong, E-mail: zhongnan320@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Nonferrous Metals, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Youwang; Li, Jianping [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fan, Xinming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, carboxyl and amino groups have been introduced onto the surface of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the mixed acid treatment and the diazonium reaction, respectively. The presence of multifunctionality groups on the MWCNTs has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS). The multifunctionalized carbon nanotubes were further utilized to react with acetyl chloride and ethylenediamine (EDA). The formation of the amide bond in the grafting reaction has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The result indicates that the further grafting is successful. The multifunctionalized MWCNTs can be a new versatile platform for many interesting applications.

  3. Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Jennifer; Fox, Esther; Gear, Margaret; Hough, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) frequently experience balance and mobility impairments, including reduced trunk stability. Pilates-based core stability training, which is aimed at improving control of the body's stabilising muscles, is popular as a form of exercise with people with MS and therapists. A replicated single case series study facilitated by the Therapists in MS Group in the United Kingdom (UK) provides preliminary evidence that this approach can improve bal...

  4. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Jacqui; Pretorius, Chrisma

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease and there is little research on support networks for people with MS (PwMS). More specifically, most studies on online support groups focus on those who actively participate in the group, whereas the majority of those who utilise online support groups do so in a passive way. This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information) and social companionship (place of belonging). Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group) and social companionship (non-active status). These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important, the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  5. Examining Multiple Sources of Differential Item Functioning on the Clinician & Group CAHPS® Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector P; Crane, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate psychometric properties of a widely used patient experience survey. Data Sources English-language responses to the Clinician & Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CG-CAHPS®) survey (n = 12,244) from a 2008 quality improvement initiative involving eight southern California medical groups. Methods We used an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory differential item functioning (DIF) algorithm to identify items with DIF related to patient sociodemographic characteristics, duration of the physician–patient relationship, number of physician visits, and self-rated physical and mental health. We accounted for all sources of DIF and determined its cumulative impact. Principal Findings The upper end of the CG-CAHPS® performance range is measured with low precision. With sensitive settings, some items were found to have DIF. However, overall DIF impact was negligible, as 0.14 percent of participants had salient DIF impact. Latinos who spoke predominantly English at home had the highest prevalence of salient DIF impact at 0.26 percent. Conclusions The CG-CAHPS® functions similarly across commercially insured respondents from diverse backgrounds. Consequently, previously documented racial and ethnic group differences likely reflect true differences rather than measurement bias. The impact of low precision at the upper end of the scale should be clarified. PMID:22092021

  6. Control of group velocity by phase-changing collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the influence of phase-changing collisions on the group velocities in Doppler-broadened, cycling, degenerate two-level systems where F e =F g +1 and F g >0, interacting with pump and probe lasers, that exhibit electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). Two model systems are considered: the N system where the pump and probe are polarized perpendicularly, and EIA is due to transfer of coherence (TOC), and the double two-level system (TLS) where both lasers have the same polarization, and EIA is due to transfer of population (TOP). For the case of Doppler-broadened EIA TOC, which occurs at low pump intensity, there is a switch from positive to negative dispersion and group velocity, as the rate of phase-changing collisions is increased. For the case of EIA TOP at low pump intensity, the dispersion and group velocity remain negative even when the collision rate is increased. Pressure-induced narrowing, accompanied by an increase in the magnitude of the negative dispersion and a decrease in the magnitude of the negative group velocity, occurs in both EIA TOC and EIA TOP, at low pump intensity. When the pump intensity is increased, a switch from negative to positive dispersion and group velocity, with increasing collision rate, also occurs in the double TLS system. However, the effect is far smaller than in the case of the N system at low pump intensity

  7. On the diversity of multiple optimal controls for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shir, O M; Baeck, Th; Beltrani, V; Rabitz, H; Vrakking, M J J

    2008-01-01

    This study presents simulations of optimal field-free molecular alignment and rotational population transfer (starting from the J = 0 rotational ground state of a diatomic molecule), optimized by means of laser pulse shaping guided by evolutionary algorithms. Qualitatively different solutions are obtained that optimize the alignment and population transfer efficiency to the maximum extent that is possible given the existing constraints on the optimization due to the finite bandwidth and energy of the laser pulse, the finite degrees of freedom in the laser pulse shaping and the evolutionary algorithm employed. The effect of these constraints on the optimization process is discussed at several levels, subject to theoretical as well as experimental considerations. We show that optimized alignment yields can reach extremely high values, even with severe constraints being present. The breadth of optimal controls is assessed, and a correlation is found between the diversity of solutions and the difficulty of the problem. In the pulse shapes that optimize dynamic alignment we observe a transition between pulse sequences that maximize the initial population transfer from J = 0 to J = 2 and pulse sequences that optimize the transfer to higher rotational levels

  8. Separation of compounds with multiple -OH groups from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with organoboronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Tina Kuo Fung [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The complexing extractant agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA) in its anionic form (NPB). NPBA and Aliquat 336 (quaternary amine) is dissolved in 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, and the extractant is contacted with aq. NaOH. Solutes investigated were 1,2-propanediol, glycerol, fructose, sorbitol and lactic acid. Batch extraction experiments were performed at 25°C. Partition coefficients, distribution ratios and loadings are reported for varying concentrations of solute and NPB. All solutes complexed with NPB-, with all complexes containing only one NPB- per complex. The 1:1 complexation constants for the solutes glycerol, fructose and sorbitol follow trends similar to complexation with B(OH)4- (aq.), i.e. the complexation constants increase with increasing number of -OH groups available for complexation. Assumption of 1:1 complex is not valid for 1, 2-propanediol, which showed overloading (more than one mole of solute complexed to one mole NPB-) at higher concentrations. The -OH group on the NPB- which is left uncomplexed after one solute molecule had bound to the other two -OH groups may be responsible for the overloading. Overloading is also observed in extraction of tactic acid, but through a different mechanism. It was found that TOMA+ can extract lactic acid to an extent comparable to the uptake of lactic acid by NPB-. The complexation is probably through formation of an acid-base ion pair. Losses of NPBA into the aqueous phase could lead to problems, poor economics in industrial separation processes. One way of overcoming this problem would be to incorporate the NPBA onto a solid support.

  9. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  10. Controlling a group of microCHPs: planning and realization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning problem of a group of domestic Combined Heat and Power (microCHP) appliances, which together form a Virtual Power Plant (VPP). To act on an electricity trading market, this VPP has to specify a production plan for electricity for given times of the day to offer to

  11. Pest Control Section Biochemical Group, Progress Report 1982-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important insect pests of agricultural and medical importance. Insect pests chosen are, ubiquitous potato tuberworm, a serious pest of potatoes, cotton bollworms with particular reference to spotted bollworms and a mosquito (Culex fatigans), a vector of filariasis. Keeping these insects as targets, research activities have been concentrated in the fields of biological control with parasities, pathogens and sterile insects, sex pheromones and insect plant interaction with a view to integrate pest management programme. Besides, the research activity also encompasses investigations of basic nature in the fields of insect sex pheromones, insect pathology and insect plant interaction. Studies on insect pheromones relate to the modifying influence of abiotic and biotic factors of the environment on pheromone production and perception and the possibility of insect developing resistance to pheromones. Studies in the field of insect plant interaction are directed towards identifying weak links in the insect plant relationship with a view to exploit them for developing control. Basic studies in the field of insect pathology relate to isolation and identification of entomopathogens, source of their pathogenecity, improvement in their virulence and formulation of cheaper and potent microbial insecticides. This report pertains to the period 1982-86. (Orig.). 11 tables, 5 figures

  12. Light therapy for multiple sclerosis-associated fatigue: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Manalo, Natalie C; Grundy, Sara J; Houghton, Melissa A; Hotan, Gladia C; Erickson, Hans; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue is the most commonly reported symptom among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, more than a quarter of whom consider fatigue to be their most disabling symptom. However, there are few effective treatment options for fatigue. We aim to investigate whether supplemental exposure to bright white light will reduce MS-associated fatigue. Eligible participants will have clinically confirmed multiple sclerosis based on the revised McDonald criteria (2010) and a score ≥36 on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Participants will be randomized 1:1 to bright white light (10,000 lux; active condition) or dim red light (treatment period, and a 4-week washout period. Participants will record their sleep duration, exercise, caffeine, and medication intake daily. Participants will record their fatigue using the Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale (VAFS) 4 times every third day, providing snapshots of their fatigue level at different times of day. Participants will self-report their fatigue severity using FSS on 3 separate visits: at baseline (week 0), following completion of the treatment phase (week 6), and at study completion (week 10). The primary outcome will be the change in the average FSS score after light therapy. We will perform an intention-to-treat analysis, comparing the active and control groups to assess the postintervention difference in fatigue levels reported on FSS. Secondary outcome measures include change in global VAFS scores during the light therapy and self-reported quality of life in the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54. We present a study design and rationale for randomizing a nonpharmacological intervention for MS-associated fatigue, using bright light therapy. The study limitations relate to the logistical issues of a self-administered intervention requiring frequent participant self-report in a relapsing condition. Ultimately, light therapy for the treatment of MS-associated fatigue may provide a low-cost, noninvasive, self-administered treatment

  13. Ultrasonographic evaluation of cerebral arterial and venous haemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Marchione

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although recent studies excluded an association between Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis (MS, controversial results account for some cerebrovascular haemodynamic impairment suggesting a dysfunction of cerebral autoregulation mechanisms. The aim of this cross-sectional, case-control study is to evaluate cerebral arterial inflow and venous outflow by means of a non-invasive ultrasound procedure in Relapsing Remitting (RR, Primary Progressive (PP Multiple Sclerosis and age and sex-matched controls subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All subjects underwent a complete extra-intracranial arterial and venous ultrasound assessment with a color-coded duplex sonography scanner and a transcranial doppler equipment, in both supine and sitting position by means of a tilting chair. Basal arterial and venous morphology and flow velocities, postural changes in mean flow velocities (MFV of middle cerebral arteries (MCA, differences between cerebral venous outflow (CVF in clinostatism and in the seated position (ΔCVF and non-invasive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were evaluated. RESULTS: 85 RR-MS, 83 PP-MS and 82 healthy controls were included. ΔCVF was negative in 45/85 (52.9% RR-MS, 63/83 (75.9% PP-MS (p = 0.01 and 11/82 (13.4% controls (p<0.001, while MFVs on both MCAs in sitting position were significantly reduced in RR-MS and PP-MS patients than in control, particularly in EDSS ≥ 5 subgroup (respectively, 42/50, 84% vs. 66/131, 50.3%, p<0.01 and 48.3 ± 2 cm/s vs. 54.6 ± 3 cm/s, p = 0.01. No significant differences in CPP were observed within and between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF and CVF and their postural dependency may be related to a dysfunction of autonomic nervous system that seems to characterize more disabled MS patients. It's not clear whether the altered postural control of arterial inflow and venous outflow is a specific MS condition or simply an

  14. IMRT commissioning: Multiple institution planning and dosimetry comparisons, a report from AAPM Task Group 119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzell, Gary A.; Burmeister, Jay W.; Dogan, Nesrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, MCSB Concourse, Phoenix, Arizona 89054 (United States); and others

    2009-11-15

    AAPM Task Group 119 has produced quantitative confidence limits as baseline expectation values for IMRT commissioning. A set of test cases was developed to assess the overall accuracy of planning and delivery of IMRT treatments. Each test uses contours of targets and avoidance structures drawn within rectangular phantoms. These tests were planned, delivered, measured, and analyzed by nine facilities using a variety of IMRT planning and delivery systems. Each facility had passed the Radiological Physics Center credentialing tests for IMRT. The agreement between the planned and measured doses was determined using ion chamber dosimetry in high and low dose regions, film dosimetry on coronal planes in the phantom with all fields delivered, and planar dosimetry for each field measured perpendicular to the central axis. The planar dose distributions were assessed using gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm. The mean values and standard deviations were used to develop confidence limits for the test results using the concept confidence limit=|mean|+1.96{sigma}. Other facilities can use the test protocol and results as a basis for comparison to this group. Locally derived confidence limits that substantially exceed these baseline values may indicate the need for improved IMRT commissioning.

  15. Air traffic controllers' long-term speech-in-noise training effects: A control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, Maria T P; Plasencia, Daniel P; González, María L Z; de Miguel, Angel R; Macías, Ángel R

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and -5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=-5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions.

  16. Semi-active control of a cable-stayed bridge under multiple-support excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ze-Bing; Huang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Xia

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a semi-active strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. In this control strategy, Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are proposed as control devices, a LQG-clipped-optimal control algorithm is employed. An active control strategy, shown in previous researches to perform well at controlling the benchmark bridge when uniform earthquake motion was assumed, is also used in this study to control this benchmark bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. The performance of active control system is compared to that of the presented semi-active control strategy. Because the MR fluid damper is a controllable energy- dissipation device that cannot add mechanical energy to the structural system, the proposed control strategy is fail-safe in that bounded-input, bounded-output stability of the controlled structure is guaranteed. The numerical results demonstrated that the performance of the presented control design is nearly the same as that of the active control system; and that the MR dampers can effectively be used to control seismically excited cable-stayed bridges with multiple-support excitations.

  17. Multiple groups of endogenous epsilon-like retroviruses conserved across primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Emes, Richard D; Tarlinton, Rachael E

    2014-11-01

    Several types of cancer in fish are caused by retroviruses, including those responsible for major outbreaks of disease, such as walleye dermal sarcoma virus and salmon swim bladder sarcoma virus. These viruses form a phylogenetic group often described as the epsilonretrovirus genus. Epsilon-like retroviruses have become endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) on several occasions, integrating into germ line cells to become part of the host genome, and sections of fish and amphibian genomes are derived from epsilon-like retroviruses. However, epsilon-like ERVs have been identified in very few mammals. We have developed a pipeline to screen full genomes for ERVs, and using this pipeline, we have located over 800 endogenous epsilon-like ERV fragments in primate genomes. Genomes from 32 species of mammals and birds were screened, and epsilon-like ERV fragments were found in all primate and tree shrew genomes but no others. These viruses appear to have entered the genome of a common ancestor of Old and New World monkeys between 42 million and 65 million years ago. Based on these results, there is an ancient evolutionary relationship between epsilon-like retroviruses and primates. Clearly, these viruses had the potential to infect the ancestors of primates and were at some point a common pathogen in these hosts. Therefore, this result raises questions about the potential of epsilonretroviruses to infect humans and other primates and about the evolutionary history of these retroviruses. Epsilonretroviruses are a group of retroviruses that cause several important diseases in fish. Retroviruses have the ability to become a permanent part of the DNA of their host by entering the germ line as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), where they lose their infectivity over time but can be recognized as retroviruses for millions of years. Very few mammals are known to have epsilon-like ERVs; however, we have identified over 800 fragments of endogenous epsilon-like ERVs in the genomes of all major

  18. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  19. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-10-15

    The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis (ExIMS) trial to identify best practices for future trials involving multiple sclerosis (MS) patient recruitment. The ExIMS researchers recruited 120 PwMS to participate in a 12-week exercise intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either exercise or usual-care control groups. Participants were sedentary, aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.0-6.5. Recruitment strategies included attendance at MS outpatient clinics, consultant mail-out and trial awareness-raising activities. A total of 120 participants were recruited over the course of 34 months. To achieve this target, 369 potentially eligible and interested participants were identified. A total of 60 % of participants were recruited via MS clinics, 29.2 % from consultant mail-outs and 10.8 % through trial awareness. The randomisation yields were 33.2 %, 31.0 % and 68.4 % for MS clinic, consultant mail-outs and trial awareness strategies, respectively. The main reason for ineligibility was being too active (69.2 %), whilst for eligible participants the most common reason for non-participation was the need to travel to the study site (15.8 %). Recruitment via consultant mail-out was the most cost-effective strategy, with MS clinics being the most time-consuming and most costly. To reach recruitment targets in a timely fashion, a variety of methods were employed. Although consultant mail-outs were the most cost-effective recruitment strategy, use of this

  20. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam; Aslam, Muhammad; Jun, Chi-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  1. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam

    2017-03-25

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  2. A fluorescence switch based on a controllable photochromic naphthopyran group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lizhen; Wang Guang; Zhao Xiancai

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescence switch based on photoisomerization of naphthopyran (NP) has been designed by employing 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzimidazole (BPI) and the naphthopyran containing two pyran rings (NP) as fluorescent dye and photochromic compound, respectively. The fluorescence switch of benzimidazole derivative can be modulated either by controlling the irradiation time of UV light or by adjusting the amount ratio of fluorescent benzimidazole derivative to photochromic naphthopyran in both solution and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film. The experimental results indicated that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of benzimidazole derivative is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole with naphthopyran. - Highlights: → Naphthopyran was first used to fabricate fluorescence switch with benzimidazole derivative. → Fluorescence intensity can be modulated by controlling the UV irradiation time. → Fluorescence intensity can be adjusted by changing the ratio of benzimidazole derivative to naphthopyran. → Decrease of fluorescence intensity is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole derivative and naphthopyran.

  3. The effect of group psycho-education program on the burden of family caregivers with multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid; Dalvi-Isfahani, Fariba; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lack of adequate training and support of primary caregivers of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is the major factor in causing stress, anxiety, and increase of burden. Therefore, the treatment team members such as psychiatric nurses can help these vulnerable people overcome psychiatric pressures effectively not only through their care and referral role but also through their supportive characteristic, which helps the patients improve their clinical status, together with their social, familial, and work adaptation. Therefore, the researcher tried to identify the effect of a group psycho-education program on the burden family caregivers with MS patients. This is a two-group three-stage clinical trial. The researcher referred to the heads of neurology clinics to present the purpose of the study and to start the sampling. The neurology clinics of AL Zahra University Hospital, and also a Private Neurology Clinic were selected to collect the data of the study. The subjects were randomly selected, and then, assigned to two groups of study and control. Independent t-test showed a significant reduction in family caregivers' burden immediately after and 1-month after intervention in the study group, compared to control. Repeated measure ANOVA showed a significant reduction in caregivers' burden mean score in the study group (P family caregivers' burden, it is recommended to develop and design other programs for the family caregivers of the patients with MS.

  4. Depression, anxiety and loss of resilience after multiple traumas: an illustration of a mediated moderation model of sensitization in a group of children who survived the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stephanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) have become a major public health problem. Multiple trauma is known to increase the risk of DAD through a sensitization mechanism. We investigate the hypothesis that resilience is a mediator of this mechanism. Former Hidden Children (FHC), the Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe, were compared with a control group. In each group, we measured the presence of multiple traumas, the resilience with the Resilience Scale for Adults, which has a six factors solution, and the DAD with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. We test a mediated moderation model with childhood trauma as the predictor; Later trauma as the moderator; Resilience as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results are consistent with a sensitization model of DAD mediated by resilience: confrontation with a primary trauma during childhood followed by secondary trauma(s) after childhood damages resilience, which, in turn, results in higher level of DAD. We are unable to differentiate if the sensitization process is a consequence of the nature of the trauma endured by FHC (long-standing exposure to extreme external events) or a consequence of the fact that this first trauma occurred during childhood. Resilience construct is multi-factorial and a limited damaging of some of the factors is sufficient to lead to DAD even if other factors remain unaltered. Resilience can be altered by multiple traumas and, therefore, needs to be bolstered in therapy sessions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Paternity in horseshoe crabs when spawning in multiple-male groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann; Nguyen; Potts

    2000-12-01

    Unpaired or satellite male horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are attracted to and often form a group around a pair (a female with an attached male) that is nesting in the high intertidal zone. These males are engaged in sperm competition. We observed nesting pairs and their associated satellites in the wild, collected and reared their eggs and used genetic markers to examine paternity. We found that the unpaired, satellite males are highly successful at fertilizing eggs; two satellites can leave the attached male with few fertilizations. Two satellites together are each as successful as one spawning with a pair. A satellite's location around the female greatly affects his success, and males compete for access to a position over the dorsal canal between the prosoma and opisthosoma of the female and under the front margin of the paired male where they are most likely to fertilize eggs. Although eggs and sperm retain their viability for some time after spawning, nearly all eggs are fertilized by the satellites that are around the nesting pair at the time of egg laying and by the attached male. A number of factors including beach current, female size and male behaviour affect the outcome of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis of the motivational influencing individuals’ decisions about participating in intramural sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rickel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.

  7. Realtime control of multiple-focus phased array heating patterns based on noninvasive ultrasound thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Andrew; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2012-01-01

    A system for the realtime generation and control of multiple-focus ultrasound phased-array heating patterns is presented. The system employs a 1-MHz, 64-element array and driving electronics capable of fine spatial and temporal control of the heating pattern. The driver is integrated with a realtime 2-D temperature imaging system implemented on a commercial scanner. The coordinates of the temperature control points are defined on B-mode guidance images from the scanner, together with the temperature set points and controller parameters. The temperature at each point is controlled by an independent proportional, integral, and derivative controller that determines the focal intensity at that point. Optimal multiple-focus synthesis is applied to generate the desired heating pattern at the control points. The controller dynamically reallocates the power available among the foci from the shared power supply upon reaching the desired temperature at each control point. Furthermore, anti-windup compensation is implemented at each control point to improve the system dynamics. In vitro experiments in tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrate the robustness of the controllers for short (2-5 s) and longer multiple-focus high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures. Thermocouple measurements in the vicinity of the control points confirm the dynamics of the temperature variations obtained through noninvasive feedback. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Yalcin, Yakup; Yavuz, And; Akkurt, Mehmet Ozgur; Sezik, Mekin

    2017-05-24

    To assess whether maternal multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes by determining the clinical course of disease during pregnancy and postpartum throughout a 10-year-period in a single tertiary center. We conducted a case-control study that included pregnancies with a definitive diagnosis of MS (n=43), matched with 100 healthy pregnant women with similar characteristics. Maternal and perinatal data were retrieved from hospital files. Groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney and χ2 tests. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine independent effects. Maternal demographic and baseline laboratory data were similar across the groups. Rates of preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, stillbirth, cesarean delivery, congenital malformation, and 5-min Apgar score were comparable (P>0.05 for all). General anesthesia during cesarean delivery (96% vs. 39%, P=0.002), urinary tract infection (UTI) (12% vs. 3%, P=0.04), low 1-min Apgar score (21% vs. 9%, P=0.04), and nonbreastfeeding (33% vs. 2%, P=0.001) were more frequent in women with MS. The low 1-min Apgar score and breastfeeding rates were independent of general anesthesia and UTI in regression models. MS during pregnancy was not associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes except UTI, low 1-min Apgar scores, and decreased breastfeeding rates.

  9. Multiple single-board-computer system for the KEK positron generator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Kazuo; Abe, Isamu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Otake, Yuji; Urano, Takao

    1986-01-01

    The KEK positron generator is controlled by means of a distributed microprocessor network. The control system is composed of three kinds of equipment: device controllers for the linac equipment, operation management stations and a communication network. Individual linac equipment has its own microprocessor-based controller. A multiple single board computer (SBC) system is used for communication control and for equipment surveillance; it has a database containing communication and linac equipment status information. The linac operation management that should be the most soft part in the control system, is separated from the multiple SBC system and is carried out by work-stations. The principle that every processor executes only one task is maintained throughout the control system. This made the software architecture very simple. (orig.)

  10. The effects of Mat Pilates and Reformer Pilates in patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulguroglu, I; Guclu-Gunduz, A; Yazici, G; Ozkul, C; Irkec, C; Nazliel, B; Batur-Caglayan, H Z

    2017-01-01

    Pilates is an exercise method which increases strength and endurance of core muscles and improves flexibility, dynamic postural control and balance. To analyze and compare the effects of Mat and Reformer Pilates methods in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Thirty-eight patients with MS were included in the study. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups as Mat Pilates, Reformer Pilates and control groups. The subjects in the Pilates groups did Mat or Reformer Pilates for 8 weeks, 2 days a week. The control group did breathing and relaxation exercises at home. Balance, functional mobility, core stability, fatigue severity and quality of life were evaluated. Balance, functional mobility, core stability, fatigue severity and quality of life improved after Pilates in Mat and Reformer Pilates groups (p  0.05). When the gain obtained in the Pilates groups is compared, it has been observed that progress has been more in trunk flexor muscle strength in the Reformer Pilates group (p  0.05). As a result, patients with MS have seen similar benefits in Reformer Pilates and Mat Pilates methods.

  11. Effects of prolonged exercise versus multiple short exercise sessions on risk for metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, JinWook; Kim, KwangJun; Hong, Jeeyoung; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-08-22

    Many people, although they may recognise the positive effects of exercise, do not exercise regularly owing to lack of time. This study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged single-session exercise and multiple short sessions of exercise on the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. Thirty-six participants were divided into the single-session group, multiple-session group, and control group. The single-session group engaged in one session of treadmill exercise for 30 min a day; the multiple-session group had three sessions of 10 min a day. Both groups exercised 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group did not perform any exercise. The single-session group showed decreases in weight (0.97 kg [95% C.I. = 0.09-1.83], p exercise is superior to multiple short sessions for improving the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. However, multiple short sessions can be recommended as an alternative to prolonged exercise when the goal is to decrease blood glucose or waist circumference.

  12. Multiple-state based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in wireless mesh networks (WMNs). In this paper, we present asynchronous multiple-state based power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint...

  13. A simple optical fibre-linked remote control system for multiple devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on the development of a simple control system which can handle multiple devices through an optical fibre data link. The devices are controlled using a set of DACs through serial data communication via a serial port of a PC. Serial data from the PC get converted to parallel mode using a homemade “serial in ...

  14. Second-Order Controllability of Multi-Agent Systems with Multiple Leaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo; Han Xiao; Shi Yun-Tao; Su Hou-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new second-order continuous-time multi-agent model and analyzes the controllability of second-order multi-agent system with multiple leaders based on the asymmetric topology. This paper considers the more general case: velocity coupling topology is different from location coupling topology. Some sufficient and necessary conditions are presented for the controllability of the system with multiple leaders. In addition, the paper studies the controllability of the system with velocity damping gain. Simulation results are given to illustrate the correctness of theoretical results. (paper)

  15. Ixazomib for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Review from an Evidence Review Group on a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Connock, Martin; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Cummins, Ewen; Melendez-Torres, G J; Royle, Pam; Clarke, Aileen

    2018-03-26

    Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor used in combination with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (IXA-LEN-DEX) and licensed for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. As part of a single technology appraisal (ID807) undertaken by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, the Evidence Review Group, Warwick Evidence was invited to independently review the evidence submitted by the manufacturer of ixazomib, Takeda UK Ltd. The main source of clinical effectiveness data about IXA-LEN-DEX came from the Tourmaline-MM1 randomized controlled trial in which 771 patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma received either IXA-LEN-DEX or placebo-LEN-DEX as their second-, third-, or fourth-line treatment. Takeda estimated the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX using a de-novo partitioned-survival model with three health states (pre-progression, post-progression, and dead). In their first submission, this model was used to estimate the cost effectiveness of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BORT-DEX) in second-line treatment, and of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. LEN-DEX in third-line treatment. To estimate the relative clinical performance of IXA-LEN-DEX vs. BORT-DEX, Takeda conducted network meta-analyses for important outcomes. The network meta-analysis for overall survival was found to be flawed in several respects, but mainly because a hazard ratio input for one of the studies in the network had been inverted, resulting in a large inflation of the claimed superiority of IXA-LEN-DEX over BORT-DEX and a considerable overestimation of its cost effectiveness. In subsequent submissions, Takeda withdrew second-line treatment as an option for IXA-LEN-DEX. The manufacturer's first submission comparing IXA-LEN-DEX with LEN-DEX for third-line therapy employed Tourmaline-MM1 data from third- and fourth-line patients as proxy for a third-line population. The appraisal committee did not consider this reasonable because randomization in Tourmaline-MM1 was stratified

  16. Wellness and multiple sclerosis: The National MS Society establishes a Wellness Research Working Group and research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Mowry, Ellen M; Ehde, Dawn M; LaRocca, Nicholas G; Smith, Kathy E; Costello, Kathleen; Shinto, Lynne; Ng, Alexander V; Sullivan, Amy B; Giesser, Barbara; McCully, Kevin K; Fernhall, Bo; Bishop, Malachy; Plow, Matthew; Casaccia, Patrizia; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

    2018-03-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified "wellness" and associated behaviors as a high priority based on "social media listening" undertaken by the National MS Society (i.e. the Society). The Society recently convened a group that consisted of researchers with experience in MS and wellness-related research, Society staff members, and an individual with MS for developing recommendations regarding a wellness research agenda. The members of the group engaged in focal reviews and discussions involving the state of science within three approaches for promoting wellness in MS, namely diet, exercise, and emotional wellness. That process informed a group-mediated activity for developing and prioritizing research goals for wellness in MS. This served as a background for articulating the mission and objectives of the Society's Wellness Research Working Group. The primary mission of the Wellness Research Working Group is the provision of scientific evidence supporting the application of lifestyle, behavioral, and psychosocial approaches for promoting optimal health of mind, body, and spirit (i.e. wellness) in people with MS as well as managing the disease and its consequences.

  17. Pediatric emergency medicine asynchronous e-learning: a multicenter randomized controlled Solomon four-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Todd P; Pham, Phung K; Sobolewski, Brad; Doughty, Cara B; Jamal, Nazreen; Kwan, Karen Y; Little, Kim; Brenkert, Timothy E; Mathison, David J

    2014-08-01

    Asynchronous e-learning allows for targeted teaching, particularly advantageous when bedside and didactic education is insufficient. An asynchronous e-learning curriculum has not been studied across multiple centers in the context of a clinical rotation. We hypothesize that an asynchronous e-learning curriculum during the pediatric emergency medicine (EM) rotation improves medical knowledge among residents and students across multiple participating centers. Trainees on pediatric EM rotations at four large pediatric centers from 2012 to 2013 were randomized in a Solomon four-group design. The experimental arms received an asynchronous e-learning curriculum consisting of nine Web-based, interactive, peer-reviewed Flash/HTML5 modules. Postrotation testing and in-training examination (ITE) scores quantified improvements in knowledge. A 2 × 2 analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tested interaction and main effects, and Pearson's correlation tested associations between module usage, scores, and ITE scores. A total of 256 of 458 participants completed all study elements; 104 had access to asynchronous e-learning modules, and 152 were controls who used the current education standards. No pretest sensitization was found (p = 0.75). Use of asynchronous e-learning modules was associated with an improvement in posttest scores (p effect (partial η(2) = 0.19). Posttest scores correlated with ITE scores (r(2) = 0.14, p e-learning is an effective educational tool to improve knowledge in a clinical rotation. Web-based asynchronous e-learning is a promising modality to standardize education among multiple institutions with common curricula, particularly in clinical rotations where scheduling difficulties, seasonality, and variable experiences limit in-hospital learning. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Medication withdrawal may be an option for a select group of patients in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the clinical and radiological evolution of a stable group of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that had their disease-modifying therapy (DMT withdrawn. Forty patients, which had made continuous use of one immunomodulator and had remained free of disease for at least 5 years, had their DMT withdrawn and were observed from 13 to 86 months. Out of the followed patients, 4 (10% patients presented with new attacks. In addition to these patients, 2 (5% patients had new lesions revealed by magnetic resonance imaging that did not correspond to clinical attacks. Despite these results, the difficult decision to withdraw medication requires careful analysis. Withdrawal, however, should not be viewed as simply the suspension of treatment because these patients should be evaluated periodically, and the immunomodulators should be readily reintroduced if new attacks occur. Nonetheless, medication withdrawal is an option for a select group of patients.

  19. Multiplicity dependence of matrix-induced frequency shifts for atomic transitions of the group 12 metals in rare gas solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, S.L.; Cartland, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic resonances of the group 12 metal atoms, Hg, Cd, and Zn, undergo frequency shifts from the gas phase atomic line when trapped in rare gas matrices of Ar, Kr, and Xe at 12 K. As expected, the shifts are approximately linear in polarizability of the rare gas, but the slope of this line depends on whether the transition in question is 1 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 or 3 P 1 left-arrow 1 S 0 . Thus the matrix-induced frequency shift is dependent on the singlet or triplet nature of the excited state as well as on the matrix material. This dependence on multiplicity is discussed in terms of interactions between the excited-state atomic orbitals and the matrix. The results are compared to matrix studies of other metals and to related gas-phase work on diatomic van der Waals complexes of group 12 metals with rare gases

  20. Historical events, groups and mentors: on agents of politicization and multiple ways of entering politics in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gené

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of politicization of the elites of the Interior Ministry in Argentina. Supported by in-depth interviews, archival material, journalistic records, and specific bibliography, the paper seeks to shed light on the centrality of historical events, militancy groups, and mentors in such paths. Firstly, we reflect on the role of political events understood as milestones of politicization, which then fuel a dispute over their interpretation and appropriation. Then we refer to the multiple character of the militancy groups and the theoretical and practical knowledge there harvested. Finally, we focus on the role played by mentors in facilitating experiences and contacts, fundamental rudiments for the political profession.

  1. Pilates exercise training vs. physical therapy for improving walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Rosenblum, Uri; Frid, Lior; Achiron, Anat

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the effects of a Pilates exercise programme on walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis and compare this exercise approach to conventional physical therapy sessions. Randomized controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Forty-five people with multiple sclerosis, 29 females, mean age (SD) was 43.2 (11.6) years; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (S.D) was 4.3 (1.3). Participants received 12 weekly training sessions of either Pilates ( n=22) or standardized physical therapy ( n=23) in an outpatient basis. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking and posturography parameters during static stance. Functional tests included the Time Up and Go Test, 2 and 6-minute walk test, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and the Four Square Step Test. In addition, the following self-report forms included the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. At the termination, both groups had significantly increased their walking speed ( P=0.021) and mean step length ( P=0.023). According to the 2-minute and 6-minute walking tests, both groups at the end of the intervention program had increased their walking speed. Mean (SD) increase in the Pilates and physical therapy groups were 39.1 (78.3) and 25.3 (67.2) meters, respectively. There was no effect of group X time in all instrumented and clinical balance and gait measures. Pilates is a possible treatment option for people with multiple sclerosis in order to improve their walking and balance capabilities. However, this approach does not have any significant advantage over standardized physical therapy.

  2. Advanced topics in control and estimation of state-multiplicative noisy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gershon, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Topics in Control and Estimation of State-Multiplicative Noisy Systems begins with an introduction and extensive literature survey. The text proceeds to cover solutions of measurement-feedback control and state problems and the formulation of the Bounded Real Lemma for both continuous- and discrete-time systems. The continuous-time reduced-order and stochastic-tracking control problems for delayed systems are then treated. Ideas of nonlinear stability are introduced for infinite-horizon systems, again, in both the continuous- and discrete-time cases. The reader is introduced to six practical examples of noisy state-multiplicative control and filtering associated with various fields of control engineering. The book is rounded out by a three-part appendix containing stochastic tools necessary for a proper appreciation of the text: a basic introduction to nonlinear stochastic differential equations and aspects of switched systems and peak to peak  optimal control and filtering. Advanced Topics in Contr...

  3. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  4. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  5. Nurse-led immunotreatment DEcision Coaching In people with Multiple Sclerosis (DECIMS) - Feasibility testing, pilot randomised controlled trial and mixed methods process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, A C; Köpke, S; Backhus, I; Kasper, J; Anger, K; Untiedt, B; Alegiani, A; Kleiter, I; Mühlhauser, I; Heesen, C

    2018-02-01

    Treatment decision-making is complex for people with multiple sclerosis. Profound information on available options is virtually not possible in regular neurologist encounters. The "nurse decision coach model" was developed to redistribute health professionals' tasks in supporting immunotreatment decision-making following the principles of informed shared decision-making. To test the feasibility of a decision coaching programme and recruitment strategies to inform the main trial. Feasibility testing and parallel pilot randomised controlled trial, accompanied by a mixed methods process evaluation. Two German multiple sclerosis university centres. People with suspected or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis facing immunotreatment decisions on first line drugs were recruited. Randomisation to the intervention (n = 38) or control group (n = 35) was performed on a daily basis. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected from people with multiple sclerosis, nurses and physicians. We report on the development and piloting of the decision coaching programme. It comprises a training course for multiple sclerosis nurses and the coaching intervention. The intervention consists of up to three structured nurse-led decision coaching sessions, access to an evidence-based online information platform (DECIMS-Wiki) and a final physician consultation. After feasibility testing, a pilot randomised controlled trial was performed. People with multiple sclerosis were randomised to the intervention or control group. The latter had also access to the DECIMS-Wiki, but received otherwise care as usual. Nurses were not blinded to group assignment, while people with multiple sclerosis and physicians were. The primary outcome was 'informed choice' after six months including the sub-dimensions' risk knowledge (after 14 days), attitude concerning immunotreatment (after physician consultation), and treatment uptake (after six months). Quantitative process evaluation data

  6. Getting the balance right: a randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy and Exercise Interventions for ambulatory people with multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coote, Susan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified

  7. Getting the balance right: a randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy and Exercise Interventions for ambulatory people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, Susan; Garrett, Maria; Hogan, Neasa; Larkin, Aidan; Saunders, Jean

    2009-07-16

    People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don't change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified Ashworth Scale. Confounding variables such

  8. Getting the Balance Right: A randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy and Exercise Interventions for ambulatory people with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Aidan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. Methods and design This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control, and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test

  9. Experiences in simulating and testing coordinated voltage control provided by multiple wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlaban, T.; Alonso, O.; Ortiz, D. [Acciona Windpower S.A. (Spain); Peiro, J.; Rivas, R. [Red Electrica de Espana SAU (Spain); Quinonez-Varela, G.; Lorenzo, P. [Acciona Energia S.A. (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents some field tests performed in a transmission system node in order to check the adequacy of voltage control performance by multiple wind power plants, with an overall capacity of 395 MW. It briefly explains the Spanish TSO motivation towards new voltage control requirements and the necessity of performing such tests in order to set the most convenient voltage control parameters and to verify the stable operation. It presents how different the voltage control capability between modern wind turbines (DFIG) and older ones (SCIG) specifically retrofitted for voltage control is. (orig.)

  10. A Memory/Immunology-Based Control Approach with Applications to Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of formation control for multiple spacecrafts in Planetary Orbital Environment (POE. Due to the presence of diverse interferences and uncertainties in the outer space, such as the changing spacecraft mass, unavailable space parameters, and varying gravity forces, traditional control methods encounter great difficulties in this area. A new control approach inspired by human memory and immune system is proposed, and this approach is shown to be capable of learning from past control experience and current behavior to improve its performance. It demands much less system dynamic information as compared with traditional controls. Both theoretic analysis and computer simulation verify its effectiveness.

  11. A feedback control model for network flow with multiple pure time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, J.

    1972-01-01

    A control model describing a network flow hindered by multiple pure time (or transport) delays is formulated. Feedbacks connect each desired output with a single control sector situated at the origin. The dynamic formulation invokes the use of differential difference equations. This causes the characteristic equation of the model to consist of transcendental functions instead of a common algebraic polynomial. A general graphical criterion is developed to evaluate the stability of such a problem. A digital computer simulation confirms the validity of such criterion. An optimal decision making process with multiple delays is presented.

  12. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Attention and Memory in people with Multiple Sclerosis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (CRAMMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Nadina B; das Nair, Roshan; Bradshaw, Lucy; Constantinescu, Cris S; Drummond, Avril E R; Erven, Alexandra; Evans, Amy L; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Montgomery, Alan A; Morgan, Miriam

    2015-12-08

    People with multiple sclerosis have problems with memory and attention. Cognitive rehabilitation is a structured set of therapeutic activities designed to retrain an individual's memory and other cognitive functions. Cognitive rehabilitation may be provided to teach people strategies to cope with these problems, in order to reduce the impact on everyday life. The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis has not been established. This is a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a group-based cognitive rehabilitation programme for attention and memory problems for people with multiple sclerosis. Four hundred people with multiple sclerosis will be randomised from at least four centres. Participants will be eligible if they have memory problems, are 18 to 69 years of age, are able to travel to attend group sessions and give informed consent. Participants will be randomised in a ratio of 6:5 to the group rehabilitation intervention plus usual care or usual care alone. Intervention groups will receive 10 weekly sessions of a manualised cognitive rehabilitation programme. The intervention will include both restitution strategies to retrain impaired attention and memory functions and compensation strategies to enable participants to cope with their cognitive problems. All participants will receive a follow-up questionnaire and an assessment by a research assistant at 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcome is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS) Psychological subscale at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire-30, EQ-5D and a service use questionnaire from participants, and the Everyday Memory Questionnaire-relative version and Carer Strain Index from a relative or friend. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat. A mixed-model regression analysis of the MSIS Psychological

  13. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1997-01-01

    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant

  14. Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Elina; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Siri, Chiara; Martikainen, Kirsti; Cilia, Roberto; Niemelä, Solja; Joutsa, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders can have serious adverse consequences to the life of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are common, a possible psychiatric comorbidity has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. The study was conducted as a postal survey to patients in the registry of the Finnish Parkinson Association. A total of 290 Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated for impulse control disorders using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Psychiatric symptoms were systematically screened using the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that 108 of the evaluated patients had one or more impulse control disorders. Patients with impulse control disorders had markedly higher scores for symptoms of psychoticism (Bonferroni corrected p disorder (p impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders were shown to be independently associated with these symptoms. Patients with multiple impulse control disorders had higher scores for depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms when compared with patients that exhibited only one impulse control disorder. COUNCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the previous observations that impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are linked with multiple psychiatric symptoms, including psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Clinicians treating these patients should acknowledge the concomitant psychiatric symptoms.

  15. Investigating ethnic variations in reporting of psychotic symptoms: a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelman, Hein; Nazroo, James; Rai, Dheeraj

    2018-03-12

    Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248). We assessed the psychometric properties of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) with a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, assessing the equivalence of factor loadings, response thresholds and residual variances in an analysis of measurement non-invariance. Compared with prevalence among British Whites (5.4%), the prevalence of self-reported psychotic symptoms was greater in the Caribbean group (12.7%, adjusted OR = 2.38 [95% CI 1.84-3.07]). Prevalence was also increased among Pakistani individuals (8.3%, adjusted OR = 1.36 [1.01-1.84]) although this difference was driven by a greater likelihood of reporting paranoid symptoms. PSQ items for thought interference, strange experience and hallucination were measured in equivalent ways across ethnic groups. However, our measurement models suggested that paranoid symptoms were measured less reliably among ethnic minorities than among British Whites and appeared to exaggerate latent differences between Pakistani and White British groups when measurement non-invariance was not accounted for. Notwithstanding evidence for measurement non-invariance, the greater risk for reporting psychotic symptoms among Caribbean individuals is unlikely to be an artefact of measurement. Greater residual variance in the recording of paranoid symptoms among ethnic minority respondents warrants caution in using this item to investigate ethnic variation in psychosis risk.

  16. Multiple Family Group Service Model for Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Child Outcomes at Post-Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Anil; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Dean-Assael, Kara; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Hoagwood, Kimberly; McKay, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of a multiple family group (MFG) service delivery model compared with services as usual (SAU) in improving the functioning of youth with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder in families residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Participants included 320 youth aged 7 to 11 and their families who were referred to participating outpatient clinics. Participants were assigned to the MFG or the SAU condition, with parent report of child oppositional behavior, social competence, and level of youth impairment as primary outcomes at post-treatment. Family engagement to MFG was measured by attendance to each group session. Caregivers of youth in the MFG service delivery model condition reported significant improvement in youth oppositional behavior and social competence compared with youth in the SAU condition. Impairment improved over time for both groups with no difference between treatment conditions. The MFG led to greater percentage of youth with clinically significant improvements in oppositional behavior. Attendance to the MFG was high, given the high-risk nature of the study population. The MFG service delivery model offers an efficient and engaging format to implement evidence-based approaches to improving functioning of youth with oppositional defiant and/or conduct disorder in families from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

  17. Control Strategies for Islanded Microgrid using Enhanced Hierarchical Control Structure with Multiple Current-Loop Damping Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Shen, Pan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling, controller design, and stability analysis of the islanded microgrid (MG) using enhanced hierarchical control structure with multiple current loop damping schemes is proposed. The islanded MG is consisted of the parallel-connected voltage source inverters using LCL...... output filters, and the proposed control structure includes: the primary control with additional phase-shift loop, the secondary control for voltage amplitude and frequency restoration, the virtual impedance loops which contains virtual positive- and negative-sequence impedance loops at fundamental...... frequency, and virtual variable harmonic impedance loop at harmonic frequencies, and the inner voltage and current loop controllers. A small-signal model for the primary and secondary controls with additional phase-shift loop is presented, which shows an over-damped feature from eigenvalue analysis...

  18. Does robot-assisted gait training ameliorate gait abnormalities in multiple sclerosis? A pilot randomized-control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straudi, S; Benedetti, M G; Venturini, E; Manca, M; Foti, C; Basaglia, N

    2013-01-01

    Gait disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to a progressive reduction of function and quality of life. Test the effects of robot-assisted gait rehabilitation in MS subjects through a pilot randomized-controlled study. We enrolled MS subjects with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores within 4.5-6.5. The experimental group received 12 robot-assisted gait training sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received the same amount of conventional physiotherapy. Outcomes measures were both biomechanical assessment of gait, including kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters, and clinical test of walking endurance (six-minute walk test) and mobility (Up and Go Test). 16 subjects (n = 8 experimental group, n = 8 control group) were included in the final analysis. At baseline the two groups were similar in all variables, except for step length. Data showed walking endurance, as well as spatio-temporal gait parameters improvements after robot-assisted gait training. Pelvic antiversion and reduced hip extension during terminal stance ameliorated after aforementioned intervention. Robot-assisted gait training seems to be effective in increasing walking competency in MS subjects. Moreover, it could be helpful in restoring the kinematic of the hip and pelvis.

  19. Controlled multiple neutral planes by low elastic modulus adhesive for flexible organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wansun; Lee, Inhwa; Yoon Kim, Dong; Yu, Youn-Yeol; Jung, Hae-Yoon; Kwon, Seyeoul; Seo Park, Weon; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2017-05-12

    To protect brittle layers in organic photovoltaic devices, the mechanical neutral plane strategy can be adopted through placing the brittle functional materials close to the neutral plane where stress and strain are zero during bending. However, previous research has been significantly limited in the location and number of materials to protect through using a single neutral plane. In this study, multiple neutral planes are generated using low elastic modulus adhesives and are controlled through quantitative analyses in order to protect the multiple brittle materials at various locations. Moreover, the protection of multiple brittle layers at various locations under both concave and convex bending directions is demonstrated. Multilayer structures that have soft adhesives are further analyzed using the finite element method analysis in order to propose guidelines for structural design when employing multiple neutral planes.

  20. Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety Scales: How Do They Perform in a Cancer Sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rina S; Lillis, Teresa A; Gerhart, James; Hoerger, Michael; Duberstein, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The DASS-21 is a public domain instrument that is commonly used to evaluate depression and anxiety in psychiatric and community populations; however, the factor structure of the measure has not previously been examined in oncologic settings. Given that the psychometric properties of measures of distress may be compromised in the context of symptoms related to cancer and its treatment, the present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales in cancer patients ( n = 376) as compared to noncancer control participants ( n = 207). Cancer patients ranged in age from 21 to 84 years (mean = 58.3, standard deviation = 10.4) and noncancer control participants ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (mean = 45.0, standard deviation = 11.7). Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural invariance of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales across groups; the factor variance/covariance invariance model was the best fit to the data. Cronbach's coefficient alpha values demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability across the total sample as well as within subgroups of cancer patients and noncancer control participants. Expected relationships of DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scale scores to measures of suicidal ideation, quality of life, self-rated health, and depressed mood supported construct validity. These results support the psychometric properties of the DASS-21 Depression and Anxiety scales when measuring psychological distress in cancer patients.

  1. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  2. WAIS Performance in Unincarcerated Groups of MMPI-Defined Sociopaths and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Albert N.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation examines WAIS performance in groups of 32 sociopaths and 33 normal controls defined by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory criteria. Sociopaths and normal controls show no differences in overall level of intellectual functioning. (Author)

  3. Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Methods Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Two-Dimensional Linguistic Partitioned Bonferroni Mean Aggregation Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Yang, Benshuo; Li, Xuemei

    2018-01-24

    In this paper, we investigate multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems where decision makers represent their evaluation of alternatives by trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional uncertain linguistic variable. To begin with, we introduce the definition, properties, expectation, operational laws of trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic information. Then, to improve the accuracy of decision making in some case where there are a sort of interrelationship among the attributes, we analyze partition Bonferroni mean (PBM) operator in trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional variable environment and develop two operators: trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLPBM) aggregation operator and trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic weighted partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLWPBM) aggregation operator. Furthermore, we develop a novel method to solve MAGDM problems based on TF2DLWPBM aggregation operator. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method and analyses the impact of different parameters on the results of decision-making.

  4. Decomposing Multi‐Level Ethnic Segregation in Auckland, New Zealand, 2001–2013 : Segregation Intensity for Multiple Groups at Multiple Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manley, D.J.; Johnston, Ron; Jones, Kelvyn

    2018-01-01

    There has been a growing appreciation that the processes generating urban residential segregation operate at multiple scales, stimulating innovations into the measurement of their outcomes. This paper applies a multi‐level modelling approach to that issue to the situation in Auckland, where multiple

  5. Robust Fault Tolerant Control for a Class of Time-Delay Systems with Multiple Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyin Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust fault tolerant control (FTC approach is addressed for a class of nonlinear systems with time delay, actuator faults, and multiple disturbances. The first part of the multiple disturbances is supposed to be an uncertain modeled disturbance and the second one represents a norm-bounded variable. First, a composite observer is designed to estimate the uncertain modeled disturbance and actuator fault simultaneously. Then, an FTC strategy consisting of disturbance observer based control (DOBC, fault accommodation, and a mixed H2/H∞ controller is constructed to reconfigure the considered systems with disturbance rejection and attenuation performance. Finally, simulations for a flight control system are given to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  6. Fall risk and incidence reduction in high risk individuals with multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Moon, Yaejin; Wajda, Douglas A; Finlayson, Marcia L; McAuley, Edward; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of three fall prevention programs delivered over 12 weeks among individuals with multiple sclerosis: (A) a home-based exercise program targeting physiological risk factors; (B) an educational program targeting behavioral risk factors; and (C) a combined exercise-and-education program targeting both factors. Randomized controlled trial. Home-based training with assessments at research laboratory. A total of 103 individuals inquired about the investigation. After screening, 37 individuals with multiple sclerosis who had fallen in the last year and ranged in age from 45-75 years volunteered for the investigation. A total of 34 participants completed postassessment following the 12-week intervention. Participants were randomly assigned into one of four conditions: (1) wait-list control (n = 9); (2) home-based exercise (n = 11); (3) education (n = 9); or (4) a combined exercise and education (n = 8) group. Before and after the 12-week interventions, participants underwent a fall risk assessment as determined by the physiological profile assessment and provided information on their fall prevention behaviors as indexed by the Falls Prevention Strategy Survey. Participants completed falls diaries during the three-months postintervention. A total of 34 participants completed postintervention testing. Procedures and processes were found to be feasible. Overall, fall risk scores were lower in the exercise groups (1.15 SD 1.31) compared with the non-exercise groups (2.04 SD 1.04) following the intervention (p fall prevention behaviors (p > 0.05). Further examination of home-based exercise/education programs for reducing falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis is warranted. A total of 108 participants would be needed in a larger randomized controlled trial.ClinicalTrials.org #NCT01956227. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Thoracic paravertebral block versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for pain treatment in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeying, Ge; Liyong, Yuan; Yuebo, Chen; Yu, Zhang; Guangao, Ye; Weihu, Ma; Liujun, Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of thoracic paravertebral block (PVB) on pain management and preservation of pulmonary function compared with intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA) in patients with multiple rib fractures (MRFs). Methods Ninety patients with unilateral MRFs were included in this prospective study and randomly assigned to the TPVB or IVPCA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, blood gas analysis, and bedside spirometry were measured and recorded at different time points after analgesia. Results TPVB and IVPCA provided good pain relief. VAS scores were significantly lower in the TPVB group than in the IVPCA group at rest and during coughing ( P pain relief and preservation of pulmonary function in patients with MRFs.

  8. Demanda por grupos, psicologia e controle Group demand, psychology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão de Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma reflexão sobre uma capacitação para o trabalho grupal, destinado às equipes das UBSs (Unidades Básica de Saúde do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde de um município do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de analisar o pedido explicitado pela equipe, de mostrar a reflexão a respeito desse pedido, as circunstâncias dos problemas colocados, a experiência dos vários trabalhadores da equipe e a escuta do que se passa do lado da população. Parar para ouvir os parceiros do trabalho e refletir sobre a intervenção fez a equipe trabalhar sua sensibilidade diante das questões da população, do que vem a ser saúde e poder assumir outra postura que não seja a de servir ao controle da população e trabalhar para a construção da sociedade de controle.This article brings a reflection about a training for group work developed with UBSs (Basic Units of Health technical staff from SUS (Unified System of Health and agents of health from a county in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The procedure involves: (1 to analyze the explicit demand form the crew, (2 to show a reflection about this demand, (3 to show the context of the problems, (4 to consider the experience of workers on the crew, and (5 to listen to what happens from population's standpoint. Stop listening to the job partners and reflecting about the intervention made the crew work.

  9. Smart Control of Multiple Evaporator Systems with Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar González-Potes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete integration of a fuzzy control of multiple evaporator systems with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, in which we study several important aspects for this kind of system, like a detailed analysis of the end-to-end real-time flows over wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN, a real-time kernel with an earliest deadline first (EDF scheduler, periodic and aperiodic tasking models for the nodes, lightweight and flexible compensation-based control algorithms for WSAN that exhibit packet dropouts, an event-triggered sampling scheme and design methodologies. We address the control problem of the multi-evaporators with the presence of uncertainties, which was tackled through a wireless fuzzy control approach, showing the advantages of this concept where it can easily perform the optimization for a set of multiple evaporators controlled by the same smart controller, which should have an intelligent and flexible architecture based on multi-agent systems (MAS that allows one to add or remove new evaporators online, without the need for reconfiguring, while maintaining temporal and functional restrictions in the system. We show clearly how we can get a greater scalability, the self-configuration of the network and the least overhead with a non-beacon or unslotted mode of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, as well as wireless communications and distributed architectures, which could be extremely helpful in the development process of networked control systems in large spatially-distributed plants, which involve many sensors and actuators. For this purpose, a fuzzy scheme is used to control a set of parallel evaporator air-conditioning systems, with temperature and relative humidity control as a multi-input and multi-output closed loop system; in addition, a general architecture is presented, which implements multiple control loops closed over a communication network, integrating the analysis and validation method for multi

  10. Use of wiener nonlinear MPC to control a CSTR with multiple steady state

    OpenAIRE

    Lusson Cervantes, A.; Agamennoni, O.E.; Figueroa, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control based on a Wiener Model with a Piecewise Linear gain is presented. The major advantages of this algorithm is that it retains all the interesting properties of the classical linear MPC and the computations are easy to solve due to the canonical structure of the nonlinear gain. The proposed control scheme is applied to a nonlinear CSTR that presents multiple steady states.

  11. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  12. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw

  13. All Set! Evidence of Simultaneous Attentional Control Settings for Multiple Target Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jessica L.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Although models of visual search have often assumed that attention can only be set for a single feature or property at a time, recent studies have suggested that it may be possible to maintain more than one attentional control setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional…

  14. Evaluation of biases present in the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candlish, Jane; Pate, Alexander; Sperrin, Matthew; Staa, Tjeerd P van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT) design provides an opportunity to incorporate the benefits of randomisation within clinical practice; thus reducing costs, integrating electronic healthcare records, and improving external validity. This study aims to address a key

  15. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  16. A randomized controlled trial of single versus multiple health behavior change: promoting physical activity and nutrition among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Sallis, James F

    2004-05-01

    Targeting multiple behaviors for change may provide significant health benefits. This study compared interventions targeting physical activity and nutrition (PAN) concurrently versus physical activity (PA) alone. Adolescents (N=138) were randomized to the PAN or PA intervention or control condition (n=46 per group). Primary outcomes were change in PA accelerometer and 3-day dietary recording from baseline to 3-month follow-up. The PAN and PA interventions were efficacious in supporting boys' (pdecrement to PA promotion when a nutrition intervention was added, neither do they reveal any additional benefit. More studies comparing single versus multibehavioral interventions are needed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  17. Intraintestinal drainage as a damage control surgery adjunct in a hypothermic traumatic shock swine model with multiple bowel perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wu; Ding, Weiwei; Liu, Xingdong; Kao, Xiaomin; Xu, Xingwei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-11-01

    Temporary bowel ligation (TL) has been proposed to prevent contamination as a damage control procedure in multiple bowel perforations. However, bacteria translocation and intestinal ischemia may develop in a prolonged duration. We here hypothesized that intraintestinal drainage combined with temporary ligation (D-TL) would decrease intestinal injury and improve survivals in a gunshot multiple bowel perforation swine model in the setting of a damage control surgery. The abdomen was shot one time with an experimental modified gun whereas pigs were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg and maintained in shock for 40 min. Cold lactated Ringer solution was gradually infused to induce hypothermia. Animals were randomized to primary anastomosis, TL and intraintestinal D-TL groups (n = 8). Animals were resuscitated for 12 h with the shed blood and lactated Ringer solution. Delayed anastomosis was performed in TL and D-TL animals after resuscitation. Surviving animals were humanely killed 24 h after operation. Systemic hemodynamic parameters were recorded and blood samples were obtained for biochemical assays. Intra-abdominal pressure, portal vein and peripheral vein bacterial cultures, small intestine hematoxylin-eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopy examination were performed at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after the surgery. All animals suffered extreme physiologic conditions as follows: hypothermia, severe acidosis, hypotension, and depressed cardiac output. Compared with the primary anastomosis and TL group, D-TL animals required less resuscitation fluid, suffered a lower intra-abdominal hypertension and bacterial translocation, normalized lactate levels faster, had lower serum creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase levels and tissue TNF-α level, and nuclear factor-kB activations and thus had greater early survival. Compared with primary intestinal anastomosis and TL, rapid bowel ligation combined with intraintestinal drainage as a damage

  18. Auditory decision aiding in supervisory control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Birsen; Cummings, M L; Graham, Hudson D

    2009-10-01

    This article is an investigation of the effectiveness of sonifications, which are continuous auditory alerts mapped to the state of a monitored task, in supporting unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) supervisory control. UAV supervisory control requires monitoring a UAV across multiple tasks (e.g., course maintenance) via a predominantly visual display, which currently is supported with discrete auditory alerts. Sonification has been shown to enhance monitoring performance in domains such as anesthesiology by allowing an operator to immediately determine an entity's (e.g., patient) current and projected states, and is a promising alternative to discrete alerts in UAV control. However, minimal research compares sonification to discrete alerts, and no research assesses the effectiveness of sonification for monitoring multiple entities (e.g., multiple UAVs). The authors conducted an experiment with 39 military personnel, using a simulated setup. Participants controlled single and multiple UAVs and received sonifications or discrete alerts based on UAV course deviations and late target arrivals. Regardless of the number of UAVs supervised, the course deviation sonification resulted in reactions to course deviations that were 1.9 s faster, a 19% enhancement, compared with discrete alerts. However, course deviation sonifications interfered with the effectiveness of discrete late arrival alerts in general and with operator responses to late arrivals when supervising multiple vehicles. Sonifications can outperform discrete alerts when designed to aid operators to predict future states of monitored tasks. However, sonifications may mask other auditory alerts and interfere with other monitoring tasks that require divided attention. This research has implications for supervisory control display design.

  19. A multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration: Adaptation and validation into Italian and German languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadello, Fabio; Mischo-Kelling, Maria; Wieser, Heike; Cavada, Luisa; Lochner, Lukas; Naletto, Carla; Fink, Verena; Reeves, Scott

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a study that aimed to validate a translation of a multiple-group measurement scale for interprofessional collaboration (IPC). We used survey data gathered over a three month period as part of a mixed methods study that explored the nature of IPC in Northern Italy. Following a translation from English into Italian and German the survey was distributed online to over 5,000 health professionals (dieticians, nurses, occupational therapists, physicians, physiotherapists, speech therapists and psychologists) based in one regional health trust. In total, 2,238 different health professions completed the survey. Based on the original scale, three principal components were extracted and confirmed as relevant factors for IPC (communication, accommodation and isolation). A confirmatory analysis (3-factor model) was applied to the data of physicians and nurses by language group. In conclusion, the validation of the German and Italian IPC scale has provided an instrument of acceptable reliability and validity for the assessment of IPC involving physicians and nurses.

  20. Comparing Multiple-Group Multinomial Log-Linear Models for Multidimensional Skill Distributions in the General Diagnostic Model. Research Report. ETS RR-08-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueli; von Davier, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The general diagnostic model (GDM) utilizes located latent classes for modeling a multidimensional proficiency variable. In this paper, the GDM is extended by employing a log-linear model for multiple populations that assumes constraints on parameters across multiple groups. This constrained model is compared to log-linear models that assume…

  1. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  2. The Dynamics and Sliding Mode Control of Multiple Cooperative Welding Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design, dynamic modelling and sliding mode control of multiple cooperative welding robot manipulators (MWRMs. The MWRMs can handle complex tasks that are difficult or even impossible for a single manipulator. The kinematics and dynamics of the MWRMs are studied on the basis of the Denavit-Hartenberg and Lagrange method. Following that, considering the MWRM system with nonlinear and unknown disturbances, a non-singular terminal sliding mode control strategy is designed. By means of the Lyapunov function, the stability of the controller is proved. Simulation results indicate that the good control performance of the MWRMs is achieved by the non-singular terminal sliding mode controller, which also illustrates the correctness of the dynamic modelling and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  3. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  4. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  5. A two-input sliding-mode controller for a planar arm actuated by four pneumatic muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, John H; Quesada, Peter M

    2004-09-01

    Multiple-input sliding-mode techniques are applied to a planar arm actuated by four groups of pneumatic muscle (PM) actuators in opposing pair configuration. The control objective is end-effector tracking of a desired path in Cartesian space. The inputs to the system are commanded input pressure differentials for the two opposing PM groups. An existing model for the muscle is incorporated into the arm equations of motion to arrive at a two-input, two-output nonlinear model of the planar arm that is affine in the input and, therefore, suitable for sliding-mode techniques. Relationships between static input pressures are derived for suitable arm behavior in the absence of a control signal. Simulation studies are reported.

  6. The effects of video-game training on broad cognitive transfer in multiple sclerosis: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Alisha; Boster, Aaron; Lee, HyunKyu; Patterson, Beth; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that results in diffuse nerve damage and associated physical and cognitive impairments. Of the few comprehensive rehabilitation options that exist for populations with lower baseline cognitive functioning, those that have been successful at eliciting broad cognitive improvements have focused on a multimodal training approach, emphasizing complex cognitive processing that utilizes multiple domains simultaneously. The current study sought to determine the feasibility of an 8-week, hybrid-variable priority training (HVT) program, with a secondary aim to assess the success of this training paradigm at eliciting broad cognitive transfer effects. Capitalizing on the multimodal training modalities offered by the Space Fortress platform, we compared the HVT strategy-based intervention with a waitlist control group, to primarily assess skill acquisition and secondarily determine presence of cognitive transfer. Twenty-eight participants met inclusionary criteria for the study and were randomized to either training or waitlist control groups. To assess broad transfer effects, a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered pre- and post-intervention. The results indicated an overall improvement in skill acquisition and evidence for the feasibility of the intervention, but a lack of broad transfer to tasks of cognitive functioning. Participants in the training group, however, did show improvements on a measure of spatial short-term memory. The current investigation provided support for the feasibility of a multimodal training approach, using the HVT strategy, within the MS population, but lacked broad transfer to multiple domains of cognitive functioning. Future improvements to obtain greater cognitive transfer efficacy would include a larger sample size, a longer course of training to evoke greater game score improvement, the inclusion of only cognitively impaired individuals, and

  7. A Dynamic Active Multicast Group Access Control Framework Based on Trust Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chang; CHEN Xiaolin; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    The current multicast model provides no access control mechanism. Any host can send data directly to a multicast address or join a multicast group to become a member, which brings safety problems to multicast. In this paper, we present a new active multicast group access control mechanism that is founded on trust management. This structure can solve the problem that exists in multicast members' access control and distributing authorization of traditional IP multicast.

  8. Real-Time Optimal Flood Control Decision Making and Risk Propagation Under Multiple Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feilin; Zhong, Ping-An; Sun, Yimeng; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple uncertainties exist in the optimal flood control decision-making process, presenting risks involving flood control decisions. This paper defines the main steps in optimal flood control decision making that constitute the Forecast-Optimization-Decision Making (FODM) chain. We propose a framework for supporting optimal flood control decision making under multiple uncertainties and evaluate risk propagation along the FODM chain from a holistic perspective. To deal with uncertainties, we employ stochastic models at each link of the FODM chain. We generate synthetic ensemble flood forecasts via the martingale model of forecast evolution. We then establish a multiobjective stochastic programming with recourse model for optimal flood control operation. The Pareto front under uncertainty is derived via the constraint method coupled with a two-step process. We propose a novel SMAA-TOPSIS model for stochastic multicriteria decision making. Then we propose the risk assessment model, the risk of decision-making errors and rank uncertainty degree to quantify the risk propagation process along the FODM chain. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the effects of flood forecast uncertainty on optimal flood control decision making and risk propagation. We apply the proposed methodology to a flood control system in the Daduhe River basin in China. The results indicate that the proposed method can provide valuable risk information in each link of the FODM chain and enable risk-informed decisions with higher reliability.

  9. A high-density ERP study reveals latency, amplitude, and topographical differences in multiple sclerosis patients versus controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelan, R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify latency, amplitude and topographical differences in event-related potential (ERP) components between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls and to compare ERP findings with results from the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). METHODS: Fifty-four subjects (17 relapsing remitting (RRMS) patients, 16 secondary progressive (SPMS) patients, and 21 controls) completed visual and auditory oddball tasks while data were recorded from 134 EEG channels. Latency and amplitude differences, calculated using composite mean amplitude measures, were tested using an ANOVA. Topographical differences were tested using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). RESULTS: In the visual modality, P2, P3 amplitudes and N2 latency were significantly different across groups. In the auditory modality, P2, N2, and P3 latencies and N1 amplitude were significantly different across groups. There were no significant differences between RRMS and SPMS patients on any ERP component. There were topographical differences between MS patients and controls for both early and late components for the visual modality, but only in the early components for the auditory modality. PASAT score correlated significantly with auditory P3 latency for MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant ERP differences between MS patients and controls. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicated that both early sensory and later cognitive ERP components are impaired in MS patients relative to controls.

  10. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse.Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers.Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis.We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  11. Multiple sclerosis patients have a diminished serologic response to vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Pavan; Steele, Sonya U; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Revirajan, Nisha R; Marcus, Jacqueline; Dembele, Marieme; Cassard, Sandra D; Hollis, Bruce W; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mowry, Ellen M

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and patients do not always show the expected response to vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to determine if vitamin D supplementation leads to a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with MS and healthy controls (HCs). Participants in this open-label study were female, white, aged 18-60 years, had 25(OH)D levels ⩽ 75 nmol/l at screening, and had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or were HCs. Participants received 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 90 days. Utilizing generalized estimating equations we examined the relationship between the primary outcome (serum 25(OH)D level) and the primary (MS versus HC status) and secondary predictors. For this study 27 MS patients and 30 HCs were enrolled. There was no significant difference in baseline 25(OH)D level or demographics except for higher body mass index (BMI) in the MS group (25.3 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p=0.035). In total, 24 MS subjects and 29 HCs completed the study. In a multivariate model accounting for BMI, medication adherence, and oral contraceptive use, MS patients had a 16.7 nmol/l (95%CI: 4.2, 29.2, p=0.008) lower increase in 25(OH)D levels compared with HCs. Patients with MS had a lower increase in 25(OH)D levels with supplementation, even after accounting for putative confounders. © The Author(s), 2015.

  12. Coordinated voltage control for multiple wind plants in Eastern Wyoming. Analysis, field experience and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas; MacDowell, Jason; Chmiel, Gary; Konopinski, Ryan; Gautam, Durga [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States); Laughter, Grant; Hagen, Dave [PacifiCorp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At high levels of wind power penetration, multiple wind plants may be the predominant generation resource over large geographic areas. Thus, not only do wind plants need to provide a high level of functionality, they must coordinate properly with each other. This paper describes the analysis and field testing of wind plant voltage controllers designed to improve system voltage performance through passive coordination. The described wind power plant controls can coordinate the real and reactive power response of multiple wind turbines and thereby make the plant function as a single ''grid friendly'' power generation source. For this application, involving seven large wind plants with predominantly GE wind turbines in Eastern Wyoming, the voltage portion of the controllers were configured and tuned to allow the collective reactive power response of multiple wind plants in the region to work well together. This paper presents the results of the initial configuration and tuning study, and the results of the subsequent field tuning and testing of the modified controls. The paper also presents some comparisons of the measured field performance with the stability simulation models, which show that the available wind plant models provide accurate, high fidelity results for actual operating conditions of commercial wind power plants. (orig.)

  13. Deficits in medio-lateral balance control and the implications for falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S; Rynders, C A; Sosnoff, J J

    2016-09-01

    A major health concern faced by individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the heightened risk of falling. Reasons for this increased risk can often be traced back to declines in neurophysiological mechanisms underlying balance control and/or muscular strength. The aim of this study was to assess differences between persons with MS and age-matched healthy adults in regards to their falls risk, strength, reactions and directional control of balance. Twenty-two persons with multiple sclerosis (mean age 56.3±8.9 years) and 22 age-matched healthy adults (mean age 59.1±7.1 years) participated in the study. Assessments of falls risk, balance, fear of falling, lower limb strength, and reaction time were performed. Balance control was assessed under four conditions where the combined effects of vision (eyes open/closed) and standing surface (firm/pliable surface) were evaluated. Results demonstrated that, in comparison to healthy older adults, persons with MS had a significantly higher falls risk, slower reaction times, and weaker lower- limb strength. For balance, persons with MS exhibited greater overall COP motion in both the medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions compared to older adults. Additionally, during more challenging balance conditions, persons from the MS group exhibited greater ML motion compared to sway in the AP direction. Overall, the results confirm that persons with MS are often at a heightened risk of falling, due to the multitude of neuromuscular changes brought about by this disease process. However, the increased ML sway for the MS group could reflect a decreased ability to control side-to-side motion in comparison to controlling AP sway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Can Multiple Lifestyle Behaviours Be Improved in People with Familial Hypercholesterolemia? Results of a Parallel Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.; Koppes, Lando L.; Kindt, Iris; Brug, Johannes; van Mechelen, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an individualised tailored lifestyle intervention on physical activity, dietary intake, smoking and compliance to statin therapy in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH). Methods Adults with FH (n = 340) were randomly assigned to a usual care control group or an intervention group. The intervention consisted of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and face-to-face counselling. Physical activity, fat, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking and compliance to statin therapy were self-reported at baseline and after 12 months. Regression analyses were conducted to examine between-group differences. Intervention reach, dose and fidelity were assessed. Results In both groups, non-significant improvements in all lifestyle behaviours were found. Post-hoc analyses showed a significant decrease in saturated fat intake among women in the intervention group (β = −1.03; CI −1.98/−0.03). In the intervention group, 95% received a log on account, of which 49% logged on and completed one module. Nearly all participants received face-to-face counselling and on average, 4.2 telephone booster calls. Intervention fidelity was low. Conclusions Individually tailored feedback is not superior to no intervention regarding changes in multiple lifestyle behaviours in people with FH. A higher received dose of computer-tailored interventions should be achieved by uplifting the website and reducing the burden of screening questionnaires. Counsellor training should be more extensive. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1899 PMID:23251355

  15. Hierarchical Robot Control System and Method for Controlling Select Degrees of Freedom of an Object Using Multiple Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having manipulators for grasping an object using one of a plurality of grasp types during a primary task, and a controller. The controller controls the manipulators during the primary task using a multiple-task control hierarchy, and automatically parameterizes the internal forces of the system for each grasp type in response to an input signal. The primary task is defined at an object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain transformation, such that only select degrees of freedom are commanded for the object. A control system for the robotic system has a host machine and algorithm for controlling the manipulators using the above hierarchy. A method for controlling the system includes receiving and processing the input signal using the host machine, including defining the primary task at the object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain definition, and parameterizing the internal forces for each of grasp type.

  16. Mosasauroid phylogeny under multiple phylogenetic methods provides new insights on the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago R Simões

    Full Text Available Mosasauroids were a successful lineage of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes that radiated during the Late Cretaceous (95-66 million years ago. They can be considered one of the few lineages in the evolutionary history of tetrapods to have acquired a fully aquatic lifestyle, similarly to whales, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a long history of research on this group, their phylogenetic relationships have only been tested so far using traditional (unweighted maximum parsimony. However, hypotheses of mosasauroid relationships and the recently proposed multiple origins of aquatically adapted pelvic and pedal features in this group can be more thoroughly tested by methods that take into account variation in branch lengths and evolutionary rates. In this study, we present the first mosasauroid phylogenetic analysis performed under different analytical methods, including maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and implied weighting maximum parsimony. The results indicate a lack of congruence in the topological position of halisaurines and Dallasaurus. Additionally, the genus Prognathodon is paraphyletic under all hypotheses. Interestingly, a number of traditional mosasauroid clades become weakly supported, or unresolved, under Bayesian analyses. The reduced resolutions in some consensus trees create ambiguities concerning the evolution of fully aquatic pelvic/pedal conditions under many analyses. However, when enough resolution was obtained, reversals of the pelvic/pedal conditions were favoured by parsimony and likelihood ancestral state reconstructions instead of independent origins of aquatic features in mosasauroids. It is concluded that most of the observed discrepancies among the results can be associated with different analytical procedures, but also due to limited postcranial data on halisaurines, yaguarasaurines and Dallasaurus.

  17. Mosasauroid phylogeny under multiple phylogenetic methods provides new insights on the evolution of aquatic adaptations in the group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernygora, Oksana; Paparella, Ilaria; Jimenez-Huidobro, Paulina; Caldwell, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Mosasauroids were a successful lineage of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) that radiated during the Late Cretaceous (95–66 million years ago). They can be considered one of the few lineages in the evolutionary history of tetrapods to have acquired a fully aquatic lifestyle, similarly to whales, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Despite a long history of research on this group, their phylogenetic relationships have only been tested so far using traditional (unweighted) maximum parsimony. However, hypotheses of mosasauroid relationships and the recently proposed multiple origins of aquatically adapted pelvic and pedal features in this group can be more thoroughly tested by methods that take into account variation in branch lengths and evolutionary rates. In this study, we present the first mosasauroid phylogenetic analysis performed under different analytical methods, including maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and implied weighting maximum parsimony. The results indicate a lack of congruence in the topological position of halisaurines and Dallasaurus. Additionally, the genus Prognathodon is paraphyletic under all hypotheses. Interestingly, a number of traditional mosasauroid clades become weakly supported, or unresolved, under Bayesian analyses. The reduced resolutions in some consensus trees create ambiguities concerning the evolution of fully aquatic pelvic/pedal conditions under many analyses. However, when enough resolution was obtained, reversals of the pelvic/pedal conditions were favoured by parsimony and likelihood ancestral state reconstructions instead of independent origins of aquatic features in mosasauroids. It is concluded that most of the observed discrepancies among the results can be associated with different analytical procedures, but also due to limited postcranial data on halisaurines, yaguarasaurines and Dallasaurus. PMID:28467456

  18. Full-order optimal compensators for flow control: the multiple inputs case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Onofrio; Pralits, Jan O.

    2018-03-01

    Flow control has been the subject of numerous experimental and theoretical works. We analyze full-order, optimal controllers for large dynamical systems in the presence of multiple actuators and sensors. The full-order controllers do not require any preliminary model reduction or low-order approximation: this feature allows us to assess the optimal performance of an actuated flow without relying on any estimation process or further hypothesis on the disturbances. We start from the original technique proposed by Bewley et al. (Meccanica 51(12):2997-3014, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11012-016-0547-3), the adjoint of the direct-adjoint (ADA) algorithm. The algorithm is iterative and allows bypassing the solution of the algebraic Riccati equation associated with the optimal control problem, typically infeasible for large systems. In this numerical work, we extend the ADA iteration into a more general framework that includes the design of controllers with multiple, coupled inputs and robust controllers (H_{∞} methods). First, we demonstrate our results by showing the analytical equivalence between the full Riccati solutions and the ADA approximations in the multiple inputs case. In the second part of the article, we analyze the performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence of the solution, by comparing it with analogous techniques. We find an excellent scalability with the number of inputs (actuators), making the method a viable way for full-order control design in complex settings. Finally, the applicability of the algorithm to fluid mechanics problems is shown using the linearized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation and the Kármán vortex street past a two-dimensional cylinder.

  19. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images for inspection. Due to the spatial-temporal decoupling characteristics of individual path following controller, the velocities of the followers can be adapted in the coordinated control level, only relying on the information of generalized along-path length from the leader, in order to build the desired formation. Thus, the communication variable broadcast from the leader is kept to a minimum, which is feasible under the severely constraints of acoustic communication bandwidth. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of coordinated formation controller proposed for underwater pipeline inspection.

  20. Multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in children with an autism spectrum disorder: 'Weak' central coherence and its relationship to theory of mind and executive control

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicano, E.; Maybery, M.; Durkin, K.; Maley, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the validity of “weak” central coherence (CC) in the context of multiple cognitive capabilities/deficits in autism. Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and matched typically developing children were administered tasks tapping visuospatial coherence, false-belief understanding and aspects of executive control. Significant group differences were found in all three cognitive domains. Evidence of local processing on coherence tasks was widespread in the ASD group, ...

  1. Two-group Current-equivalent Parameters for Control Rod Cells. Autocode Programme CRCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norinder, O; Nyman, K

    1962-06-15

    In two-group neutron diffusion calculations there is mostly necessary to describe the influence of control rods by equivalent homogeneous two-group parameters in regions about the control rods. The problem is solved for a control rod in a medium characterized by two-group parameters. The property of fast and thermal neutr. on current equivalence is selected to obtain equivalent two-group parameters for a homogeneous cell with the same radius as the control rod cell. For the parameters determined one obtains the same fast and thermal neutron current into the rod cell and the equivalent cell independent of the fast and thermal flux amplitudes on the cell boundaries. The equivalent parameters are obtained as a solution of a system of transcendental equations. A Ferranti Mercury Autocode performing the solution is described. Calculated equivalent parameters for control rods in a heavy water lattice are given for some representative cases.

  2. Stable Flocking of Multiple Agents Based on Molecular Potential Field and Distributed Receding Horizon Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yun-Peng; Duan Hai-Bin; Zhang Xiang-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A novel distributed control scheme to generate stable flocking motion for a group of agents is proposed. In this control scheme, a molecular potential field model is applied as the potential field function because of its smoothness and unique shape. The approach of distributed receding horizon control is adopted to drive each agent to find its optimal control input to lower its potential at every step. Experimental results show that this proposed control scheme can ensure that all agents eventually converge to a stable flocking formation with a common velocity and the collisions can also be avoided at the same time. (general)

  3. The third spatial dimension risk approach for individual risk and group risk in multiple use of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam

  4. Public Transportation Hub Location with Stochastic Demand: An Improved Approach Based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transportation hubs are the key nodes of the public transportation system. The location of such hubs is a combinatorial problem. Many factors can affect the decision-making of location, including both quantitative and qualitative factors; however, most current research focuses solely on either the quantitative or the qualitative factors. Little has been done to combine these two approaches. To fulfill this gap in the research, this paper proposes a novel approach to the public transportation hub location problem, which takes both quantitative and qualitative factors into account. In this paper, an improved multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM method based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution and deviation is proposed to convert the qualitative factors of each hub into quantitative evaluation values. A location model with stochastic passenger flows is then established based on the above evaluation values. Finally, stochastic programming theory is applied to solve the model and to determine the location result. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  5. Multiple Model Predictive Hybrid Feedforward Control of Fuel Cell Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is widely considered as an alternative solution among the family of the sustainable distributed generation. Its load flexibility enables it adjusting the power output to meet the requirements from power grid balance. Although promising, its control is challenging when faced with load changes, during which the output voltage is required to be maintained as constant and fuel utilization rate kept within a safe range. Moreover, it makes the control even more intractable because of the multivariable coupling and strong nonlinearity within the wide-range operating conditions. To this end, this paper developed a multiple model predictive control strategy for reliable SOFC operation. The resistance load is regarded as a measurable disturbance, which is an input to the model predictive control as feedforward compensation. The coupling is accommodated by the receding horizon optimization. The nonlinearity is mitigated by the multiple linear models, the weighted sum of which serves as the final control execution. The merits of the proposed control structure are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  6. Effects of Pilates exercises on sensory interaction, postural control and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal Tomruk, Melda; Uz, Muhammed Zahid; Kara, Bilge; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-05-01

    Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (pPilates training (ppilates exercises (p>0.05). Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between trunk performance, gait and postural control in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Jane E; Stetts, Deborah M; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2016-06-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system. Compared to healthy individuals, persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) have increased postural sway in quiet stance, decreased gait speed and increased fall incidence. Trunk performance has been implicated in postural control, gait dysfunction, and fall prevention in older adults. However, the relationship of trunk performance to postural control and gait has not been adequately studied in PwMS. To compare trunk muscle structure and performance in PwMS to healthy age and gendered-matched controls (HC); to determine the effects of isometric trunk endurance testing on postural control in both populations; and to determine the relationship of trunk performance with postural control, gait and step activity in PwMS. Fifteen PwMS and HC completed ultrasound imaging of trunk muscles, 10 m walk test, isometric trunk endurance tests, and postural sway test. Participants wore a step activity monitor for 7 days. PwMS had worse isometric trunk endurance compared to HC. PwMS trunk flexion endurance negatively correlated to several postural control measures and positively correlated to gait speed and step activity. Clinicians should consider evaluation and interventions directed at impaired trunk endurance in PwMS.

  8. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia across age groups: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiołek, Anna; Gierus, Jacek; Koweszko, Tytus; Szulc, Agata

    2016-02-24

    The potential dynamics of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is discussed in the literature of the field. Recent publications suggest modest changes in level of cognitive impairment after first psychotic episode. Present article attempts to explore cognitive differences between patients and controls across age groups and differences between age groups in clinical group. One hundred and twenty-eight hospitalized patients with schizophrenia (64 women and 64 men) and 68 individuals from the control group (32 women and 32 men) aged 18-55 years were examined. The patients were divided into age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55). Both groups were examined using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Trail Making Test (A and B), Stroop Test, verbal fluency test and Wechsler digit span. Patients with schizophrenia obtained significantly lower scores versus the control group in regard to all the measured cognitive functions (Mann-Whitney U; p age groups, however, statistically important impairment in executive functions (WCST) were present only in "older" groups. Patients with schizophrenia obtained less favourable results than the control group in all age groups. Deficits regarding executive functions do not seem to be at a significant level among the youngest group, whereas they are more noticeable in the group of 46-55-year-olds. Executive functions are significantly lowered in the group aged 36-45 in comparison to the "younger" groups. The level of cognitive functions shows a mild exacerbation in connection with age, whereas cognitive rigidity proved to be related to the number of years spent without hospital treatment.

  9. A distributed Synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol for mobile Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanling; SUN Xianpu; LI Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new multiple access control protocol named distributed synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol.in which the hidden and exposed terminal problems are solved,and the quality of service(QoS)requirements for real-time traffic are guaranteed.The protocol is founded on time division multiplex address and a different type of traffic is assigned to difierent priority,according to which a node should compete for and reserve the free slots in a different method.Moreover,there is a reservation acknowledgement process before data transmit in each reserved slot,so that the intruded terminal problem is solved.The throughput and average packets drop probability of this protocol are analyzed and simulated in a fully connected network.the results of which indicate that this protocol is efficient enough to support the real-time traffic.and it is more suitable to MANETs.

  10. A multiple-fan active control wind tunnel for outdoor wind speed and direction simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ying; Meng, Qing-Hao; Luo, Bing; Zeng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a new type of active controlled multiple-fan wind tunnel. The wind tunnel consists of swivel plates and arrays of direct current fans, and the rotation speed of each fan and the shaft angle of each swivel plate can be controlled independently for simulating different kinds of outdoor wind fields. To measure the similarity between the simulated wind field and the outdoor wind field, wind speed and direction time series of two kinds of wind fields are recorded by nine two-dimensional ultrasonic anemometers, and then statistical properties of the wind signals in different time scales are analyzed based on the empirical mode decomposition. In addition, the complexity of wind speed and direction time series is also investigated using multiscale entropy and multivariate multiscale entropy. Results suggest that the simulated wind field in the multiple-fan wind tunnel has a high degree of similarity with the outdoor wind field.

  11. A nonlinear disturbance-decoupled elevation axis controller for the Multiple Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dusty; Trebisky, Tom; Powell, Keith

    2008-07-01

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), upgraded in 2000 to a monolithic 6.5m primary mirror from its original array of six 1.8m primary mirrors, was commissioned with axis controllers designed early in the upgrade process without regard to structural resonances or the possibility of the need for digital filtering of the control axis signal path. Post-commissioning performance issues led us to investigate replacement of the original control system with a more modern digital controller with full control over the system filters and gain paths. This work, from system identification through controller design iteration by simulation, and pre-deployment hardware-in-the-loop testing, was performed using latest-generation tools with Matlab® and Simulink®. Using Simulink's Real Time Workshop toolbox to automatically generate C source code for the controller from the Simulink diagram and a custom target build script, we were able to deploy the new controller into our existing software infrastructure running Wind River's VxWorks™real-time operating system. This paper describes the process of the controller design, including system identification data collection, with discussion of implementation of non-linear control modes and disturbance decoupling, which became necessary to obtain acceptable wind buffeting rejection.

  12. Formation Learning Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles With Heterogeneous Nonlinear Uncertain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengzhi; Licht, Stephen; He, Haibo

    2017-09-26

    In this paper, a new concept of formation learning control is introduced to the field of formation control of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which specifies a joint objective of distributed formation tracking control and learning/identification of nonlinear uncertain AUV dynamics. A novel two-layer distributed formation learning control scheme is proposed, which consists of an upper-layer distributed adaptive observer and a lower-layer decentralized deterministic learning controller. This new formation learning control scheme advances existing techniques in three important ways: 1) the multi-AUV system under consideration has heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics; 2) the formation learning control protocol can be designed and implemented by each local AUV agent in a fully distributed fashion without using any global information; and 3) in addition to the formation control performance, the distributed control protocol is also capable of accurately identifying the AUVs' heterogeneous nonlinear uncertain dynamics and utilizing experiences to improve formation control performance. Extensive simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of serum group I and group II pepsinogens in normal controls and patients with various disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, M.; Miki, K.; Hayashi, R.; Niwa, H.; Oka, H.; Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takahashi, K.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human group I pepsinogens (PgI) in serum was developed, using PgI purified from gastric mucosa. The sensitivity (0.7 μg/l) and reproducibility of the assay were satisfactory for clinical use. In normal controls total serum pepsinogen (T-Pg) level was 58.9 +- 31.7 μg/l (mean +- SD) (PgI, 43.6 +- 25.0 μg/l; PgII, 15.3 +- 11.1 μg/l). Peptic ulcer cases had elevated T-Pg levels (gastric ulcer, gastroduodenal ulcer and duodenal ulcer, in increasing order of magnitude). T-Pg levels were not useful for diagnosis of peptic ulcer because of a large overlap with normal controls. T-Pg levels were low in patients with gastric polyp and in aged subjects. In these groups, the decrease of PgI was more marked than that of PgII. (Auth.)

  14. Radioimmunoassay of serum group I and group II pepsinogens in normal controls and patients with various disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, M.; Miki, K.; Hayashi, R.; Niwa, H.; Oka, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Furihata, C.; Matsushima, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Medical Science); Kageyama, T.; Takahashi, K. (Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Inst.)

    1982-12-09

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human group I pepsinogens (PgI) in serum was developed, using PgI purified from gastric mucosa. The sensitivity (0.7 ..mu..g/l) and reproducibility of the assay were satisfactory for clinical use. In normal controls total serum pepsinogen (T-Pg) level was 58.9 +- 31.7 ..mu..g/l (mean +- SD) (PgI, 43.6 +- 25.0 ..mu..g/l; PgII, 15.3 +- 11.1 ..mu..g/l). Peptic ulcer cases had elevated T-Pg levels (gastric ulcer, gastroduodenal ulcer and duodenal ulcer, in increasing order of magnitude). T-Pg levels were not useful for diagnosis of peptic ulcer because of a large overlap with normal controls. T-Pg levels were low in patients with gastric polyp and in aged subjects. In these groups, the decrease of PgI was more marked than that of PgII.

  15. Home-based exercise program and fall-risk reduction in older adults with multiple sclerosis: phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Finlayson, Marcia; McAuley, Edward; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a home-based exercise intervention targeting fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. A randomized controlled pilot trial. A home-based exercise program. Participants were randomly allocated to either a home-based exercise intervention group (n = 13) or a waiting list control group (n = 14). The exercise group completed exercises targeting lower muscle strength and balance three times a week for 12 weeks. The control group continued normal activity. Fall risk (Physiological Profile Assessment scores), balance (Berg Balance Scale), and walking testing prior to and immediately following the 12-week intervention. Each outcome measure was placed in an analysis of covariance with group as the between-subject factor and baseline values as the covariate. Effect sizes were calculated. Twelve participants from the control group and ten from the exercise group completed the study. There were no related adverse events. Fall risk was found to decrease in the exercise group following the intervention (1.1 SD 1.0 vs. 0.6 SD 0.6) while there was an increase in fall risk in the control group (1.9 SD 1.5 vs. 2.2 SD 1.9). Effect sizes for most outcomes were large (η(2) > 0.15). Home-based exercise was found to be feasible, safe, and effective for reducing physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. Our findings support the implementation of a larger trial to reduce fall risk in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  16. Multiple Language Use Influences Oculomotor Task Performance: Neurophysiological Evidence of a Shared Substrate between Language and Motor Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Heidlmayr

    Full Text Available In the present electroencephalographical study, we asked to which extent executive control processes are shared by both the language and motor domain. The rationale was to examine whether executive control processes whose efficiency is reinforced by the frequent use of a second language can lead to a benefit in the control of eye movements, i.e. a non-linguistic activity. For this purpose, we administrated to 19 highly proficient late French-German bilingual participants and to a control group of 20 French monolingual participants an antisaccade task, i.e. a specific motor task involving control. In this task, an automatic saccade has to be suppressed while a voluntary eye movement in the opposite direction has to be carried out. Here, our main hypothesis is that an advantage in the antisaccade task should be observed in the bilinguals if some properties of the control processes are shared between linguistic and motor domains. ERP data revealed clear differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Critically, we showed an increased N2 effect size in bilinguals, thought to reflect better efficiency to monitor conflict, combined with reduced effect sizes on markers reflecting inhibitory control, i.e. cue-locked positivity, the target-locked P3 and the saccade-locked presaccadic positivity (PSP. Moreover, effective connectivity analyses (dynamic causal modelling; DCM on the neuronal source level indicated that bilinguals rely more strongly on ACC-driven control while monolinguals rely on PFC-driven control. Taken together, our combined ERP and effective connectivity findings may reflect a dynamic interplay between strengthened conflict monitoring, associated with subsequently more efficient inhibition in bilinguals. Finally, L2 proficiency and immersion experience constitute relevant factors of the language background that predict efficiency of inhibition. To conclude, the present study provided ERP and effective connectivity evidence for domain

  17. FPGA implementation of high-frequency multiple PWM for variable voltage variable frequency controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boumaaraf, Abdelâali, E-mail: aboumaaraf@yahoo.fr [Université Abbès Laghrour, Laboratoire des capteurs, Instrumentations et procédés (LCIP), Khenchela (Algeria); University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Mohamadi, Tayeb [University of Farhat Abbas Setif1, Sétif, 19000 (Algeria); Gourmat, Laïd [Université Abbès Laghrour, Khenchela, 40000 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we present the FPGA implementation of the multiple pulse width modulation (MPWM) signal generation with repetition of data segments, applied to the variable frequency variable voltage systems and specially at to the photovoltaic water pumping system, in order to generate a signal command very easily between 10 Hz to 60 Hz with a small frequency and reduce the cost of the control system.

  18. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervent...

  19. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-01-01

    groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications...... with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). Results The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0–2), 0.5% (0–1%). We identified...

  20. Summary Report of Working Group 5: Beam and Radiation Generation, Monitoring, and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, Mike; Kim, Kiyong

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  1. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (ppostural control performance (ppostural control shown by these women.

  2. Mildly disabled persons with multiple sclerosis use similar net joint power strategies as healthy controls when walking speed increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincks, John; Christensen, Lars Ejsing; Rehnquist, Mette Voigt; Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    To improve walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of walking. This study examined strategies in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors, and plantar flexors in mildly disabled persons with MS and healthy controls at different walking speeds. Thirteen persons with MS and thirteen healthy controls participated and peak net joint power was calculated using 3D motion analysis. In general, no differences were found between speed-matched healthy controls and persons with MS, but the fastest walking speed was significantly higher in healthy controls (2.42 m/s vs. 1.70 m/s). The net joint power increased in hip flexors, hip extensors, hip abductors, knee extensors and plantar flexors in both groups, when walking speed increased. Significant correlations between changes in walking speed and changes in net joint power of plantar flexors, hip extensors and hip flexors existed in healthy controls and persons with MS, and in net knee extensor absorption power of persons with MS only. In contrast to previous studies, these findings suggest that mildly disabled persons with MS used similar kinetic strategies as healthy controls to increase walking speed.

  3. Control room conceptual design of nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Qianqian; Qu Ronghong; Zhang Liangju

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual design of the control room layout for the nuclear power plant with multiple modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors has been developed. The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors may need to be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands to realize the economic efficiency. There are many differences between the multi-modular plant and the current NPPs in the control room. These differences may include the staffing level, the human-machine interface design, the operation mode, etc. The potential challenges of the human factor engineering (HFE) in the control room of the multi-modular plant are analyzed, including the operation workload of the multi-modular tasks, how to help the crew to keep situation awareness of all modules, and how to support team work, the control of shared system between modules, etc. A concept design of control room for the multi-modular plant is presented based on the design aspect of HTR-PM (High temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble bed module). HFE issues are considered in the conceptual design of control room for the multi-modular plant and some design strategies are presented. As a novel conceptual design, verifications and validations are needed, and focus of further work is sketch out. (author)

  4. Posterior paramedian subrhomboidal analgesia versus thoracic epidural analgesia for pain control in patients with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Casey L; Berry, Stepheny; Howard, James; De Ruyter, Martin; Thepthepha, Melissa; Nazir, Niaman; McDonald, Tracy; Dalton, Annemarie; Moncure, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Rib fractures are common in trauma admissions and are associated with an increased risk of pulmonary complications, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality. Providing adequate pain control in patients with multiple rib fractures decreases the risk of adverse events. Thoracic epidural analgesia is currently the preferred method for pain control. This study compared outcomes in patients with multiple acute rib fractures treated with posterior paramedian subrhomboidal (PoPS) analgesia versus thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA). This prospective study included 30 patients with three or more acute rib fractures admitted to a Level I trauma center. Thoracic epidural analgesia or PoPS catheters were placed, and local anesthesia was infused. Data were collected including patients' pain level, adjunct morphine equivalent use, adverse events, length of stay, lung volumes, and discharge disposition. Nonparametric tests were used and two-sided p Pain rating was lower in the PoPS group (2.5 vs. 5; p = 0.03) after initial placement. Overall, there was no other statistically significant difference in pain control or use of oral morphine adjuncts between the groups. Hypotension occurred in eight patients, 75% with TEA and only 25% with PoPS. No difference was found in adverse events, length of stay, lung volumes, or discharge disposition. In patients with rib fractures, PoPS analgesia may provide pain control equivalent to TEA while being less invasive and more readily placed by a variety of hospital staff. This pilot study is limited by its small sample size, and therefore additional studies are needed to prove equivalence of PoPS compared to TEA. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  5. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D. [EURATOM-CEA Association (DSM-DRFC), CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Moreau, D. [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ariola, M. [EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE Association, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Cordoliani, V. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Tala, T. [EURATOM-Tekes Association, VTT Processes (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  6. A multiple-time-scale approach to the control of ITBs on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, L.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, D.; Ariola, M.; Cordoliani, V.; Tala, T.

    2005-01-01

    The simultaneous real-time control of the current and temperature gradient profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. Recent experiments in JET have demonstrated significant progress in achieving such a control: different current and temperature gradient target profiles have been reached and sustained for several seconds using a controller based on a static linear model. It's worth noting that the inverse safety factor profile evolves on a slow time scale (resistive time) while the normalized electron temperature gradient reacts on a faster one (confinement time). Moreover these experiments have shown that the controller was sensitive to rapid plasma events such as transient ITBs during the safety factor profile evolution or MHD instabilities which modify the pressure profiles on the confinement time scale. In order to take into account the different dynamics of the controlled profiles and to better react to rapid plasma events the control technique is being improved by using a multiple-time-scale approximation. The paper describes the theoretical analysis and closed-loop simulations using a control algorithm based on two-time-scale state-space model. These closed-loop simulations using the full dynamic but linear model used for the controller design to simulate the plasma response have demonstrated that this new controller allows the normalized electron temperature gradient target profile to be reached faster than the one used in previous experiments. (A.C.)

  7. Simultaneous control of multiple instruments at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik M.; Goodrich, Bret

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4-meter solar observatory under construction at Haleakala, Hawaii. The simultaneous use of multiple instruments is one of the unique capabilities that makes the ATST a premier ground based solar observatory. Control of the instrument suite is accomplished by the Instrument Control System (ICS), a layer of software between the Observatory Control System (OCS) and the instruments. The ICS presents a single narrow interface to the OCS and provides a standard interface for the instruments to be controlled. It is built upon the ATST Common Services Framework (CSF), an infrastructure for the implementation of a distributed control system. The ICS responds to OCS commands and events, coordinating and distributing them to the various instruments while monitoring their progress and reporting the status back to the OCS. The ICS requires no specific knowledge about the instruments. All information about the instruments used in an experiment is passed by the OCS to the ICS, which extracts and forwards the parameters to the appropriate instrument controllers. The instruments participating in an experiment define the active instrument set. A subset of those instruments must complete their observing activities in order for the experiment to be considered complete and are referred to as the must-complete instrument set. In addition, instruments may participate in eavesdrop mode, outside of the control of the ICS. All instrument controllers use the same standard narrow interface, which allows new instruments to be added without having to modify the interface or any existing instrument controllers.

  8. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  9. Multiple-Time-Scales Hierarchical Frequency Stability Control Strategy of Medium-Voltage Isolated Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhuoli; Yang, Ping; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an islanded medium-voltage (MV) microgrid placed in Dongao Island is presented, which integrates renewable-energy-based distributed generations (DGs), energy storage system (ESS), and local loads. In an isolated microgrid without connection to the main grid to support the frequency......, it is more complex to control and manage. Thus in order to maintain the frequency stability in multiple-time-scales, a hierarchical control strategy is proposed. The proposed control architecture divides the system frequency in three zones: (A) stable zone, (B) precautionary zone and (C) emergency zone...... of Zone B. Theoretical analysis, time-domain simulation and field test results under various conditions and scenarios in the Dongao Island microgrid are presented to prove the validity of the introduced control strategy....

  10. Vibration control of uncertain multiple launch rocket system using radial basis function neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Rui, Xiaoting

    2018-01-01

    Poor dispersion characteristics of rockets due to the vibration of Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) have always restricted the MLRS development for several decades. Vibration control is a key technique to improve the dispersion characteristics of rockets. For a mechanical system such as MLRS, the major difficulty in designing an appropriate control strategy that can achieve the desired vibration control performance is to guarantee the robustness and stability of the control system under the occurrence of uncertainties and nonlinearities. To approach this problem, a computed torque controller integrated with a radial basis function neural network is proposed to achieve the high-precision vibration control for MLRS. In this paper, the vibration response of a computed torque controlled MLRS is described. The azimuth and elevation mechanisms of the MLRS are driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors and supposed to be rigid. First, the dynamic model of motor-mechanism coupling system is established using Lagrange method and field-oriented control theory. Then, in order to deal with the nonlinearities, a computed torque controller is designed to control the vibration of the MLRS when it is firing a salvo of rockets. Furthermore, to compensate for the lumped uncertainty due to parametric variations and un-modeled dynamics in the design of the computed torque controller, a radial basis function neural network estimator is developed to adapt the uncertainty based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control system and show that the proposed controller is robust with regard to the uncertainty.

  11. Glycemic control, compliance, and satisfaction for diabetic gravidas in centering group care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Laura I; Jelin, Angie C; Iqbal, Sara N; Belna, Sarah L; Fries, Melissa H; Patel, Misbah; Desale, Sameer; Ramsey, Patrick S

    2017-05-01

    To determine if diabetic gravidas enrolled in Centering® group care have improved glycemic control compared to those attending standard prenatal care. To compare compliance and patient satisfaction between the groups. We conducted a prospective cohort study of diabetics enrolled in centering group care from October 2013 to December 2015. Glycemic control, compliance and patient satisfaction (five-point Likert scale) were evaluated. Student's t-test, Chi-Square and mixed effects model were used to compare outcomes. We compared 20 patients in centering to 28 standard prenatal care controls. Mean fasting blood sugar was lower with centering group care (91.0 versus 105.5 mg/dL, p =0.017). There was no difference in change in fasting blood sugar over time between the two groups (p = 0.458). The percentage of time patients brought their blood glucose logs did not differ between the centering group and standard prenatal care (70.7 versus 73.9%, p = 0.973). Women in centering group care had better patient satisfaction scores for "ability to be seen by a physician" (5 versus 4, p = 0.041) and "time in waiting room" (5 versus 4, p =0.001). Fasting blood sugar was lower for patients in centering group care. Change in blood sugar over time did not differ between groups. Diabetic gravidas enrolled in centering group care report improved patient satisfaction.

  12. Construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on multiplicative group of finite field in optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng; Ao, Xiang; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    In order to meet the needs of high-speed development of optical communication system, a construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes based on multiplicative group of finite field is proposed. The Tanner graph of parity check matrix of the code constructed by this method has no cycle of length 4, and it can make sure that the obtained code can get a good distance property. Simulation results show that when the bit error rate ( BER) is 10-6, in the same simulation environment, the net coding gain ( NCG) of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code with the code rate of 93.7% in this paper is improved by 2.18 dB and 1.6 dB respectively compared with those of the RS(255, 239) code in ITU-T G.975 and the LDPC(3 2640, 3 0592) code in ITU-T G.975.1. In addition, the NCG of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code is respectively 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB higher compared with those of the SG-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two different subgroups in finite field and the AS-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two arbitrary sets of a finite field. Thus, the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code in this paper can be well applied in optical communication systems.

  13. Determining the frequency of dry eye in computer users and comparing with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Davari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the frequency of dry eye in computer users and to compare them with control group. METHODS: This study was a case control research conducted in 2015 in the city of Birjand. Sample size of study was estimated to be 304 subjects(152 subjects in each group, computer user group and control group. Non-randomized method of sampling was used in both groups. Schirmer test was used to evaluate dry eye of subjects. Then, subjects completed questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed based on objectives and reviewing the literature. After collecting the data, they were entered to SPSS Software and they were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher's test at the alpha level of 0.05.RESULTS: In total, 304 subjects(152 subjects in each groupwere included in the study. Frequency of dry eyes in the control group was 3.3%(5 subjectsand it was 61.8% in computer users group(94 subjects. Significant difference was observed between two groups in this regard(Pn=12, and it was 34.2% in computer users group(n=52, which significant difference was observed between two groups in this regard(PP=0.8. The mean working hour with computer per day in patients with dry eye was 6.65±3.52h, while it was 1.62±2.54h in healthy group(T=13.25, PCONCLUSION: This study showed a significant relationship between using computer and dry eye and ocular symptoms. Thus, it is necessary that officials need to pay particular attention to working hours with computer by employees. They should also develop appropriate plans to divide the working hours with computer among computer users. However, due to various confounding factors, it is recommended that these factors to be controlled in future studies.

  14. Web search behavior and information needs of people with multiple sclerosis: focus group study and analysis of online postings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Cinzia; Mosconi, Paola; Confalonieri, Paolo; Baroni, Isabella; Traversa, Silvia; Hill, Sophie J; Synnot, Anneliese J; Oprandi, Nadia; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-07-24

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their family members increasingly seek health information on the Internet. There has been little exploration of how MS patients integrate health information with their needs, preferences, and values for decision making. The INtegrating and Deriving Evidence, Experiences, and Preferences (IN-DEEP) project is a collaboration between Italian and Australian researchers and MS patients, aimed to make high-quality evidence accessible and meaningful to MS patients and families, developing a Web-based resource of evidence-based information starting from their information needs. The objective of this study was to analyze MS patients and their family members' experience about the Web-based health information, to evaluate how they asses this information, and how they integrate health information with personal values. We organized 6 focus groups, 3 with MS patients and 3 with family members, in the Northern, Central, and Southern parts of Italy (April-June 2011). They included 40 MS patients aged between 18 and 60, diagnosed as having MS at least 3 months earlier, and 20 family members aged 18 and over, being relatives of a person with at least a 3-months MS diagnosis. The focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim (Atlas software, V 6.0). Data were analyzed from a conceptual point of view through a coding system. An online forum was hosted by the Italian MS society on its Web platform to widen the collection of information. Nine questions were posted covering searching behavior, use of Web-based information, truthfulness of Web information. At the end, posts were downloaded and transcribed. Information needs covered a comprehensive communication of diagnosis, prognosis, and adverse events of treatments, MS causes or risk factors, new drugs, practical, and lifestyle-related information. The Internet is considered useful by MS patients, however, at the beginning or in a later stage of the disease a refusal to actively search

  15. Competency-Based Training and Worker Turnover in Community Supports for People With IDD: Results From a Group Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Matthew; Nord, Derek; Hewitt, Amy

    2015-06-01

    Turnover among direct support professionals (DSPs) in community support settings for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been regarded as a challenge since tracking of this workforce began in the 1980s. This study utilized a group randomized controlled design to test the effects of a competency-based training intervention for DSPs on site-level turnover rates over a one year period. Results suggested that, compared with the control group, sites receiving the training intervention experienced a significant decrease in annual turnover, when multiple factors were controlled. Implications, including the importance of considering quality training as a long term organizational investment and intervention to reduce turnover, are discussed.

  16. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    Cooperative control problems for multiple vehicle systems can be categorized as either formation control problems with applications to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft, and automated highway systems, or non-formation control problems such as task assignment, cooperative transport, cooperative role assignment, air traffic control, cooperative timing, and cooperative search. The cooperative control of multiple vehicle systems poses significant theoretical and practical challenges. For cooperative control strategies to be successful, numerous issues must be addressed. We consider three important and correlated issues: consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking. For consensus seeking, we investigate algorithms and protocols so that a team of vehicles can reach consensus on the values of the coordination data in the presence of imperfect sensors, communication dropout, sparse communication topologies, and noisy and unreliable communication links. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we show necessary and/or sufficient conditions for consensus seeking with limited, unidirectional, and unreliable information exchange under fixed and switching interaction topologies (through either communication or sensing). For formation keeping, we apply a so-called "virtual structure" approach to spacecraft formation flying and multi-vehicle formation maneuvers. As a result, single vehicle path planning and trajectory generation techniques can be employed for the virtual structure while trajectory tracking strategies can be employed for each vehicle. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that we propose a decentralized architecture for multiple spacecraft formation flying in deep space with formation feedback introduced. This architecture ensures the necessary precision in the presence of actuator saturation, internal and external disturbances, and

  17. Control of individual daily growth in group-housed pigs using feeding stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, it was examined whether it is possible to control individual daily growth and carcass composition in group-housed pigs using feeding stations. A forelegs weighing system to estimate the daily individual body weight (BW) of group-housed pigs was developed and validated. In two

  18. Comparison of folic acid levels in schizophrenic patients and control groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthy, C. C.; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia through epidemiology, biochemistry and gene-related studies. Compared with healthy people, schizophrenic patients may have high homocysteine plasma values and homocysteine or low levels of folic acid, which seems to correlate with extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by neuroleptic therapy and with symptoms of schizophrenia. In this present study, we focus on the difference of folic acid level between schizophrenic patient and control group. The study sample consisted of schizophrenic patients and 14 people in the control group and performed blood sampling to obtain the results of folic acid levels. The folic acid level in both groups was within normal range, but the schizophrenic patient group had lower mean folic acid values of 5.00 ng/ml (sb 1.66), compared with the control group with mean folic acid values of 10.75 ng/ml (sb 4.33). there was the group of the control group had a higher value of folic acid than the schizophrenic group.

  19. Integrating CHWs as Part of the Team Leading Diabetes Group Visits: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elizabeth M; Johnston, Craig A; Cardenas, Victor J; Moreno, Jennette P; Foreyt, John P

    2017-12-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. Methods This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n = 50). Group visits met for 3 hours each month for a 6-month duration. Main measures included baseline and 6-month clinical outcomes (ie, A1C, lipids), concordance with 8 standard of care guidelines (ie, screens for cervical, breast, and colon cancer) from the US Preventive Task Force and American Diabetes Association, and participant acceptability. Results Compared to control participants, the intervention group resulted in significantly better clinical outcomes or guideline concordance for the following areas: target A1C levels, retinal eye exams, diabetes foot exams, mammograms, and urine microalbumin. Significantly more individuals in the control group gained weight, whereas a greater number of participants in the intervention group lost weight. Intervention participants found the group visits highly acceptable. Conclusions Integrating CHWs as part a comprehensive diabetes group visit program is a feasible and effective system-level intervention to improve glycemic control and achieve guideline concordance.

  20. Integrating CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits: A randomized controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n=5...

  1. Bipedal hopping timed to a metronome to detect impairments in anticipatory motor control in people with mild multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Megan C; Chen, Alice; Downer, Matthew B; Holloway, Brett J; Wallack, Elizabeth M; Lockyer, Evan J; Buckle, Natasha C M; Abbott, Courtney L; Ploughman, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    People with mild multiple sclerosis (MS) often report subtle deficits in balance and cognition but display no measurable impairment on clinical assessments. We examined whether hopping to a metronome beat had the potential to detect anticipatory motor control deficits among people with mild MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤ 3.5). Participants with MS (n = 13), matched controls (n = 9), and elderly subjects (n = 13) completed tests of cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) and motor performance (Timed 25 Foot Walk Test (T25FWT)). Participants performed two bipedal hopping tasks: at 40 beats/min (bpm) and 60-bpm in random order. Hop characteristics (length, symmetry, variability) and delay from the metronome beat were extracted from an instrumented walkway and compared between groups. The MS group became more delayed from the metronome beat over time whereas elderly subjects tended to hop closer to the beat (F = 4.52, p = 0.02). Delay of the first hop during 60-bpm predicted cognition in people with MS (R = 0.55, β = 4.64 (SD 4.63), F = 4.85, p = 0.05) but not among control (R = 0.07, p = 0.86) or elderly subjects (R = 0.17, p = 0.57). In terms of hopping characteristics, at 60-bpm, people with MS and matched controls were significantly different from the elderly group. However, at 40-bpm, the MS group was no longer significantly different from the elderly group, even though matched controls and elderly still differed significantly. This new timed hopping test may be able to detect both physical ability, and feed-forward anticipatory control impairments in people with mild MS. Hopping at a frequency of 40-bpm seemed more challenging. Several aspects of anticipatory motor control can be measured: including reaction time to the first metronome cue and the ability to adapt and anticipate the beat over time. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Teaching self-control to small groups of dually diagnosed adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, M R; Holcomb, S

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure to teach self-control to two groups of dually diagnosed adults. When given a choice between an immediate smaller reinforcer and a larger delayed reinforcer, both groups chose the smaller reinforcer during baseline. During treatment, progressive increases in work requirements for gaining access to a larger reinforcer resulted in both groups selecting larger delayed reinforcers. The results are discussed with respect to increas...

  3. Functional Group Analysis for Diesel-like Mixing-Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Fioroni, Gina; George, Anthe; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-12-30

    This report addresses the suitability of hydrocarbon and oxygenate functional groups for use as a diesel-like fuel blending component in an advanced, mixing-controlled, compression ignition combustion engine. The functional groups are chosen from those that could be derived from a biomass feedstock, and represent a full range of chemistries. This first systematic analysis of functional groups will be of value to all who are pursuing new bio-blendstocks for diesel-like fuels.

  4. Group art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia: a randomised controlled trial (MATISSE).

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, MJ; Killaspy, H; Barnes, TR; Barrett, B; Byford, S; Clayton, K; Dinsmore, J; Floyd, S; Hoadley, A; Johnson, T; Kalaitzaki, E; King, M; Leurent, B; Maratos, A; O'Neill, FA

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of referral to group art therapy plus standard care, compared with referral to an activity group plus standard care and standard care alone, among people with schizophrenia. DESIGN A three-arm, parallel group, single-blind, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomised via an independent and remote telephone randomisation service using permuted blocks, stratified by study centre. SETTING Study partic...

  5. Damping-tunable energy-harvesting vehicle damper with multiple controlled generators: Design, modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Longhan; Li, Jiehong; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ledeng; Cai, Siqi

    2018-01-01

    Hydraulic dampers are used to decrease the vibration of a vehicle, where vibration energy is dissipated as heat. In addition to resulting in energy waste, the damping coefficient in hydraulic dampers cannot be changed during operation. In this paper, an energy-harvesting vehicle damper was proposed to replace traditional hydraulic dampers. The goal is not only to recover kinetic energy from suspension vibration but also to change the damping coefficient during operation according to road conditions. The energy-harvesting damper consists of multiple generators that are independently controlled by switches. One of these generators connects to a tunable resistor for fine tuning the damping coefficient, while the other generators are connected to a control and rectifying circuit, each of which both regenerates electricity and provides a constant damping coefficient. A mathematical model was built to investigate the performance of the energy-harvesting damper. By controlling the number of switched-on generators and adjusting the value of the external tunable resistor, the damping can be fine tuned according to the requirement. In addition to the capability of damping tuning, the multiple controlled generators can output a significant amount of electricity. A prototype was built to test the energy-harvesting damper design. Experiments on an MTS testing system were conducted, with results that validated the theoretical analysis. Experiments show that changing the number of switched-on generators can obviously tune the damping coefficient of the damper and simultaneously produce considerable electricity.

  6. A study on software-based sensing technology for multiple object control in AR video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Ahn, Jae Young; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    Researches on Augmented Reality (AR) have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker'should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  7. A Study on Software-based Sensing Technology for Multiple Object Control in AR Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoksoo Kim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researches on Augmented Reality (AR have recently received attention. With these, the Machine-to-Machine (M2M market has started to be active and there are numerous efforts to apply this to real life in all sectors of society. To date, the M2M market has applied the existing marker-based AR technology in entertainment, business and other industries. With the existing marker-based AR technology, a designated object can only be loaded on the screen from one marker and a marker has to be added to load on the screen the same object again. This situation creates a problem where the relevant marker should be extracted and printed in screen so that loading of the multiple objects is enabled. However, since the distance between markers will not be measured in the process of detecting and copying markers, the markers can be overlapped and thus the objects would not be augmented. To solve this problem, a circle having the longest radius needs to be created from a focal point of a marker to be copied, so that no object is copied within the confines of the circle. In this paper, software-based sensing technology for multiple object detection and loading using PPHT has been developed and overlapping marker control according to multiple object control has been studied using the Bresenham and Mean Shift algorithms.

  8. Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; Jerome, J Gregory; Matias, Wilfredo R; Ternier, Ralph; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Harris, Jason B; Ivers, Louise C

    2017-10-13

    Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti. Cholera cases had a positive stool culture. Non-cholera diarrhea cases (test-negative controls and non-cholera diarrhea cases for bias-indicator analyses) had a negative culture and rapid test. Up to four community controls were matched to diarrhea cases by age group, time, and neighborhood. Primary analyses included 181 cholera cases, 157 non-cholera diarrhea cases, 716 VE community controls and 625 bias-indicator community controls. VE for self-reported vaccination with two doses was consistent across the two control groups, with statistically significant VE estimates ranging from 72 to 74%. Sensitivity analyses revealed similar, though somewhat attenuated estimates for self-reported two dose VE. Bias-indicator estimates were consistently less than one, with VE estimates ranging from 19 to 43%, some of which were statistically significant. OCV estimates from case-control analyses using community and test-negative controls were similar. While bias-indicator analyses suggested possible over-estimation of VE estimates using community controls, test-negative analyses suggested this bias, if present, was minimal. Test-negative controls can be a valid low-cost and time-efficient alternative to community controls for OCV effectiveness estimation and may be especially relevant in emergency situations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Branched multifunctional polyether polyketals: variation of ketal group structure enables unprecedented control over polymer degradation in solution and within cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Rajesh A; Narayanannair, Jayaprakash K; Hamilton, Jasmine L; Lai, Benjamin F L; Horte, Sonja; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Varghese, Jos P; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Manoharan, Muthiah; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-09-12

    Multifunctional biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials incorporating specific degradable linkages that respond to various stimuli and with defined degradation profiles are critical to the advancement of targeted nanomedicine. Herein we report, for the first time, a new class of multifunctional dendritic polyether polyketals containing different ketal linkages in their backbone that exhibit unprecedented control over degradation in solution and within the cells. High-molecular-weight and highly compact poly(ketal hydroxyethers) (PKHEs) were synthesized from newly designed α-epoxy-ω-hydroxyl-functionalized AB(2)-type ketal monomers carrying structurally different ketal groups (both cyclic and acyclic) with good control over polymer properties by anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization. Polymer functionalization with multiple azide and amine groups was achieved without degradation of the ketal group. The polymer degradation was controlled primarily by the differences in the structure and torsional strain of the substituted ketal groups in the main chain, while for polymers with linear (acyclic) ketal groups, the hydrophobicity of the polymer may play an additional role. This was supported by the log P values of the monomers and the hydrophobicity of the polymers determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as the probe. A range of hydrolysis half-lives of the polymers at mild acidic pH values was achieved, from a few minutes to a few hundred days, directly correlating with the differences in ketal group structures. Confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated similar degradation profiles for PKHEs within live cells, as seen in solution and the delivery of fluorescent marker to the cytosol. The cell viability measured by MTS assay and blood compatibility determined by complement activation, platelet activation, and coagulation assays demonstrate that PKHEs and their degradation products are highly biocompatible. Taken together, these data

  10. Control Algorithms Along Relative Equilibria of Underactuated Lagrangian Systems on Lie Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...

  11. Control algorithms along relative equilibria of underactuated Lagrangian systems on Lie groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...

  12. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  13. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuett, Moritz

    2016-07-07

    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  14. A new adaptive control scheme based on the interacting multiple model (IMM) estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Hamed H.; Al-Ani, Dhafar; Habibi, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an Interacting multiple model (IMM) adaptive estimation approach is incorporated to design an optimal adaptive control law for stabilizing an Unmanned vehicle. Due to variations of the forward velocity of the Unmanned vehicle, its aerodynamic derivatives are constantly changing. In order to stabilize the unmanned vehicle and achieve the control objectives for in-flight conditions, one seeks for an adaptive control strategy that can adjust itself to varying flight conditions. In this context, a bank of linear models is used to describe the vehicle dynamics in different operating modes. Each operating mode represents a particular dynamic with a different forward velocity. These models are then used within an IMM filter containing a bank of Kalman filters (KF) in a parallel operating mechanism. To regulate and stabilize the vehicle, a Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) law is designed and implemented for each mode. The IMM structure determines the particular mode based on the stored models and in-flight input-output measurements. The LQR controller also provides a set of controllers; each corresponds to a particular flight mode and minimizes the tracking error. Finally, the ultimate control law is obtained as a weighted summation of all individual controllers whereas weights are obtained using mode probabilities of each operating mode.

  15. Multiple-Input Subject-Specific Modeling of Plasma Glucose Concentration for Feedforward Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kaylee; Cinar, Ali; Mei, Yong; Roggendorf, Amy; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Quinn, Laurie; Rollins, Derrick K

    2014-11-26

    The ability to accurately develop subject-specific, input causation models, for blood glucose concentration (BGC) for large input sets can have a significant impact on tightening control for insulin dependent diabetes. More specifically, for Type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), it can lead to an effective artificial pancreas (i.e., an automatic control system that delivers exogenous insulin) under extreme changes in critical disturbances. These disturbances include food consumption, activity variations, and physiological stress changes. Thus, this paper presents a free-living, outpatient, multiple-input, modeling method for BGC with strong causation attributes that is stable and guards against overfitting to provide an effective modeling approach for feedforward control (FFC). This approach is a Wiener block-oriented methodology, which has unique attributes for meeting critical requirements for effective, long-term, FFC.

  16. Magic Ring: A Finger-Worn Device for Multiple Appliances Control Using Static Finger Gestures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjun Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR, which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method.

  17. The control system for the multiple-pellet injector on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Stewart, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A stand-alone control and data acquisition system for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiple-pellet injector installed on the Joint European Torus (JET) has been designed and installed with the injector. This system, which is based on a MicroVAX II computer and a programmable logic controller (PLC), is an upgrade of previous systems designed for ORNL pellet injectors installed on other fusion experiments. The primary control system upgrades are in the user interface, in the automation of sequential injector operation, and in the analysis of the transient data acquired for each pellet fired. The system is integrated into the JET CODAS environment through CAMAC communications modules with customized communications software. Routine operation of the injector is automated and requires no operator intervention. Details of the hardware and software design and the operation of the system are presented in this paper. 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. Improving information retrieval with multiple health terminologies in a quality-controlled gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualmia, Lina F; Sakji, Saoussen; Letord, Catherine; Rollin, Laetitia; Massari, Philippe; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2013-01-01

    The Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet resources (CISMeF) is a quality-controlled health gateway, primarily for Web resources in French (n=89,751). Recently, we achieved a major improvement in the structure of the catalogue by setting-up multiple terminologies, based on twelve health terminologies available in French, to overcome the potential weakness of the MeSH thesaurus, which is the main and pivotal terminology we use for indexing and retrieval since 1995. The main aim of this study was to estimate the added-value of exploiting several terminologies and their semantic relationships to improve Web resource indexing and retrieval in CISMeF, in order to provide additional health resources which meet the users' expectations. Twelve terminologies were integrated into the CISMeF information system to set up multiple-terminologies indexing and retrieval. The same sets of thirty queries were run: (i) by exploiting the hierarchical structure of the MeSH, and (ii) by exploiting the additional twelve terminologies and their semantic links. The two search modes were evaluated and compared. The overall coverage of the multiple-terminologies search mode was improved by comparison to the coverage of using the MeSH (16,283 vs. 14,159) (+15%). These additional findings were estimated at 56.6% relevant results, 24.7% intermediate results and 18.7% irrelevant. The multiple-terminologies approach improved information retrieval. These results suggest that integrating additional health terminologies was able to improve recall. Since performing the study, 21 other terminologies have been added which should enable us to make broader studies in multiple-terminologies information retrieval.

  19. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  20. Interference control in working memory: comparing groups of children with atypical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to test whether working memory deficits in children at risk of Learning Disabilities (LD) and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be attributed to deficits in interference control, thereby implicating prefrontal systems. Two groups of children known for showing poor working memory (i.e., children with poor comprehension and children with ADHD) were compared to a group of children with specific reading decoding problems (i.e., having severe problems in phonological rather than working memory) and to a control group. All children were tested with a verbal working memory task. Interference control of irrelevant items was examined by a lexical decision task presented immediately after the final recall in about half the trials, selected at random. The interference control measure was therefore directly related to working memory performance. Results confirmed deficient working memory performance in poor comprehenders and children at risk of ADHD + LD. More interestingly, this working memory deficit was associated with greater activation of irrelevant information than in the control group. Poor decoders showed more efficient interference control, in contrast to poor comprehenders and ADHD + LD children. These results indicated that interfering items were still highly accessible to working memory in children who fail the working memory task. In turn, these findings strengthen and clarify the role of interference control, one of the most critical prefrontal functions, in working memory.

  1. The effects of cognitive loading on balance control in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Mofateh, Razieh; Arastoo, Ali Asghar; Mazaheri, Masood; Yazdi, Mohammad Jafar Shaterzadeh; Salavati, Mahyar; Majdinasab, Nastaran

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of concurrent cognitive task (silent backward counting) on balance performance between two groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=23) and healthy (n=23) participates. Three levels of postural difficulty were studied on a force platform, i.e. rigid surface with eyes open, rigid surface with eyes closed, and foam surface with eyes closed. A mixed model analysis of variance showed that under difficult sensory condition of foam surface with eyes closed, execution of concurrent cognitive task caused a significant decrement in variability of sway velocity in anteroposterior direction for the patient group (P<0.01) while this was not the case for healthy participants (P=0.22). Also, the variability of sway velocity in mediolateral direction was significantly decreased during concurrent execution of cognitive task in patient group (P<0.01) and not in healthy participants (P=0.39). Furthermore, in contrast to single tasking, dual tasking had the ability to discriminate between the 2 groups in all conditions of postural difficulty. In conclusion, findings of variability in sway velocity seem to confirm the different response to cognitive loading between two groups of MS and healthy participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Management Control in Major Brazilian Multiple Banks: the Impact of Internationalization and Convergence of Accounting Standards on the Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Damasceno Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study verifies the impact caused by the processes of globalization and convergence to international accounting standards on the managerial control systems of the largest multiple banks that operate in Brazil. The study was exploratory in nature, with the use of the case study method and the application of questionnaires containing mostly open questions to upper tier executives of four major Brazilian banks. The analysis showed that globalization has resulted in improved control systems and widespread use of information technology. It was also found that the convergence to international accounting standards occurred properly, thanks to the steps taken by the Central Bank that aimed at an agile updating of the Brazilian accounting standards laid down for banks operating in Brazil, in line with international standards. In general, the researched banks did not report a significant impact of convergence to the IFRS on their management control systems; adherence to the international accounting standards has had more significant impacts on information systems, especially regarding the new reporting and transparency standards, rather than on management controls. This result signals that the management control systems of the four banks in the sample are in line with Anthony (1965’s vision, that is, that flexibility to adapt to every change in the external environment might actually increase risks of failure.

  3. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple sheep flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P

    2014-01-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple animal sets. Proviral concentration is a live-animal diagnostic measure of OvLV control post-infection related to severity of OvLV-induced lesions. A recent genome-wide association study identified a region including four zinc finger genes associated with proviral concentration in one Rambouillet flock. To refine this region, we tested additional variants and identified a small insertion/deletion variant near ZNF389 that showed consistent association with proviral concentration in three animal sets (P sheep from multiple locations and management conditions. Strikingly, one flock had exceptionally high prevalence (>87%, including yearlings) and mean proviral concentration (>950 copies/μg), possibly due to needle sharing. The best estimate of proviral concentration by genotype, obtained from all 1310 OvLV-positive animals tested, showed insertion homozygotes had less than half the proviral concentration of other genotypes (P sheep flocks. PMID:24303974

  4. Large Display Interaction via Multiple Acceleration Curves and Multifinger Pointer Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Esakia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large high-resolution displays combine high pixel density with ample physical dimensions. The combination of these factors creates a multiscale workspace where interactive targeting of on-screen objects requires both high speed for distant targets and high accuracy for small targets. Modern operating systems support implicit dynamic control-display gain adjustment (i.e., a pointer acceleration curve that helps to maintain both speed and accuracy. However, large high-resolution displays require a broader range of control-display gains than a single acceleration curve can usably enable. Some interaction techniques attempt to solve the problem by utilizing multiple explicit modes of interaction, where different modes provide different levels of pointer precision. Here, we investigate the alternative hypothesis of using a single mode of interaction for continuous pointing that enables both (1 standard implicit granularity control via an acceleration curve and (2 explicit switching between multiple acceleration curves in an efficient and dynamic way. We evaluate a sample solution that augments standard touchpad accelerated pointer manipulation with multitouch capability, where the choice of acceleration curve dynamically changes depending on the number of fingers in contact with the touchpad. Specifically, users can dynamically switch among three different acceleration curves by using one, two, or three fingers on the touchpad.

  5. High power multiple wavelength diode laser stack for DPSSL application without temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Yin, Xia; Wang, Jingwei; Chen, Shi; Zhan, Yun; Li, Xiaoning; Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode laser stack is widely used in pumping solid-state laser for years. Normally an integrated temperature control module is required for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser, as the output power of the solid-state laser highly depends on the emission wavelength and the wavelength shift of diode lasers according to the temperature changes. However the temperature control module is inconvenient for this application, due to its large dimension, high electric power consumption and extra adding a complicated controlling system. Furthermore, it takes dozens of seconds to stabilize the output power when the laser system is turned on. In this work, a compact hard soldered high power conduction cooled diode laser stack with multiple wavelengths is developed for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser in a certain temperature range. The stack consists of 5 laser bars with the pitch of 0.43mm. The peak output power of each bar in the diode laser stack reaches as much as 557W and the combined lasing wavelength spectrum profile spans 15nm. The solidstate laser, structured with multiple wavelength diode laser stacks, allows the ambient temperature change of 65°C without suddenly degrading the optical performance.

  6. A multiple objective test assembly approach for exposure control problems in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo J.H.M. Eggen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure and underexposure of items in the bank are serious problems in operational computerized adaptive testing (CAT systems. These exposure problems might result in item compromise, or point at a waste of investments. The exposure control problem can be viewed as a test assembly problem with multiple objectives. Information in the test has to be maximized, item compromise has to be minimized, and pool usage has to be optimized. In this paper, a multiple objectives method is developed to deal with both types of exposure problems. In this method, exposure control parameters based on observed exposure rates are implemented as weights for the information in the item selection procedure. The method does not need time consuming simulation studies, and it can be implemented conditional on ability level. The method is compared with Sympson Hetter method for exposure control, with the Progressive method and with alphastratified testing. The results show that the method is successful in dealing with both kinds of exposure problems.

  7. Protocol for the saMS trial (supportive adjustment for multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to supportive listening for adjustment to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrone Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an incurable, chronic, potentially progressive and unpredictable disease of the central nervous system. The disease produces a range of unpleasant and debilitating symptoms, which can have a profound impact including disrupting activities of daily living, employment, income, relationships, social and leisure activities, and life goals. Adjusting to the illness is therefore particularly challenging. This trial tests the effectiveness of a Cognitive Behavioural intervention compared to Supportive Listening to assist adjustment in the early stages of MS. Methods/Design This is a two arm randomized multi-centre parallel group controlled trial. 122 consenting participants who meet eligibility criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Supportive Listening. Eight one hour sessions of therapy (delivered over a period of 10 weeks will be delivered by general nurses trained in both treatments. Self-report questionnaire data will be collected at baseline (0 weeks, mid-therapy (week 5 of therapy, post-therapy (15 weeks and at six months (26 weeks and twelve months (52 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes are distress and MS-related social and role impairment at twelve month follow-up. Analysis will also consider predictors and mechanisms of change during therapy. In-depth interviews to examine participants' experiences of the interventions will be conducted with a purposively sampled sub-set of the trial participants. An economic analysis will also take place. Discussion This trial is distinctive in its aims in that it aids adjustment to MS in a broad sense. It is not a treatment specifically for depression. Use of nurses as therapists makes the interventions potentially viable in terms of being rolled out in the NHS. The trial benefits from incorporating patient input in the development and evaluation stages. The trial will provide important information about the

  8. Design of clinical trials involving multiple hypothesis tests with a common control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, I Manjula; Marschner, Ian C

    2017-07-01

    Randomized clinical trials comparing several treatments to a common control are often reported in the medical literature. For example, multiple experimental treatments may be compared with placebo, or in combination therapy trials, a combination therapy may be compared with each of its constituent monotherapies. Such trials are typically designed using a balanced approach in which equal numbers of individuals are randomized to each arm, however, this can result in an inefficient use of resources. We provide a unified framework and new theoretical results for optimal design of such single-control multiple-comparator studies. We consider variance optimal designs based on D-, A-, and E-optimality criteria, using a general model that allows for heteroscedasticity and a range of effect measures that include both continuous and binary outcomes. We demonstrate the sensitivity of these designs to the type of optimality criterion by showing that the optimal allocation ratios are systematically ordered according to the optimality criterion. Given this sensitivity to the optimality criterion, we argue that power optimality is a more suitable approach when designing clinical trials where testing is the objective. Weighted variance optimal designs are also discussed, which, like power optimal designs, allow the treatment difference to play a major role in determining allocation ratios. We illustrate our methods using two real clinical trial examples taken from the medical literature. Some recommendations on the use of optimal designs in single-control multiple-comparator trials are also provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Traffic Management by Using Admission Control Methods in Multiple Node IMS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Chamraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Admission Control methods (AC as a possible solution for traffic management in IMS networks (IP Multimedia Subsystem - from the point of view of an efficient redistribution of the available network resources and keeping the parameters of Quality of Service (QoS. The paper specifically aims at the selection of the most appropriate method for the specific type of traffic and traffic management concept using AC methods on multiple nodes. The potential benefit and disadvantage of the used solution is evaluated.

  10. Tunable arbitrary unitary transformer based on multiple sections of multicore fibers with phase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junhe; Wu, Jianjie; Hu, Qinsong

    2018-02-05

    In this paper, we propose a novel tunable unitary transformer, which can achieve arbitrary discrete unitary transforms. The unitary transformer is composed of multiple sections of multi-core fibers with closely aligned coupled cores. Phase shifters are inserted before and after the sections to control the phases of the waves in the cores. A simple algorithm is proposed to find the optimal phase setup for the phase shifters to realize the desired unitary transforms. The proposed device is fiber based and is particularly suitable for the mode division multiplexing systems. A tunable mode MUX/DEMUX for a three-mode fiber is designed based on the proposed structure.

  11. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    The production life of oil reservoirs starts under significant uncertainty regarding the actual economical return of the recovery process due to the lack of oil field data. Consequently, investors and operators make management decisions based on a limited and uncertain description of the reservoir....... In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...

  12. Multiple model predictive control for optimal drug administration of mixed immunotherapy and chemotherapy of tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, N; Ozgoli, S; Ramezani, A

    2017-06-01

    Mixed immunotherapy and chemotherapy of tumours is one of the most efficient ways to improve cancer treatment strategies. However, it is important to 'design' an effective treatment programme which can optimize the ways of combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy to diminish their imminent side effects. Control engineering techniques could be used for this. The method of multiple model predictive controller (MMPC) is applied to the modified Stepanova model to induce the best combination of drugs scheduling under a better health criteria profile. The proposed MMPC is a feedback scheme that can perform global optimization for both tumour volume and immune competent cell density by performing multiple constraints. Although current studies usually assume that immunotherapy has no side effect, this paper presents a new method of mixed drug administration by employing MMPC, which implements several constraints for chemotherapy and immunotherapy by considering both drug toxicity and autoimmune. With designed controller we need maximum 57% and 28% of full dosage of drugs for chemotherapy and immunotherapy in some instances, respectively. Therefore, through the proposed controller less dosage of drugs are needed, which contribute to suitable results with a perceptible reduction in medicine side effects. It is observed that in the presence of MMPC, the amount of required drugs is minimized, while the tumour volume is reduced. The efficiency of the presented method has been illustrated through simulations, as the system from an initial condition in the malignant region of the state space (macroscopic tumour volume) transfers into the benign region (microscopic tumour volume) in which the immune system can control tumour growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive and Negative Perfectionism in Migrainus Patients Compaired with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The positive and negative effects of perfectionism on human cognition, affection and behavior have been emphasized. Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, which is one of the common personality traits that cause lifelong stress in human and results in anxiety, depression and physical and mental distress.The aim of this study was to assess the positive and negative perfectionism in migrainus patients in comparison with control group. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical (Case-control study which was performed on 91 migraine patients and 88 healthy individuals. The pqtients and controls completed a standard 40 item questionnaire for perfectionism – PANPS (20 for positive and 20 for negative perfectionism . The patients in both groups were matched for gender and age. Mean of positive and negative perfectionism scores for two groups was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results: Mean positive perfectionism score was 83.47±8.5 for migraine group and 65.47±7.54 for control group (p=0.0001. The difference between two groups was significant. Mean of negative perfectionism score was 74.12±10.6 for migraine group and 51.79±7.8 for control group(p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that migraine patients have higher mean of perfectionism scores than healthy individuals. Based on this study and other clinical experiences more attention to psychotherapy is necessary for better management of migraine and recognition of personality profile in migraine patient helps to reduce patient’s complaints.

  14. Hybrid Control System for Greater Resilience Using Multiple Isolation and Building Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Taniguchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hybrid control building system of multiple isolation and connection is proposed and investigated using both time-history and input energy responses for various types of ground motions together with transfer functions. It is concerned that the seismic displacement response at the base-isolation layer of the existing base-isolated buildings may extremely increase under long-period and long-duration ground motions which are getting great attention recently. In order to enhance the seismic performance of those base-isolated buildings, a novel hybrid system of multiple isolation and building-connection is proposed and compared with other structural systems such as an independent multiple isolation system, a hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection. Furthermore, the robustness of seismic responses of the proposed hybrid system for various types of ground motion is discussed through the comparison of various structural systems including non-hybrid systems. Finally the optimal connection damper location is investigated using a sensitivity-type optimization approach.

  15. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  16. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  17. Memory and phonological awareness in children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy compared to a matched control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Ellen; Connolly, Anne M; Berroya, Anna; McIntyre, Jenny; Christie, Jane; Taylor, Alan; Bleasel, Andrew F; Lawson, John A; Bye, Ann M E

    2007-06-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy have normal intelligence and language ability. However, difficulties in verbal and visual memory and aspects of phonological awareness were found compared to normative data. To address the methodological limitations related to the use of normative data, we compared the same cohort of children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy to a matched control group. Controls (n=40) matched on age and gender to the Benign Rolandic Epilepsy cohort underwent neuropsychological assessment. The life functioning of the control group was assessed using a modified version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). The study confirmed the previous findings of memory and phonological awareness difficulties. In addition, the children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy had significantly lower IQ scores than the matched control group. Paired sample t-tests showed that on 8 of 11 QOLCE scales, children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy were rated by parents as having poorer life functioning compared to matched controls, including lower parental ratings on the subscales of memory and language. Benign Rolandic Epilepsy has an excellent seizure prognosis, but this study further emphasizes potential cognitive difficulties. Using an age and gender matched control group, the previous findings of memory and phonological awareness difficulties were validated. These problems in cognition were also identified by parents of children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy as problematic and impacting upon the child's quality of life.

  18. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  19. Applications of Lie Group Theory to the Modeling and Control of Multibody Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenova, Clementina D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews our research activities concerning the modeling and control of rigid and elastic joint multibody mechanical systems, including some investigations into nonholonomic systems. Bearing in mind the different parameterizations of the rotation group in three-dimensional space SO(3), and the fact that the properties of the parameterization more or less influence the efficiency of the dynamics model, here the so-called vector parameter is used for parallel considerations of rigid body motion and of rigid and elastic joint multibody mechanical systems. Besides the fundamental role of this study, the vector-parameter approach is efficient in its computational aspect and quite convenient for real time simulation and control. The consideration of the mechanical system on the configuration space of pure vector parameters with a group structure opens the possibilities for the Lie group theory to be applied in problems of dynamics and control

  20. Life expectancy for the University of Utah beagle colony and selection of a control group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.R.; Stevens, W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Woodbury, L.; Stover, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the internal-emitters toxicity program at the University of Utah Radiobiology Laboratory, each experimental group carries its own specific control cohort, which is the same size as most of the individual experimental cohorts. Variations in average lifetime are observed among individual control cohorts. This may be due to external causes, genetic variances such as the occurrence of epileptic syndromes, or changes such as those that result from improved medical core or husbandry. The Stover-Eyring method was used to eliminate from control and experimental cohorts those dogs with specific diseases such as epilepsy - dogs that were at risk for too short a time for a later pathological response to occur. By the use of conventional statistical techniques, it ws shown to be reasonable to pool individual control cohorts into a much larger selected cohort that provided greater precision in the estimate of control survival and thus a more sensitive basis for the estimation of the relative life shortening in the experimental groups. The analysis suggested that control groups could be combined, and a control population of 114 beagles was proposed. Their average lifespan was 4926 +- 849 days, and the time when half the animals had died was 5000 days. 3 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Channel selection for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Han-Jeong; Hahne, Janne Mathias; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown the possibility of simultaneous and proportional control of electrically powered upper-limb prostheses, but there has been little investigation on optimal channel selection. The objective of this study is to find a robust channel selection method and the channel subsets most suitable for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric prosthesis control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DoFs). Approach. Ten able-bodied subjects and one person with congenital upper-limb deficiency took part in this study, and performed wrist movements with various combinations of two DoFs (flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation). During the experiment, high density electromyographic (EMG) signals and the actual wrist angles were recorded with an 8 × 24 electrode array and a motion tracking system, respectively. The wrist angles were estimated from EMG features with ridge regression using the subsets of channels chosen by three different channel selection methods: (1) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), (2) sequential feature selection (SFS), and (3) uniform selection (UNI). Main results. SFS generally showed higher estimation accuracy than LASSO and UNI, but LASSO always outperformed SFS in terms of robustness, such as noise addition, channel shift and training data reduction. It was also confirmed that about 95% of the original performance obtained using all channels can be retained with only 12 bipolar channels individually selected by LASSO and SFS. Significance. From the analysis results, it can be concluded that LASSO is a promising channel selection method for accurate simultaneous and proportional prosthesis control. We expect that our results will provide a useful guideline to select optimal channel subsets when developing clinical myoelectric prosthesis control systems based on continuous movements with multiple DoFs.

  2. A full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Hisanori; Ueda, Hiroki; Kato, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes a full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels which Toshiba developed and delivered. After the Fukushima DAIICHI nuclear power plants accident, it is required that all the people who are engaged in the design, manufacturing, operation, maintenance, management and regulation for the nuclear power plant should learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant design including the severe accident. For this purpose, the training with a full scope simulator is one of the most suitable ways. However the existing full scope simulators which are consist of the control panels replica of the referenced plants are costly and they are hard to remodel to fit to the real plant of the latest condition. That's why Toshiba developed and delivered the new concept simulator system which covers multiple referenced plants even though they have different design like BWR and PWR. The control panels of the simulator are made by combining 69 large Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels with touch screen instead of a control panel replica of referenced plant. The screen size of the each panel is 42 inches and 3 displays are arranged in tandem for one unit and 23 units are connected together. Each panel displays switches, indicators, recorders and lamps with the Computer Graphics (CG) and trainees operate them with touch operations. The simulator includes a BWR and a PWR simulator model, which enable trainees to learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant of BWR and PWR reactor types. (author)

  3. Selective control of multiple ferroelectric switching pathways using a trailing flexoelectric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Min; Wang, Bo; Das, Saikat; Chae, Seung Chul; Chung, Jin-Seok; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Chen, Long-Qing; Yang, Sang Mo; Noh, Tae Won

    2018-05-01

    Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling between electrical polarization and a strain gradient1 that enables mechanical manipulation of polarization without applying an electrical bias2,3. Recently, flexoelectricity was directly demonstrated by mechanically switching the out-of-plane polarization of a uniaxial system with a scanning probe microscope tip3,4. However, the successful application of flexoelectricity in low-symmetry multiaxial ferroelectrics and therefore active manipulation of multiple domains via flexoelectricity have not yet been achieved. Here, we demonstrate that the symmetry-breaking flexoelectricity offers a powerful route for the selective control of multiple domain switching pathways in multiaxial ferroelectric materials. Specifically, we use a trailing flexoelectric field that is created by the motion of a mechanically loaded scanning probe microscope tip. By controlling the SPM scan direction, we can deterministically select either stable 71° ferroelastic switching or 180° ferroelectric switching in a multiferroic magnetoelectric BiFeO3 thin film. Phase-field simulations reveal that the amplified in-plane trailing flexoelectric field is essential for this domain engineering. Moreover, we show that mechanically switched domains have a good retention property. This work opens a new avenue for the deterministic selection of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in low-symmetry materials for non-volatile magnetoelectric devices and multilevel data storage.

  4. Botulinum toxin therapy for treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: review and recommendations of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Dirk; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Bohlega, Saeed; Chahidi, Abderrahmane; Chung, Tae Mo; Ebke, Markus; Jacinto, L Jorge; Kaji, Ryuji; Koçer, Serdar; Kanovsky, Petr; Micheli, Federico; Orlova, Olga; Paus, Sebastian; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Relja, Maja; Rosales, Raymond L; Sagástegui-Rodríguez, José Alberto; Schoenle, Paul W; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Timerbaeva, Sofia; Walter, Uwe; Saberi, Fereshte Adib

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is an established treatment of spasticity due to stroke. For multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity this is not the case. IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders formed a task force to explore the use of BT therapy for treatment of MS spasticity. A formalised PubMed literature search produced 55 publications (3 randomised controlled trials, 3 interventional studies, 11 observational studies, 2 case studies, 35 reviews, 1 guideline) all unanimously favouring the use of BT therapy for MS spasticity. There is no reason to believe that BT should be less effective and safe in MS spasticity than it is in stroke spasticity. Recommendations include an update of the current prevalence of MS spasticity and its clinical features according to classifications used in movement disorders. Immunological data on MS patients already treated should be analysed with respect to frequencies of MS relapses and BT antibody formation. Registration authorities should expand registration of BT therapy for spasticity regardless of its aetiology. MS specialists should consider BT therapy for symptomatic treatment of spasticity.

  5. Interrelationships Between Job Resources, Vigor, Exercise Habit, and Serum Lipids in Japanese Employees: a Multiple Group Path Analysis Using Medical Checkup Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Inoue, Akiomi; Sakurai, Kenji; Ui, Akiko; Nakata, Akinori

    2016-08-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major risk factors for dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease. Job resources have been identified as determinants of employees' vigor and physical activity habits. Our first purpose was to comprehensively analyze the series of relationships of job resources, through vigor and exercise habit (i.e., one aspect of physical activity), to serum lipid levels in a sample of Japanese employees in a manufacturing company. Our second purpose was to investigate sex differences in these relationships using a multiple-group path analysis. Data were collected from 4543 employees (men = 4018, women = 525) during a medical checkup conducted in February and March 2012. Job resources (job control, skill utilization, suitable jobs, and meaningfulness of work), vigor, exercise habit, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured cross-sectionally. Job resources and vigor were positively associated with exercise habit in both sexes. Exercise habit was inversely associated with triglyceride (-0.03 in men and -0.01 in women, ps jobs and meaningfulness of work. Higher levels of job resources were associated with greater vigor, leading to exercise habit, which in turn, improved serum lipid levels. Longitudinal studies are required to demonstrate causality.

  6. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  7. Knee flexor strength and balance control impairment may explain declines during prolonged walking in women with mild multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramari, Cintia; Moraes, Andréa G; Tauil, Carlos B; von Glehn, Felipe; Motl, Robert; de David, Ana C

    2018-02-01

    Physiological factors such as muscle weakness and balance could explain declines in walking distance by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize levels and examine associations among decline in walking distance, balance and muscular strength in women with mild MS. Participants included 28 women with mild relapsing-remitting MS and 21 women without MS. We executed the 6-min walk test (6MWT) to verify declines in walking distance. Isokinetic knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) muscle strength was measured using a dynamometer. Balance was quantified using a force platform, with eyes open and closed, on a rigid and foam surface. The MS patients presented declines in walking, lower KF muscle strength, and worse balance than controls. KF strength and balance correlated with walking in the MS group. The KF strength explained differences between groups in walking. The KF strength and balance presented as predictors of walking slowing down in the 6MWT, in mild MS. Women with mild MS have strength impairment of knee flexor muscles and balance control impairment that may explain walking related motor fatigability during prolonged walking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polymorphic locus rs10492972 of the KIF1B gene association with multiple sclerosis in Russia: case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, Ekaterina A; Rozhdestvenskii, Aleksei S; Kakulya, Anastasia V; Khanokh, Elena V; Delov, Roman A; Malkova, Nadezhda A; Korobko, Denis S; Platonov, Fedor A; Aref Eva, Elena G; Zagorskaya, Natalia N; Aliferova, Valentina M; Titova, Marina A; Babenko, Sergei A; Smagina, Inna V; El Chaninova, Svetlana A; Zolovkina, Anna G; Lifshits, G I; Puzyrev, Valerii P; Filipenko, Maxim L

    2011-11-01

    Axonal degeneration is responsible for the progression of the irreversible destruction caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting ultimately in permanent disability. The KIF1B protein, a member of the kinesin family, is necessary for axon growth and myelination in vertebrates. In the recent paper, Aulchenko et al. suggested that the rs10492972[C] variant of KIF1B increases susceptibility to MS, but three following replication study didn't confirm this association. We studied the association of the polymorphic locus rs10492972 present in the KIF1B gene with genetic predisposition and its occurrence in clinical presentations of MS patients resident in western Siberia and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia. rs10492972 has been genotype in 833 samples of MS patient and 689 healthy controls. Distribution of rs10492972 genotypes corresponded with a Hardy-Weinberg distribution in both the MS patient and control groups, with the frequency of the C allele being the same in both groups (33%). Frequencies of occurrence of the genotypes were not shown to be associated with different disease courses or other characteristics of the disease, such as age at onset or duration. A complete meta-analysis of all analogous studies published to date showed that the protective effect of the rs10492972[C] allele is statistically significant (OR=0.95, C.I.95% [0.90-0.99], p=0.02). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The BWR core simulator COSIMA with 2 group nodal flux expansion and control rod history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoejerup, C.F.

    1989-08-01

    The boiling water simulator NOTAM has been modified and improved in several aspects: - The ''1 1/2'' energy group TRILUX nodal flux solution method has been exchanged with a 2 group modal expansion method. - Control rod ''history'' has been introduced. - Precalculated instrument factors have been introduced. The paper describes these improvements, which were considered sufficiently large to justify a new name to the programme: COSIMA. (author)

  10. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

  11. Low back pain in female elite football and handball players compared with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.

  12. Group Singing as a Therapy during Diabetes Training--A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Captopril as a replacement for multiple therapy in hypertension: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodfat, Y; Fidel, J; Bloom, D S

    1985-11-01

    A controlled study was conducted in hypertensive patients to investigate whether captopril can be substituted for the various other antihypertensive drugs (not including diuretics) to reduce side effects and improve the quality of life. Captopril in a twice daily dose of 25-50 mg, was substituted and titrated in 54 patients. Fifty-two patients, matched by age and sex, comprised the control group, and were treated with a variety of agents. During a follow-up of 9 months, 44 of the patients receiving captopril (81%) achieved the goal of supine blood pressure less than 90 mmHg. Captopril was discontinued in two patients due to side effects. Mild proteinuria was observed in two patients. A significant reduction in scores or rates of side effects (numbness, blurred vision, insomnia, vivid dreams, cold extremities, sleepiness, sexual dysfunction and fatigue) and improvement in quality of life (general feeling, mood and concentration) was observed in the study group compared with the control group. Captopril alone in a twice daily dose of 25-50 mg, or in co-treatment with thiazide, provided sustained blood pressure control with minimal side effects and improvement in quality of life compared with the treatment of hypertension with beta-blockers, vasodilators or methyldopa.

  14. Comparison of serum lead level in oral opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hossein; Sayadi, Ahmad Reza; Tashakori, Mahnaz; Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Soltanpoor, Narges; Sadeghi, Hossein; Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmood

    2009-11-01

    Drug abuse and its consequences are major health problems in Middle-East countries such as Iran. Salesmen and smugglers may add lead to opium during the process of opium preparation to increase the weight of opium for more profit. Several reports have found lead poisoning symptoms in opium addicted patients and there are many nonspecific symptoms mimicking lead poisoning in opium addicted patients. As far as the literature review is concerned, there is no comparative study about blood lead level (BLL) in addicted patients with healthy controls. Therefore, it seems evaluation of blood lead level in opium addicted patients to be important. In this study, the BLL of forty-four subjects in two patient and control groups was evaluated. The patient group (22 subjects) was comprised of patients who used oral opium. Control group (22 subjects) was matched with the patient group for age and sex, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria with a mean age of 38.8+/-6.7. For blood lead assay, 3 mL of whole blood was obtained from both groups by venipuncture and BLL was assessed immediately using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The BLL in patient group had a range of 7.2 to 69.9 g/dL with a mean of 21.9+/-13.2. In the healthy control group, BLL was between 4.1 to 17.4 g/dL with a mean of 8.6+/-3.5. The mean difference of both groups (t=4.56) was statistically significant (Popium ingested (r=0.65, Popium ingestion in the patient group. It would be concluded that opium addicts have an elevated BLL compared to healthy controls. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium addicted people especially with non-specific symptoms. In this regard, a similar investigation with a larger sample size of opium addicted patients (including both oral and inhaled) and a control group is suggested to confirm the findings of this research.

  15. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  16. $H^\\infty$ control of systems with multiple I/O delays via decomposition to adobe problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid

    In this paper, the standard (four-block) $H^\\infty$ control problem for systems with multiple input-output delays in the feedback loop is studied. The central idea is to see the multiple delay operator as a special series connection of elementary delay operators, called the adobe delay operators.

  17. Report by the Working Group renewing the reasonableness control over the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Working Group was to draw up proposals for a reform of the pricing methodology for the network operations of the power and natural gas markets and of their reasonableness control. The objective of the reform is to make them meet the requirements of the EC Directives on the Internal Market in Energy as from 1 July 2004. The Working Group was also to pay attention to the organisation of network control over network operations in other countries, to the structure of distribution tariffs, the position of power users and to initiatives made by trade associations to the Ministry of Trade and Industry on control over network operations. The Working Group proposes a new model for the control of power and natural gas network operations in which the Energy Market Authority would carry out an ex-post evaluation of the profit of all network operators within the framework of a five-year control period. The control period would allow levelling of the annual variations resulting from interest and temperature fluctuations and investments, and at the same time maintaining stable pricing. The pricing methodology to be applied during the control period would be imposed on the network operators by company-specific methodology decisions made by the Energy Market Authority before the control period. A methodology decision would be in force during one control period at a time, and it would be revised as necessary for the next control period. During a control period, a network operator could, during one year, take a profit higher than the profit limit to be deemed reasonable without an immediate intervention of the surveillance authority. After the end of a control period, the Energy Market Authority would state by its decision the profit, based on each company's tariff methodology, accrued during the control period and also confirm the amount of the returns higher or lower than the reasonable profit accrued during the control period. The decision would include an obligation to pay

  18. Toxoplasma Infection in Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study with Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, A; Shojaee, S; Mohebali, M; Tehranidoost, M; Abdi Masoleh, F; Keshavarz, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic, and often debilitating neuropsychiatric disor­der. Its causes are still poorly understood. Besides genetic and non-genetic (environmental) fac­tors are thought to be important as the cause of the structural and functional deficits that character­ize schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection between schizo­phrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals as control group.Methods: A case-control study was designed i...

  19. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  20. The cesium -137 body burden of a control group in Stockholm, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Eklund, G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the 136 Cs content in a control group consisting of 20 - 30 persons have been carried out since 1959. Until 1966 the measurements were made in an 'open-both' type whole-body counter and after that in a three-crystal counter. Individual weighting factors for each member of the group is used to compensate for changes in the control group during the years. The calculation of the weighted mean of the cesium-137 level includes a correction for RaC contamination. During 1976 measurements were made on 24 members of the group, 14 men and 10 women. Measured content of potassium was 1.9+-0.3 g/kg body weight for the men and 1.6+-0.2 g/kg body weight for the women of the group. Tables show these results together with earlier results from the 'open-both' counter. The weighted mean and the highest and the lowest values within the group are indicated. The total error of the weighted mean and the highest value 1976 are about 15 percent and 12 percent respectively. For the last few years the cesium content has been below the detection limit, 10-15 pCi/gK, for some members of the group. (author)

  1. Optimal planning approaches with multiple impulses for rendezvous based on hybrid genetic algorithm and control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JingRui Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on safe and effective completion of a rendezvous and docking task by looking at planning approaches and control with fuel-optimal rendezvous for a target spacecraft running on a near-circular reference orbit. A variety of existent practical path constraints are considered, including the constraints of field of view, impulses, and passive safety. A rendezvous approach is calculated by using a hybrid genetic algorithm with those constraints. Furthermore, a control method of trajectory tracking is adopted to overcome the external disturbances. Based on Clohessy–Wiltshire equations, we first construct the mathematical model of optimal planning approaches of multiple impulses with path constraints. Second, we introduce the principle of hybrid genetic algorithm with both stronger global searching ability and local searching ability. We additionally explain the application of this algorithm in the problem of trajectory planning. Then, we give three-impulse simulation examples to acquire an optimal rendezvous trajectory with the path constraints presented in this article. The effectiveness and applicability of the tracking control method are verified with the optimal trajectory above as control objective through the numerical simulation.

  2. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Steadman

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. Method: An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Results: Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease,informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information and social companionship (place of belonging. Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease, informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group and social companionship (non-active status. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important,the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  3. Molecular evolution of multiple-level control of heme biosynthesis pathway in animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway.

  4. Divided visual attention: A comparison of patients with multiple sclerosis and controls, assessed with an optokinetic nystagmus suppression task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Isla M; Schofield, Peter; Khade, Neha; Abel, Larry A

    2016-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently causes impairment of cognitive function. We compared patients with MS with controls on divided visual attention tasks. The MS patients' and controls' stare optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was recorded in response to a 24°/s full field stimulus. Suppression of the OKN response, judged by the gain, was measured during tasks dividing visual attention between the fixation target and a second stimulus, central or peripheral, static or dynamic. All participants completed the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen. MS patients had lower gain on the baseline stare OKN. OKN suppression in divided attention tasks was the same in MS patients as in controls but in both groups was better maintained in static than in dynamic tasks. In only dynamic tasks, older age was associated with less effective OKN suppression. MS patients had lower scores on a timed attention task and on memory. There was no significant correlation between attention or memory and eye movement parameters. Attention, a complex multifaceted construct, has different neural combinations for each task. Despite impairments on some measures of attention, MS patients completed the divided visual attention tasks normally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does aerobic training alleviate fatigue and improve societal participation in patients with multiple sclerosis? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Martin; Verschuren, Olaf; Hoogervorst, Erwin Lj; van Munster, Erik; Hacking, Hub Ga; Visser-Meily, Anne; Twisk, Jos Wr; Beckerman, Heleen; de Groot, Vincent; Kwakkel, Gert

    2017-10-01

    Evidence supporting the effectiveness of aerobic training, specific for fatigue, in severely fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is lacking. To estimate the effectiveness of aerobic training on MS-related fatigue and societal participation in ambulant patients with severe MS-related fatigue. Patients ( N = 90) with severe MS-related fatigue were allocated to 16-week aerobic training or control intervention. Primary outcomes were perceived fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength (CIS20r) fatigue subscale) and societal participation. An improvement of ⩾8 points on the CIS20r fatigue subscale was considered clinically relevant. Outcomes were assessed by a blinded observer at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Of the 89 patients that started treatment (median Expanded Disability Status Scale (interquartile range), 3.0 (2.0-3.6); mean CIS20r fatigue subscale (standard deviation (SD)), 42.6 (8.0)), 43 received aerobic training and 46 received the control intervention. A significant post-intervention between-group mean difference (MD) on the CIS20r fatigue subscale of 4.708 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.003-8.412; p  = 0.014) points was found in favour of aerobic training that, however, was not sustained during follow-up. No effect was found on societal participation. Aerobic training in MS patients with severe fatigue does not lead to a clinically meaningful reduction in fatigue or societal participation when compared to a low-intensity control intervention.

  6. Report of the Advisory Group Meeting on Genetic Methods of Insect Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Despite the availability of a range of modern pest control techniques, insects remain a major cause of production losses in agriculture and contribute significantly to diseases of man and livestock. The increasing incidence of pesticide resistance, and concerns over the environmental impact of residues, have highlighted the need for improved technologies. As a result, genetic methods of pest control, including the use of irradiation sterilized insects, have become of increasing importance. It is therefore essential that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division continues to promote the development and application of this method of pest control. The advisory group concluded that the opportunities for genetic control might be widened by the application of new techniques, particularly recombinant DNA technology. The scope for integration of genetic control methods with other control measures, and ist use as a temporary suppressive measure on an area-wide basis was also recognized. Examples are given from representative groups of insect pests to illustrate how these concepts can be applied. The advisory group regarded the Seibersdorf laboratory as a unique facility for the conduct of tactical research related to mass-rearing and release procedures for major pests such as medfly and tsetse spp. Associated research on genetic sexing of medfly, diet recycling and the development of more environmentally acceptable alternatives for pre-release suppression of medfly were considered to be important research projects. The advisory group concluded that the laboratory should continue to remain a centre of excellence for mass-rearing technologies for medfly and tsetse spp., and for training scientists and technicians from developing countries. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division currently plays a major co-ordinating and supportive role for those areas of international research which impinge on genetic control. The advisory group believes that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division should maintain its initiative

  7. Report of the Advisory Group Meeting on Genetic Methods of Insect Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Despite the availability of a range of modern pest control techniques, insects remain a major cause of production losses in agriculture and contribute significantly to diseases of man and livestock. The increasing incidence of pesticide resistance, and concerns over the environmental impact of residues, have highlighted the need for improved technologies. As a result, genetic methods of pest control, including the use of irradiation sterilized insects, have become of increasing importance. It is therefore essential that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division continues to promote the development and application of this method of pest control. The advisory group concluded that the opportunities for genetic control might be widened by the application of new techniques, particularly recombinant DNA technology. The scope for integration of genetic control methods with other control measures, and ist use as a temporary suppressive measure on an area-wide basis was also recognized. Examples are given from representative groups of insect pests to illustrate how these concepts can be applied. The advisory group regarded the Seibersdorf laboratory as a unique facility for the conduct of tactical research related to mass-rearing and release procedures for major pests such as medfly and tsetse spp. Associated research on genetic sexing of medfly, diet recycling and the development of more environmentally acceptable alternatives for pre-release suppression of medfly were considered to be important research projects. The advisory group concluded that the laboratory should continue to remain a centre of excellence for mass-rearing technologies for medfly and tsetse spp., and for training scientists and technicians from developing countries. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division currently plays a major co-ordinating and supportive role for those areas of international research which impinge on genetic control. The advisory group believes that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division should maintain its initiative

  8. Sympathetic skin response in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritella, Nicolò; Mendozzi, Laura; Garegnani, Massimo; Gilardi, Elisabetta; Nemni, Raffaello; Pugnetti, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    The usefulness of sympathetic skin responses (SSR) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been advocated by several studies in the last 20 years; however, due to a great heterogeneity of findings, a comprehensive meta-analysis of case-control studies is in order to pinpoint consistencies and investigate the causes of discrepancies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases for case-control studies comparing SSR absence frequency and latency between patients with MS and healthy controls. Thirteen eligible studies including 415 MS patients and 331 healthy controls were identified. The pooled analysis showed that SSR can be always obtained in healthy controls while 34% of patients had absent SSRs in at least one limb (95% CI 22-47%; p studies (I 2  = 90.3%). Patients' age explained 22% of the overall variability and positive correlations were found with Expanded Disability Status Scale and disease duration. The pooled mean difference of SSR latency showed a significant increase in patients on both upper (193 ms; 95% CI 120-270 ms) and lower (350 ms; 95% CI 190-510 ms) extremities. We tested the discriminatory value of SSR latency thresholds defined as the 95% confidence interval (CI) upper bound of the healthy controls, and validated the results on a new dataset. The lower limb threshold of 1.964 s produces the best results in terms of sensitivity 0.86, specificity 0.67, positive predicted value 0.75 and negative predicted value 0.80. Despite a considerable heterogeneity of findings, there is evidence that SSR is a useful tool in MS.

  9. Neural-adaptive control of single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation for coordinated multiple mobile manipulators with time-varying communication delays and input uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive neural network control is investigated for single-master-multiple-slaves teleoperation in consideration of time delays and input dead-zone uncertainties for multiple mobile manipulators carrying a common object in a cooperative manner. Firstly, concise dynamics of teleoperation systems consisting of a single master robot, multiple coordinated slave robots, and the object are developed in the task space. To handle asymmetric time-varying delays in communication channels and unknown asymmetric input dead zones, the nonlinear dynamics of the teleoperation system are transformed into two subsystems through feedback linearization: local master or slave dynamics including the unknown input dead zones and delayed dynamics for the purpose of synchronization. Then, a model reference neural network control strategy based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and adaptive techniques is proposed. The developed control approach ensures that the defined tracking errors converge to zero whereas the coordination internal force errors remain bounded and can be made arbitrarily small. Throughout this paper, stability analysis is performed via explicit Lyapunov techniques under specific LMI conditions. The proposed adaptive neural network control scheme is robust against motion disturbances, parametric uncertainties, time-varying delays, and input dead zones, which is validated by simulation studies.

  10. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Maartje H; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C; van Campen, Jos P C M; Lems, Willem F; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosis and flexed posture is affected. Furthermore, instruments measuring postural control were evaluated and examined for sensitivity and easy clinical use. Until February 2011, electronic databases were systematically searched for cross-sectional studies. Methodological quality was assessed with a modified Downs & Black scale. Of the 518 found studies, 18 studies were included. Postural control was generally affected for patients with vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosis and flexed posture. Patients with osteoporosis had impaired postural control when assessed with computerized instruments. Easy performance-based tests did not show any impairments. There is evidence for an impaired postural control in all patient groups included. Impaired postural control is an important risk factor for falls. Functional performance tests are not sensitive and specific enough to detect affected postural control in patients with osteoporosis. To detect impaired postural control among osteoporotic patients and to obtain more insight into the underlying mechanisms of postural control, computerized instruments are recommended, such as easy-to-use ambulant motion-sensing (accelerometry) technology. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. All-optical control of group velocity dispersion in tellurite photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lai; Tian, Qijun; Liao, Meisong; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2012-12-15

    We demonstrate all-optical control of group velocity dispersion (GVD) via optical Kerr effect in highly nonlinear tellurite photonic crystal fibers. The redshift of the zero-dispersion wavelength is over 307 nm, measured by soliton self-frequency shift cancellation, when the pump peak power of a 1.56 μm femtosecond fiber laser is increased to 11.6 kW. The all-optical control of GVD not only offers a new platform for constructing all-optical-control photonic devices but also promises a new class of experiments in nonlinear fiber optics and light-matter interactions.

  12. Web Search Behavior and Information Needs of People With Multiple Sclerosis: Focus Group Study and Analysis of Online Postings

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Cinzia; Mosconi, Paola; Confalonieri, Paolo; Baroni, Isabella; Traversa, Silvia; Hill, Sophie J; Synnot, Anneliese J; Oprandi, Nadia; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their family members increasingly seek health information on the Internet. There has been little exploration of how MS patients integrate health information with their needs, preferences, and values for decision making. The INtegrating and Deriving Evidence, Experiences, and Preferences (IN-DEEP) project is a collaboration between Italian and Australian researchers and MS patients, aimed to make high-quality evidence accessible and meaningful to...

  13. A comparison of dysfunctional attitudes in substance abusers and control group and its psychological outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    This research was carried out to assess the role of dysfunctional attitudes, outcomes of psychology in substance abuse behaviors of subject were referred to addiction treatment center in the city of Bandar Abbas, and to compare the with the control group. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which 100 subject substance abusers were compared with 100 subject s of control group who were selected using convenience sampling and were also demographically matched. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire, clinical interview, dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS. The data were analyzed via descriptive statistic method, T- Test and chi-square and variance analysis. Findings: Findings indicated that in comparison with control group, subject of substance abusers had experienced more stress, anxiety, depression, had shown a cognitively more percent of them dysfunctional attitudes in comparison with control group. Results: The results suggested that the dysfunctional attitudes could be as a Vulnerability Factor that increase abuse of substance consequently use of cognitive therapy could be helpful and effective in prevention and treatment of the addicts.

  14. Analyzing Data from a Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design: The Importance of Statistical Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Linda; Nimon, Kim; Hammack-Brown, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among the gold standards in human resource development (HRD) research are studies that test theoretically developed hypotheses and use experimental designs. A somewhat typical experimental design would involve collecting pretest and posttest data on individuals assigned to a control or experimental group. Data from such a design that…

  15. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  16. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting…

  17. Social Comparison, Multiple Reference Groups, and the Self-Concepts of Academically Handicapped Children Before and After Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Louise; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Predictions from social comparison theory and group reference theory were tested in two experiments assessing the impact of half-day mainstreaming upon the self-concepts of academically handicapped children. The results supported the theoretical viability of social comparison theory and group reference theory in educational settings. (Author/BH)

  18. Multiple PRP injections are more effective than single injections and hyaluronic acid in knees with early osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Ataoglu, Baybars; Çolak, Cemil; Aslantürk, Okan; Ertem, Kadir

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intraarticular (IA) multiple and single platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 162 patients with different stages of knee OA were randomly divided into four groups receiving 3 IA doses of PRP, one dose of PRP, one dose of HA or a saline injection (control). Then, each group was subdivided into two groups: early OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 with cartilage degeneration or grade I-III) and advanced OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV). The patients were evaluated before the injection and at the 6-month follow-ups using the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores. Adverse events and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and EQ-VAS scores in all the treatment groups compared with the control group. The knee scores of patients treated with three PRP injections were significantly better than those patients of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the scores of patients injected with one dose of PRP or HA. In the early OA subgroups, significantly better clinical results were achieved in the patients treated with three PRP injections, but there was no significant difference in the clinical results of patients with advanced OA among the treatment groups. The clinical results of this study suggest IA PRP and HA treatment for all stages of knee OA. For patients with early OA, multiple (3) PRP injections are useful in achieving better clinical results. For patients with advanced OA, multiple injections do not significantly improve the results of patients in any group. I.

  19. Human placenta-derived cells (PDA-001) for the treatment of adults with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublin, Fred D; Bowen, James D; Huddlestone, John; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; Carpenter, Adam; Corboy, John R; Freedman, Mark S; Krupp, Lauren; Paulo, Corri; Hariri, Robert J; Fischkoff, Steven A

    2014-11-01

    Infusion of PDA-001, a preparation of mesenchymal-like cells derived from full-term human placenta, is a new approach in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. This safety study aimed to rule out the possibility of paradoxical exacerbation of disease activity by PDA-001 in patients with multiple sclerosis. This was a phase 1b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-dose ranging study including patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. The study was conducted at 6 sites in the United States and 2 sites in Canada. Patients were randomized 3:1 to receive 2 low-dose infusions of PDA-001 (150×10(6) cells) or placebo, given 1 week apart. After completing this cohort, subsequent patients received high-dose PDA-001 (600×10(6) cells) or placebo. Monthly brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed. The primary end point was ruling out the possibility of paradoxical worsening of MS disease activity. This was monitored using Cutter׳s rule (≥5 new gadolinium lesions on 2 consecutive scans) by brain magnetic resonance imaging on a monthly basis for six months and also the frequency of multiple sclerosis relapse. Ten patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 6 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to treatment: 6 to low-dose PDA-001, 6 to high-dose PDA-001, and 4 to placebo. No patient met Cutter׳s rule. One patient receiving high-dose PDA-001 had an increase in T2 and gadolinium lesions and in Expanded Disability Status Scale score during a multiple sclerosis flare 5 months after receiving PDA-001. No other patient had an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale score>0.5, and most had stable or decreasing Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. With high-dose PDA-001, 1 patient experienced a grade 1 anaphylactoid reaction and 1 had grade 2 superficial thrombophlebitis. Other adverse events were mild to moderate and included

  20. Group cognitive–behavioral therapy in insomnia: a cross-sectional case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hongjing Mao,1,* Yutian Ji,2,* You Xu,1 Guangzheng Tang,1 Zhenghe Yu,1 Lianlian Xu,1 Chanchan Shen,2 Wei Wang1,2 1Department of Psychosomatic Disorders, The Seventh People’s Hospital, Mental Health Center, 2Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Group cognitive–behavioral therapy (GCBT might meet the considerable treatment demand of insomnia, but its effectiveness needs to be addressed.Participants: This study recruited 27 insomnia patients treated with 16-weeks of zolpidem (zolpidem group, 26 patients treated with 4-weeks of zolpidem and also treated with 12-weeks of GCBT (GCBT group, and 31 healthy control volunteers.Methods: Before treatment and 16 weeks after intervention, participants were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaires (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 [PHQ-15], the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep-16 (DBAS-16, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI.Results: Compared to the zolpidem and healthy control groups, the scale scores of PHQ-9, PHQ-15, DBAS-16 and PSQI were significantly reduced after intervention in the GCBT group. Regarding the score changes, there were correlations between PSQI, DBAS-16, PHQ-9, and PHQ-15 scales in the zolpidem group, but there were limited correlations between PSQI and some DBAS-16 scales in the GCBT group.Conclusion: Our results indicate that GCBT is effective to treat insomnia by improving sleep quality and reducing emotional and somatic disturbances; thus, the study supports the advocacy of applying group psychotherapy to the disorder. Keywords: cognitive–behavioral therapy, group psychotherapy, insomnia