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Sample records for multiple capillary array

  1. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  2. Visual detection of multiple genetically modified organisms in a capillary array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ning; Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Jiaying; Li, Rong; Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Shujuan; Hui, Junhou; Liu, Peng; Yang, Litao; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-01-31

    There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries. The surface of the capillary array is hydrophobic while the capillaries are hydrophilic, enabling the simultaneous loading and separation of the LAMP reaction mixtures into each capillary by capillary forces. LAMP reactions in the capillaries are then performed in parallel, and the results are visually detected by illumination with a hand-held UV device. Using CALM, we successfully detected seven frequently used transgenic genes/elements and five plant endogenous reference genes with high specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we found that measurements of real-world blind samples by CALM are consistent with results obtained by independent real-time PCRs. Thus, with an ability to detect multiple nucleic acids in a single easy-to-operate test, we believe that CALM will become a widely applied technology in GMO monitoring.

  3. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  4. X-ray focusing using capillary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Chapman, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    A new form of X-ray focusing device based on glass capillary arrays is presented. Theoretical and experimental results for array of circular capillaries and theoretical and computational results for square hole capillaries are given. It is envisaged that devices such as these will find wide applications in X-ray optics as achromatic condensers and collimators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  5. Application of a diode-array detector in capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, W.; Hoek, van R.; Engelhardt, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the last decade diode-array detection has proved to be extremely useful in high performance liquid chromatography in recording UV-visible spectra directly and on-line in the column effluent. In capillary electrophoresis (CE) only fast-scanning detectors with long scan times (up to 2 s) are

  6. A fully automated 384 capillary array for DNA sequencer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, T

    2003-03-20

    Phase I SpectruMedix has successfully developed an automatic 96-capillary array DNA prototype based on the multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system originated from Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University. With computer control of all steps involved in a 96-capillary array running cycle, the prototype instrument (the SCE9600) is now capable of sequencing 450 base pairs (bp) per capillary, or 48,000 bp per instrument run within 2 hrs. Phase II of this grant involved the advancement of the core 96 capillary technologies, as well as designing a high density 384 capillary prototype. True commercialization of the 96 capillary instrument involved finalization of the gel matrix, streamlining the instrument hardware, creating a more reliable capillary cartridge, and further advancement of the data processing software. Together these silos of technology create a truly commercializable product (the SCE9610) capable of meeting the operation needs of the sequencing centers.

  7. Cross-talk effect in electrostatic based capillary array nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Rahman, Khalid; Khan, Arshad; Kim, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic printing is a promising technique for printed electronics application. Most researchers working in this field are using a single nozzle configuration. However, for large area printing a multi-nozzle setup will be required for time and cost effective process. In this paper the influence of electric field and flow-rate on jetting angle on multi-nozzle array has been investigated experimentally. A three nozzle setup has been used in a linear array by using glass capillary as a nozzle with independent voltage applied on each nozzle and independent ink supply. The experiments are performed by changing the nozzle to nozzle gap and the effect on the jetting angle has been investigated. It has been observed that by increasing the applied voltage the jetting angle also increases at fixed flow-rate. In case of increasing the flow-rate, the jetting angle first increases with increase in flow-rate, but as the flow-rate increases at certain level the jetting angle decreases; moreover, at a high flow-rate the cone-jet length starts increasing. Numerical simulation has been performed to have a better understanding of the electric-field with respect to jetting angles. The influence of one nozzle on another nozzle is also investigated by operating the nozzle independently by using different operating cases. The cross-talk effect is also minimized by reducing the nozzle diameter. At 250 μm nozzle diameter the cross-talk effect was negligible for 5 mm nozzle-to-nozzle gap. This study will help in better understanding of the interaction between different nozzles in multi-nozzle cases and better design of the multi-nozzle system by minimizing the effects of adjacent nozzles for multi-nozzle electrohydrodynamic printing system

  8. Enantioseparations of amino acids by capillary array electrophoresis with 532 nm laser induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiying; Wang, Li

    2013-06-21

    Capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) is a promising technique for multiple enantiomeric separations. Carboxytetramethylrhodamine succinimidyl ester (TAMRA SE), a rhodamine-core fluorescent probe, has rarely been applied as an original precolumn derivatization reagent for chiral amino acid (AA) analysis so far. For these purposes, high-throughput enantiomeric separations of 12 TAMRA SE-AAs by a home-made 532 nm CAE-LIF scanner are presented. The effect of cyclodextrins (CDs) and a variety of organic modifiers was quickly investigated. Baseline separations were achieved in 100 mM Tris-borate buffer (pH 10.0) containing 2 mM β-CD and 10 mM hexamethylenediamine (HDA). Multiple determination of the enantiomeric excess (ee) in non-racemic mixtures of alanine is successfully presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Capillary array electrophoresis using laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.; Mathies, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has found widespread application in analytical and biomedical research, and the scope and sophistication of CE is still rapidly advancing. Gel-filled capillaries have been employed for the rapid separation and analysis of synthetic polynucleotides, DNA sequencing fragments, and DNA restriction fragments. Open-tube capillary electrophoresis has attained subattomole detection levels in amino acid separations 14 and proven its utility for the separation of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. Separation of the optical isomers of dansyl amino acids has also been successfully demonstrated. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and on-column derivatization can all be performed on CE columns, demonstrating the utility of capillary electrophoresis as an analytical and micropreparative tool. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Process-morphology scaling relations quantify self-organization in capillary densified nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ashley L; Stein, Itai Y; Cui, Kehang; Wardle, Brian L

    2018-02-07

    Capillary-mediated densification is an inexpensive and versatile approach to tune the application-specific properties and packing morphology of bulk nanofiber (NF) arrays, such as aligned carbon nanotubes. While NF length governs elasto-capillary self-assembly, the geometry of cellular patterns formed by capillary densified NFs cannot be precisely predicted by existing theories. This originates from the recently quantified orders of magnitude lower than expected NF array effective axial elastic modulus (E), and here we show via parametric experimentation and modeling that E determines the width, area, and wall thickness of the resulting cellular pattern. Both experiments and models show that further tuning of the cellular pattern is possible by altering the NF-substrate adhesion strength, which could enable the broad use of this facile approach to predictably pattern NF arrays for high value applications.

  11. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  12. A new sieving matrix for DNA sequencing, genotyping and mutation detection and high-throughput genotyping with a 96-capillary array system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    Capillary electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a fast separation technique in DNA analysis. In this dissertation, a new sieving matrix is described for DNA analysis, especially DNA sequencing, genetic typing and mutation detection. A high-throughput 96 capillary array electrophoresis system was also demonstrated for simultaneous multiple genotyping. The authors first evaluated the influence of different capillary coatings on the performance of DNA sequencing. A bare capillary was compared with a DB-wax, an FC-coated and a polyvinylpyrrolidone dynamically coated capillary with PEO as sieving matrix. It was found that covalently-coated capillaries had no better performance than bare capillaries while PVP coating provided excellent and reproducible results. The authors also developed a new sieving Matrix for DNA separation based on commercially available poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). This sieving matrix has a very low viscosity and an excellent self-coating effect. Successful separations were achieved in uncoated capillaries. Sequencing of M13mp18 showed good resolution up to 500 bases in treated PVP solution. Temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis and PVP solution was applied to mutation detection. A heteroduplex sample and a homoduplex reference were injected during a pair of continuous runs. A temperature gradient of 10 C with a ramp of 0.7 C/min was swept throughout the capillary. Detection was accomplished by laser induced fluorescence detection. Mutation detection was performed by comparing the pattern changes between the homoduplex and the heteroduplex samples. High throughput, high detection rate and easy operation were achieved in this system. They further demonstrated fast and reliable genotyping based on CTTv STR system by multiple-capillary array electrophoresis. The PCR products from individuals were mixed with pooled allelic ladder as an absolute standard and coinjected with a 96-vial tray. Simultaneous one-color laser-induced fluorescence

  13. Design and operation of a portable scanner for high performance microchip capillary array electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, James R; Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-induced fluorescence detection scanner, the multichannel capillary array electrophoresis portable scanner (McCAEPs) as a platform for electrophoretic detection and control of high-throughput, integrated microfluidic devices for genetic and other analyses. The instrument contains a confocal optical system with a rotary objective for detecting four different fluorescence signals, a pneumatic system consisting of two pressure/vacuum pumps and 28 individual addressable solenoid valves for control of on-chip microvalves and micropumps, four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) temperature control systems, and four high voltage power supplies for electrophoresis. The detection limit of the instrument is ~20 pM for on-chip capillary electrophoresis of fluorescein dyes. To demonstrate the system performance for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, two experiments were conducted: (i) electrophoretic separation and detection of STR samples on a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microchip. Fully resolved PowerPlex(®) 16 STR profiles amplified from 1 ng of 9947A female standard DNA were successfully obtained; (ii) nine-plex STR amplification, sample injection, separation, and fluorescence detection of 100-copy 9948 male standard DNA in a single integrated PCR- capillary electrophoresis microchip. These results demonstrate that the McCAEPs can be used as a versatile control and detection instrument that operates integrated microfluidic devices for high-performance forensic human identification.

  14. 12-Channel Peltier array temperature control unit for single molecule enzymology studies using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Douglas B; Reinfelds, Gundars; Henderson, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Capillary electrophoresis has been used to demonstrate that individual molecules of a given enzyme support different catalytic rates. In order to determine how rate varies with temperature, and determine activation energies for individual β-galactosidase molecules, a 12-channel Peltier array temperature control device was constructed where the temperature of each cell was separately controlled. This array was used to control the temperature of the central 30 cm of a 50 cm long capillary, producing a temperature gradient along its length. Continuous flow single β-galactosidase molecule assays were performed allowing measurement of the catalytic rates at different temperatures. Arrhenius plots were produced and the distribution of activation energies for individual β-galactosidase molecules was found to be 56 ± 10 kJ/mol with a range of 34-72 kJ/mol. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  16. Detection system of capillary array electrophoresis microchip based on optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobo; Bai, Haiming; Yan, Weiping

    2009-11-01

    To meet the demands of the post-genomic era study and the large parallel detections of epidemic diseases and drug screening, the high throughput micro-fluidic detection system is needed urgently. A scanning laser induced fluorescence detection system based on optical fiber has been established by using a green laser diode double-pumped solid-state laser as excitation source. It includes laser induced fluorescence detection subsystem, capillary array electrophoresis micro-chip, channel identification unit and fluorescent signal processing subsystem. V-shaped detecting probe composed with two optical fibers for transmitting the excitation light and detecting induced fluorescence were constructed. Parallel four-channel signal analysis of capillary electrophoresis was performed on this system by using Rhodamine B as the sample. The distinction of different samples and separation of samples were achieved with the constructed detection system. The lowest detected concentration is 1×10-5 mol/L for Rhodamine B. The results show that the detection system possesses some advantages, such as compact structure, better stability and higher sensitivity, which are beneficial to the development of microminiaturization and integration of capillary array electrophoresis chip.

  17. Application of a sensor array based on capillary-attached conductive gas sensors for odor identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahraminejad, Behzad; Basri, Shahnor; Isa, Maryam; Hambali, Zarida

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose based on an array of capillary-attached conductive gas sensors was fabricated. The identification ability of the developed structure was investigated by employing different categories of simple and complex odor databases. Feature data sets were generated from the dynamic and steady state responses of the sensor array to the applied odor databases. Combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods were used to detect target gases. Validation of each technique was evaluated. Achievements of the study proved high classification rates of the fabricated e-nose in odor identification. It was indicated that gas identification is possible by applying the early selected portion of transient responses of the developed sensor array. The ability of the mentioned structure in analyzing gas mixtures was also investigated. The results presented high accuracy in the classification of gas mixtures

  18. Heat Load Sharing in a Capillary Pumped Loop with Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the heat load sharing function among multiple parallel evaporators in a capillary pumped loop (CPL). In the normal mode of operation, the evaporators cool the instruments by absorbing the waste heat. When an instruments is turned off, the attached evaporator can keep it warm by receiving heat from other evaporators serving the operating instruments. This is referred to as heat load sharing. A theoretical basis of heat load sharing is given first. The fact that the wicks in the powered evaporators will develop capillary pressure to force the generated vapor to flow to cold locations where the pressure is lower leads to the conclusion that heat load sharing is an inherent function of a CPL with multiple evaporators. Heat load sharing has been verified with many CPLs in ground tests. Experimental results of the Capillary Pumped Loop 3 (CAPL 3) Flight Experiment are presented in this paper. Factors that affect the amount of heat being shared are discussed. Some constraints of heat load sharing are also addressed.

  19. High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghua [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an

  20. Modulation of surface wettability of superhydrophobic substrates using Si nanowire arrays and capillary-force-induced nanocohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawood, M.K.; Zheng, H.; Kurniawan, N.A.; Leong, K.C.; Foo, Y.L.; Rajagopalan, Raj; Khan, S.A.; Choi, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new scalable method to fabricate large-area hybrid superhydrophobic surfaces with selective adhesion properties on silicon (Si) nanowire array substrates by exploiting liquid-medium-dependent capillary-force-induced nanocohesion. Gold (Au) nanoparticles were deposited on Si by glancing

  1. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Meinke Carl Goodzeit Penny Ball Roger Bangerter

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of loW--cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet RandD construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  2. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Meinke

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  3. [A capillary blood flow velocity detection system based on linear array charge-coupled devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Houming; Wang, Ruofeng; Dang, Qi; Yang, Li; Wang, Xiang

    2017-12-01

    In order to detect the flow characteristics of blood samples in the capillary, this paper introduces a blood flow velocity measurement system based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA), linear charge-coupled devices (CCD) and personal computer (PC) software structure. Based on the analysis of the TCD1703C and AD9826 device data sheets, Verilog HDL hardware description language was used to design and simulate the driver. Image signal acquisition and the extraction of the real-time edge information of the blood sample were carried out synchronously in the FPGA. Then a series of discrete displacement were performed in a differential operation to scan each of the blood samples displacement, so that the sample flow rate could be obtained. Finally, the feasibility of the blood flow velocity detection system was verified by simulation and debugging. After drawing the flow velocity curve and analyzing the velocity characteristics, the significance of measuring blood flow velocity is analyzed. The results show that the measurement of the system is less time-consuming and less complex than other flow rate monitoring schemes.

  4. Application of multiplicative array techniques for multibeam sounder systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.

    modification in terms of additional computation or hardware for improved array gain. The present work is devoted towards the study of a better beamforming method i.e. a multiplicative array technique with some modification proposEd. by Brown and Rowland...

  5. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Waferscale Electrostatic Quadrupole Array for Multiple Ion Beam Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayakumar, K. B.; Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Lal, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first through-wafer silicon-based Electrostatic Quadrupole Array (ESQA) to focus high energy ion beams. This device is a key enabler for a wafer based accelerator architecture that lends itself to orders-of-magnitude reduction in cost, volume and weight of charged particle accelerators. ESQs are a key building block in developing compact Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) [1]. In a MEQALAC electrostatic forces are used to focus ions, and elec...

  7. Comparison of Generated Parallel Capillary Arrays to Three-Dimensional Reconstructed Capillary Networks in Modeling Oxygen Transport in Discrete Microvascular Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Graham M.; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compare Reconstructed Microvascular Networks (RMN) to Parallel Capillary Arrays (PCA) under several simulated physiological conditions to determine how the use of different vascular geometry affects oxygen transport solutions. Methods Three discrete networks were reconstructed from intravital video microscopy of rat skeletal muscle (84×168×342 μm, 70×157×268 μm and 65×240×571 μm) and hemodynamic measurements were made in individual capillaries. PCAs were created based on statistical measurements from RMNs. Blood flow and O2 transport models were applied and the resulting solutions for RMN and PCA models were compared under 4 conditions (rest, exercise, ischemia and hypoxia). Results Predicted tissue PO2 was consistently lower in all RMN simulations compared to the paired PCA. PO2 for 3D reconstructions at rest were 28.2±4.8, 28.1±3.5, and 33.0±4.5 mmHg for networks I, II, and III compared to the PCA mean values of 31.2±4.5, 30.6±3.4, and 33.8±4.6 mmHg. Simulated exercise yielded mean tissue PO2 in the RMN of 10.1±5.4, 12.6±5.7, and 19.7±5.7 mmHg compared to 15.3±7.3, 18.8±5.3, and 21.7±6.0 in PCA. Conclusions These findings suggest that volume matched PCA yield different results compared to reconstructed microvascular geometries when applied to O2 transport modeling; the predominant characteristic of this difference being an over estimate of mean tissue PO2. Despite this limitation, PCA models remain important for theoretical studies as they produce PO2 distributions with similar shape and parameter dependence as RMN. PMID:23841679

  8. IRIS Arrays: Observing Wavefields at Multiple Scales and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Frassetto, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) provides instruments for creating and operating seismic arrays at a wide range of scales. As an example, for over thirty years the IRIS PASSCAL program has provided instruments to individual Principal Investigators to deploy arrays of all shapes and sizes on every continent. These arrays have ranged from just a few sensors to hundreds or even thousands of sensors, covering areas with dimensions of meters to thousands of kilometers. IRIS also operates arrays directly, such as the USArray Transportable Array (TA) as part of the EarthScope program. Since 2004, the TA has rolled across North America, at any given time spanning a swath of approximately 800 km by 2,500 km, and thus far sampling 2% of the Earth's surface. This achievement includes all of the lower-48 U.S., southernmost Canada, and now parts of Alaska. IRIS has also facilitated specialized arrays in polar environments and on the seafloor. In all cases, the data from these arrays are freely available to the scientific community. As the community of scientists who use IRIS facilities and data look to the future they have identified a clear need for new array capabilities. In particular, as part of its Wavefields Initiative, IRIS is exploring new technologies that can enable large, dense array deployments to record unaliased wavefields at a wide range of frequencies. Large-scale arrays might utilize multiple sensor technologies to best achieve observing objectives and optimize equipment and logistical costs. Improvements in packaging and power systems can provide equipment with reduced size, weight, and power that will reduce logistical constraints for large experiments, and can make a critical difference for deployments in harsh environments or other situations where rapid deployment is required. We will review the range of existing IRIS array capabilities with an overview of previous and current deployments and examples of data and results. We

  9. Remoting alternatives for a multiple phased-array antenna network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zan; Foshee, James J.

    2001-10-01

    Significant improvements in technology have made phased array antennas an attractive alternative to the traditional dish antenna for use on wide body airplanes. These improvements have resulted in reduced size, reduced cost, reduced losses in the transmit and receive channels (simplifying the design), a significant extension in the bandwidth capability, and an increase in the functional capability. Flush mounting (thus reduced drag) and rapid beam switching are among the evolving desirable features of phased array antennas. Beam scanning of phased array antennas is limited to +/-45 degrees at best and therefore multiple phased array antennas would need to be used to insure instantaneous communications with any ground station (stations located at different geographical locations on the ground) and with other airborne stations. The exact number of phased array antennas and the specific installation location of each antenna on the wide body airplane would need to be determined by the specific communication requirements, but it is conceivable as many as five phased array antennas may need to be used to provide the required coverage. Control and switching of these antennas would need to be accomplished at a centralized location on the airplane and since these antennas would be at different locations on the airplane an efficient scheme of remoting would need to be used. To save in cost and keep the phased array antennas as small as possible the design of the phased array antennas would need to be kept simple. A dish antenna and a blade antenna (small size) could also be used to augment the system. Generating the RF signals at the central location and then using RF cables or waveguide to get the signal to any given antenna could result in significant RF losses. This paper will evaluate a number of remoting alternatives to keep the system design simple, reduce system cost, and utilize the functional capability of networking multiple phased array antennas on a wide body

  10. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 20 markers was previously described. It has considerable discrimination power, reproducibility, and low cost, especially since the markers proposed can be typed by agarose-gel electrophoresis. However in an emergency situation, faster genotyping and access to representative databases is necessary. Results Genotyping of B. anthracis reference strains and isolates from France and Italy was done using a 25 loci MLVA assay combining 21 previously described loci and 4 new ones. DNA was amplified in 4 multiplex PCR reactions and the length of the resulting 25 amplicons was estimated by automated capillary electrophoresis. The results were reproducible and the data were consistent with other gel based methods once differences in mobility patterns were taken into account. Some alleles previously unresolved by agarose gel electrophoresis could be resolved by capillary electrophoresis, thus further increasing the assay resolution. One particular locus, Bams30, is the result of a recombination between a 27 bp tandem repeat and a 9 bp tandem repeat. The analysis of the array illustrates the evolution process of tandem repeats. Conclusion In a crisis situation of suspected bioterrorism, standardization, speed and accuracy, together with the availability of reference typing data are important issues, as illustrated by the 2001 anthrax letters event. In this report we describe an upgrade of the previously published MLVA method for genotyping of B. anthracis and apply the method to the typing of French and Italian B. anthracis strain collections. The increased number of markers studied compared to reports using only 8 loci greatly improves the discrimination power of the technique. An Italian strain belonging to the

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Capillary Pumps and Multiple Condensers. Part 1; Stead State Stimulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Triem T.; OConnell, Tamara; Ku, Jentung

    2004-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) have proven themselves as reliable and robust heat transport devices for spacecraft thermal control systems. So far, the LHPs in earth-orbit satellites perform very well as expected. Conventional LHPs usually consist of a single capillary pump for heat acquisition and a single condenser for heat rejection. Multiple pump/multiple condenser LHPs have shown to function very well in ground testing. Nevertheless, the test results of a dual pump/condenser LHP also revealed that the dual LHP behaved in a complicated manner due to the interaction between the pumps and condensers. Thus it is redundant to say that more research is needed before they are ready for 0-g deployment. One research area that perhaps compels immediate attention is the analytical modeling of LHPs, particularly the transient phenomena. Modeling a single pump/single condenser LHP is difficult enough. Only a handful of computer codes are available for both steady state and transient simulations of conventional LHPs. No previous effort was made to develop an analytical model (or even a complete theory) to predict the operational behavior of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP systems. The current research project offered a basic theory of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP operation. From it, a computer code was developed to predict the LHP saturation temperature in accordance with the system operating and environmental conditions.

  12. High-Throughput Proteomics Using High Efficiency Multiple-Capillary Liquid Chromatography With On-Line High-Performance ESI FTICR Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yufeng (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tolic, Nikola (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Li, Lingjun (Illinois Univ Of-Urbana/Champa); Berger, Scott J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Harkewicz, Richard (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Gordon A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Belov, Mikhail E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Smith, Richard D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-12-01

    We report on the design and application of a high-efficiency multiple-capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system for high-throughput proteome analysis. The multiple-capillary LC system was operated at the pressure of 10,000 psi using commercial LC pumps to deliver the mobile phase and newly developed passive feedback valves to switch the mobile phase flow and introduce samples. The multiple-capillary LC system was composed of several serially connected dual-capillary column devices. The dual-capillary column approach was designed to eliminate the time delay for regeneration (or equilibrium) of the capillary column after its use under the mobile phase gradient condition (i.e. one capillary column was used in separation and the other was washed using mobile phase A). The serially connected dual-capillary columns and ESI sources were operated independently, and could be used for either''backup'' operation or with other mass spectrometer(s). This high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system uses switching valves for all operations and is highly amenable to automation. The separations efficiency of dual-capillary column device, optimal capillary dimensions (column length and packed particle size), suitable mobile phases for electrospray, and the capillary re-generation were investigated. A high magnetic field (11.5 tesla) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was coupled on-line with this high-efficiency multiple-capillary LC system through an electrospray ionization source. The capillary LC provided a peak capacity of {approx}600, and the 2-D capillary LC-FTICR provided a combined resolving power of > 6 x 10 7 polypeptide isotopic distributions. For yeast cellular tryptic digests, > 100,000 polypeptides were typically detected, and {approx}1,000 proteins can be characterized in a single run.

  13. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  14. High-Throughput Analysis With 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis and Integrated Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the fluorescence detection for the multiplexed capillary array electrophoresis, extend its use beyond the genomic analysis, and to develop an integrated micro-sample preparation system for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The authors first demonstrated multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations in a 96-capillary array system with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Migration times of four kinds of fluoresceins and six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are normalized to one of the capillaries using two internal standards. The relative standard deviations (RSD) after normalization are 0.6-1.4% for the fluoresceins and 0.1-1.5% for the PAHs. Quantitative calibration of the separations based on peak areas is also performed, again with substantial improvement over the raw data. This opens up the possibility of performing massively parallel separations for high-throughput chemical analysis for process monitoring, combinatorial synthesis, and clinical diagnosis. The authors further improved the fluorescence detection by step laser scanning. A computer-controlled galvanometer scanner is adapted for scanning a focused laser beam across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries. The limit of detection for fluorescein is 3 x 10-11 M (S/N = 3) for 5-mW of total laser power scanned at 4 Hz. The observed cross-talk among capillaries is 0.2%. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components, and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission.

  15. Interfacial pH-gradient induced micro-capillary filling with the aid of transverse electrodes arrays in presence of electrical double layer effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Avi; Chakraborty, Suman

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we outline the design and analysis of a micro-capillary filling mechanism through the aid of interfacial pH gradients (and hence interfacial tension gradients) generated by employing arrays of transverse electrodes inducing step changes in voltages, in a natural buffer system that requires low power and no synthetic ampholytes. The capillary transport is modulated by a dynamic and non-trivial coupling between the interfacial tension and viscous resistances, as a consequence of the underlying intermolecular interactions. The competing effects of the driving and the retarding forces effectively determine the displacement, velocity and acceleration characteristics of the capillary front, in a dynamically evolving manner. A comprehensive theoretical model of capillary dynamics is developed here to address these issues in details, thereby revealing the combined influence of the interfacial electrochemistry and the applied transverse voltages, as guided by the pertinent fundamental thermodynamic principles governed by free energy considerations and the physico-chemical phenomena over interfacial scales. Non-trivial implications of the pH-gradient driven micro-capillary transport are aptly emphasized, so as to offer significant physical insights on the adopted strategy as a guiding principle for facilitating capillary filling processes by inducing a modulation in the effective interfacial energy. Particular implications on the capillary filling time are also pinpointed, revealing the effectiveness of the adopted design strategy. Finally, a universal scaling relationship of the capillary filling time as a function of the pertinent operating parameters is derived, so as to provide a generalized guideline for implementing the design scheme. A non-dimensional parameter, depending simultaneously on the inter-electrode pitch and the transverse voltage, is identified, which may be kept to a minimal limit within the other operating constraints of the chosen

  16. High current beam transport with multiple beam arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    Highlights of recent experimental and theoretical research progress on the high current beam transport of single and multiple beams by the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are presented. In the single beam transport experiment (SBTE), stability boundaries and the emittance growth of a space charge dominated beam in a long quadrupole transport channel were measured and compared with theory and computer simulations. Also, a multiple beam ion induction linac (MBE-4) is being constructed at LBL which will permit study of multiple beam transport arrays, and acceleration and bunch length compression of individually focused beamlets. Various design considerations of MBE-4 regarding scaling laws, nonlinear effects, misalignments, and transverse and longitudinal space charge effects are summarized. Some aspects of longitudinal beam dynamics including schemes to generate the accelerating voltage waveforms and to amplify beam current are also discussed

  17. Application of high-resolution capillary array electrophoresis with automated fraction collection for GeneCalling analysis of the yeast genomic DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, J.; Ruiz-Martinez, M. C.; Hammond, R.; Minarik, M.; Foret, František; Sosic, Z.; Klepárník, Karel; Karger, B. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2003), s. 639-647 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0772; GA ČR GA303/00/0928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary array * fraction collection * gene expression profiling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2003

  18. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer B. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Goodzeit, Carl L. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Ball, Millicent J. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  19. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  20. Composition of the C6+ Fraction of Natural Gas by Multiple Porous Layer Open Tubular Capillaries Maintained at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jessica L; Lovestead, Tara M; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-03-17

    As the sources of natural gas become more diverse, the trace constituents of the C 6 + fraction are of increasing interest. Analysis of fuel gas (including natural gas) for compounds with more than 6 carbon atoms (the C 6 + fraction) has historically been complex and expensive. Hence, this is a procedure that is used most often in troubleshooting rather than for day-to-day operations. The C 6 + fraction affects gas quality issues and safety considerations such as anomalies associated with odorization. Recent advances in dynamic headspace vapor collection can be applied to this analysis and provide a faster, less complex alternative for compositional determination of the C 6 + fraction of natural gas. Porous layer open tubular capillaries maintained at low temperatures (PLOT-cryo) form the basis of a dynamic headspace sampling method that was developed at NIST initially for explosives in 2009. This method has been recently advanced by the combining of multiple PLOT capillary traps into one "bundle," or wafer, resulting in a device that allows the rapid trapping of relatively large amounts of analyte. In this study, natural gas analytes were collected by flowing natural gas from the laboratory (gas out of the wall) or a prepared surrogate gas flowing through a chilled wafer. The analytes were then removed from the PLOT-cryo wafer by thermal desorption and subsequent flushing of the wafer with helium. Gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) was then used to identify the analytes.

  1. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  2. The use of the multiple-gradient array for geoelectrical resistivity and induced polarization imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizebeokhai, Ahzegbobor P.; Oyeyemi, Kehinde D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of most conventional electrode configurations in electrical resistivity survey is often time consuming and labour intensive, especially when using manual data acquisition systems. Often, data acquisition teams tend to reduce data density so as to speed up field operation thereby reducing the survey cost; but this could significantly degrade the quality and resolution of the inverse models. In the present work, the potential of using the multiple-gradient array, a non-conventional electrode configuration, for practical cost effective and rapid subsurface resistivity and induced polarization mapping was evaluated. The array was used to conduct 2D resistivity and time-domain induced polarization imaging along two traverses in a study site at Ota, southwestern Nigeria. The subsurface was characterised and the main aquifer delineated using the inverse resistivity and chargeability images obtained. The performance of the multiple-gradient array was evaluated by correlating the 2D resistivity and chargeability images with those of the conventional Wenner array as well as the result of some soundings conducted along the same traverses using Schlumberger array. The multiple-gradient array has been found to have the advantage of measurement logistics and improved image resolution over the Wenner array.

  3. Multiple Seismic Array Observations for Tracing Deep Tremor Activity in Western Shikoku, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shiomi, K.; Obara, K.

    2011-12-01

    Deep non-volcanic tremors become very active during episodic slow-slip events in western Japan and Cascadia. The episodic tremor and slow-slip events in western Shikoku, Japan, occur at a typical interval of 6 months. Recently, it has been reported that tremor migration activity is complex and shows different migrating directions depending on time scales (Ghosh et al., 2010). Such characteristics of tremor are important to understand the mechanism of tremor and the relationship between tremor and SSEs. However it is difficult to determine the location of tremors with high accuracy because tremors show faint signals and make the identification of P/S-wave arrivals difficult. Seismic array analysis is useful to evaluate tremor activity, especially to estimate the arrival direction of seismic energy (e.g. Ueno et al., 2010, Ghosh et al., 2010), as it can distinguish multiple tremor sources occurring simultaneously. Here, we have conducted seismic array observation and analyzed seismic data during tremor activity by applying the MUSIC method to trace tremor location and its migration in western Shikoku. We have installed five seismic arrays in western Shikoku since January 2011. One of the arrays contains 30 stations with 3-component seismometers with a natural frequency of 2 Hz (Type-L array). The array aperture size is 2 km and the mean interval between stations is approximately 200 m. Each of the other arrays (Type-S array) contains 9 seismic stations with the same type of seismometers of the Type-L array, and is deployed surrounding the Type-L array. The small array aperture size is 800 m and its mean station interval is approximately 150 m. All array stations have recorded continuous waveform data at a sampling of 200Hz. In May 2011, an episodic tremor and a short-term slip event occurred for the first time during the observation period. We could retrieve the array seismic data during the whole tremor episode. The analysis of data from the type-L array confirms

  4. Paper-based immune-affinity arrays for detection of multiple mycotoxins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Hongpu; Lv, Xiaolan; Wang, Min; Jiang, Xizhi; Jiang, Yifei; Wang, Heye; Zhao, Yongfu; Xia, Liru

    2018-03-01

    Mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi may coexist in cereals and feedstuffs, and could be highly toxic for humans and animals. For quantification of multiple mycotoxins in cereals, we developed a paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array. First, paper-based microzone arrays were fabricated by photolithography. Then, monoclonal mycotoxin antibodies were added in a copolymerization reaction with a cross-linker to form an immune-affinity monolith on the paper-based microzone array. With use of a competitive immune-response format, paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity arrays were successfully applied to detect mycotoxins in samples. The detection limits for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin were 62.7, 10.8, 0.36, and 0.23 μg·kg -1 , respectively, which meet relevant requirements for these compounds in food. The recovery rates were 81-86% for deoxynivalenol, 89-117% for zearalenone, 79-86% for T-2 toxin, and 78-83% for HT-2 toxin, and showed the paper-based immune-affinity arrays had good reproducibility. In summary, the paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array provides a sensitive, rapid, accurate, stable, and convenient platform for detection of multiple mycotoxins in agro-foods. Graphical abstract Paper-based immune-affinity monolithic array. DON deoxynivalenol, HT-2 HT-2 toxin, T-2 T-2 toxin, PEGDA polyethylene glycol diacrylate, ZEN zearalenone.

  5. Direct Position Determination of Multiple Non-Circular Sources with a Moving Coprime Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankui Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct position determination (DPD is currently a hot topic in wireless localization research as it is more accurate than traditional two-step positioning. However, current DPD algorithms are all based on uniform arrays, which have an insufficient degree of freedom and limited estimation accuracy. To improve the DPD accuracy, this paper introduces a coprime array to the position model of multiple non-circular sources with a moving array. To maximize the advantages of this coprime array, we reconstruct the covariance matrix by vectorization, apply a spatial smoothing technique, and converge the subspace data from each measuring position to establish the cost function. Finally, we obtain the position coordinates of the multiple non-circular sources. The complexity of the proposed method is computed and compared with that of other methods, and the Cramer–Rao lower bound of DPD for multiple sources with a moving coprime array, is derived. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is not only applicable to circular sources, but can also improve the positioning accuracy of non-circular sources. Compared with existing two-step positioning algorithms and DPD algorithms based on uniform linear arrays, the proposed technique offers a significant improvement in positioning accuracy with a slight increase in complexity.

  6. Direct Position Determination of Multiple Non-Circular Sources with a Moving Coprime Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yankui; Ba, Bin; Wang, Daming; Geng, Wei; Xu, Haiyun

    2018-05-08

    Direct position determination (DPD) is currently a hot topic in wireless localization research as it is more accurate than traditional two-step positioning. However, current DPD algorithms are all based on uniform arrays, which have an insufficient degree of freedom and limited estimation accuracy. To improve the DPD accuracy, this paper introduces a coprime array to the position model of multiple non-circular sources with a moving array. To maximize the advantages of this coprime array, we reconstruct the covariance matrix by vectorization, apply a spatial smoothing technique, and converge the subspace data from each measuring position to establish the cost function. Finally, we obtain the position coordinates of the multiple non-circular sources. The complexity of the proposed method is computed and compared with that of other methods, and the Cramer⁻Rao lower bound of DPD for multiple sources with a moving coprime array, is derived. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is not only applicable to circular sources, but can also improve the positioning accuracy of non-circular sources. Compared with existing two-step positioning algorithms and DPD algorithms based on uniform linear arrays, the proposed technique offers a significant improvement in positioning accuracy with a slight increase in complexity.

  7. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Automatic detection of recoil-proton tracks and background rejection criteria in liquid scintillator-micro-capillary-array fast neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Ilan; Vartsky, David; Dangendorf, Volker; Tittelmeier, Kai.; Weierganz, Mathias; Goldberg, Mark Benjamin; Bar, Doron; Brandis, Michal

    2018-06-01

    We describe an analysis procedure for automatic unambiguous detection of fast-neutron-induced recoil proton tracks in a micro-capillary array filled with organic liquid scintillator. The detector is viewed by an intensified CCD camera. This imaging neutron detector possesses the capability to perform high position-resolution (few tens of μm), energy-dispersive transmission-imaging using ns-pulsed beams. However, when operated with CW or DC beams, it also features medium-quality spectroscopic capabilities for incident neutrons in the energy range 2-20 MeV. In addition to the recoil proton events which display a continuous extended track structure, the raw images exhibit complex ion-tracks from nuclear interactions of fast-neutrons in the scintillator, capillaries quartz-matrix and CCD. Moreover, as expected, one also observes a multitude of isolated scintillation spots of varying intensity (henceforth denoted "blobs") that originate from several different sources, such as: fragmented proton tracks, gamma-rays, heavy-ion reactions as well as events and noise that occur in the image-intensifier and CCD. In order to identify the continuous-track recoil proton events and distinguish them from all these background events, a rapid, computerized and automatic track-recognition-procedure was developed. Based on an appropriately weighted analysis of track parameters such as: length, width, area and overall light intensity, the method is capable of distinguishing a single continuous-track recoil proton from typically surrounding several thousands of background events that are found in each CCD frame.

  9. A superconducting quadrupole array for transport of multiple high current beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Shuman, D.

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a superconducting quadrupole magnet array for the side-by-side transport of multiple high current particle beams in induction linear accelerators. The magnetic design uses a modified cosine 20 current distribution inside a square cell boundary. Each interior magnet's neighbors serve as the return flux paths and the poles are placed as close as possible to each other to facilitate this. No iron is present in the basic 2-D magnetic design; it will work at any current level without correction windings. Special 1/8th quadrupoles are used along the transverse periphery of the array to contain and channel flux back into the array, making every channel look as part of an infinite array. This design provides a fixed dimension array boundary equal to the quadrupole radius that can be used for arrays of any number of quadrupole channels, at any field level. More importantly, the design provides magnetic field separation between the array and the induction cores which may be surrounding it. Flux linkage between these two components can seriously affect the operation of both of them

  10. Calculating electrical and thermal characteristics of multiple PV array configurations installed in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effendy Ya’acob, M.; Hizam, Hashim; Htay, Myo Than; Radzi, M. Amran M.; Khatib, Tamer; Bakri A, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical and temperature characteristics of multiple PV array configurations. • Ten months tropical field analysis implying SNL model for array parameter. • Review on T c equations and GEV analysis for rapid fluctuating environmental data. • CPV array projects the highest ΔT of 2.72 °C with G e of 0.36 W/m 2 . • Fixed flat array produces highest parameter values of I sc , V oc , I mp , V mp and P mp . - Abstract: This study intends to define the electrical characteristics and temperature equations of PV array installed in the tropics based on Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) model. Ten units of 1 kW rated PV array namely Fixed Flat (FF), Tracking Flat (TF) and Concentrating (CPV) have been installed at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang District, Malaysia at the coordinate of 2°59′20′′N:101°43′30′′E with tropical-based ground conditions. Electrical characteristics are the main elements of contributions where five operating conditions for CEEG PV Module are applied based on the SNL model to produce array parameter values. It is found that FF array projects the highest operating value of 12.06 A (I sc ), 11.55 A (I mp ), 524.78 V (V oc ), 89.5 V (V mp ), and 1033.7 W (P mp ) with good regression fit and strong correlation R 2 of more than 0.5. The versatility and accuracy of this work have been validated and applied for three different types of PV array system installed in the equatorial doldrum spot of uniform temperature–irradiance, high in humidity–rainfall and generally light wind field conditions. The parameters are calculated using filtered field data sampled at STC of 5% tolerance. Focal point of calculating array temperature (T array ) as means of thermal effect on multiple PV array configurations is highlighted based on recent study on T c equations and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) analysis using field data at site

  11. Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple reaction monitoring from 100 pg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Champion, Matthew M; Zhu, Guijie; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

    2013-06-07

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple/single reaction monitoring (CZE-MRM/SRM), which employed an electrokinetically driven sheath-flow electrospray interface, was used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of protein analytes in complex tryptic digests. MRM channels were developed against a commercial exponential mixture of bovine proteins. Five proteins spanning four orders of magnitude concentration range were confidently detected from only 2.5 ng of the digest mixture; the mass detection limits (S/N = 3) of two detected proteins, alpha-casein and glutamate dehydrogenase were about 600 zmol and 30 amol, respectively. This technique was then applied to a RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. Three proteins were confidently and reproducibly detected from 100 pg of this digest. The sample amount corresponds to the approximate protein content from a single cell, which suggests that CZE-MRM may be a useful analytical tool in chemical cytometry. In addition to providing highly sensitive detection of proteins in complex mixtures, this system is highly rapid; migration time of the protein digests was less than 10 min.

  12. Multiple wall-reflection effect in adaptive-array differential-phase reflectometry on QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Onchi, T.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Mishra, K.; Hamasaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamamoto, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    A phased array antenna and Software-Defined Radio (SDR) heterodyne-detection systems have been developed for adaptive array approaches in reflectometry on the QUEST. In the QUEST device considered as a large oversized cavity, standing wave (multiple wall-reflection) effect was significantly observed with distorted amplitude and phase evolution even if the adaptive array analyses were applied. The distorted fields were analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in wavenumber domain to treat separately the components with and without wall reflections. The differential phase evolution was properly obtained from the distorted field evolution by the FFT procedures. A frequency derivative method has been proposed to overcome the multiple-wall reflection effect, and SDR super-heterodyned components with small frequency difference for the derivative method were correctly obtained using the FFT analysis

  13. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  14. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  15. Use of ultrasonic array method for positioning multiple partial discharge sources in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Tao, Junhan; Wang, Yongqiang; Geng, Jianghai; Cheng, Shuyi; Lü, Fangcheng

    2014-08-01

    Fast and accurate positioning of partial discharge (PD) sources in transformer oil is very important for the safe, stable operation of power systems because it allows timely elimination of insulation faults. There is usually more than one PD source once an insulation fault occurs in the transformer oil. This study, which has both theoretical and practical significance, proposes a method of identifying multiple PD sources in the transformer oil. The method combines the two-sided correlation transformation algorithm in the broadband signal focusing and the modified Gerschgorin disk estimator. The method of classification of multiple signals is used to determine the directions of arrival of signals from multiple PD sources. The ultrasonic array positioning method is based on the multi-platform direction finding and the global optimization searching. Both the 4 × 4 square planar ultrasonic sensor array and the ultrasonic array detection platform are built to test the method of identifying and positioning multiple PD sources. The obtained results verify the validity and the engineering practicability of this method.

  16. Multiple Interference Cancellation Performance for GPS Receivers with Dual-Polarized Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeness G. Amin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interference cancellation performance in global positioning system (GPS receivers equipped with dual-polarized antenna arrays. In dense jamming environment, different types of interferers can be mitigated by the dual-polarized antennas, either acting individually or in conjunction with other receiver antennas. We apply minimum variance distorntionless response (MVDR method to a uniform circular dual-polarized antenna array. The MVDR beamformer is constructed for each satellite. Analysis of the eigenstructures of the covariance matrix and the corresponding weight vector polarization characteristics are provided. Depending on the number of jammers and jammer polarizations, the array chooses to expend its degrees of freedom to counter the jammer polarization or/and use phase coherence to form jammer spatial nulls. Results of interference cancellations demonstrate that applying multiple MVDR beamformers, each for one satellite, has a superior cancellation performance compared to using only one MVDR beamformer for all satellites in the field of view.

  17. Interaction of multiple plasma plumes in an atmospheric pressure plasma jet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, M; Olszewski, P; Bradley, J W; Walsh, J L

    2013-01-01

    Plasma jet arrays are considered a viable means to enhance the scale of a downstream surface treatment beyond that possible using a single plasma jet. Of paramount importance in many processing applications is the uniformity of the plasma exposure on the substrate, which can be compromised when multiple plasma jets are arranged in close proximity due to their interaction. This contribution explores a dielectric barrier plasma jet array consisting of multiple individually ballasted jets. It is shown that capacitive ballasting is a promising technique to allow simultaneous operation of the plasma plumes without the losses associated with resistive ballasting. The interaction between adjacent plasma plumes and the background gas is investigated with Schlieren imaging; it is shown that the strong repulsive force between each plasma plume causes a divergence in propagation trajectory and a reduction in the laminar flow length with significant ramifications for any downstream surface treatment.

  18. Add-drop double bus microresonator array local oscillators for sharp multiple Fano resonance engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Qu, Ye; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Asymmetric resonances are currently the subject of considerable research efforts in photonic nanostructures. Here we propose a feasible method to achieve multiple Fano resonances and their control in an optical compound system consisting of an array of on-chip microresonators without mutual coupling and two parallel fiber waveguides side-coupled to the microresonator array by means of a local oscillator. We derive analytical and transparent expressions for the power transmission function summing over the two light transporting paths within the framework of quantum optics. It is clearly shown that introducing the local oscillator as an additional light propagating path plays an important role in the formation of narrow and multiple Fano resonance lineshapes. The power transmission spectrum through the combination of both the microresonator array and the local oscillator is very sensitive to the system parameters, for example, the intrinsic decay rate of the resonator, the phase shift factor of the local oscillator, the transmission coefficient of the fiber beam splitter, and the total number of the microresonators. Through detailed analysis, we identify the optimums for generating Fano resonance lineshapes. Also, we assess the experimental feasibility of the scheme using currently available technology. The proposed method is relatively straightforward as it requires only one local oscillator as one interferometer arm and it is mostly fiber-based. We believe that our work will help to understand and improve multiple Fano resonance engineering.

  19. Slow Earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone Detected by Multiple Mini Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, B.; Ghosh, A.; Thurber, C. H.; Lanza, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is one of the most seismically and volcanically active plate boundaries on earth. Compared to other subduction zones, the slow earthquakes, such as tectonic tremors (TTs) and low frequency earthquakes (LFEs), are relatively poorly studied due to the limited data availability and difficult logistics. The analysis of two-months of continuous data from a mini array deployed in 2012 shows abundant tremor and LFE activities under Unalaska Island that is heterogeneously distributed [Li & Ghosh, 2017]. To better study slow earthquakes and understand their physical characteristics in the study region, we deployed a hybrid array of arrays, consisting of three well-designed mini seismic arrays and five stand alone stations, in the Unalaska Island in 2014. They were operational for between one and two years. Using the beam back-projection method [Ghosh et al., 2009, 2012], we detect continuous tremor activities for over a year when all three arrays are running. The sources of tremors are located south of the Unalaska and Akutan Islands, at the eastern and down-dip edge of the rupture zone of the 1957 Mw 8.6 earthquake, and they are clustered in several patches, with a gap between the two major clusters. Tremors show multiple migration patterns with propagation in both along-strike and dip directions and a wide range of velocities. We also identify tens of LFE families and use them as templates to search for repeating LFE events with the matched-filter method. Hundreds to thousands of LFEs for each family are detected and their activities are spatiotemporally consistent with tremor activities. The array techniques are revealing a near-continuous tremor activity in this area with remarkable spatiotemporal details. It helps us to better recognize the physical properties of the transition zone, provides new insights into the slow earthquake activities in this area, and explores their relation with the local earthquakes and the potential slow

  20. Distributed 3D Source Localization from 2D DOA Measurements Using Multiple Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Canclini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript addresses the problem of 3D source localization from direction of arrivals (DOAs in wireless acoustic sensor networks. In this context, multiple sensors measure the DOA of the source, and a central node combines the measurements to yield the source location estimate. Traditional approaches require 3D DOA measurements; that is, each sensor estimates the azimuth and elevation of the source by means of a microphone array, typically in a planar or spherical configuration. The proposed methodology aims at reducing the hardware and computational costs by combining measurements related to 2D DOAs estimated from linear arrays arbitrarily displaced in the 3D space. Each sensor measures the DOA in the plane containing the array and the source. Measurements are then translated into an equivalent planar geometry, in which a set of coplanar equivalent arrays observe the source preserving the original DOAs. This formulation is exploited to define a cost function, whose minimization leads to the source location estimation. An extensive simulation campaign validates the proposed approach and compares its accuracy with state-of-the-art methodologies.

  1. Membrane-based oligonucleotide array developed from multiple markers for the detection of many Phytophthora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Djama, Zeinab Robleh; Coffey, Michael D; Martin, Frank N; Bilodeau, Guillaume J; Radmer, Lorien; Denton, Geoff; Lévesque, C André

    2013-01-01

    Most Phytophthora spp. are destructive plant pathogens; therefore, effective monitoring and accurate early detection are important means of preventing potential epidemics and outbreaks of diseases. In the current study, a membrane-based oligonucleotide array was developed that can detect Phytophthora spp. reliably using three DNA regions; namely, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the 5' end of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (cox1), and the intergenic region between cytochrome c oxidase 2 gene (cox2) and cox1 (cox2-1 spacer). Each sequence data set contained ≈250 sequences representing 98 described and 15 undescribed species of Phytophthora. The array was validated with 143 pure cultures and 35 field samples. Together, nonrejected oligonucleotides from all three markers have the ability to reliably detect 82 described and 8 undescribed Phytophthora spp., including several quarantine or regulated pathogens such as Phytophthora ramorum. Our results showed that a DNA array containing signature oligonucleotides designed from multiple genomic regions provided robustness and redundancy for the detection and differentiation of closely related taxon groups. This array has the potential to be used as a routine diagnostic tool for Phytophthora spp. from complex environmental samples without the need for extensive growth of cultures.

  2. On-Chip Sorting of Long Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Multiple Transistors along an Identical Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Keigo; Inoue, Taiki; Maeda, Etsuo; Kometani, Reo; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2017-11-28

    Ballistic transport and sub-10 nm channel lengths have been achieved in transistors containing one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). To fill the gap between single-tube transistors and high-performance logic circuits for the replacement of silicon, large-area, high-density, and purely semiconducting (s-) SWNT arrays are highly desired. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of multiple transistors along a purely semiconducting SWNT array via an on-chip purification method. Water- and polymer-assisted burning from site-controlled nanogaps is developed for the reliable full-length removal of metallic SWNTs with the damage to s-SWNTs minimized even in high-density arrays. All the transistors with various channel lengths show large on-state current and excellent switching behavior in the off-state. Since our method potentially provides pure s-SWNT arrays over a large area with negligible damage, numerous transistors with arbitrary dimensions could be fabricated using a conventional semiconductor process, leading to SWNT-based logic, high-speed communication, and other next-generation electronic devices.

  3. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Realtime control of multiple-focus phased array heating patterns based on noninvasive ultrasound thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Andrew; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2012-01-01

    A system for the realtime generation and control of multiple-focus ultrasound phased-array heating patterns is presented. The system employs a 1-MHz, 64-element array and driving electronics capable of fine spatial and temporal control of the heating pattern. The driver is integrated with a realtime 2-D temperature imaging system implemented on a commercial scanner. The coordinates of the temperature control points are defined on B-mode guidance images from the scanner, together with the temperature set points and controller parameters. The temperature at each point is controlled by an independent proportional, integral, and derivative controller that determines the focal intensity at that point. Optimal multiple-focus synthesis is applied to generate the desired heating pattern at the control points. The controller dynamically reallocates the power available among the foci from the shared power supply upon reaching the desired temperature at each control point. Furthermore, anti-windup compensation is implemented at each control point to improve the system dynamics. In vitro experiments in tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrate the robustness of the controllers for short (2-5 s) and longer multiple-focus high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures. Thermocouple measurements in the vicinity of the control points confirm the dynamics of the temperature variations obtained through noninvasive feedback. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Beat Noise Cancellation in 2-D Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access Systems Using Optical Hard-Limiter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ngoc T.; Pham, Anh T.; Cheng, Zixue

    We analyze the beat noise cancellation in two-dimensional optical code-division multiple-access (2-D OCDMA) systems using an optical hard-limiter (OHL) array. The Gaussian shape of optical pulse is assumed and the impact of pulse propagation is considered. We also take into account the receiver noise and multiple access interference (MAI) in the analysis. The numerical results show that, when OHL array is employed, the system performance is greatly improved compared with the cases without OHL array. Also, parameters needed for practical system design are comprehensively analyzed.

  6. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  7. Micropillar arrays as a high-throughput screening platform for therapeutics in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Fancy, Stephen P J; Shen, Yun-An A; Niu, Jianqin; Zhao, Chao; Presley, Bryan; Miao, Edna; Lee, Seonok; Mayoral, Sonia R; Redmond, Stephanie A; Etxeberria, Ainhoa; Xiao, Lan; Franklin, Robin J M; Green, Ari; Hauser, Stephen L; Chan, Jonah R

    2014-08-01

    Functional screening for compounds that promote remyelination represents a major hurdle in the development of rational therapeutics for multiple sclerosis. Screening for remyelination is problematic, as myelination requires the presence of axons. Standard methods do not resolve cell-autonomous effects and are not suited for high-throughput formats. Here we describe a binary indicant for myelination using micropillar arrays (BIMA). Engineered with conical dimensions, micropillars permit resolution of the extent and length of membrane wrapping from a single two-dimensional image. Confocal imaging acquired from the base to the tip of the pillars allows for detection of concentric wrapping observed as 'rings' of myelin. The platform is formatted in 96-well plates, amenable to semiautomated random acquisition and automated detection and quantification. Upon screening 1,000 bioactive molecules, we identified a cluster of antimuscarinic compounds that enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination. Our findings demonstrate a new high-throughput screening platform for potential regenerative therapeutics in multiple sclerosis.

  8. Characterisation of ultrasonic structural noise in multiple scattering media using phased arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedetti, T; Dorval, V; Jenson, F; Derode, A

    2013-01-01

    The ultrasonic inspection of multiple scattering media gives rise to structural noise which makes it difficult to detect potential damage or crack inside the component. In order to predict the performances of ultrasonic inspection over such complex media, scattering models can be used. Such models rely on specific key parameters describing the multiple scattering process, which can be determined by specific measurements and post-processing techniques. Such experiments were carried out on stainless steel plates using linear phased-arrays. They consist in recording the response matrix constituted by impulse responses between all the elements of the array. By conducting post-processing on this matrix, we measure the elastic mean free path l e and the correlation distance d c of the recorded noise. Additionally, the dynamic behaviour of the coherent backscattering effect was studied in order to measure the diffusion constant D. Plane-wave beamforming has been applied to the response matrix to improve the angular resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered intensity. Details of postprocessing techniques will be shown

  9. Capillary gel electrophoresis-coupled aptamer enzymatic cleavage protection strategy for the simultaneous detection of multiple small analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Sandrine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Fiore, Emmanuelle; Ravelet, Corinne; Guieu, Valérie; Peyrin, Eric

    2014-05-06

    This novel, multi small-analyte sensing strategy is the result of combining the target-induced aptamer enzymatic protection approach with the CGE-LIF (capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence) technique. The implemented assay principle is based on an analysis of the phosphodiesterase I (PDE I)-mediated size variation of a fluorescein-labeled aptamer (FApt), the enzyme catalyzing the removal of nucleotides from DNA in the 3' to 5' direction. In the absence of the target, the unfolded aptamer was enzymatically cleaved into short DNA fragments. Upon target binding, the DNA substrate was partially protected against enzymatic hydrolysis. The amount of bound aptamer remaining after the exonuclease reaction was proportional to the concentration of the target. The CGE technique, which was used to determine the separation of FApt species from DNA digested products, permitted the quantification of adenosine (A), ochratoxin A (O), and tyrosinamide (T) under the same optimized enzymatic conditions. This assay strategy was subsequently applied to the simultaneous detection of A, O, and T in a single capillary under buffered conditions using corresponding FApt probes of different lengths (23, 36, and 49 nucleotides, respectively). Additionally, the detection of these three small molecules was successfully achieved in a complex medium (diluted, heat-treated human serum) showing a good recovery. It is worth noting that the multiplexed analysis was accomplished for targets with different charge states by using aptamers possessing various structural features. This sensing platform constitutes a rationalized and reliable approach with an expanded potential for a high-throughput determination of small analytes in a single capillary.

  10. Direction Finding Using Multiple Sum and Difference Patterns in 4D Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjiang Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional monopulse systems used for direction finding usually face the contradiction between high angle precision and wide angle-searching field, and a compromise has to be made. In this paper, the time modulation technique in four-dimensional (4D antenna array is introduced into the conventional phase-comparison monopulse to form a novel direction-finding system, in which both high angle resolution and wide field-of-view are realized. The full 4D array is divided into two subarrays and the differential evolution (DE algorithm is used to optimize the time sequence of each subarray to generate multibeams at the center frequency and low sidebands. Then the multibeams of the two subarrays are phase-compared with each other and multiple pairs of sum-difference beams are formed at different sidebands and point to different spatial angles. The proposed direction-finding system covers a large field-of-view of up to ±60° and simultaneously maintains the advantages of monopulse systems, such as high angle precision and low computation complexity. Theoretical analysis and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  11. Supporting Students’ Reasoning About Multiplication of Fractions by Constructing an Array Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronal Rifandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to support students in constructing an array model as a bridge from their informal knowledge to the formal one in understanding the part-whole relation concept. The part-whole relation concept is important for students to reason about multiplication of fractions. Realistic Mathematics Education which is in Indonesia adapted as Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI is used as an approach in designing a series of lessons. For this purpose, hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT became the base for conducting a teaching experiment and designing its learning materials.  The research was conducted in the fifth grade of SD Al Hikmah Surabaya, an elementary school in Indonesia, with five students as the participants. The collected data were qualitative data in the form of students’ written works and the transcript of video recording during the lesson. The data were analyzed retrospectively by confronting the conjecture of students’ thinking in the HLT with the fact in the teaching experiment. The result of the research shows that most students could use the contextual problem in promoting their ability on constructing their own array model to reason about part-whole relation.

  12. A gas sensor array for the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhao, Jianhong; Du, Tengfei; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-05-16

    Air quality around the globe is declining and public health is seriously threatened by indoor air pollution. Typically, indoor air pollutants are composed of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generally harmful to the human body, especially VOCs with low molecular weights (less than 100 Da). Moreover, in some situations, more than one type of VOC is present; thus, a device that can detect one or more VOCs simultaneously would be most beneficial. Here, we synthesized a sensor array with 4 units to detect 4 VOCs: acetone (unit 1), benzene (unit 2), methanol (unit 3) and formaldehyde (unit 4) simultaneously. All units were simultaneously exposed to 2.5 ppm of all four VOCs. The sensitivity of unit 1 was 14.67 for acetone and less than 2.54 for the other VOCs. The sensitivities of units 2, 3 and 4 to benzene, methanol and formaldehyde were 2 18.64, 20.98 and 17.26, respectively, and less than 4.01 for the other VOCs. These results indicated that the sensor array exhibited good selectivity and could be used for the real-time monitoring of indoor air quality. Thus, this device will be useful in situations requiring the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

  13. Control of evaporation by geometry in capillary structures. From confined pillar arrays in a gap radial gradient to phyllotaxy-inspired geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Duru, Paul; Joseph, Pierre; Geoffroy, Sandrine; Prat, Marc

    2017-11-08

    Evaporation is a key phenomenon in the natural environment and in many technological systems involving capillary structures. Understanding the evaporation front dynamics enables the evaporation rate from microfluidic devices and porous media to be finely controlled. Of particular interest is the ability to control the position of the front through suitable design of the capillary structure. Here, we show how to design model capillary structures in microfluidic devices so as to control the drying kinetics. This is achieved by acting on the spatial organization of the constrictions that influence the invasion of the structure by the gas phase. Two types of control are demonstrated. The first is intended to control the sequence of primary invasions through the pore space, while the second aims to control the secondary liquid structures: films, bridges, etc., that can form in the region of pore space invaded by the gas phase. It is shown how the latter can be obtained from phyllotaxy-inspired geometry. Our study thus opens up a route toward the control of the evaporation kinetics by means of tailored capillary structures.

  14. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  15. Analysis of multiple quaternary ammonium compounds in the brain using tandem capillary column separation and high resolution mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Sara; Petruzziello, Filomena; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2012-06-08

    Endogenous quaternary ammonium compounds are involved in various physiological processes in the central nervous system. In the present study, eleven quaternary ammonium compounds, including acetylcholine, choline, carnitine, acetylcarnitine and seven other acylcarnitines of low polarity, were analyzed from brain extracts using a two dimension capillary liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry method. To deal with their large difference in hydrophobicities, tandem coupling between reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns was used to separate all the targeted quaternary ammonium compounds. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode, all the compounds could be detected from each brain sample with high selectivity. The developed method was applied for the relative quantification of these quaternary ammonium compounds in three different brain regions of tree shrews: prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. The comparative analysis showed that quaternary ammonium compounds were differentially distributed across the three brain areas. The analytical method proved to be highly sensitive and reliable for simultaneous determination of all the targeted analytes from brain samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  17. Analysis of cytokinin nucleotides by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode array and mass spectrometric detection in a recombinant enzyme in vitro reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Béres, Tibor; Gemrotová, Markéta; Tarkowski, P.; Ganzera, M.; Maier, V.; Fridecký, D.; Dessoy, M. A.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav; Doležal, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 751, Feb (2012), s. 176-181 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/08/0920 Program:ED; GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinin nucleotides * Capillary electrophoresis * Isopentenyltransferase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.387, year: 2012

  18. Comparison of the capillary and agarose electrophoresis based multiple locus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) on Mycobacterium bovis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Venter, E H; Hutamo, K; Godfroid, J

    2010-09-28

    Electrophoretic techniques that can be used for genotyping of bacterial pathogens ranges from manual, low-cost, agarose gels to high-throughput capillary electrophoresis sequencing machines. These two methods are currently employed in the electrophoresis of PCR products used in multiple locus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA), i.e. the agarose electrophoresis (AE) and the capillary electrophoresis (CE). Some authors have suggested that clusters generated by AE are less reliable than those generated by CE and that the latter is a more sensitive technique than the former when typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates. Because such a claim could have significant consequences for investigators in this field, a comparison was made on 19 Belgian Mycobacterium bovis strains which had previously been genotyped using CE VNTR analysis. The VNTR profiles of the CE VNTR analysis were compared with those obtained by AE VNTR analysis at 14 VNTR loci. Our results indicated that there were no differences in copy numbers at all loci tested when the copy numbers obtained by the AE VNTR analysis were compared with those obtained by CE VNTR analysis. The use of AE VNTR analysis in mycobacterial genotyping does not alter the sensitivity of the MLVA technique compared with the CE VNTR analysis. The AE VNTR can therefore be regarded as a viable alternative in moderately equipped laboratories that cannot afford the expensive equipment required for CE VNTR analysis and data obtained by AE VNTR analysis can be shared between laboratories which use the CE VNTR method. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The potential of TaqMan Array Cards for detection of multiple biological agents by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Rachwal

    Full Text Available The TaqMan Array Card architecture, normally used for gene expression studies, was evaluated for its potential to detect multiple bacterial agents by real-time PCR. Ten PCR assays targeting five biological agents (Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis were incorporated onto Array Cards. A comparison of PCR performance of each PCR in Array Card and singleplex format was conducted using DNA extracted from pure bacterial cultures. When 100 fg of agent DNA was added to Array Card channels the following levels of agent detection (where at least one agent PCR replicate returned a positive result were observed: Y. pestis 100%, B. mallei & F. tularensis 93%; B. anthracis 71%; B. pseudomallei 43%. For B. mallei & pseudomallei detection the BPM2 PCR, which detects both species, outperformed PCR assays specific to each organism indicating identification of the respective species would not be reproducible at the 100 fg level. Near 100% levels of detection were observed when 100 fg of DNA was added to each PCR in singleplex format with singleplex PCRs also returning sporadic positives at the 10 fg per PCR level. Before evaluating the use of Array Cards for the testing of environmental and clinical sample types, with potential levels of background DNA and PCR inhibitors, users would therefore have to accept a 10-fold reduction in sensitivity of PCR assays on the Array Card format, in order to benefit for the capacity to test multiple samples for multiple agents. A two PCR per agent strategy would allow the testing of 7 samples for the presence of 11 biological agents or 3 samples for 23 biological agents per card (with negative control channels.

  20. Near-field multiple traps of paraxial acoustic vortices with strengthened gradient force generated by sector transducer array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingdong; Li, Yuzhi; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the capability of particle trapping close to the source plane, theoretical and experimental studies on near-field multiple traps of paraxial acoustic vortices (AVs) with a strengthened acoustic gradient force (AGF) generated by a sector transducer array were conducted. By applying the integration of point source radiation, numerical simulations for the acoustic fields generated by the sector transducer array were conducted and compared with those produced by the circular transducer array. It was proved that strengthened AGFs of near-field multiple AVs with higher peak pressures and smaller vortex radii could be produced by the sector transducer array with a small topological charge. The axial distributions of the equivalent potential gradient indicated that the AGFs of paraxial AVs in the near field were much higher than those in the far field, and the distances at the near-field vortex antinodes were also proved to be the ideal trapping positions with relatively higher AGFs. With the established 8-channel AV generation system, theoretical studies were also verified by the experimental measurements of pressure and phase for AVs with various topological charges. The formation of near-field multiple paraxial AVs was verified by the cross-sectional circular pressure distributions with perfect phase spirals around central pressure nulls, and was also proved by the vortex nodes and antinodes along the center axis. The favorable results demonstrated the feasibility of generating near-field multiple traps of paraxial AVs with strengthened AGF using the sector transducer array, and suggested the potential applications of close-range particle trapping in biomedical engineering.

  1. Simultaneous determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel by capillary electrophoresis using multiple short-end injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudeit, Daniel Alfonso; Piovezan, Marcel; Dolzan, Maressa D; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Leal Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TG) in biodiesel by CE using a short-end multiple injection (SE/MI) configuration system is described. The sample preparation for FG involves the extraction of glycerol with water and for TG a saponification reaction is carried out followed by extraction as in the case of FG. The glycerol extracted in both cases is submitted to periodate oxidation and the iodate ions formed are measured on a CE-SE/MI system. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that no analytical procedure has been previously reported for the determination of TG (or of FG and TG simultaneously) by CE. The optimum conditions for the saponification/extraction process were 1.25% KOH and 25°C, with a time of only 5 min, and biodiesel mass in the range of 50.0-200.0 mg can be used. Multiple injections were performed hydrodynamically with negative pressure as follows: 50 mbar/3s (FG sample); 50 mbar/6s (electrolyte spacer); 50 mbar/3s (TG sample). The linear range obtained was 1.55-46.5 mg/L with R(2) > 0.99. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively for TG. The method provides acceptable throughput for application in quality control and monitoring biodiesel synthesis process. In addition, it offers simple sample preparation (saponification process), it can be applied to a variety biodiesel samples (soybean, castor, and waste cooking oils) and it can be used for the determination of two key parameters related to the biodiesel quality with a fast separation (less than 30 s) using an optimized CE-SE/MI system. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Locating non-volcanic tremor along the San Andreas Fault using a multiple array source imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, C.H.; Fuis, G.S.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Shelly, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been observed at several subduction zones and at the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Tremor locations are commonly derived by cross-correlating envelope-transformed seismic traces in combination with source-scanning techniques. Recently, they have also been located by using relative relocations with master events, that is low-frequency earthquakes that are part of the tremor; locations are derived by conventional traveltime-based methods. Here we present a method to locate the sources of NVT using an imaging approach for multiple array data. The performance of the method is checked with synthetic tests and the relocation of earthquakes. We also applied the method to tremor occurring near Cholame, California. A set of small-aperture arrays (i.e. an array consisting of arrays) installed around Cholame provided the data set for this study. We observed several tremor episodes and located tremor sources in the vicinity of SAF. During individual tremor episodes, we observed a systematic change of source location, indicating rapid migration of the tremor source along SAF. ?? 2010 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  3. Imaging 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake and Its Aftershock Sequence Combining Multiple Calibrated Global Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, B.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    and hazard assessment after destructive large earthquakes. Existing multiple global seismic arrays, when properly calibrated and used in combinations, provide a high resolution image of rupture of large earthquakes and spatiotemporal distribution of aftershocks.

  4. Chip-based molecularly imprinted monolithic capillary array columns coated GO/SiO2 for selective extraction and sensitive determination of rhodamine B in chili powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haiyun; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zuanguang; Su, Zihao; Yuan, Kaisong; Liang, Guohuan; Pan, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction chip embedded with array columns of molecularly imprinted polymer-coated silanized graphene oxide (GO/SiO2-MISPE) was established to detect trace rhodamine B (RB) in chili powder. GO/SiO2-MISPE monolithic columns for RB detection were prepared by optimizing the supporting substrate, template, and polymerizing monomer under mild water bath conditions. Adsorption capacity and specificity, which are critical properties for the application of the GO/SiO2-MISPE monolithic column, were investigated. GO/SiO2-MIP was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The recovery and the intraday and interday relative standard deviations for RB ranged from 83.7% to 88.4% and 2.5% to 4.0% and the enrichment factors were higher than 110-fold. The chip-based array columns effectively eliminated impurities in chili powder, indicating that the chip-based GO/SiO2-MISPE method was reliable for RB detection in food samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Accordingly, this method has direct applications for monitoring potentially harmful dyes in processed food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Customizable PCR-microplate array for differential identification of multiple pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woubit, Abdela; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Roberts, Sherrelle; Graham, Martha; Kim, Moonil; Samuel, Temesgen

    2013-11-01

    Customizable PCR-microplate arrays were developed for the rapid identification of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis, Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Yersinia pestis, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Previously, we identified highly specific primers targeting each of these pathogens. Here, we report the development of customizable PCR-microplate arrays for simultaneous identification of the pathogens using the primers identified. A mixed aliquot of genomic DNA from 38 strains was used to validate three PCR-microplate array formats. Identical PCR conditions were used to run all the samples on the three formats. Specific amplifications were obtained on all three custom plates. In preliminary tests performed to evaluate the sensitivity of these assays in samples inoculated in the laboratory with Salmonella Typhimurium, amplifications were obtained from 1 g of beef hot dog inoculated at as low as 9 CFU/ml or from milk inoculated at as low as 78 CFU/ml. Such microplate arrays could be valuable tools for initial identification or secondary confirmation of contamination by these pathogens.

  6. An artificial light-harvesting array constructed from multiple Bodipy dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziessel, Raymond; Ulrich, Gilles; Haefele, Alexandre; Harriman, Anthony

    2013-07-31

    An artificial light-harvesting array, comprising 21 discrete chromophores arranged in a rational manner, has been synthesized and characterized fully. The design strategy follows a convergent approach that leads to a molecular-scale funnel, having an effective chromophore concentration of 0.6 M condensed into ca. 55 nm(3), able to direct the excitation energy to a focal point. A cascade of electronic energy-transfer steps occurs from the rim to the focal point, with the rate slowing down as the exciton moves toward its ultimate target. Situated midway along each branch of the V-shaped array, two chromophoric relays differ only slightly in terms of their excitation energies, and this situation facilitates reverse energy transfer. Thus, the excitation energy becomes spread around the array, a situation reminiscent of a giant holding pattern for the photon that can sample many different chromophores before being trapped by the terminal acceptor. At high photon flux under conditions of relatively slow off-load to a device, such as a solar cell, electronic energy transfer encounters one or more barriers that hinder forward progress of the exciton and thereby delays arrival of the second photon. Preliminary studies have addressed the ability of the array to function as a sensitizer for amorphous silicon solar cells.

  7. Simultaneous quantification of eight organic acid components in Artemisia capillaris Thunb (Yinchen extract using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine the chemical constituents of Yinchen extract and Yinchen herbs using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was developed to analyze of eight organic acid components of Yinchen extract (including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. The separation was conducted using an Agilent TC-C18 column with acetonitrile – 0.2% formic acid solution as the mobile phases under gradient elution. The analytical method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery, and subsequently the method was performed for the quantitative assessment of Yinchen extracts and Yinchen herbs. In addition, the changes of selected markers were studied when Yinchen herbs decocting in water and isomerization occurred between the chlorogenic acids. The proposed method enables both qualitative and quantitative analyses and could be developed as a new tool for the quality evaluation of Yinchen extract and Yinchen herbs. The changes of selected markers in water decoction process could give us some novel idea when studying the link between substances and drug efficacy. Keywords: Artemisia capillaris Thunb (Yinchen extract, Quality control, Organic acid, Transformation pathways, High-performance liquid chromatography

  8. Capillary concentrators for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heald, S.M.; Brewe, D.L.; Kim, K.H.; Brown, F.C.; Barg, B.; Stern, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary concentrators condense x-rays by multiple reflections down a gradually tapering capillary. They can provide sub-micron beam spots, and are promising candidates for use in the next generation x-ray microprobe beamlines. The weak energy dependence of their properties make them especially useful for energy scanning applications such as micro-XAFS. This paper examines the potential performance of capillary optics for an x-ray microprobe, as well as some practical issues such as fabrication and alignment. Best performance at third generation sources requires long capillaries, and the authors have been using fiber optics techniques to fabricate capillaries up to one meter in length. The performance of shorter (less than about 0.5 m) capillaries has often been found to agree well with theoretical calculations, indicating the inner surface is a high quality x-ray reflector. These capillaries have been tested at the NSLS for imaging and micro-XAFS down to 2.6 microm resolution with excellent results. On an unfocused bend magnet line flux density approaching 10 6 ph/sec/microm 2 has been achieved. While nearly optimum profiles have been achieved for longer capillaries, the results have been disappointing, and alignment problems are suspected. The dramatic improvement in performance possible at third generation synchrotrons such as the APS is discussed along with improvements possible by using the capillaries in conjunction with coupling optics

  9. Potential of capillary electrophoresis for the profiling of propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection for the profiling of Propolis, a hive product, is investigated. Water extracts of Propolis were analyzed with both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 7.0 and 9.3, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)

  10. Polymer microfluidic device replacing fluids using only capillary force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kwang Hyo; Lee, Dae Sik; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Sung Jin; Pyo, Hyun Bong

    2005-02-01

    A novel polymer microfluidic device for self-wash using only capillary force is presented. A liquid filled in a reaction chamber is replaced by another liquid with no external actuation. All the fluidic actuations in the device is pre-programmed about time and sequence, and accomplished by capillary force naturally. Careful design is necessary for exact actions. The fluidic conduits were designed by the newly derived theoretical equations about the capillary stop pressure and flow time. Simulations using CFD-ACE+ were conducted to check the validity of theory and the performance of the chip. These analytic results were consistent with experimental ones. The chip was made of polymers for the purpose of single use and low price. It was fabricated by sealing the hot-embossed PMMA substrate with a PET film. For simpler fabrication, the chip was of a single height. The embossing master was produced from a nickel-electroplating on a SU8-patterned Ni-plate followed by CMP. The contact angles of liquids on substrates were manipulated through the mixing of surfactants, and the temporal variations were monitored for a more exact design. The real actuation steps in experiment revealed the stable performance of selfwash, and coincided well with the designed ones. The presented microfluidic method can be applicable to other LOCs of special purposes through simple modification. For example, array or serial types would be possible for multiple selfwashes.

  11. Multiple Solutions for Reconfiguration to Address Partial Shading Losses in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikesh; Pareek, Smita; Chaturvedi, Nitin; Dahiya, Ratna

    2018-03-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems are steadily rising and considered as the best alternatives to meet the rising demand of energy. In developing countries like India, SPV’s contribution being a clean energy is the most favourable. However, experiences have shown that produced power of these systems is usually affected due to day, night, seasonal variations, insolation, partial shading conditions etc. Among these parameters, partial shading causes a huge reduction in output power of PV systems. This results in lack of confidence for this technology among users. Thus, it is important and a major challenge in PV systems to minimize the effect of partial shading on their energy production. The work in this paper aims to propose solutions for reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays in order to reduce partial shading losses and thus to enhance power generation.

  12. Multiple products management system with sensors array in automated storage and retrieval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongbunyong, Supachai; Roengritronnachai, Perawat; Kongsanit, Savanut; Chanok-owat, Chawisa; Polchankajorn, Pongsakorn

    2018-01-01

    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) have now been widely used in a number of industries due to its capability to automatically manage the storage of products in effective ways. One of the key features of AS/RS is that each rack is not assigned for a specific product resulting in the benefit of space utilization and logistics related issues. In this research, sensor arrays are equipped at each rack in order to enhance this feature. As a result, various products can be identified and mixed in each rack, so that the space utilization efficiency can be increased. To prove the concept, a prototype system consisting of a Cartesian robot that manages the storage and retrieval of products with 9 variations based on size and color. The concept of Cyber-Physical System and self-awareness of the system are also implemented in this concept prototype.

  13. Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using multiple wavelength-swept elements of a DFB laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLazaro, Tom; Nehmetallah, Georges

    2017-02-01

    Coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry (C-OFDR) is a distance measurement technique with significant sensitivity and detector bandwidth advantages over normal time-of-flight methods. Although several swept-wavelength laser sources exist, many exhibit short coherence lengths, or require precision mechanical tuning components. Semiconductor distributed feedback lasers (DFBs) are advantageous as a mid-to-long range OFDR source because they exhibit a narrow linewidth and can be rapidly tuned simply via injection current. However, the sweep range of an individual DFB is thermally limited. Here, we present a novel high-resolution OFDR system that uses a compact, monolithic 12-element DFB array to create a continuous, gap-free sweep over a wide wavelength range. Wavelength registration is provided by the incorporation of a HCN gas cell and reference interferometer. The wavelength-swept spectra of the 12 DFBs are combined in post-processing to achieve a continuous total wavelength sweep of more than 40 nm (5.4 THz) in the telecommunications C-Band range.

  14. Identification of Multiple Bacteriocins in Enterococcus spp. Using an Enterococcus-Specific Bacteriocin PCR Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Henning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus isolates obtained from food and animal sources, and demonstrating activity against Listeria monocytogenes, were screened for bacteriocin-related genes using a bacteriocin PCR array based on known enterococcal bacteriocin gene sequences in the NCBI GenBank database. The 22 bacteriocin-positive (Bac+ enterococci included En. durans (1, En. faecalis (4, En. faecium (12, En. hirae (3, and En. thailandicus (2. Enterocin A (entA, enterocins mr10A and mr10B (mr10AB, and bacteriocin T8 (bacA were the most commonly found structural genes in order of decreasing prevalence. Forty-five bacteriocin genes were identified within the 22 Bac+ isolates, each containing at least one of the screened structural genes. Of the 22 Bac+ isolates, 15 possessed two bacteriocin genes, seven isolates contained three different bacteriocins, and three isolates contained as many as four different bacteriocin genes. These results may explain the high degree of bactericidal activity observed with various Bac+ Enterococcus spp. Antimicrobial activity against wild-type L. monocytogenes and a bacteriocin-resistant variant demonstrated bacteriocins having different modes-of-action. Mixtures of bacteriocins, especially those with different modes-of-action and having activity against foodborne pathogens, such as L. monocytogenes, may play a promising role in the preservation of food.

  15. Direction dependent Love and Rayleigh wave noise characteristics using multiple arrays across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzek, Carina; Perleth, Magdalena; Hadziioannou, Celine

    2016-04-01

    Seismic noise has become an important signal source for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism band is still limited. This applies in particular for constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the different polarized wave types in the primary and secondary microseism noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured and a dependence on direction is found, especially in the primary microseism band. Estimates of the kinetic energy density ratios propose a dominance of coherent Love waves in the primary, but not in the secondary microseism band. The seasonality of the noise field characteristics is examined by using a full year of data in 2013 and is found to be stable.

  16. Carbon-Ring Microelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Imaging of Single Cell Exocytosis: Fabrication and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuqing; Trouillon, Raphaël; Svensson, Maria I.; Keighron, Jacqueline D.; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of carbon microelectrode arrays, with up to 15 electrodes in total tips as small as 10 to 50 μm, is presented. The support structures of microelectrodes were obtained by pulling multiple quartz capillaries together to form hollow capillary arrays before carbon deposition. Carbon ring microelectrodes were deposited by pyrolysis of acetylene in the lumen of these quartz capillary arrays. Each carbon deposited array tip was filled with epoxy, followed by beveling of the tip of the array to form a deposited carbon-ring microelectrode array (CRMA). Both the number of the microelectrodes in the array and the tip size are independently tunable. These CRMAs have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence. Additionally, the electrochemical properties were investigated with steady-state voltammetry. In order to demonstrate the utility of these fabricated microelectrodes in neurochemistry, CRMAs containing eight microring electrodes were used for electrochemical monitoring of exocytotic events from single PC12 cells. Subcellular temporal heterogeneities in exocytosis (ie. cold spots vs. hot spots) were successfully detected with the CRMAs. PMID:22339586

  17. Treatment time reduction for large thermal lesions by using a multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Yen, J.-Y.; Lin, W.-L.

    2003-01-01

    To generate large thermal lesions in ultrasound thermal therapy, cooling intermissions are usually introduced during the treatment to prevent near-field heating, which leads to a long treatment time. A possible strategy to shorten the total treatment time is to eliminate the cooling intermissions. In this study, the two methods, power optimization and acoustic window enlargement, for reducing power accumulation in the near field are combined to investigate the feasibility of continuously heating a large target region (maximally 3.2 x 3.2 x 3.2 cm 3 ). A multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system generates the foci to scan the target region. Simulations show that the target region can be successfully heated without cooling and no near-field heating occurs. Moreover, due to the fact that there is no cooling time during the heating sessions, the total treatment time is significantly reduced to only several minutes, compared to the existing several hours

  18. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  19. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  20. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission decay of 252Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Gibelin, J; Heffner, M D; Mintz, J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Scielzo, N D; Sheets, S A; Snyderman, N J; Stoyer, M A; Wiedeking, M

    2008-04-23

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1 {micro}Ci {sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  1. Neutron detection and multiplicity counting using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    Neutron detection and multiplicity counting has been investigated using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array. Boron-loaded plastic combines neutron moderation (H) and detection ( 10 B) at the molecular level, thereby physically coupling increasing detection efficiency and decreasing die-away time with detector volume. Both of these characteristics address a fundamental limitation of thermal-neutron multiplicity counters, where 3 He proportional counters are embedded in a polyethylene matrix. Separation of the phoswich response into its plastic scintillator and bismuth germanate components was accomplished on a pulse-by-pulse basis using custom integrator and timing circuits. In addition, a custom time-tag module was used to provide a time for each detector event. Analysis of the combined energy and time event stream was performed by calibrating each detector's response and filtering based on the presence of a simultaneous energy deposition corresponding to the 10 B(n,alpha) reaction products in the plastic scintillator (93 keV ee ) and the accompanying neutron-capture gamma ray in the bismuth germanate (478 keV). Time-correlation analysis was subsequently performed on the filtered event stream to obtain shift-register-type singles and doubles count rates. Proof-of-principle measurements were conducted with a variety of gamma-ray and neutron sources including 137 Cs, 54 Mn, AmLi, and 252 Cf. Results of this study indicate that a neutron-capture probability of ∼10% and a die-away time of ∼10 micros are possible with a 4-detector array with a detector volume of 1600 cm 3 . Simulations were performed that indicate neutron-capture probabilities on the order of 50% and die-away times of less than 4 micros are realistically achievable. While further study will be required for practical application of such a detection system, the results obtained in this investigation are encouraging and may lead to a new class of high

  2. The use of selective adsorbents in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyte preconcentration and microreactions: a powerful three-dimensional tool for multiple chemical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N A; Stubbs, R J

    2001-10-01

    Much attention has recently been directed to the development and application of online sample preconcentration and microreactions in capillary electrophoresis using selective adsorbents based on chemical or biological specificity. The basic principle involves two interacting chemical or biological systems with high selectivity and affinity for each other. These molecular interactions in nature usually involve noncovalent and reversible chemical processes. Properly bound to a solid support, an "affinity ligand" can selectively adsorb a "target analyte" found in a simple or complex mixture at a wide range of concentrations. As a result, the isolated analyte is enriched and highly purified. When this affinity technique, allowing noncovalent chemical interactions and biochemical reactions to occur, is coupled on-line to high-resolution capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, a powerful tool of chemical and biological information is created. This paper describes the concept of biological recognition and affinity interaction on-line with high-resolution separation, the fabrication of an "analyte concentrator-microreactor", optimization conditions of adsorption and desorption, the coupling to mass spectrometry, and various applications of clinical and pharmaceutical interest.

  3. Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Eric; Khatri, Minesh; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2017-07-01

    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Diseases other than sepsis that can result in capillary leak syndrome include the idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome or Clarkson's disease, engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, autoimmune diseases, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. Drugs including some interleukins, some monoclonal antibodies, and gemcitabine can also cause capillary leak syndrome. Acute kidney injury is commonly seen in all of these diseases. In addition to hypotension, cytokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in capillary leak syndrome. Fluid management is a critical part of the treatment of capillary leak syndrome; hypovolemia and hypotension can cause organ injury, whereas capillary leakage of administered fluid can worsen organ edema leading to progressive organ injury. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diseases other than sepsis that produce capillary leak and review their collective pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex changes and multiple forms of chromosomal instability in colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaasenbeek, Michelle; Howarth, Kimberley; Rowan, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Cancers with chromosomal instability (CIN) are held to be aneuploid/polyploid with multiple large-scale gains/deletions, but the processes underlying CIN are unclear and different types of CIN might exist. We investigated colorectal cancer cell lines using array-comparative genomic hybridization...

  5. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T

    2012-02-03

    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  6. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  7. Genome-Wide Screening of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients Using Array-CGH Technique: A Czech Multicenter Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Smetana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic recurrent copy number aberrations (CNAs play a key role in multiple myeloma (MM pathogenesis and have important prognostic significance for MM patients. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH provides a powerful tool for genome-wide classification of CNAs and thus should be implemented into MM routine diagnostics. We demonstrate the possibility of effective utilization of oligonucleotide-based aCGH in 91 MM patients. Chromosomal aberrations associated with effect on the prognosis of MM were initially evaluated by I-FISH and were found in 93.4% (85/91. Incidence of hyperdiploidy was 49.5% (45/91; del(13(q14 was detected in 57.1% (52/91; gain(1(q21 occurred in 58.2% (53/91; del(17(p13 was observed in 15.4% (14/91; and t(4;14(p16;q32 was found in 18.6% (16/86. Genome-wide screening using Agilent 44K aCGH microarrays revealed copy number alterations in 100% (91/91. Most common deletions were found at 13q (58.9%, 1p (39.6%, and 8p (31.1%, whereas gain of whole 1q was the most often duplicated region (50.6%. Furthermore, frequent homozygous deletions of genes playing important role in myeloma biology such as TRAF3, BIRC1/BIRC2, RB1, or CDKN2C were observed. Taken together, we demonstrated the utilization of aCGH technique in clinical diagnostics as powerful tool for identification of unbalanced genomic abnormalities with prognostic significance for MM patients.

  8. Paper Capillary Enables Effective Sampling for Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-06-06

    Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.

  9. First report of microcephaly-capillary malformations syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome is a newly described autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, multiple cutaneous capillary malformations, intractable epilepsy and profound developmental delay. We present the first description of MIC-CAP syndrome in Russia.

  10. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma.

  11. Lowering data retention voltage in static random access memory array by post fabrication self-improvement of cell stability by multiple stress application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new version of the post fabrication static random access memory (SRAM) self-improvement technique, which utilizes multiple stress application. It is demonstrated that, using a device matrix array (DMA) test element group (TEG) with intrinsic channel fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-thin-buried-oxide (SOTB) six-transistor (6T) SRAM cells fabricated by the 65 nm technology, the lowering of data retention voltage (DRV) is more effectively achieved than using the previously proposed single stress technique.

  12. A New Approach in the Simplification of a Multiple-Beam Forming Network Based on CORPS Using Compressive Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with a innovative way to simplify the design of beam-forming networks (BFNs for multibeam steerable antenna arrays based on coherently radiating periodic structures (CORPS technology using the noniterative matrix pencil method (MPM. This design approach is based on the application of the MPM to linear arrays fed by CORPS-BFN configurations to further reduce the complexity of the beam-forming network. Two 2-beam design configurations of CORPS-BFN for a steerable linear array are analyzed and compared using this compressive method. Simulation results show the effectiveness and advantages of applying the MPM on BFNs based on CORPS exploiting the nonuniformity of the antenna elements. Furthermore, final results show that the integration of CORPS-BFN and MPM reduces the entire antenna system including the antenna array and the beam-forming network subsystem resulting in a substantial simplification in such systems.

  13. Disposable MoS2-Arrayed MALDI MS Chip for High-Throughput and Rapid Quantification of Sulfonamides in Multiple Real Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaju; Tang, Minmin; Liao, Qiaobo; Li, Zhoumin; Li, Hui; Xi, Kai; Tan, Li; Zhang, Mei; Xu, Danke; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-04-27

    In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, the development of a disposable MoS 2 -arrayed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) chip combined with an immunoaffinity enrichment method for high-throughput, rapid, and simultaneous quantitation of multiple sulfonamides (SAs). The disposable MALDI MS chip was designed and fabricated by MoS 2 array formation on a commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) glass slide. A series of SAs were analyzed, and clear deprotonated signals were obtained in negative-ion mode. Compared with MoS 2 -arrayed commercial steel plate, the prepared MALDI MS chip exhibited comparable LDI efficiency, providing a good alternative and disposable substrate for MALDI MS analysis. Furthermore, internal standard (IS) was previously deposited onto the MoS 2 array to simplify the experimental process for MALDI MS quantitation. 96 sample spots could be analyzed within 10 min in one single chip to perform quantitative analysis, recovery studies, and real foodstuff detection. Upon targeted extraction and enrichment by antibody conjugated magnetic beads, five SAs were quantitatively determined by the IS-first method with the linear range of 0.5-10 ng/mL ( R 2 > 0.990). Good recoveries and repeatability were obtained for spiked pork, egg, and milk samples. SAs in several real foodstuffs were successfully identified and quantified. The developed method may provide a promising tool for the routine analysis of antibiotic residues in real samples.

  14. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  15. Biomimetic Unidirectional Capillary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Eric; Moran, Patrick; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments animals require specialized adaptations to collect adequate water. The Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum) has superhydrophylic skin which draws water out of moist soil or directly from water sources. The water then makes its way into the lizard's unidirectional capillary system, made of overlapping scales, which serves to channel water to its mouth. Testing different channel geometries, repeated ``D'' shaped chambers as in Commans et al. (2015) and truncated isosceles triangle chambers, as found in P. cornutum, we show the ability to have passive, unidirectional, fluid transport. Tests were carried out with the capillaries in a horizontal configuration. While both capillary geometries produced the desired traits, the triangular chambers showed superior unidirectionality, with no observed back flow, while ``D'' chambers showed back flow under testing conditions. The chambers provided similar flow rates. These types of channel systems will find use in microfluidics, notably in medical, printing, and lab-on-chip applications.

  16. Capillary condenser/evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A heat transfer device is disclosed for transferring heat to or from a fluid that is undergoing a phase change. The heat transfer device includes a liquid-vapor manifold in fluid communication with a capillary structure thermally connected to a heat transfer interface, all of which are disposed in a housing to contain the vapor. The liquid-vapor manifold transports liquid in a first direction and conducts vapor in a second, opposite direction. The manifold provides a distributed supply of fluid (vapor or liquid) over the surface of the capillary structure. In one embodiment, the manifold has a fractal structure including one or more layers, each layer having one or more conduits for transporting liquid and one or more openings for conducting vapor. Adjacent layers have an increasing number of openings with decreasing area, and an increasing number of conduits with decreasing cross-sectional area, moving in a direction toward the capillary structure.

  17. Solid density, low temperature plasma formation in a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Jones, L.A.; Maestas, M.D.; Shepherd, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the ability of the authors to produce solid density, low temperature plasmas in polyurethane capillary discharges. The initial capillary diameter is 20 μm. The plasma is produced by discharging a one Ohm parallel plate waterline and Marx generator system through the capillary. A peak current of 340 kA in 300 ns heats the inner wall of the capillary, and the plasma expands into the surrounding material. The authors studied the evolution of the discharge using current and voltage probes, axial and radial streak photography, axial x-ray diode array and schlieren photography, and have estimated the peak temperature of the discharge to be approximately 10 eV and the density to be near 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/. This indicates that the plasma may approach the strongly coupled regime. They discuss their interpretation of the data and compare their results with theoretical models of the plasma dynamics

  18. Solution-based analysis of multiple analytes by a sensor array: toward the development of an electronic tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Steven M.; Lavigne, John J.; Yoo, J. S.; Wright, John; Rodriguez, Marc; Goodey, Adrian; McDoniel, Bridget; McDevitt, John T.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Shear, Jason B.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Neikirk, Dean P.

    1998-12-01

    A micromachined sensor array has been developed for the rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in aqueous media. The sensor functions in a manner analogous to that of the mammalian tongue, using an array composed of individually immobilized polystyrene-polyethylene glycol composite microspheres selectively arranged in micromachined etch cavities localized o n silicon wafers. Sensing occurs via colorimetric or fluorometric changes to indicator molecules that are covalently bound to amine termination sites on the polymeric microspheres. The hybrid micromachined structure has been interfaced directly to a charged-coupled-device that is used for the simultaneous acquisition of the optical data from the individually addressable `taste bud' elements. With the miniature sensor array, acquisition of data streams composed of red, green, and blue color patterns distinctive for the analytes in the solution are rapidly acquired. The unique combination of carefully chosen reporter molecules with water permeable microspheres allows for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of analytes. The fabrication of the sensor structures and the initial colorimetric and fluorescent responses for pH, Ca+2, Ce+3, and sugar are reported. Interface to microfluidic components should also be possible, producing a complete sampling/sensing system.

  19. Capillary assisted deposition of carbon nanotube film for strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zida; Xue, Xufeng; Lin, Feng; Wang, Yize; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Advances in stretchable electronics offer the possibility of developing skin-like motion sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their superior electrical properties, have great potential for applications in such sensors. In this paper, we report a method for deposition and patterning of CNTs on soft, elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using capillary action. Micropillar arrays were generated on PDMS surfaces before treatment with plasma to render them hydrophilic. Capillary force enabled by the micropillar array spreads CNT solution evenly on PDMS surfaces. Solvent evaporation leaves a uniform deposition and patterning of CNTs on PDMS surfaces. We studied the effect of the CNT concentration and micropillar gap size on CNT coating uniformity, film conductivity, and piezoresistivity. Leveraging the piezoresistivity of deposited CNT films, we further designed and characterized a device for the contraction force measurement. Our capillary assisted deposition method of CNT films showed great application potential in fabrication of flexible CNT thin films for strain sensing.

  20. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  1. Thermal-hydraulic performance of a multiple jet cooling module with a concave dimple array in a helium-cooled divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyo-Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Yong, E-mail: kykim@inha.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    A numerical study was performed to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of a finger type cooling module, where multiple jets impinge on the surface with concave dimples, in the divertor of a nuclear fusion reactor. Conjugate heat transfer was analyzed in both the solid and fluid domains using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model. The computational domain consisted of a single fluid domain and three solid domains: tile, thimble, and cartridge. The numerical results for the temperature variation on the tile were validated in comparison with the experimental data. A parametric study was performed with two design variables, the ratios of dimple diameter and dimple height to the nozzle diameter, and two dimple arrays (inline and staggered arrays). The parametric study showed that the heat transfer rate was increased by up to 2.62% by introducing concave dimples, and that the heat transfer and pressure drop performances increased with increasing diameter and height of the dimples for a specified dimple array.

  2. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossev, D.P.; Warren, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  3. Tomographic and analog 3-D simulations using NORA. [Non-Overlapping Redundant Image Array formed by multiple pinholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.; Trombka, J. I.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The results of two computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of using the nonoverlapping redundant array (NORA) to form three-dimensional images of objects with X-rays. Pinholes admit the X-rays to nonoverlapping points on a detector. The object is reconstructed in the analog mode by optical correlation and in the digital mode by tomographic computations. Trials were run with a stick-figure pyramid and extended objects with out-of-focus backgrounds. Substitution of spherical optical lenses for the pinholes increased the light transmission sufficiently that objects could be easily viewed in a dark room. Out-of-focus aberrations in tomographic reconstruction could be eliminated using Chang's (1976) algorithm.

  4. Multiple single-unit long-term tracking on organotypic hippocampal slices using high-density microelectrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel system to cultivate and record from organotypic brain slices directly on high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA was developed. This system allows for continuous recording of electrical activity of specific individual neurons at high spatial resolution while monitoring at the same time, neuronal network activity. For the first time, the electrical activity patterns of single neurons and the corresponding neuronal network in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture were studied during several consecutive weeks at daily intervals. An unsupervised iterative spike-sorting algorithm, based on PCA and k-means clustering, was developed to assign the activities to the single units. Spike-triggered average extracellular waveforms of an action potential recorded across neighboring electrodes, termed ‘footprints’ of single-units were generated and tracked over weeks. The developed system offers the potential to study chronic impacts of drugs or genetic modifications on individual neurons in slice preparations over extended times.

  5. Practical capillary electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) joined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the most powerful separation technique available to analytical chemists and biochemists. Published research using CE grew from 48 papers in the year of commercial introduction (1988) to 1200 in 1997. While only a dozen major pharmaceutical and biotech companies have reduced CE to routine practice, the applications market is showing real or potential growth in key areas, particularly in the DNA marketplace for genomic mapping and forensic identification. For drug development involving small molecules (including chiral separations), one CE instrument can replace 10 liquid chromatographs in terms of speed of analysis. CE also uses aqueous rather than organic solvents and is thus environmentally friendlier than HPLC. The second edition of Practical Capillary Electrophoresis has been extensively reorganized and rewritten to reflect modern usage in the field, with an emphasis on commercially available apparatus and ...

  6. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  7. Permeation of sumatriptan succinate across human skin using multiple types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays fabricated from sodium hyaluronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Kusamori, Kosuke; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Available formulations of sumatriptan succinate (SS) have low bioavailability or are associated with site reactions. We developed various types of self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs) fabricated from sodium hyaluronate as a new delivery system for SS and evaluated their skin permeation and irritation in terms of clinical application. In vitro permeation studies with human skin, physicochemical properties (needle length, thickness and density), and penetration enhancers (glycerin, sodium dodecyl sulfate and lauric acid diethanolamide) were investigated. SS-loaded high-density MNs of 800 µm in length were the optimal formulation and met clinical therapeutic requirements. Penetration enhancers did not significantly affect permeation of SS from MNs. Optical coherence tomography images demonstrated that SS-loaded high-density MNs (800 µm) uniformly created drug permeation pathways for the delivery of SS into the skin. SS-loaded high-density MNs induced moderate primary skin irritations in rats, but the skin recovered within 72 h of removal of the MNs. These findings suggest that high-density MNs of 800 µm in length are an effective and promising formulation for transdermal delivery of SS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SS permeation across human skin using self-dissolving MNs.

  8. Enhancement mode GaN-based multiple-submicron channel array gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Wang, Chun-Chi

    2018-04-01

    To study the function of channel width in multiple-submicron channel array, we fabricated the enhancement mode GaN-based gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with a channel width of 450 nm and 195 nm, respectively. In view of the enhanced gate controllability in a narrower fin-channel structure, the transconductance was improved from 115 mS/mm to 151 mS/mm, the unit gain cutoff frequency was improved from 6.2 GHz to 6.8 GHz, and the maximum oscillation frequency was improved from 12.1 GHz to 13.1 GHz of the devices with a channel width of 195 nm, compared with the devices with a channel width of 450 nm.

  9. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    OpenAIRE

    Charlaix, Elisabeth; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    28 pages - To appear in 2010 in the Handbook of Nanophysics - Vol 1 - Edited by Klaus Sattler - CRC Press; We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and...

  10. Capillary waves in slow motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  11. Capillary waves of compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Kerstin; Mecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The interplay of thermal noise and molecular forces is responsible for surprising features of liquids on sub-micrometer lengths-in particular at interfaces. Not only does the surface tension depend on the size of an applied distortion and nanoscopic thin liquid films dewet faster than would be expected from hydrodynamics, but also the dispersion relation of capillary waves differ at the nanoscale from the familiar macroscopic behavior. Starting with the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation we study the coupling of capillary waves to acoustic surface waves which is possible in compressible fluids. We find propagating 'acoustic-capillary waves' at nanometer wavelengths where in incompressible fluids capillary waves are overdamped.

  12. Optimization of a phased-array transducer for multiple harmonic imaging in medical applications: frequency and topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Guillaume M; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Danilouchkine, Mike G; Huijssen, Jacob; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico

    2011-03-01

    Second-harmonic imaging is currently one of the standards in commercial echographic systems for diagnosis, because of its high spatial resolution and low sensitivity to clutter and near-field artifacts. The use of nonlinear phenomena mirrors is a great set of solutions to improve echographic image resolution. To further enhance the resolution and image quality, the combination of the 3rd to 5th harmonics--dubbed the superharmonics--could be used. However, this requires a bandwidth exceeding that of conventional transducers. A promising solution features a phased-array design with interleaved low- and high-frequency elements for transmission and reception, respectively. Because the amplitude of the backscattered higher harmonics at the transducer surface is relatively low, it is highly desirable to increase the sensitivity in reception. Therefore, we investigated the optimization of the number of elements in the receiving aperture as well as their arrangement (topology). A variety of configurations was considered, including one transmit element for each receive element (1/2) up to one transmit for 7 receive elements (1/8). The topologies are assessed based on the ratio of the harmonic peak pressures in the main and grating lobes. Further, the higher harmonic level is maximized by optimization of the center frequency of the transmitted pulse. The achievable SNR for a specific application is a compromise between the frequency-dependent attenuation and nonlinearity at a required penetration depth. To calculate the SNR of the complete imaging chain, we use an approach analogous to the sonar equation used in underwater acoustics. The generated harmonic pressure fields caused by nonlinear wave propagation were modeled with the iterative nonlinear contrast source (INCS) method, the KZK, or the Burger's equation. The optimal topology for superharmonic imaging was an interleaved design with 1 transmit element per 6 receive elements. It improves the SNR by ~5 dB compared with

  13. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  14. Capillary optics for radiation focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Lepel, E.A.; Stromswold, D.C.; Stoffels, J.; Sunberg, D.S.; Tenny, H.

    1996-11-01

    Capillary lens technology may ultimately bring benefits to neutron and x-ray-based science like conventional lenses with visible light. Although the technology is not yet 10 years old, these lenses have already had a significant impact in engineering, science, and medicine. Capillary lenses are advantageous when it is desirable to increase the radiation flux at a location without regard to its angular divergence. PNNL has worked to improve the technology in several ways. A single, optimally tapered capillary was manufactured, which allows intensity gains of a factor of 270 for an initially parallel, incident x-ray beam. Feasibility of constructing neutron lenses using 58 Ni (particularly effective at reflecting neutrons) has been explored. Three applications for capillary optics have been identified and studied: neutron telescope, Gandolphi x-ray diffractometry, and neutron radiotherapy. A brief guide is given for determining which potential applications are likely to be helped by capillary optics

  15. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  16. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsova, L A; Bessonova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references

  17. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  18. Capillary-HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry in analysis of alkaloid dyestuffs - a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Damian; Lech, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    Development of the identification method of alkaloid compounds in Amur cork tree as well as not examined so far Oregon grape and European Barberry shrubs are presented. The novel approach to separation of alkaloids was applied and the capillary-high-performance liquid chromatography (capillary-HPLC) system was used, which has never previously been reported for alkaloid-based dyestuffs analysis. Its optimization was conducted with three different stationary phases (unmodified octadecylsilane-bonded silica, octadecylsilane modified with polar groups and silica-bonded pentaflourophenyls) as well as with different solvent buffers. Detection of the isolated compounds was carried out using diode-array detector (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI MS/MS). The working parameters of ESI were optimized, whereas the multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) parameters of MS/MS detection were chosen based on the product ion spectra of the quasi-molecular ions. Calibration curve of berberine has been estimated (y = 1712091x + 4785.03 with the correlation coefficient 0.9999). Limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated to be 3.2 and 9.7 ng/mL, respectively. Numerous alkaloids (i.e., berberine, jatrorrhizine and magnoflorine, as well as phellodendrine, menisperine and berbamine) were identified in the extracts from alkaloid plants and silk and wool fibers dyed with these dyestuffs, among them their markers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  20. ReseqChip: Automated integration of multiple local context probe data from the MitoChip array in mitochondrial DNA sequence assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spang Rainer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0 is an oligonucleotide tiling array for the resequencing of the human mitochondrial (mt genome. For each of 16,569 nucleotide positions of the mt genome it holds two sets of four 25-mer probes each that match the heavy and the light strand of a reference mt genome and vary only at their central position to interrogate all four possible alleles. In addition, the MitoChip v2.0 carries alternative local context probes to account for known mtDNA variants. These probes have been neglected in most studies due to the lack of software for their automated analysis. Results We provide ReseqChip, a free software that automates the process of resequencing mtDNA using multiple local context probes on the MitoChip v2.0. ReseqChip significantly improves base call rate and sequence accuracy. ReseqChip is available at http://code.open-bio.org/svnweb/index.cgi/bioperl/browse/bioperl-live/trunk/Bio/Microarray/Tools/. Conclusions ReseqChip allows for the automated consolidation of base calls from alternative local mt genome context probes. It thereby improves the accuracy of resequencing, while reducing the number of non-called bases.

  1. A Microstrip Patch-Fed Short Backfire Antenna for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Short Backfire Antennas (SBAs) are widely utilized for mobile satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area network (WLAN) applications due to their compact structure and excellent radiation characteristics [1-3]. Typically, these SBA s consist of an excitation element (i.e., a half-wavelength dipole), a reflective bottom plane, a planar sub-reflector located above the "exciter", and an outer circular rim. This configuration is capable of achieving gains on the order of 13-15 dBi, but with relatively narrow bandwidths (approx.3%-5%), making it incompatible with the requirements of the next generation enhanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) array [1]. Several attempts have been made to enhance the bandwidth performance of the common dipole-fed SBA by employing various other feeding mechanisms (e.g., waveguide, slot) with moderate success [4-5]. In this paper, a novel method of using a microstrip patch is employed for the first time to excite an SBA. The patch element is fed via two H-shaped slots electromagnetically coupled to a broadband hybrid coupler to maintain a wide bandwidth, as well as provide for dual circular polarization capabilities.

  2. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  3. Capillary gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Modern state of gas adsorption chromatography in open capillary columns has been analyzed. The history of the method development and its role in gas chromatography, ways to construct open adsorptional capillary columns, foundations of the theory of retention and washing of chromatographic regions in gas adsorption capillary columns have been considered. The fields is extensively and for analyzing volatile compounds of different isotopic composition, inorganic and organic gases, volatile organic polar compounds, aqueous solutions of organic compounds. Separation of nuclear-spin isomers and isotopes of hydrogen is the first illustrative example of practical application of the adsorption capillary chromatography. It is shown that duration of protium and deuterium nuclear isomers may be reduced if the column temperature is brought to 47 K

  4. Capillary viscosimetry on ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, L M; Odenbach, S

    2008-01-01

    Experiments performed for different ferrofluids under shear flow have shown that an increase of the magnetic field strength applied to the sample yields an increase of the fluid's viscosity, the so called magnetoviscous effect. It has been shown that the magnitude of the effect is strongly related to the modification of the microstructure of ferrofluids and can be influenced by varying both the dipole-dipole interaction between the particles and the concentration of large particles within the fluid. This result has been further used to synthesize new ferrofluids which, on one hand, are more compatible for technical applications but, on the other hand, led to difficulties for the experimenters in measuring the viscous behavior in the presence of a magnetic field. To overcome this problem, a specially designed ferrofluid-compatible capillary viscometer has been developed. Within this paper, the experimental setup as well as experimental results concerning the investigation of the magnetoviscous effect in both diluted and concentrated cobalt-based ferrofluids are presented

  5. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  6. Microneedle Array Interface to CE on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüttge, Regina; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Vrouwe, E.X.; van den Berg, Albert; Northrup, M.A.; Jensen, K.F; Harrison, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a microneedle array sampler interfaced to a capillary electrophoresis (CE) glass chip with integrated conductivity detection electrodes. A solution of alkali ions was electrokinetically loaded through the microneedles onto the chip and separation was demonstrated compared to a

  7. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  8. Custom CGH array profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 6p21.32 (HLA locus) in patients with venous malformations associated with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder thought to result from an interaction between environmental and genetic predisposing factors which have not yet been characterised, although it is known to be associated with the HLA region on 6p21.32. Recently, a picture of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), consequent to stenosing venous malformation of the main extra-cranial outflow routes (VM), has been described in patients affected with MS, introducing an additional phenotype with possible pathogenic significance. Methods In order to explore the presence of copy number variations (CNVs) within the HLA locus, a custom CGH array was designed to cover 7 Mb of the HLA locus region (6,899,999 bp; chr6:29,900,001-36,800,000). Genomic DNA of the 15 patients with CCSVI/VM and MS was hybridised in duplicate. Results In total, 322 CNVs, of which 225 were extragenic and 97 intragenic, were identified in 15 patients. 234 known polymorphic CNVs were detected, the majority of these being situated in non-coding or extragenic regions. The overall number of CNVs (both extra- and intragenic) showed a robust and significant correlation with the number of stenosing VMs (Spearman: r = 0.6590, p = 0.0104; linear regression analysis r = 0.6577, p = 0.0106). The region we analysed contains 211 known genes. By using pathway analysis focused on angiogenesis and venous development, MS, and immunity, we tentatively highlight several genes as possible susceptibility factor candidates involved in this peculiar phenotype. Conclusions The CNVs contained in the HLA locus region in patients with the novel phenotype of CCSVI/VM and MS were mapped in detail, demonstrating a significant correlation between the number of known CNVs found in the HLA region and the number of CCSVI-VMs identified in patients. Pathway analysis revealed common routes of interaction of several of the genes involved in angiogenesis and immunity contained within this region. Despite the small

  9. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  10. First attempts to combine capillary tubes with photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Sokolova, T; Radionov, I

    1999-01-01

    We describe our efforts to combine glass capillary plates, operating as a gas amplification structure at approx 1 atm, with photocathodes sensitive to visible light. Such capillary tubes are a by-product of the manufacture of Microchannel Plates and are commercially available. Preliminary tests indicate that gas gains >10 sup 3 could be achieved without photon feedback. With two capillary plates in tandem (double-step multiplication) overall gains up to 10 sup 5 were possible at counting rate <100 Hz/mm sup 2. This approach may open new possibilities for detection of visible photons by gaseous detectors. Potential advantages are: high gains, large sensitive area, high granularity, and insensitivity to magnetic fields.

  11. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kämpf

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m. In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  12. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, M.; Montenegro, H.

    Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m). In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  13. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  14. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  15. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-04-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat need to navigate through a wide range of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with boundaries in such situations is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism when compared to ideal laboratory conditions. We study the different patterns of ciliary locomotion in glass capillaries of varying diameter and characterize the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight lines as the diameter of the capillary tubes decreases. We predict the swimming velocity in capillaries by modeling the system as a confined cylinder propagating longitudinal metachronal waves that create a finite pressure gradient. Comparing with experiments, we find that such pressure gradient considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized ciliary organisms in restrictive geometries.

  16. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  17. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  18. Genetic variability of Artemisia capillaris (Wormwood capillary) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variability among individuals of Artemisia capillaris from state of Terengganu, Malaysia was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The samples were collected from differences regional in Terengganu State. The genomic DNA was extracted from the samples leaves.

  19. A capillary-pumped loop (CPL) with microcone-shaped capillary structure for cooling electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jung-Yeul; Oh, Hoo-Suk; Kwak, Ho-Young; Lee, Dae Keun; Choi, Kyong Bin; Dong, Sang Keun

    2008-01-01

    A MEMS-based integrated capillary-pumped loop (CPL), which can be used for cooling electronic devices such as the CPU of a personal computer or notebook, was developed. The CPL consists of an evaporator and condenser both with the same size of 30 mm × 30 mm × 5.15 mm, which were fabricated using two layers of glass wafer and one layer of silicon wafer. A key element of the CPL is that the 480 ± 15 µm thickness silicon wafer where an array of 56 × 56 cone-shaped microholes that generates the capillary forces was fabricated and inserted above the compensation cavity for liquid transportation instead of a porous wick in the evaporator. The same cone-shaped microstructure was used in the condenser to create a stable interface between the liquid and vapor phases. The CPL fabricated was tested under various conditions such as different relative heights, fill ratios and heat fluxes. The operation conditions of the CPL were varied according to the relative height and fill ratios. With an allowable temperature of 110 °C on the evaporator surfaces, the CPL can handle a heat flux of about 6.22 W cm −2 for the air-cooled condenser. Steady-state operation conditions were achieved within 10 min. (note)

  20. 3D capillary valves for versatile capillary patterning of channel walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate passive capillary patterning of channel walls with a liquid in situ. Patterning is performed using a novel 3D capillary valve system combining three standard capillary stop valves. A range of different patterns is demonstrated in three channel walls. Capillary patterning was designed

  1. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  2. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...

  3. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  5. Direct Numerical Simulation of Low Capillary Number Pore Scale Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Soulaine, C.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    The arrangement of void spaces and the granular structure of a porous medium determines multiple macroscopic properties of the rock such as porosity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. Therefore, it is important to study the microscopic structure of the reservoir pores and understand the dynamics of fluid displacements through them. One approach for doing this, is direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow that requires a robust numerical tool for prediction of fluid dynamics and a detailed understanding of the physical processes occurring at the pore-scale. In pore scale flows with a low capillary number, Eulerian multiphase methods are well-known to produce additional vorticity close to the interface. This is mainly due to discretization errors which lead to an imbalance of capillary pressure and surface tension forces that causes unphysical spurious currents. At the pore scale, these spurious currents can become significantly stronger than the average velocity in the phases, and lead to unphysical displacement of the interface. In this work, we first investigate the capability of the algebraic Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in OpenFOAM for low capillary number pore scale flow simulations. Afterward, we compare VOF results with a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method and Iso-Advector method. It has been shown that the former one reduces the VOF's unphysical spurious currents in some cases, and both are known to capture interfaces sharper than VOF. As the conclusion, we will investigate that whether the use of CLSVOF or Iso-Advector will lead to less spurious velocities and more accurate results for capillary driven pore-scale multiphase flows or not. Keywords: Pore-scale multiphase flow, Capillary driven flows, Spurious currents, OpenFOAM

  6. Characterization for capillary barriers effects in a sand box test using time-lapsed GPR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, S.; Ishii, N.; Morii, T.

    2017-12-01

    Capillary barriers have been known as the method to protect subsurface regions against infiltration from soil surface. It is caused by essentially heterogeneous structure in permeability or soil physical property and produce non-uniform infiltration process then, in order to estimate the actual situation of the capillary barrier effect, the site-characterization with imaging technique like geophysical prospecting is effective. In this study, we examine the applicability of GPR to characterization for capillary barriers. We built a sand box with 90x340x90cm in which a thin high-permeable gravel layer was embedded as a capillary barrier. We conducted an infiltration test in the sand box using porous tube array for irrigation. It is expected to lead to non-uniform flow of soil water induced by capillary barrier effects. We monitored this process by various types of GPR measurements, including time-lapsed common offset profiling (COP) with multi- frequency antenna and transmission measurements like cross-borehole radar. At first, we conducted GPR common-offset survey. It could show the depth of capillary barrier in sand box. After that we conducted the infiltration test and GPR monitoring for infiltration process. GPR profiles can detect the wetting front and estimate water content change in the soil layer above the capillary barrier. From spatial change in these results we can estimate the effect of capillary barrier and the zone where the break through occur or not. Based on these results, we will discuss the applicability of GPR for monitoring the phenomena around the capillary barrier of soil. At first, we conducted GPR common-offset survey. It could show the depth of capillary barrier in sand box. After that we conducted the infiltration test and GPR monitoring for infiltration process. GPR profiles can detect the wetting front and estimate water content change in the soil layer above the capillary barrier. From spatial change in these results we can estimate the

  7. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  8. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  9. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  10. Operating scheme for the light-emitting diode array of a volumetric display that exhibits multiple full-color dynamic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Shiraki, Atsushi; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-07-01

    We designed and developed a control circuit for a three-dimensional (3-D) light-emitting diode (LED) array to be used in volumetric displays exhibiting full-color dynamic 3-D images. The circuit was implemented on a field-programmable gate array; therefore, pulse-width modulation, which requires high-speed processing, could be operated in real time. We experimentally evaluated the developed system by measuring the luminance of an LED with varying input and confirmed that the system works appropriately. In addition, we demonstrated that the volumetric display exhibits different full-color dynamic two-dimensional images in two orthogonal directions. Each of the exhibited images could be obtained only from the prescribed viewpoint. Such directional characteristics of the system are beneficial for applications, including digital signage, security systems, art, and amusement.

  11. Capillary Refill using Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science The opportunities within augmented reality is growing. Augmented reality is a combination of the real and the virtual world in real time, and large companies like Microsoft and Google is now investing heavily in the technology. This thesis presents a solution for simulating a medical test called capillary refill, by using augmented reality. The simulation is performed with an augmented reality headset called HoloLens. The HoloLens will recognise a mark...

  12. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorairaj, Rathissh [Hillsboro, OR; Keynton, Robert S [Louisville, KY; Roussel, Thomas J [Louisville, KY; Crain, Mark M [Georgetown, IN; Jackson, Douglas J [New Albany, IN; Walsh, Kevin M [Louisville, KY; Naber, John F [Goshen, KY; Baldwin, Richard P [Louisville, KY; Franco, Danielle B [Mount Washington, KY

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  13. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple coating procedure for generation of a high and pH-independent electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. The bilayer coating was formed by noncovalent adsorption of the ionic polymers Polybrene...... capillaries was (4.9+/-0.1) x 10(-4) cm2V(-1)s(-1) in a pH-range of 2-10 (ionic strength = 30 mM). When alkaline compounds were used as test substances intracapillary and intercapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 2% RSD, respectively in the entire...... pH range. The coating was fairly stable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and this made it possible to perform fast MEKC separations at low pH. When neutral compounds were used as test substances, the intracapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 2% RSD in a pH range of 2...

  14. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  15. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  16. Array architectures for iterative algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, Hosagrahar V.; Rao, Sailesh K.; Kailath, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Regular mesh-connected arrays are shown to be isomorphic to a class of so-called regular iterative algorithms. For a wide variety of problems it is shown how to obtain appropriate iterative algorithms and then how to translate these algorithms into arrays in a systematic fashion. Several 'systolic' arrays presented in the literature are shown to be specific cases of the variety of architectures that can be derived by the techniques presented here. These include arrays for Fourier Transform, Matrix Multiplication, and Sorting.

  17. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  18. Capillary Versus Aspiration Biopsy: Effect of Needle Size and Length on the Cytopathological Specimen Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Kenneth D.; Grenko, Ronald T.; Fisher, Alicia I.; TenHave, Thomas R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To test the value of the nonaspiration, or capillary, biopsy technique by experimental comparison with the conventional fine-needle aspiration technique using various needle gauges and lengths. Methods: On fresh hepatic and renal tissue from five autopsies, multiple biopsy specimens were taken with 20, 22, and 23-gauge Chiba needles of 5, 10, 15, and 20-cm length, using the aspiration technique and the capillary technique. The resultant specimens were graded on the basis of a grading scheme by a cytopathologist who was blinded to the biopsy technique. Results: The capillary technique obtained less background blood or clot which could obscure diagnostic tissue, although not significantly different from the aspiration technique (p= 0.2). However, for the amount of cellular material obtained, retention of appropriate architecture, and mean score, the capillary technique performed statistically worse than aspiration biopsy (p < 0.01). In addition, with decreasing needle caliber (increasing needle gauge) and increasing length, the capillary biopsy was inferior to the aspiration biopsy. Conclusion: The capillary biopsy technique is inferior to the aspiration technique according to our study. When the capillary technique is to be applied, preference should be given to larger caliber, shorter needles

  19. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics. (technical note)

  20. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  1. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS. Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser’s syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms.

  2. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characteri...

  3. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰

    2010-01-01

    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  4. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ...... distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element...

  6. A new vertex detector made of glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.D.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Y.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new detector technique that allows high quality imaging of ionizing particle tracks with very high spatial and time resolution. Central to this technique are liquid-core fibres of about 20 μm diameter read out by an optoelectronic system including a CCD. The fibres act simultaneously as target, detector and light guides. A large-volume prototype, consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries of 20 μm diameter and 180 cm length, has been tested in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam. A sample of high-multiplicity neutrino interactions was recorded, demonstrating the imaging quality of this detector. First results from the reconstruction of these events are reported. A track residual of 28 μm and a vertex resolution of 30 μm has been achieved. Future applications of capillary detectors for neutrino and beauty physics are being investigated within the framework of the RD46 collaboration. (orig.)

  7. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  8. Magnetic field strength requirements to capture superparamagnetic nanoparticles within capillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmark, B.; Darton, N. J.; James, T.; Agrawal, P.; Slater, N. K. H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development of a model, with supporting experimental data, which can predict the magnitude of the magnetic flux required to capture superparamagnetic nanoparticles flowing through a plastic capillary micro array. The model takes into account the shape of the magnetic field, the magnetically induced aggregation of the nanoparticles and a criterion to determine whether nanoparticles are held at the capillary wall or not. It was found that the model gave a semi-quantitative match to experimental data showing that, once steered out of the core of the fluid flow, nanoparticles could be held at a capillary wall within a weaker region of magnetic field. This result may have implications for the design of magnets for use in magnetic directed therapy in addition to having implications concerning the design of nanoparticle dosage regimes.

  9. Adsorption isoterms and capillary condensation in a nanoslit with rough walls: a density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berim, Gersh O; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2012-08-07

    Adsorption isoterms and capillary condensation in an open slit with walls decorated with arrays of pillars are examined using the density functional theory. Compared with the main substrate, the pillars can have the same or different parameters in the Lennard-Jones interaction potential between them and the fluid in the slit. The roughness of the solid surface, defined as the ratio between the area of the actual surface and the area of the surface free of pillars, is controlled by the height of the pillars. It is shown that the capillary condensation pressure first increases with increasing roughness, passes through a maximum, and then decreases. The amount of adsorbed fluid at constant volume of the slit has, in general, a nonmonotonic dependence on roughness. These features of adsorption and capillary condensation are results of increased surface area and changes in the fluid-solid potential energy due to changes in roughness.

  10. Ion guiding and losses in insulator capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Vikor, Gy.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Ivan, I.; Gall, F.; Toekesi, K.; Matefi-Tempfli, S.; Matefi-Tempfli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Not long ago it was discovered that insulating capillaries can guide slow ions, so that the ions avoid close contact with the capillary walls and preserve their initial charge state. This phenomenon did not only give a new puzzle for theoreticians but opened the way for new possible applications where ions are manipulated (deflected, focused and directed to different patterns on the irradiated media) with small capillary devices. The most important question for such applications is how large fraction of the ions can be guided to the desired direction. It is already known that the ion guiding is due to the charging up of the inner capillary walls by earlier ion impact events. In tilted capillaries one side of the capillary walls charges up. This deflects the later arriving ions, so that some of them pass through the capillaries nearly parallel with respect to their axes. The angle where the transmission drops to 1/e of the direct transmission at 0 deg is the guiding angle, which characterize the guiding ability. At 0 deg the ideal 100 percent transmission for the ions, which enter the capillaries, is reduced due to the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections. These losses appear in the transmission for tilted capillaries with similar magnitude, since after the deflection region, which usually restricted to the close surroundings of the capillary openings, the guided ions pass through the rest of the capillaries as in non-tilted samples. In our experimental studies with Al 2 O 3 capillaries we found that around 90 percent of the incoming ions are lost. To understand these significant losses, the effects of the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections have been calculated classically. The mirror charge potential was taken from.The model of the capillaries used in the calculations can be seen in Figure 1. The calculations have shown that the effects of mirror charge attraction and the angular

  11. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  13. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  14. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  15. Identification of new sensitive biomarkers for the in vivo response to interferon-beta treatment in multiple sclerosis using DNA-array evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F.; Krakauer, M.; Hesse, D.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) occur in a proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon (IFN)-beta. NAbs impair the effect of treatment. The biological effect of IFN-beta can be measured as the induction of the myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) molecule. However, other...

  16. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  17. Assembly for connecting the column ends of two capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, B.; Auer, M.; Pospisil, P.

    1984-01-01

    In gas chromatography, the column ends of two capillary columns are inserted into a straight capillary from both sides forming annular gaps. The capillary is located in a tee out of which the capillary columns are sealingly guided, and to which carrier gas is supplied by means of a flushing flow conduit. A ''straight-forward operation'' having capillary columns connected in series and a ''flush-back operation'' are possible. The dead volume between the capillary columns can be kept small

  18. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  19. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  20. Genetics Home Reference: megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Megalencephaly Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Cincinnati Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformations ...

  1. Proteolytic processing of the cilium adhesin MHJ_0194 (P123J ) in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae generates a functionally diverse array of cleavage fragments that bind multiple host molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benjamin B A; Jenkins, Cheryl; Seymour, Lisa M; Tacchi, Jessica L; Widjaja, Michael; Jarocki, Veronica M; Deutscher, Ania T; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the aetiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, regulates the presentation of proteins on its cell surface via endoproteolysis, including those of the cilial adhesin P123 (MHJ_0194). These proteolytic cleavage events create functional adhesins that bind to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells and to the circulatory host molecule plasminogen. Two dominant cleavage events of the P123 preprotein have been previously characterized; however, immunoblotting studies suggest that more complex processing events occur. These extensive processing events are characterized here. The functional significance of the P97 cleavage fragments is also poorly understood. Affinity chromatography using heparin, fibronectin and plasminogen as bait and peptide arrays were used to expand our knowledge of the adhesive capabilities of P123 cleavage fragments and characterize a novel binding motif in the C-terminus of P123. Further, we use immunohistochemistry to examine in vivo, the biological significance of interactions between M. hyopneumoniae and fibronectin and show that M. hyopneumoniae induces fibronectin deposition at the site of infection on the ciliated epithelium. Our data supports the hypothesis that M. hyopneumoniae possesses the molecular machinery to influence key molecular communication pathways in host cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Ramsay, Lauren M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Cermak, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis are coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to create an ultrasensitive two-dimensional separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125. PMID:20603830

  3. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  4. Multiple inflammatory biomarker detection in a prospective cohort study: a cross-validation between well-established single-biomarker techniques and an electrochemiluminescense-based multi-array platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas C T van Bussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In terms of time, effort and quality, multiplex technology is an attractive alternative for well-established single-biomarker measurements in clinical studies. However, limited data comparing these methods are available. METHODS: We measured, in a large ongoing cohort study (n = 574, by means of both a 4-plex multi-array biomarker assay developed by MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD and single-biomarker techniques (ELISA or immunoturbidimetric assay, the following biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1. These measures were realigned by weighted Deming regression and compared across a wide spectrum of subjects' cardiovascular risk factors by ANOVA. RESULTS: Despite that both methods ranked individuals' levels of biomarkers very similarly (Pearson's r all≥0.755 absolute concentrations of all biomarkers differed significantly between methods. Equations retrieved by the Deming regression enabled proper realignment of the data to overcome these differences, such that intra-class correlation coefficients were then 0.996 (CRP, 0.711 (SAA, 0.895 (sICAM-1 and 0.858 (sVCAM-1. Additionally, individual biomarkers differed across categories of glucose metabolism, weight, metabolic syndrome and smoking status to a similar extent by either method. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple low-grade inflammatory biomarker data obtained by the 4-plex multi-array platform of MSD or by well-established single-biomarker methods are comparable after proper realignment of differences in absolute concentrations, and are equally associated with cardiovascular risk factors, regardless of such differences. Given its greater efficiency, the MSD platform is a potential tool for the quantification of multiple biomarkers of low-grade inflammation in large ongoing and future clinical studies.

  5. Scalable fabrication of strongly textured organic semiconductor micropatterns by capillary force lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Pil Sung; Vailionis, Arturas; Park, Young Min; Salleo, Alberto

    2012-06-26

    Strongly textured organic semiconductor micropatterns made of the small molecule dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C(8)-BTBT) are fabricated by using a method based on capillary force lithography (CFL). This technique provides the C(8)-BTBT solution with nucleation sites for directional growth, and can be used as a scalable way to produce high quality crystalline arrays in desired regions of a substrate for OFET applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Prediction of peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib and thalidomide: a genetic study based on a single nucleotide polymorphism array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Ramón; Corchete, Luis Antonio; Alcoceba, Miguel; Chillon, María Carmen; Jiménez, Cristina; Prieto, Isabel; García-Álvarez, María; Puig, Noemi; Rapado, Immaculada; Barrio, Santiago; Oriol, Albert; Blanchard, María Jesús; de la Rubia, Javier; Martínez, Rafael; Lahuerta, Juan José; González Díaz, Marcos; Mateos, María Victoria; San Miguel, Jesús Fernando; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Sarasquete, María Eugenia

    2017-12-01

    Bortezomib- and thalidomide-based therapies have significantly contributed to improved survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy (TiPN) is a common adverse event associated with them. Risk factors for TiPN in MM patients include advanced age, prior neuropathy, and other drugs, but there are conflicting results about the role of genetics in predicting the risk of TiPN. Thus, we carried out a genome-wide association study based on more than 300 000 exome single nucleotide polymorphisms in 172 MM patients receiving therapy involving bortezomib and thalidomide. We compared patients developing and not developing TiPN under similar treatment conditions (GEM05MAS65, NCT00443235). The highest-ranking single nucleotide polymorphism was rs45443101, located in the PLCG2 gene, but no significant differences were found after multiple comparison correction (adjusted P = .1708). Prediction analyses, cytoband enrichment, and pathway analyses were also performed, but none yielded any significant findings. A copy number approach was also explored, but this gave no significant results either. In summary, our study did not find a consistent genetic component associated with TiPN under bortezomib and thalidomide therapies that could be used for prediction, which makes clinical judgment essential in the practical management of MM treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Microstructural control over soluble pentacene deposited by capillary pen printing for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Min, Honggi; Park, Namwoo; Lee, Junghwi; Seo, Eunsuk; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2013-08-28

    Research into printing techniques has received special attention for the commercialization of cost-efficient organic electronics. Here, we have developed a capillary pen printing technique to realize a large-area pattern array of organic transistors and systematically investigated self-organization behavior of printed soluble organic semiconductor ink. The capillary pen-printed deposits of organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS_PEN), was well-optimized in terms of morphological and microstructural properties by using ink with mixed solvents of chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Especially, a 1:1 solvent ratio results in the best transistor performances. This result is attributed to the unique evaporation characteristics of the TIPS_PEN deposits where fast evaporation of CB induces a morphological evolution at the initial printed position, and the remaining DCB with slow evaporation rate offers a favorable crystal evolution at the pinned position. Finally, a large-area transistor array was facilely fabricated by drawing organic electrodes and active layers with a versatile capillary pen. Our approach provides an efficient printing technique for fabricating large-area arrays of organic electronics and further suggests a methodology to enhance their performances by microstructural control of the printed organic semiconducting deposits.

  8. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  9. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  10. Systematic genetic array analysis links the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 component Tra1 to multiple cellular processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Brenda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tra1 is an essential 437-kDa component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes. It is a member of a group of key signaling molecules that share a carboxyl-terminal domain related to phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase but unlike many family members, it lacks kinase activity. To identify genetic interactions for TRA1 and provide insight into its function we have performed a systematic genetic array analysis (SGA on tra1SRR3413, an allele that is defective in transcriptional regulation. Results The SGA analysis revealed 114 synthetic slow growth/lethal (SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413. The interacting genes are involved in a range of cellular processes including gene expression, mitochondrial function, and membrane sorting/protein trafficking. In addition many of the genes have roles in the cellular response to stress. A hierarchal cluster analysis revealed that the pattern of SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413 most closely resembles deletions of a group of regulatory GTPases required for membrane sorting/protein trafficking. Consistent with a role for Tra1 in cellular stress, the tra1SRR3413 strain was sensitive to rapamycin. In addition, calcofluor white sensitivity of the strain was enhanced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, a phenotype shared with the Ada components of the SAGA/SLIK complex. Through analysis of a GFP-Tra1 fusion we show that Tra1 is principally localized to the nucleus. Conclusion We have demonstrated a genetic association of Tra1 with nuclear, mitochondrial and membrane processes. The identity of the SSL genes also connects Tra1 with cellular stress, a result confirmed by the sensitivity of the tra1SRR3413 strain to a variety of stress conditions. Based upon the nuclear localization of GFP-Tra1 and the finding that deletion of the Ada components of the SAGA complex result in similar phenotypes as tra1SRR3413, we suggest that the effects of tra1SRR3413

  11. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  12. Ordered Au Nanodisk and Nanohole Arrays: Fabrication and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Kiraly, Brian; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate ordered Au nanodisk and nanohole arrays on substrates and have studied the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the arrays. Through these investigations, we demonstrate that the angle- dependent behavior of the LSPR in the Au nanodisk arrays enables real-time observation of exciton-plasmon couplings. In addition, we show that the NSL-fabricated Au nanohole arrays can be applied as templates for patterning micro-/nanoparticles under capillary force. The unique structural and plasmonic characteristics of the Au nanodisk and nano- hole arrays, as well as the low-cost and high-throughput NSL-based nanofabrication technique, render these arrays excellent platforms for numerous engineering applications. © 2010 by ASME.

  13. Investigation of transient dynamics of capillary assisted particle assembly yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virganavičius, D. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Juodėnas, M. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Tamulevičius, T., E-mail: tomas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania); Schift, H. [Laboratory of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tamulevičius, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Kaunas University of Technology, K. Baršausko St. 59, Kaunas LT-51423 (Lithuania); Department of Physics, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentų St. 50, Kaunas LT-51368 (Lithuania)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Regular particles arrays were assembled by capillary force assisted deposition. • Deposition yield dynamics was investigated at different thermal velocity regimes. • Yield transient behavior was approximated with logistic function. • Pattern density influence for switching behavior was assessed. - Abstract: In this paper, the transient behavior of the particle assembly yield dynamics when switching from low yield to high yield deposition at different velocity and thermal regimes is investigated. Capillary force assisted particle assembly (CAPA) using colloidal suspension of green fluorescent 270 nm diameter polystyrene beads was performed on patterned poly (dimethyl siloxane) substrates using a custom-built deposition setup. Two types of patterns with different trapping site densities were used to assess CAPA process dynamics and the influence of pattern density and geometry on the deposition yield transitions. Closely packed 300 nm diameter circular pits ordered in hexagonal arrangement with 300 nm pitch, and 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} square pits with 2 μm spacing were used. 2-D regular structures of the deposited particles were investigated by means of optical fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The fluorescence micrographs were analyzed using a custom algorithm enabling to identify particles and calculate efficiency of the deposition performed at different regimes. Relationship between the spatial distribution of particles in transition zone and ambient conditions was evaluated and quantified by approximation of the yield profile with a logistic function.

  14. Modelling of hydrothermal instabilities in a capillary bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Dipin; Wray, Alex; Narayanan, Ranga

    2017-11-01

    We examine the behaviour of a capillary bridge/boat suspended between two heated plates. Such systems are common in many physical situations such as crystal growth processes. However, as shown experimentally by Messmer et al., the system exhibits a complex array of behaviours driven by a Marangoni instability. While qualitative arguments have been advanced for these behaviours in the past, we develop a complete low-order model to elucidate the mechanisms at work. The model takes into account viscosity, surface tension, Marangoni stress and inertia as well as a full convection-diffusion equation for the thermal effects. Detailed comparisons of flow fields and thermal distributions are made with experiments. NASA NNX17AL27G and NSF 0968313.

  15. Stochastic analysis of capillary condensation in disordered mesopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommes, Cedric J; Roberts, Anthony P

    2018-05-08

    Most mesoporous materials of practical interest are inherently disordered, which has a significant impact on the condensation and evaporation of vapours in their pores. Traditionally, the effect of disorder is theoretically analyzed in a perturbative approach whereby slight elements of disorder (constriction, corrugation) are added to geometrically ideal pores. We propose an alternative approach, which consists of using a stochastic geometrical model to describe both the porous material and the condensate within the pores. This is done through a multiphase generalisation of the standard Gaussian random field model of disordered materials. The model parameters characterising the condensate provide a low-dimensional approximation of its configuration space, and we use a Derjaguin-Broekhoff-de Boer approximation to calculate the free-energy landscape. Our analysis notably questions the existence of vapour-like metastable states in realistically disordered mesoporous materials. Beyond capillary condensation, our general methodology is applicable to a broad array of confined phenomena.

  16. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  17. Exploring a physico-chemical multi-array explanatory model with a new multiple covariance-based technique: structural equation exploratory regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, X; Verron, T; Cazes, P

    2009-05-29

    In this work, we consider chemical and physical variable groups describing a common set of observations (cigarettes). One of the groups, minor smoke compounds (minSC), is assumed to depend on the others (minSC predictors). PLS regression (PLSR) of m inSC on the set of all predictors appears not to lead to a satisfactory analytic model, because it does not take into account the expert's knowledge. PLS path modeling (PLSPM) does not use the multidimensional structure of predictor groups. Indeed, the expert needs to separate the influence of several pre-designed predictor groups on minSC, in order to see what dimensions this influence involves. To meet these needs, we consider a multi-group component-regression model, and propose a method to extract from each group several strong uncorrelated components that fit the model. Estimation is based on a global multiple covariance criterion, used in combination with an appropriate nesting approach. Compared to PLSR and PLSPM, the structural equation exploratory regression (SEER) we propose fully uses predictor group complementarity, both conceptually and statistically, to predict the dependent group.

  18. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  19. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  20. Microgravity Investigation of Capillary Driven Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushin, V. R.; Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Skryleva, E. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the present paper is to investigate the capillary driven filtration in porous media under microgravity conditions. New mathematical model that allows taking into account the blurring of the front due to the instability of the displacement that is developing at the front is proposed. The constants in the mathematical model were selected on the basis of the experimental data on imbibition into unsaturated porous media under microgravity conditions. The flow under the action of a combination of capillary forces and a constant pressure drop or a constant flux is considered. The effect of capillary forces and the type of wettability of the medium on the displacement process is studied. A criterion in which case the capillary effects are insignificant and can be neglected is established.

  1. Characterization of asphaltenes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, W.T.; Tüdös, A.J.; Grutters, M.; Shepherd, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis was used for the separation and characterization of asphaltene samples from different sources. For the separation medium (background electrolyte), mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and a high-permittivity organic solvent could be used. The best results were obtained

  2. Vulvar Lobular Capillary Hemangioma (Pyogenic Granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian-Mei Chong

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma is considered a reactive hyperproliferative vascular response to trauma or other stimuli. The name “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. There are a few cases of lobular capillary hemangioma of the glans penis but it is rare on the female genitalia. We present this case to help physicians become aware that lobular capillary hemangiomas may occur at this site.

  3. Simulation of capillary bridges between nanoscale particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörmann, Michael; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2014-02-04

    Capillary forces are very important as they exceed in general other adhesion forces. But at the same time the exact calculation of these forces is very complex, so often assumptions and approximations are used. Previous research was done with regard to micrometer sized particles, but the behavior of nanoscale particles is different. Hence, the results for micrometer sized particles cannot be directly transferred when considering nanoscale particles. Therefore, a simulation method was developed to calculate numerically the shape of a rotationally symmetrical capillary bridge between two spherical particles or a particle and a plate. The capillary bridge in the gap between the particles is formed due to capillary condensation and is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gas phase. Hence the Kelvin equation and the Young-Laplace equation can be used to calculate the profile of the capillary bridge, depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. The bridge profile consists of several elements that are determined consecutively and interpolated linearly. After the shape is determined, the volume and force, divided into capillary pressure force and surface tension force, can be calculated. The validation of this numerical model will be shown by comparison with several different analytical calculations for micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that two often used approximations, (1) the toroidal approximation and (2) the use of an effective radius, cannot be used for nanoscale particles without remarkable mistake. It will be discussed how the capillary force and its components depend on different parameters, like particle size, relative humidity, contact angle, and distance, respectively. The rupture of a capillary bridge due to particle separation will also be presented.

  4. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. A Hybrid Pressure and Vector Sensor Towed Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is of a combined acoustic pressure and acoustic vector sensor array, where multiple acoustic pressure sensors are integrated with an acoustic vector sensor in a towed array...

  6. Impaired skin capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; Tangelder, GJ; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA

    Capillary rarefaction occurs in many tissues in patients with essential hypertension and may contribute to an increased vascular resistance and impaired muscle metabolism. Rarefaction may be caused by a structural (anatomic) absence of capillaries, functional nonperfusion, or both. The aim of this

  7. Monoliths in capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Rantamäki, A. H.; Duša, Filip; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 7-8 (2016), s. 880-912 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrochromatography * capillary liquid chromatography * mass spec- trometry * monolithic columns Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  8. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Drying induced upright sliding and reorganization of carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingwen; De Paula, Raymond; Zhang Xiefei; Zheng Lianxi; Arendt, Paul N; Mueller, Fred M; Zhu, Y T; Tu Yi

    2006-01-01

    Driven by capillary force, wet carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been found to reorganize into cellular structures upon drying. During the reorganization process, individual CNTs are firmly attached to the substrate and have to lie down on the substrate at cell bottoms, forming closed cells. Here we demonstrate that by modifying catalyst structures, the adhesion of CNTs to the substrate can be weakened. Upon drying such CNT arrays, CNTs may slide away from their original sites on the surface and self-assemble into cellular patterns with bottoms open. It is also found that the sliding distance of CNTs increases with array height, and drying millimetre tall arrays leads to the sliding of CNTs over a few hundred micrometres and the eventual self-assembly into discrete islands. By introducing regular vacancies in CNT arrays, CNTs may be manipulated into different patterns

  10. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  11. Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

    2015-02-03

    Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone.

  12. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of surface roughness and softness on water capillary adhesion in apolar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumi; Mulder, Pieter; Kleijn, J Mieke; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2012-06-28

    The roughness and softness of interacting surfaces are both important parameters affecting the capillary condensation of water in apolar media, yet are poorly understood at present. We studied the water capillary adhesion between a cellulose surface and a silica colloidal probe in hexane by AFM force measurements. Nanomechanical measurements show that the Young's modulus of the cellulose layer in water is significantly less (~7 MPa) than in hexane (~7 GPa). In addition, the cellulose surface in both water and hexane is rather rough (6-10 nm) and the silica probe has a comparable roughness. The adhesion force between cellulose and silica in water-saturated hexane shows a time-dependent increase up to a waiting time of 200 s and is much (2 orders of magnitude) lower than that expected for a capillary bridge spanning the whole silica probe surface. This suggests the formation of one or more smaller bridges between asperities on both surfaces, which is confirmed by a theoretical analysis. The overall growth rate of the condensate cannot be explained from diffusion mediated capillary condensation alone; thin film flow due to the presence of a wetting layer of water at both the surfaces seems to be the dominant contribution. The logarithmic time dependence of the force can also be explained from the model of the formation of multiple capillary bridges with a distribution of activation times. Finally, the force-distance curves upon retraction show oscillations. Capillary condensation between an atomically smooth mica surface and the silica particle show less significant oscillations and the adhesion force is independent of waiting time. The oscillations in the force-distance curves between cellulose and silica may stem from multiple bridge formation between the asperities present on both surfaces. The softness of the cellulose surface can bring in additional complexities during retraction of the silica particle, also resulting in oscillations in the force-distance curves.

  14. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  15. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  16. Advanced portrayal of SMIL coating by allying CZE performance with in-capillary topographic and charge-related surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Leitner, Michael; Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Bonazza, Klaus [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent; Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Ebner, Andreas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stutz, Hanno, E-mail: hanno.stutz@sbg.ac.at [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-01-25

    A successive multiple ionic polymer layer (SMIL) coating composed of four layers improved the capillary electrophoretic separation of a recombinant major birch pollen allergen and closely related variants when poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propansulfonate) (55% PAMAMPS) replaced dextran sulfate as terminal SMIL layer. 55% PAMAMPS decelerated the electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to its lower charge density. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate SMIL properties directly on the inner capillary surface and to relate them to EOF measurements and results of associated CZE separations of a mixture of model proteins and peptides that were performed in the same capillary. For the first time, AFM-based biosensing topography and recognition imaging mode (TREC) under liquid conditions was applied for a sequential characterization of the inner surface of a SMIL coated capillary after selected treatments including pristine SMIL, SMIL after contact with the model mixture, after alkaline rinsing, and the replenishment of the terminal polyelectrolyte layer. A cantilever with tip-tethered avidin was used to determine the charge homogeneity of the SMIL surface in the TREC mode. SMIL coated rectangular capillaries with 100 μm internal diameter assured accessibility of the inner surface for this cantilever type. Observed changes in CZE performance and EOF mobility during capillary treatment were also reflected by alterations in surface roughness and charge distribution of the SMIL coating. A renewal of the terminal SMIL layer restored the original surface properties of SMIL and the separation performance. The alliance of the novel TREC approach and CZE results allows for an improved understanding and a comprehensive insight in effects occurring on capillary coatings. - Highlights: • SMIL coating with a terminal layer of reduced charge density improves CZE separation. • Capillaries with rectangular diameter allow for in-capillary TREC-AFM measurement.

  17. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Modular Matrix Multiplication on a Linear Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    is fl(n2). 2 Case e Irl __ (see Figure 5.2) 2 2 ,1 Y, " X2v- ’ Y2 -. x= -- ~ Y4 "i; Yin Figure 5Ŗ At t--xi, either all Gk, such that IkEA , have n...nat and Image Proceuing, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-31, No. 10 22 (October, 1982), pp. IO0oo09. [41 H.T. Kung, Let’s Design Algorithms for...VLSI Systems, Proc. Caltech Conf. on Very Large Scale Integration: Architecture, Design , Fabrication (January, 1979), pp. 65. 90. 151 H.T. Kung, and

  19. Intelligent pressure measurement in multiple sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure data acquisition has typically consisted of a group of sensors scanned by an electronic or mechanical multiplexer. The data accuracy was dependent upon the temperature stability of the sensors. This paper describes a new method of pressure measurement that combines individual temperature compensated pressure sensors, a microprocessor, and an A/D converter in one module. Each sensor has its own temperature characteristics stored in a look-up table to minimize sensor thermal errors. The result is an intelligent pressure module that can output temperature compensated engineering units over an Ethernet interface. Calibration intervals can be dramatically extended depending upon system accuracy requirements and calibration techniques used

  20. Adaptive Arrays for Multiple Simultaneous Desired Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    weights [Equation (4)]. Using Equation (6), the inverse of the covariance matrix is given by 5 4 i *ŕm * T ". -1 1 I d Z dij (7) L -I + UT U* 4 di x di...Equations (11) and (12) p k = A k Ik d (14) dk aki*~~* ( ~ dk LJk Udk) and 1 t IjI II di l() 27 x = (1 + t UT U*) Thus, the output SNR of the kth desired...signals are assumed to be of the same frequency. There is no jammer 9 0 dB SIGNAL 10 dB SIGNAL 90 % 90 180 Fiur .dptdpatrnofalier rayo tn strpc lmet

  1. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  2. Infraglottic lobular capillary hemangioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Ly Pham Hoang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH is a benign proliferation of capillary blood vessels adopting a lobular configuration. A laryngeal origin of LCH is exceedingly rare. Here, we describe a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a subglottic lesion, leading to a subglottic stenosis. Histopathologic findings of the lesion implicated an LCH, which was removed successfully by a coblator. This is the first report of a subglottic LCH. Physicians should be aware of this unique lesion and laryngeal LCH should be considered in diagnosing the cause of a subglottic stenosis. Additionally, coblation should be an effective treatment for laryngeal LCH.

  3. Use of Plastic Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rachel R.; Hong, Young-Soo; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of crystallization of biomolecules in plastic capillaries (Nalgene 870 PFA tubing) are presented. These crystallization methods used batch, free-interface liquid- liquid diffusion alone, or a combination with vapor diffusion. Results demonstrated growth of crystals of test proteins such as thaumatin and glucose isomerase, as well as protein studied in our laboratory such dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Once the solutions were loaded in capillaries, they were stored in the tubes in frozen state at cryogenic temperatures until the desired time of activation of crystallization experiments.

  4. Can positrons be guided by insulating capillaries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.; Toekesi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Investigations of guiding of few hundred eV antiparticles by macroscopic insulating capillaries have been described. Using subfemtoamp positron and electron beams, we demonstrated that a portion of the entering beams were transmitted and emerged in the direction of the capillary. We also demonstrated that the transmitted intensities decreased as the capillary tilt angle was increased (see Fig. 1). Both of these are indications of guiding. However, a comparison with transmitted photon data implies that the positron transmission may result from geometric factors associated with our diffuse beams and tapered capillary used in these studies. For electrons, the comparison indicates differences which could imply that even very low intensity beams can be guided. Measurements of the transmitted intensity as a function of charge entering the capillary were inconclusive as no major increases in the transmitted intensity were observed. 2D static simulations imply that our beam intensities, although extremely small with respect to previous guiding experiments, were capable of supplying sufficient charge for guiding to occur. Although not definitive, our study implies that sub-femtoamp beam intensities are sufficient to form charge patches and produce guiding. This may have been observed for electrons with the question remaining open for positrons. That guiding was not clearly seen may have been due to the capillary geometry used or it may indicate that although sufficient charge is being supplied, the surface and bulk resistivities of glass permit this charge to dissipate faster than it is formed. This aspect was not taken into consideration in our simulations but a crude estimate of the discharge rate implies that beam intensities on the order of pA, rather than fA as used here, may be required for guiding to occur in the capillaries used here. Additional studies are required to definitively answer the question as to whether antiparticles

  5. Capillary condensation of adsorbates in porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Toshihide; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2011-11-14

    Hysteresis in capillary condensation is important for the fundamental study and application of porous materials, and yet experiments on porous materials are sometimes difficult to interpret because of the many interactions and complex solid structures involved in the condensation and evaporation processes. Here we make an overview of the significant progress in understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis phenomena in mesopores that have followed from experiment and simulation applied to highly ordered mesoporous materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 over the last few decades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hysteretic capillary condensation in a porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, M.P.; Hallock, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the behavior of hysteresis subloops in the capillary condensation of 4 He in the porous material Nuclepore. For hysteretic systems composed of many independent elements, the Preisach model may be used to predict the behavior of the resulting hysteresis. One prediction is that subloops with common chemical potential endpoints will be congruent. The observations of such subloops show that the prediction of congruence fails for this capillary condensation system. To understand deviations from Preisach behavior the authors modify the model to account for intersections among the pores. The modified model is in close agreement with the experimental results

  7. Intracerebral Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Young; Kim, Jae Kyun; Byun, Jun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eon Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Intracerebral capillary hemangiomas are very rare benign vascular tumors that mostly occur during infancy. We described a 69-year-old man with generalized tonic-clonic seizures who was diagnosed with an intracranial mass. Multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were performed for evaluation of brain, and there was a well-enhancing mass found in the right temporal lobe without a definite feeding vessel. The patient underwent surgery and the pathologic examination demonstrated marked proliferation of small vessels with a lobular pattern in the brain parenchyma, which was confirmed to be capillary hemangioma.

  8. Studies on pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C; Larour, J; Rous, J [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Favre, M; Moreno, J; Chuaqui, H; Wyndham, E [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Zambra, M [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Wong, C S [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Plasma Research Lab

    1997-12-31

    Preliminary results on radiation characteristics of pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges are presented. The device combines the on axis electron beam assisted ionization capabilities of the transient hollow cathode discharge with a novel high voltage low inductance geometrical design, which integrates the local energy storage into the electrode system. A nanosecond regime high temperature plasma is produced in a long, high aspect ratio capillary, with light emission in the UV to XUV region. The discharge is operated from near vacuum to pressure in the 1000 mTorr range. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs.

  9. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  10. Large scale ZnTe nanostructures on polymer micro patterns via capillary force photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florence, S. Sasi, E-mail: sshanmugaraj@jazanu.edu.sa; Can, N.; Adam, H. [Department of Physics, Jazan University, Jizan-114 (Saudi Arabia); Sachan, P.; Gupta, R. K. [DST-Unit on Nanosciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India); Arockiasamy, L. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Umadevi, M. [Department of Physics, Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal-624101 (India)

    2016-06-10

    A novel approach to prepare micro patterns ZnTe nanostructures on Si (100) substrate using thermal evaporation is proposed by capillary Force Lithography (CFL) technique on a self-assembled sacrificial Polystyrene mask. Polystyrene thin films on Si substrates are used to fabricate surface micro-relief patterns. ZnTe nanoparticles have been deposited by thermal evaporation method. The deposited ZnTe nanoparticles properties were assessed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). SEM studies indicated that the particles are uniform in size and shape, well dispersed and spherical in shape. This study reports the micro-arrays of ZnTe nanoparticles on a self-assembled sacrificial PS mask using a capillary flow photolithography process which showed excellent, morphological properties which can be used in photovoltaic devices for anti-reflection applications.

  11. Development of a multiplexed interface for capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-An; Wu, Ming-Chi; Her, Guor-Rong

    2006-08-01

    A four-channel multiplexed electrospray capillary electrophoresis interface has been developed. This new interface permits up to four capillary electrophoresis columns to be sampled sequentially by means of a stepper motor and a notched rotating plate assembly, which at any instant occludes all but a single sprayer. In this design, four sheath liquid electrospray probes are oriented in a circular array situated 90 degrees relative to one another. The rotating metal disk, which contains a one-quarter notch, is mounted to the stepper motor assembly and is located between the sprayers and the entrance aperture of an ion trap mass spectrometer. By using the data acquisition signal from the ion trap mass spectrometer, the scan event is synchronized with the rotation of the metal disk. With this device, four discrete sample streams can be simultaneously analyzed, resulting in a 4-fold increase in analytical throughput.

  12. Quantification of nucleotides by ICPMS: coupling of ICPMS with capillary electrophoresis or capillary HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, S.; Takatsu, A.; Yarita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Chiba, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quantification of nucleotides in small volumes of biological samples has eagerly been demanded. A method using ICPMS coupled with capillary electrophoresis or capillary liquid chromatography is reported. A new interface system, which consists of a double tube nebulizer inserted with a fused silica capillary tube and a cylinder mini-chamber with a sheath gas inlet, was designed. Moreover, the surface conditions of the sampling and skimmer cones, and the introduction of H 2 gas into the plasma were found to significantly improve the signal/background ratio for phosphorus determination at m/z 31. (author)

  13. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  14. Hysteretic capillary condensation of 4He on Nuclepore substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godshalk, K.M.; Smith, D.T.; Hallock, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the approach to capillary condensation and the hysteresis encountered in capillary condensation are reported for helium adsorbed on the polycarbonate substrate Nuclepore. (Author) (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  15. Viscosity measurement in the capillary tube viscometer under unsteady flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Jun; Yoo, Sang Sin; Suh, Sang Ho

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load cell system that measures the mass flow rate, interfaces, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force

  16. High-Throughput Genetic Analysis and Combinatorial Chiral Separations Based on Capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wenwan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers many advantages over conventional analytical methods, such as speed, simplicity, high resolution, low cost, and small sample consumption, especially for the separation of enantiomers. However, chiral method developments still can be time consuming and tedious. They designed a comprehensive enantioseparation protocol employing neutral and sulfated cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for common basic, neutral, and acidic compounds with a 96-capillary array system. By using only four judiciously chosen separation buffers, successful enantioseparations were achieved for 49 out of 54 test compounds spanning a large variety of pKs and structures. Therefore, unknown compounds can be screened in this manner to identify optimal enantioselective conditions in just one rn. In addition to superior separation efficiency for small molecules, CE is also the most powerful technique for DNA separations. Using the same multiplexed capillary system with UV absorption detection, the sequence of a short DNA template can be acquired without any dye-labels. Two internal standards were utilized to adjust the migration time variations among capillaries, so that the four electropherograms for the A, T, C, G Sanger reactions can be aligned and base calling can be completed with a high level of confidence. the CE separation of DNA can be applied to study differential gene expression as well. Combined with pattern recognition techniques, small variations among electropherograms obtained by the separation of cDNA fragments produced from the total RNA samples of different human tissues can be revealed. These variations reflect the differences in total RNA expression among tissues. Thus, this Ce-based approach can serve as an alternative to the DNA array techniques in gene expression analysis.

  17. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  18. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.; Klaassen, R.; Kurkcu, N.; Barshinger, J.; Chalek, C.; Nieters, E.; Sun, Zongqi; Fromont, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed

  19. Modeling steady state SO2-dependent changes in capillary ATP concentration using novel O2 micro-delivery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonaim, Nour W.; Fraser, Graham M.; Ellis, Christopher G.; Yang, Jun; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to be released from the erythrocyte in an oxygen (O2) dependent manner. Since ATP is a potent vasodilator, it is proposed to be a key regulator in the pathway that mediates micro-vascular response to varying tissue O2 demand. We propose that ATP signaling mainly originates in the capillaries due to the relatively long erythrocyte transit times in the capillary and the short ATP diffusion distance to the electrically coupled endothelium. We have developed a computational model to investigate the effect of delivering or removing O2 to limited areas at the surface of a tissue with an idealized parallel capillary array on total ATP concentration. Simulations were conducted when exposing full surface to perturbations in tissue O2 tension (PO2) or locally using a circular micro-outlet (~100 μm in diameter), a square micro-slit (200 × 200 μm), or a rectangular micro-slit (1000 μm wide × 200 μm long). Results indicated the rectangular micro-slit has the optimal dimensions for altering hemoglobin saturations (SO2) in sufficient number capillaries to generate effective changes in total [ATP]. This suggests a threshold for the minimum number of capillaries that need to be stimulated in vivo by imposed tissue hypoxia to induce a conducted micro-vascular response. SO2 and corresponding [ATP] changes were also modeled in a terminal arteriole (9 μm in diameter) that replaces 4 surface capillaries in the idealized network geometry. Based on the results, the contribution of terminal arterioles to the net change in [ATP] in the micro-vascular network is minimal although they would participate as O2 sources thus influencing the O2 distribution. The modeling data presented here provide important insights into designing a novel micro-delivery device for studying micro-vascular O2 regulation in the capillaries in vivo. PMID:24069001

  20. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  1. Capillary-Patterns for Biometric Authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paloma Benedicto, J.; Bruekers, A.A.M.; Presura, C.N.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a method using the capillary structuresunder the "distal interphalangeal joint" (DIP joint), which is located between the second and third (distal) phalanges of the finger, for achieving secure biometric authentication. Images of the DIPjoint are acquired using a

  2. Capillary Condensation in Pores with Rough Walls:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryk, P.; Rżysko, W.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Sokołowski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-52 ISSN 0021-9797 Grant - others:TOK(XE) 509249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : adsorption * pore * capillary condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  3. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior

  4. Delayed Capillary Breakup of Falling Viscous Jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, A.; Eggers, J.; Bonn, D.; Habibi, M.; Ribe, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin jets of viscous fluid like honey falling from capillary nozzles can attain lengths exceeding 10 m before breaking up into droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau (surface tension) instability. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and WKB analysis of the growth of shape perturbations on a jet

  5. Imbibition of ``Open Capillary'': Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Marie; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Okumura, Ko

    2015-11-01

    Control or transportation of small amount of liquid is one of the most important issues in various contexts including medical sciences or pharmaceutical industries to fuel delivery. We studied imbibition of ``open capillary'' both experimentally and theoretically, and found simple scaling laws for both statics and dynamics of the imbibition, similarly as that of imbibition of capillary tubes. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of ``precursor film,'' which developed ahead of the imbibing front, and the dynamics of it is described well by another scaling law for capillary rise in a corner. Then, to show capabilities of open capillaries, we demonstrated two experiments by fabricating micro mixing devices to achieve (1) simultaneous multi-color change of the Bromothymol blue (BTB) solution and (2) expression of the green florescent protein (GFP). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). M. T. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  6. Van de Graaff generator for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Castro, Eric R; Guijt, Rosanne M; Tarn, Mark D; Manz, Andreas

    2017-09-29

    A new approach for high voltage capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed, which replaces the standard high voltage power supply with a Van de Graaff generator, a low current power source. Because the Van de Graaff generator is a current-limited source (10μA), potentials exceeding 100kV can be generated for CE when the electrical resistance of the capillary is maximized. This was achieved by decreasing the capillary diameter and reducing the buffer ionic strength. Using 2mM borate buffer and a 5μm i.d. capillary, fluorescently labeled amino acids were separated with efficiencies up to 3.5 million plates; a 5.7 fold improvement in separation efficiency compared to a normal power supply (NPS) typically used in CE. This separation efficiency was realized using a simple set-up without significant Joule heating, making the Van de Graaff generator a promising alternative for applying the high potentials required for enhancing resolution in the separation and analysis of highly complex samples, for example mixtures of glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  8. Analytical biotechnology: Capillary electrophoresis and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, C.; Nikelly, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The papers describe the separation, characterization, and equipment required for the electrophoresis or chromatography of cyclic nucleotides, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, recombinant DNA products, pheromones, peptides, and other biological materials. One paper, On-column radioisotope detection for capillary electrophoresis, has been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Szebenyi, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Woll, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Finkelstein, K.; Dale, D.; Wang, Y.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gillilan, R.; Cook, M.; Bilderback, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

  10. In Vivo Experimental Study of Noninvasive Insulin Microinjection through Hollow Si Microneedle Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Resnik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of in vivo insulin delivery through microinjection by using hollow silicon microneedle array is presented. A case study was carried out on a healthy human subject in vivo to determine the influence of delivery parameters on drug transfer efficiency. As a microinjection device, a hollow microneedle array (13 × 13 mm2 having 100 microneedles (220 µm high, 130 µm-outer diameter and 50 µm-inner diameter was designed and fabricated using classical microfabrication techniques. The efficiency of the delivery process was first characterized using methylene blue and a saline solution. Based on these results, the transfer efficiency was found to be predominantly limited by the inability of viable epidermis to absorb and allow higher drug transport toward the capillary-rich region. Two types of fast-acting insulin were used to provide evidence of efficient delivery by hollow MNA to a human subject. By performing blood analyses, infusion of more-concentrated insulin (200 IU/mL, international units (IU exhibited similar blood glucose level drop (5–7% compared to insulin of standard concentration (100 IU/mL, however, significant increase of serum insulin (40–50% with respect to the preinfusion values was determined. This was additionally confirmed by a distinctive increase of insulin to C-peptide ratio as compared to preinfusion ratio. Moreover, we noticed that this route of administration mimics a multiple dose regimen, able to get a “steady state” for insulin plasma concentration.

  11. Analysis of glycated hemoglobin A1c by capillary electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koval, Dušan; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 413, č. 1 (2011), s. 8-15 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P485; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * capillary isoelectric focusing * glycated hemoglobin HbA1c Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2011

  12. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  13. Nanoparticle fractionation using an aligned carbon nanotube array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Xiaodai [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), Centre for Life Sciences (CeLS), 05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 (Singapore); Xu Hairuo; Chin, Wee Shong [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Nicole Chew, Yi Hui; Phua, Yi Hui [Dunman High School, 10 Tanjong Rhu Road, 436895 (Singapore); Sie, Edbert Jarvis; Sum, Tze Chien [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637371 (Singapore); Chia, Guo Hao; Sow, Chorng-Haur, E-mail: chmcws@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: physowch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, Blk S12, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore)

    2010-07-23

    A technique utilizing the capillary assisted sieving capability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to achieve fractionation of nanoparticles of small size distribution is presented. By dipping aligned CNT arrays into a solution comprising different sized quantum dots (QDs), size-selective gradient decoration of QDs onto CNTs is achieved. The fractionating capability of CNTs is also demonstrated for poly-dispersed manganese doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles and QDs of varying sizes and chemical compositions, which we attribute to the size-selective sieving effect of CNTs. By controlling the terminating point for the flow of QDs across the CNT array, a QD size specific CNT/QD hybrid structure is achieved.

  14. Capillary electrochromatography of inorganic cations in open tubular columns with a controllable capacity multilayered stationary phase architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubán, Pavel; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil; Hauser, Peter C; Bocek, Petr

    2008-05-09

    In this paper capillary electrochromatography of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations in open tubular capillary columns is described. Capillary columns are prepared by coating fused silica capillaries of 75 microm I.D. with poly(butadiene-maleic acid) copolymer (PBMA) in multiple layers. Thermally initiated radical polymerization is used to crosslink the stationary phase. Capillary columns with different number of stationary phase layers can be prepared and allow for the adjustment of separation selectivity in the electrochromatographic mode. Fast and sensitive separations of common inorganic cations are achieved in less than 6 min in a 60 cm capillary column with on-column capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector. Limits of detection (S/N=3) for the determination of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations range from 0.3 to 2.5 microM and repeatability is better than 0.5, 4.5 and 6.1% for migration times, peak heights and peak areas, respectively.

  15. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31481518X; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-01-01

    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  16. Degree-of-Freedom Strengthened Cascade Array for DOD-DOA Estimation in MIMO Array Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bobin; Dong, Zhi; Zhang, Weile; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qisheng

    2018-05-14

    In spatial spectrum estimation, difference co-array can provide extra degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) for promoting parameter identifiability and parameter estimation accuracy. For the sake of acquiring as more DOFs as possible with a given number of physical sensors, we herein design a novel sensor array geometry named cascade array. This structure is generated by systematically connecting a uniform linear array (ULA) and a non-uniform linear array, and can provide more DOFs than some exist array structures but less than the upper-bound indicated by minimum redundant array (MRA). We further apply this cascade array into multiple input multiple output (MIMO) array systems, and propose a novel joint direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm, which is based on a reduced-dimensional weighted subspace fitting technique. The algorithm is angle auto-paired and computationally efficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations prove the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed array structure and the related algorithm.

  17. Early capillary flux homogenization in response to neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Boas, David A

    2016-02-01

    This Brief Communication reports early homogenization of capillary network flow during somatosensory activation in the rat cerebral cortex. We used optical coherence tomography and statistical intensity variation analysis for tracing changes in the red blood cell flux over hundreds of capillaries nearly at the same time with 1-s resolution. We observed that while the mean capillary flux exhibited a typical increase during activation, the standard deviation of the capillary flux exhibited an early decrease that happened before the mean flux increase. This network-level data is consistent with the theoretical hypothesis that capillary flow homogenizes during activation to improve oxygen delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Applications of capillary optics for focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces applications of focused ion beams (∼1 μm) with glass capillaries systems. A first report on the interaction between ion beams and glass capillaries was published in 1996. The guiding capabilities of glass capillaries were discovered due to ion reflection from inner wall of glass surfaces. Meanwhile, the similar optics have been already realized in focusing X-rays using glass capillaries. The basic technology of X-rays optics using glass capillaries had been developed in the 1980's and 1900's. Also, low energy atom scattering spectroscopy for insulator material analysis will be mentioned. (author)

  19. Phased-array design for MST and ST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    All of the existing radar systems fully dedicated to clear-air radar studies use some type of phased-array antennas. The effects of beam-steering techniques including feed networks and phase shifters; sidelobe control; ground-clutter suppression; low altitude coverage; arrays with integrated radiating elements and feed networks; analysis of coaxial-collinear antennas; use of arrays with multiple beams; and array testing and measure on structural design of the antenna are discussed.

  20. Design of Capillary Flows with Spatially Graded Porous Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo; Figliuzzi, Bruno Michel; Buie, Cullen

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a new capillary tube model, consisting of multi-layered capillary tubes oriented in the direction of flow, to predict capillary speeds on spatially graded porous films. Capillary flows through thin porous media have been widely utilized for small size liquid transport systems. However, for most media it is challenging to realize arbitrary shapes and spatially functionalized micro-structures with variable flow properties. Therefore, conventional media can only be used for capillary flows obeying Washburn's equation and the modifications thereof. Given this background, we recently developed a method called breakdown anodization (BDA) to produce highly wetting porous films. The resulting surfaces show nearly zero contact angles and fast water spreading speed. Furthermore, capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity can be expressed as functions of capillary height when customized electric fields are used in BDA. From the capillary tube model, we derived a general capillary flow equation of motion in terms of capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity. The theoretical model shows good agreement with experimental capillary flows. The study will provide novel design methodologies for paper-based microfluidic devices.

  1. Capillary Interactions between a Probe Tip and a Nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ning, Sun; Le-Feng, Wang; Wei-Bin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    To understand capillary interactions between probe tips and nanoparticles under ambient conditions, a theoretical model of capillary forces between them is developed based on the geometric relations. It is found that the contribution of surface tension force to the total capillary force attains to similar order of magnitude as the capillary pressure force in many cases. It is also shown that the tip shape and the radial distance of the meniscus have great influence on the capillary force. The capillary force decreases with the increasing separation distances, and the variance of the contact angles may change the magnitudes of capillary forces several times at large radial distances. The applicability of the symmetric meniscus approximation is discussed. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. Multi-sample immunoassay inside optical fiber capillary enabled by evanescent wave detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel evanescent wave-based (EW microfluidic capillary fiber-optic biosensor (MCFOB has been developed using capillaries as a transducer embedded in a multichannel device to enhance the collection efficiency of the fluorescence signal. The capillary serves dual roles as a waveguide and a container, enabling more straightforward, consistent, and compact biosensor packaging compared to conventional optical fiber biosensors and microfluidic systems. In order to detect multiple samples in one device, the biosensor incorporates a polydimethysiloxane (PDMS multi-channel device, which also serves as cladding for the biosensor. In addition, this biosensor only consumes 10 μl of a sample and does not require hydrofluoric acid etching in the fabrication process. The orientation for signal collection is optimized by comparing the lateral and normal signal directions for detected glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. C-reactive protein (CRP is used to validate the MCFOB, and the limit of detection (LOD for CRP in the MCFOB is 1.94 ng/ml (74 pM. Moreover, the real-time measurement is demonstrated to verify that the evanescent wave is the only exciting light source in the MCFOB, which gives the potential for real-time measurement applications. Keywords: C-reactive protein, Capillary, Fiber-optic, Microfluidic, Evanescent wave, Immunoassay

  3. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences. The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows for the fabrication of MC-CE devices. It describes the operating principles that make integration possible and illustrates some achievements already made by the application of MC-CE devices in hospitals, clinics, food safety, and environmental research. The authors envision further applications for private and public use once the proof-of-concept stage has been passed and obstacles to increased commercialization are ad...

  4. Configuration Considerations for Low Frequency Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    The advance of digital signal processing capabilities has spurred a new effort to exploit the lowest radio frequencies observable from the ground, from ˜10 MHz to a few hundred MHz. Multiple scientifically and technically complementary instruments are planned, including the Mileura Widefield Array (MWA) in the 80-300 MHz range, and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) in the 20-80 MHz range. The latter instrument will target relatively high angular resolution, and baselines up to a few hundred km. An important practical question for the design of such an array is how to distribute the collecting area on the ground. The answer to this question profoundly affects both cost and performance. In this contribution, the factors which determine the anticipated performance of any such array are examined, paying particular attention to the viability and accuracy of array calibration. It is argued that due to the severity of ionospheric effects in particular, it will be difficult or impossible to achieve routine, high dynamic range imaging with a geographically large low frequency array, unless a large number of physically separate array stations is built. This conclusion is general, is based on the need for adequate sampling of ionospheric irregularities, and is independent of the calibration algorithms and techniques that might be employed. It is further argued that array configuration figures of merit that are traditionally used for higher frequency arrays are inappropriate, and a different set of criteria are proposed.

  5. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  6. Nanoscale Capillary Flows in Alumina: Testing the Limits of Classical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenwen; McKenzie, David R

    2016-07-21

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes have well-formed cylindrical channels, as small as 10 nm in diameter, in a close packed hexagonal array. The channels in AAO membranes simulate very small leaks that may be present for example in an aluminum oxide device encapsulation. The 10 nm alumina channel is the smallest that has been studied to date for its moisture flow properties and provides a stringent test of classical capillary theory. We measure the rate at which moisture penetrates channels with diameters in the range of 10 to 120 nm with moist air present at 1 atm on one side and dry air at the same total pressure on the other. We extend classical theory for water leak rates at high humidities by allowing for variable meniscus curvature at the entrance and show that the extended theory explains why the flow increases greatly when capillary filling occurs and enables the contact angle to be determined. At low humidities our measurements for air-filled channels agree well with theory for the interdiffusive flow of water vapor in air. The flow rate of water-filled channels is one order of magnitude less than expected from classical capillary filling theory and is coincidentally equal to the helium flow rate, validating the use of helium leak testing for evaluating moisture flows in aluminum oxide leaks.

  7. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  8. The order of condensation in capillary grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p co (L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p sat − p co (L) = 2σcosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θ cap ; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σsinθ cap /L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θ cap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented. (fast track communication)

  9. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan

    2005-05-15

    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  10. The order of condensation in capillary grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-05-15

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p(co)(L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p(sat) - p(co)(L) = 2σ cosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θcap; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σ sinθcap/L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θcap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented.

  11. Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.

  12. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  13. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  14. [Studies on transdermal delivery of ferulic acid through rat skin treated by microneedle arrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Du, Shou-ying; Bai, Jie; Shang, Ke-xin; Lu, Yang; Li, Peng-yue

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of transdermal delivery of ferulic acid under the treated of microneedle arrays and the influence on permeability of rat skin capillaries, improved Franz-cells were used in the transdermal delivery experiment with the rat skin of abdominal wall and the length of microneedle arrays, different insertion forces, retention time were studied in the influence of characteristics of transdermal delivery of FA. The amount of FA was determined by HPLC system. Intravenous injection Evans blue and FA was added after microneedle arrays treated. Established inflammation model was built by daubing dimethylbenzene. The amount of Evans blue in the rat skin was read at 590 nm wavelength with a Multiskan Go microplate reader. Compared with passive diffusion group the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport (P Microneedle arrays with different length had a remarkable enhancement of FA transport, but was not related to the increase of the length. The research of FA on the reduce of permeability of rat skin capillaries indicated that the skin pretreated with microneedle arrays could reduce the content of Evans blue in the skins of rat significantly compared with the untreated group. The permeation rate of ferulic acid transdermal delivery had remarkable increase under the treated of microneedle arrays and the length of microneedle arrays ,the retention time so as to the insertion force were important to the transdermal delivery of ferulic acid.

  15. RASA1 analysis guides management in a family with capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Leigh Anne; Leon, Eyby; Maher, Tom A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2012-06-01

    Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM; MIM 60354) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multifocal cutaneous capillary malformations, often in association with fast-flow vascular lesions, which may be cutaneous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraosseus, or cerebral arteriovenous malformations or arteriovenous fistulas. CM-AVM results from heterozygous mutations in the RASA1 gene. Capillary malformations of the skin are common, and clinical examination alone may not be able to definitively diagnose-or exclude- CM-AVM. We report a family in which the proband was initially referred for a genetic evaluation in the neonatal period because of the presence of a cardiac murmur and minor dysmorphic features. Both he and his mother were noted to have multiple capillary malformations on the face, head, and extremities. Echocardiography revealed dilated head and neck vessels and magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of the brain revealed a large infratentorial arteriovenous fistula, for which he has had two embolization procedures. RASA1 sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous mutation, confirming his diagnosis of CM-AVM. We established targeted mutation analysis for the proband's mother and sister, the latter of whom is a healthy 3-year-old whose only cutaneous finding is a facial capillary malformation. This revealed that the proband's mother is also heterozygous for the RASA1 mutation, but his sister is negative. Consequently, his mother will undergo magnetic resonance imaging and angiography screening for intracranial and spinal fast-flow lesions, while his sister will require no imaging or serial evaluations. Targeted mutation analysis has been offered to additional maternal family members. This case illustrates the benefit of molecular testing in diagnosis and making screening recommendations for families with CM-AVM.

  16. Capillary density: An important parameter in nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Zahra; Karbalaie, Abdolamir; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is one of the various noninvasive bioengineering methods used to investigate skin microcirculation. It is an effective examination for assessing microvascular changes in the peripheral circulation; hence it has a significant role for the diagnosis of Systemic sclerosis with the classic changes of giant capillaries as well as the decline in capillary density with capillary dropout. The decline in capillary density is one of microangiopathic features existing in connective tissue disease. It is detectable with nailfold capillaroscopy. This parameter is assessed by applying quantitative measurement. In this article, we reviewed a common method for calculating the capillary density and the relation between the number of capillaries as well as the existence of digital ulcers, pulmonary arterial hypertension, autoantibodies, scleroderma patterns and different scoring system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Condensation and Evaporation Transitions in Deep Capillary Grooves

    OpenAIRE

    Malijevský, A. (Alexandr); Parry, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard-Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature $T_w$ condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metas...

  18. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    intelligence and robotics, all share the same essential data fusion challenges. The design of a hybrid sensor array should draw on this extended body of knowledge. In this chapter, various techniques for data preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and modeling of sensor data will be introduced and illustrated with data fusion approaches that have been implemented in applications involving data from hybrid arrays. The example systems discussed in this chapter involve the development of prototype sensor networks for damage control event detection aboard US Navy vessels and the development of analysis algorithms to combine multiple sensing techniques for enhanced remote detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in both ground surveys and wide area assessments.

  19. Measurement of the resistivity and study of the dynamics of a cold, dense plasma created in a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmas were created by discharging a 600-kV Marx bank across a 20μ-diameter capillary in polyurethane. The current generated by the Marx bank accretes material from the capillary wall and fills the initial void to form a plasma. Various diagnostics were fielded to help characterize the plasma. The diagnostics consist of: (1) a four channel x-ray diode array to measure the temperature, (2) schlieren photography to measure the time dependent radial size, (3) two capacitively coupled voltage probes to measure the time-dependent voltage generated by the pulse-power system and the voltage delivered across the capillary, (4) a localized Rogowski coil to measure the current through the capillary, (5) four inductive shunts to measure the return current, (6) and end-on framing and side-on visible streak photography to measure time dependent size of the visible emission. The plasmas were characterized as having densities on the order of 6 x 10 22 and temperatures of ≅ 10 eV. The peak current is reached in 270 ns at 550 kA

  20. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II research comprises designing, constructing, and testing a chip-based capillary electrochromatography (CEC) prototype for separation and analysis of...

  1. Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nano-capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabagov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the main directions in X-ray optics and analyzing the development of capillary optics, a general theory of radiation propagation through capillary structures is described in both geometrical optics and wave optics approximations. Analysis of radiation field structure inside a capillary waveguide shows that wave propagation in channels can be of a purely modal nature, with transmitted energy mostly concentrated in the immediate neighbourhood of capillary inner walls. A qualitative change in radiation scattering with decreasing channel diameter 0 namely, the transition from surface channeling in microcapillaries to bulk channeling in nanocapillaries - is discussed [ru

  2. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute: How the Heart Works National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Arteriovenous Malformation Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Arteriovenous Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Stroke: Epilepsy Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Microcephaly Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Microcephaly Centers ...

  5. Use of Dried Capillary Blood Sampling for Islet Autoantibody Screening in Relatives: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Polly J; Rafkin, Lisa E; Matheson, Della; Steck, Andrea K; Yu, Liping; Henderson, Courtney; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C

    2015-12-01

    Islet autoantibody testing provides the basis for assessment of risk of progression to type 1 diabetes. We set out to determine the feasibility and acceptability of dried capillary blood spot-based screening to identify islet autoantibody-positive relatives potentially eligible for inclusion in prevention trials. Dried blood spot (DBS) and venous samples were collected from 229 relatives participating in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study. Both samples were tested for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies, and venous samples were additionally tested for insulin autoantibodies and islet cell antibodies. We defined multiple autoantibody positive as two or more autoantibodies in venous serum and DBS screen positive if one or more autoantibodies were detected. Participant questionnaires compared the sample collection methods. Of 44 relatives who were multiple autoantibody positive in venous samples, 42 (95.5%) were DBS screen positive, and DBS accurately detected 145 of 147 autoantibody-negative relatives (98.6%). Capillary blood sampling was perceived as more painful than venous blood draw, but 60% of participants would prefer initial screening using home fingerstick with clinic visits only required if autoantibodies were found. Capillary blood sampling could facilitate screening for type 1 diabetes prevention studies.

  6. Modelization and simulation of capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona Cortes, F.; Aguilar Villa, G.; Clavero Gracia, C.; Gracia Lozano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Among the different underground transport phenomena, that due to water flows is of great relevance. Water flows in infiltration and percolation processes are responsible of the transport of hazardous wastes towards phreatic layers. From the industrial and geological standpoints, there is a great interest in the design of natural devices to avoid the flows transporting polluting substances. This interest is increased when devices are used to isolate radioactive waste repositories, whose life is to be longer than several hundred years. The so-called natural devices are those based on the superimposition of material with different hydraulic properties. In particular, the flow retention in this kind stratified media, in unsaturated conditions, is basically due to the capillary barrier effect, resulting from placing a low conductivity material over another with a high hydraulic conductivity. Covers designed from the effect above have also to allow a drainage of the upper layer. The lower cost of these covers, with respect to other kinds of protection systems, and the stability in time of their components make them very attractive. However, a previous investigation to determine their effectivity is required. In this report we present the computer code BCSIM, useful for easy simulations of unsaturated flows in a capillary barrier configuration with drainage, and which is intended to serve as a tool for designing efficient covers. The model, the numerical algorithm and several implementation aspects are described. Results obtained in several simulations, confirming the effectivity of capillary barriers as a technique to build safety covers for hazardous waste repositories, are presented. (Author)

  7. Active Micro structured Optical Arrays of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, R.; Feldman, Ch.; Michette, A.; Hart, D.; McFaul, Ch; Morrison, G.R.; Pfauntsch, S.; Powell, A.K.; Sahraei, Sh.; Shand, M.T.; Button, T.; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D.; Zhang, D.; Dunare, C.; Parkes, W.; Stevenson, T.; Folkard, M.; Vojnovic, B.; Vojnovic, B.

    2011-01-01

    The UK Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) programme is developing active/adaptive optics for terrestrial applications. One of the technologies proposed is micro structured optical arrays (MOAs), which focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels. Although such arrays are similar in concept to poly capillary and microchannel plate optics, they can be bent and adjusted using piezoelectric actuators providing control over the focusing and inherent aberrations. Custom configurations can be designed, using ray tracing and finite element analysis, for applications from sub-keV to several-keV X-rays, and the channels of appropriate aspect ratios can be made using deep silicon etching. An exemplar application will be in the micro probing of biological cells and tissue samples using Ti Ka radiation (4.5?keV) in studies related to radiation-induced cancers. This paper discusses the optical design, modelling, and manufacture of such optics

  8. Capillary Flow of Liquid Metals in Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehsara, Mohammad

    Capillary flow is driven or controlled by capillary forces, exerted at the triple line where the fluid phases meet the solid boundary. Phase field (PF) models naturally accommodate diffusive triple line motion with variable contact angle, thus allowing for the no-slip boundary condition without the stress singularities. Moreover, they are uniquely suited for modeling of topological discontinuities which often arise during capillary flows. In this study, we consider diffusive triple line motion within two PF models: the compositionally compressible (CC) and the incompressible (IC) models. We derive the IC model as a systematic approximation to the CC model, based on a suitable choice of continuum velocity field. The CC model, applied to the fluids of dissimilar mass densities, exhibits a computational instability at the triple line. The IC model perfectly represents the analytic equilibria. We develop the parameter identification procedure and show that the triple line kinetics can be well represented by the IC model's diffusive boundary condition. The IC model is first tested by benchmarking the phase-field and experimental kinetics of water, and silicone oil spreading over the glass plates in which two systems do not interact with the substrate. Then, two high-temperature physical settings involving spreading of the molten Al-Si alloy: one over a rough wetting substrate, the other over a non-wetting substrate are modeled in a T-joint structure which is a typical geometric configuration for many brazing and soldering applications. Surface roughness directly influences the spreading of the molten metal by causing break-ups of the liquid film and trapping the liquid away from the joint. In the early stages of capillary flow over non-wetting surface, the melting and flow are concurrent, so that the kinetics of wetting is strongly affected by the variations in effective viscosity of the partially molten metal. We define adequate time-dependent functions for the

  9. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  10. Paramecium swimming in a capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-03-01

    Micro-organisms exhibit different strategies for swimming in complex environments. Many micro-swimmers such as paramecium congregate and tend to live near wall. We investigate how paramecium moves in a confined space as compared to its motion in an unbounded fluid. A new theoretical model based on Taylor's sheet is developed, to study such boundary effects. In experiments, paramecia are put inside capillary tubes and their swimming behavior is observed. The data obtained from experiments is used to test the validity of our theoretical model and understand how the cilia influence the locomotion of paramecia in confined geometries.

  11. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  12. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R; Miyashita, W; Yoneyama, K; Okuda, Y

    2006-03-01

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid 4He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  13. Modulation of capillary condensation by trace component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of trace component on capillary condensation (CC is investigated systematically using a classical density functional theory. It is discovered that (i presence of the trace component makes the CC to occur at much lower condensation pressure than when its absence; (ii Lennard-Jones potential parameters like size parameter and energy parameter of the trace component, and its concentration in the bulk adsorption system, show their effects the most remarkably within a particular range beyond which the effects eventually become insignificant. The present discoveries have implications in low pressure storage of gases, separation and enrichment of low concentration component, and easy control of CC transition, etc.

  14. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  16. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  17. Open tubular capillary column for the separation of cytochrome C tryptic digest in capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-10-01

    A silica capillary of 50 μm internal diameter and 500 mm length (416 mm effective length) was chemically modified with 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl isocyanate in the presence of dibutyl tin dichloride as catalyst. Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate was reacted with the terminal halogen of the bound ligand to incorporate the initiator moiety, and in situ polymerization was performed using a monomer mixture of styrene, N-phenylacrylamide, and methacrylic acid. The resultant open tubular capillary column immobilized with the copolymer layer was used for the separation of tryptic digest of cytochrome C in capillary electrochromatography. The sample was well eluted and separated into many components. The elution patterns of tryptic digest of cytochrome C were studied with respect to pH and water content in the mobile phase. This preliminary study demonstrates that open tubular capillary electrochromatography columns with a modified copolymer layer composed of proper nonpolar and polar units fabricated by reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization can be useful as separation media for proteomic analysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electro-capillary effects in capillary filling dynamics of electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Jayabrata; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-09-21

    The flow of electrorheological fluids is characterized by an apparent increase in viscosity manifested by the yield stress property of the fluid, which is a function of the applied electric field and the concentration of the suspended solute phase within the dielectric medium. This property of electrorheological fluids generally hinders flow through a capillary if the imposed shear stress is lower than the induced yield stress. This results in a plug-like zone in the flow profile, thus giving the fluid Bingham plastic properties. In the present work, we study such influences of the yield stress on the capillary filling dynamics of an electrorheological fluid by employing a rheologically consistent reduced order formalism. One important feature of the theoretical formalism is its ability to address the intricate interplay between the surface tension and viscous forces, both of which depend sensitively on the electric field. Our analysis reveals that the progress of the capillary front is hindered at an intermediate temporal regime, which is attributable to the increase of the span of the plug-zone across the channel width with time. With a preliminary understanding on the cessation of the capillary front advancement due to the yield stress property of the electrorheological fluids, we further strive to achieve a basic comparison with an experimental study made earlier. Reasonable agreements with the reported data support our theoretical framework. Comprehensive scaling analysis brings further insight to our reported observations over various temporal regimes.

  19. Malignant Hemispheric Cerebral Infarction Associated with Idiopathic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Miyata

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS is a rare condition that is characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability due to a shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. This results in diffuse general swelling, fetal hypovolemic shock, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. Although ISCLS rarely induces cerebral infarction, we experienced a patient who deteriorated and was comatose as a result of massive cerebral infarction associated with ISCLS. In this case, severe hypotensive shock, general edema, hemiparesis, and aphasia appeared after serious antecedent gastrointestinal symptoms. Progressive life-threatening ischemic cerebral edema required decompressive hemicraniectomy. The patient experienced another episode of severe hypotension and limb edema that resulted in multiple extremity compartment syndrome. Treatment entailed forearm and calf fasciotomies. Cerebral edema in the ischemic brain progresses rapidly in patients suffering from ISCLS. Strict control of fluid volume resuscitation and aggressive diuretic therapy may be needed during the post-leak phase of fluid remobilization.

  20. Imaging spectroscopy using embedded diffractive optical arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford

    2017-09-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera based on diffractive optic arrays. This approach to hyperspectral imaging has been demonstrated in all three infrared bands SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. The hyperspectral optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of this infrared hyperspectral sensor. This new and innovative approach to an infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics that are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a small satellite, mini-UAV, commercial quadcopter or man portable. Also, an application of how this spectral imaging technology can easily be used to quantify the mass and volume flow rates of hydrocarbon gases. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. The detector array is divided into sub-images covered by each lenslet. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the number of simultaneous different spectral images collected each frame of the camera. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image

  1. Reliability of widefield capillary microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M; Masetto, A; Steele, R; Arthurs, E; Baron, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine intra- and inter-observer reliability of widefield microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Five SSc patients were examined with a STEMV-8 Zeiss biomicroscope with 50x magnification. The nailfold of the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers of both hands of each patient were photographed twice by each of two observers, once in the morning and again in the afternoon (total of 32 pictures). Two raters reviewed the photographs to produce capillary density readings. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the readings were computed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Additional analyses were undertaken to determine the impact of other sources of variability in the data, namely patient, finger, technician and time. Intra-and inter-rater reliability were substantial (ICC 0.72-0.84) when raters were reading the same photographs or photographs taken at the same time of day. Agreement was only fair between morning and afternoon density readings (ICC 0.30-0.37). Patients, individual fingers and technician accounted for a large part of the variability in the data (combined variance component of 7.69 out of the total 12.23). The coefficient of variation of widefield microscopy was 24%. Although intra- and inter-rater reliability of nailfold capillary density measurements using widefield microscopy are good, proper standardisation of the conditions under which capillaroscopy is done and better imaging of nailfold capillary abnormalities should be considered if nailfold capillary density is to be used as an outcome measure in multi-centre clinical trials in SSc.

  2. Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M; Suter, Jonathan D; Zourob, Mohammed; Fan, Xudong

    2007-02-01

    We developed a novel miniaturized and multiplexed, on-capillary, refractive index (RI) detector using liquid core optical ring resonators (LCORRs) for future development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices. The LCORR employs a glass capillary with a diameter of approximately 100 mum and a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator along which the light circulates in the form of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGM has an evanescent field extending into the capillary core and responds to the RI change due to the analyte conducted in the capillary, thus permitting label-free measurement. The resonating nature of the WGM enables repetitive light-analyte interaction, significantly enhancing the LCORR sensitivity. This LCORR architecture achieves dual use of the capillary as a sensor head and a CE fluidic channel, allowing for integrated, multiplexed, and noninvasive on-capillary detection at any location along the capillary. In this work, we used electro-osmotic flow and glycerol as a model system to demonstrate the fluid transport capability of the LCORRs. In addition, we performed flow speed measurement on the LCORR to demonstrate its flow analysis capability. Finally, using the LCORR's label-free sensing mechanism, we accurately deduced the analyte concentration in real time at a given point on the capillary. A sensitivity of 20 nm/RIU (refractive index units) was observed, leading to an RI detection limit of 10-6 RIU. The LCORR marries photonic technology with microfluidics and enables rapid on-capillary sample analysis and flow profile monitoring. The investigation in this regard will open a door to novel high-throughput CE devices and lab-on-a-chip sensors in the future.

  3. Capillary discharge sources of hard UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachoncinlle, C; Dussart, R; Robert, E; Goetze, S; Pons, J; Mohanty, S R; Viladrosa, R; Fleurier, C; Pouvesle, J M

    2002-01-01

    We developed and studied three different extreme ultraviolet (EUV) capillary discharge sources either dedicated to the generation of coherent or incoherent EUV radiation. The CAPELLA source has been developed especially as an EUV source for the metrology at 13.4 nm. With one of these sources, we were able to produce gain on the Balmer-Hα (18.22 nm) and Hβ (13.46 nm) spectral lines in carbon plasma. By injecting 70 GW cm -3 we measured gain-length products up to 1.62 and 3.02 for the Hα and Hβ, respectively optimization of the EUV capillary source CAPELLA led to the development of an EUV lamp which emits 2 mJ in the bandwidth of the MoSi mirror, per joule stored, per shot and in full solid angle. The wall-plug efficiency is 0.2%. Stability of this lamp is better than 4% and the lamp can operate at repetition rate of 50 Hz

  4. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape

  5. Quantitative analysis by microchip capillary electrophoresis – current limitations and problem-solving strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.; Götz, S.; Künnemeyer, Jens; Karst, U.

    2008-01-01

    Obstacles and possible solutions for the application of microchip capillary electrophoresis in quantitative analysis are described and critically discussed. Differences between the phenomena occurring during conventional capillary electrophoresis and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis are

  6. Heterogeneity of capillary spacing in the hypertrophied plantaris muscle from young-adult and old rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Morse, C.I.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity of capillary spacing may affect tissue oxygenation. The determinants of heterogeneity of capillary spacing are, however, unknown. To investigate whether 1) impaired angiogenesis and increased heterogeneity of capillary spacing delays development of hypertrophy during aging and 2)

  7. Isotherms of Capillary Condensation Influenced by Formation of Adsorption Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churaev; Starke; Adolphs

    2000-01-15

    Isotherms of capillary condensation are often used to determine the vapor sorption capacity of porous adsorbents as well as the pore size distribution by radii. In this paper, for calculating the volume of capillary condensate and of adsorption films in a porous body, an approach based on the theory of surface forces is used. Adsorption isotherms and disjoining pressure isotherms of wetting films are presented here in an exponential form discussed earlier. The calculations were made for straight cylindrical capillaries of different radii and slit pores of different width. The mechanisms of capillary condensation differ in cylindrical and slit pores. In cylindrical pores capillary condensation occurs due to capillary instability of curved wetting films on a capillary surface, when film thickness grows. In the case of slit pores, coalescence of wetting films formed on opposite slit surfaces proceeds under the action of attractive dispersion forces. Partial volumes of liquid in the state of both capillary condensate and adsorbed films are calculated dependent on the relative vapor pressure in a surrounding media. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  9. Capillary condensation in porous alumina observed by positronium lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Eugeniu; Vata, Ion; Toderian, Stefan; Dudu, Dorin; Rusen, Ion; Stefan, Nitisor

    2008-01-01

    The PALS method based on time distribution measurements has been used to study capillary condensation of different gases adsorbed in microporous alumina powder. The isotherms exhibit features which are associated with a shifted gas-liquid transition. The sorption and desorption processes are irreversible presenting a hysteresis effect. Suggestions on some new aspects of the capillary condensation dynamics are made

  10. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  11. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary...

  12. Thermodynamics of Capillary Rise: Why Is the Meniscus Curved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Ulf; Eriksson, Jan Christer

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamics of capillary rise is explained as the gravitational elevation of the whole column of liquid caused by the positive connection between the liquid, and the solid wall of the capillary tube. The curvature of the meniscus is ascribed to the maintenance of a physiochemical balance throughout the gravitational column of liquid.

  13. Geometry Effects of Capillary on the Evaporation from the Meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Choong Hyo; Jin, Song Wan; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2007-01-01

    The effect of capillary cross-section geometry on evaporation is investigated in terms of the meniscus shape, evaporation rate and evaporation-induced flow for circular, square and rectangular cross-sectional capillaries. The shapes of water and ethanol menisci are not much different from each other in square and rectangular capillaries even though the surface tension of water is much larger than that of ethanol. On the other hand, the shapes of water and ethanol menisci are very different from each other in circular capillary. The averaged evaporation fluxes in circular and rectangular capillaries are measured by tracking the meniscus position. At a given position, the averaged evaporation flux in rectangular capillaries in much larger than that in circular capillary with comparable hydraulic diameter. The flow near the evaporating meniscus is also measured using micro-PIV, so that the rotating vortex motion is observed near the evaporating ethanol and methanol menisci except for the case of methanol meniscus in rectangular capillary. This difference is considered to be due to the existence of corner menisci at the four corners

  14. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  15. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G; Bateman, David A; Wilson, Ashley L; Markham, Melinda H; Slamon, Jill; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Palomares, María; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Wong, Wai-Lap; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Mok, Gary Tsz Kin; Kerem, Eitan; Reiter, Joel; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Anderson, Scott A; Kelly, David R; Shieh, Joseph; Rosenthal, Taryn C; Scheible, Kristin; Steiner, Laurie; Iqbal, M Anwar; McKinnon, Margaret L; Hamilton, Sara Jane; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; English, Dawn; Hendson, Glenda; Roeder, Elizabeth R; DeNapoli, Thomas S; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Wolff, Daynna J; Wagner, Carol L; Yeung, Alison; Francis, David; Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Edelman, Morris; Fox, Joyce; Hayes, Denise A; Janssens, Sandra; De Baere, Elfride; Menten, Björn; Loccufier, Anne; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Moerman, Philippe; Sznajer, Yves; Lay, Amy S; Kussmann, Jennifer L; Chawla, Jasneek; Payton, Diane J; Phillips, Gael E; Brosens, Erwin; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Maystadt, Isabelle; Fisher, Richard; Sebire, Neil; Male, Alison; Chopra, Maya; Pinner, Jason; Malcolm, Girvan; Peters, Gregory; Arbuckle, Susan; Lees, Melissa; Mead, Zoe; Quarrell, Oliver; Sayers, Richard; Owens, Martina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Lioy, Janet; McKay, Eileen; de Leeuw, Nicole; Feenstra, Ilse; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Elmslie, Frances; Thiruchelvam, Timothy; Bacino, Carlos A; Langston, Claire; Lupski, James R; Sen, Partha; Popek, Edwina; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20 postnatal and two prenatal) with clinically diagnosed ACDMPV. We describe novel deletion CNVs at the FOXF1 locus in 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients. Together with the previously reported cases, all 31 genomic deletions in 16q24.1, pathogenic for ACDMPV, for which parental origin was determined, arose de novo with 30 of them occurring on the maternally inherited chromosome 16, strongly implicating genomic imprinting of the FOXF1 locus in human lungs. Surprisingly, we have also identified four ACDMPV families with the pathogenic variants in the FOXF1 locus that arose on paternal chromosome 16. Interestingly, a combination of the severe cardiac defects, including hypoplastic left heart, and single umbilical artery were observed only in children with deletion CNVs involving FOXF1 and its upstream enhancer. Our data demonstrate that genomic imprinting at 16q24.1 plays an important role in variable ACDMPV manifestation likely through long-range regulation of FOXF1 expression, and may be also responsible for key phenotypic features of maternal uniparental disomy 16. Moreover, in one family, WES revealed a de novo missense variant in ESRP1, potentially implicating FGF signaling in the etiology of ACDMPV.

  16. Visual short-term memory for sequential arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arjun; Jiang, Yuhong

    2005-04-01

    The capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for a single visual display has been investigated in past research, but VSTM for multiple sequential arrays has been explored only recently. In this study, we investigate the capacity of VSTM across two sequential arrays separated by a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). VSTM for spatial locations (Experiment 1), colors (Experiments 2-4), orientations (Experiments 3 and 4), and conjunction of color and orientation (Experiment 4) were tested, with the SOA across the two sequential arrays varying from 100 to 1,500 msec. We find that VSTM for the trailing array is much better than VSTM for the leading array, but when averaged across the two arrays VSTM has a constant capacity independent of the SOA. We suggest that multiple displays compete for retention in VSTM and that separating information into two temporally discrete groups does not enhance the overall capacity of VSTM.

  17. A macrothermodynamic approach to the limit of reversible capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trens, Philippe; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Galarneau, Anne; Brunel, Daniel; Fubini, Bice; Garrone, Edoardo; Fajula, François; Di Renzo, Francesco

    2005-08-30

    The threshold of reversible capillary condensation is a well-defined thermodynamic property, as evidenced by corresponding states treatment of literature and experimental data on the lowest closure point of the hysteresis loop in capillary condensation-evaporation cycles for several adsorbates. The nonhysteretical filling of small mesopores presents the properties of a first-order phase transition, confirming that the limit of condensation reversibility does not coincide with the pore critical point. The enthalpy of reversible capillary condensation can be calculated by a Clausius-Clapeyron approach and is consistently larger than the condensation heat in unconfined conditions. Calorimetric data on the capillary condensation of tert-butyl alcohol in MCM-41 silica confirm a 20% increase of condensation heat in small mesopores. This enthalpic advantage makes easier the overcoming of the adhesion forces by the capillary forces and justifies the disappearing of the hysteresis loop.

  18. Generalized polymer effective charge measurement by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Joseph; Koval, Dušan; Besson, Adeline; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, Hervé

    2014-11-28

    In this work, we have generalized the use of capillary isotachophoresis as a universal method for determination of effective charge of anionic and cationic (co)polymers on ordinary capillary electrophoresis instruments. This method is applicable to a broad range of strong or weak polyelectrolytes with good repeatability. Experimental parameters (components and concentrations of leading and terminating electrolytes, capillary diameters, constant electric current intensity) were optimized for implementation in 100 μm i.d. capillaries for both polyanions and polycations. Determined values of polymer effective charge were in a very good agreement with those obtained by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Uncertainty of the effective charge measurement using isotachophoresis was addressed and estimated to be ∼5-10% for solutes with mobilities in the 20-50 × 10(-9)m(2)V(-1)s(-1) range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  20. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  1. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  2. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  3. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  4. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  5. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarian, Artaches A.; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A.; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C.; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L"−"1 levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min"−"1, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L"−"1 for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  6. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, Artaches A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McCord, James; Muddiman, David C. [W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Paull, Brett, E-mail: Brett.Paull@utas.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L{sup −1} levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min{sup −1}, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L{sup −1} for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  7. Rapid capillary coating by epoxy-poly-(dimethylacrylamide): Performance in capillary zone electrophoresis of protein and polystyrene carboxylate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiari, M.; Cretich, M.; Šťastná, Miroslava; Radko, S. P.; Chrambach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2001), s. 656-659 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary coating * capillary zone electrophoresis * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001

  8. Growth of metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in capillary using liquid-phase epitaxy for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-02-13

    Much attention is being paid to applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as stationary phases in chromatography because of their fascinating properties, such as large surface-to-volume ratios, high levels of porosity, and selective adsorption. HKUST-1 is one of the best-studied face-centered-cubic MOF containing nano-sized channels and side pockets for film growth. However, growth of HKUST-1 framework inside capillary column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography is a challenge work. In this work, we carry out the growth of HKUST-1 on the inner wall of capillary by using liquid-phase epitaxy process at room temperature. The fabricated HKUST-1@capillary can be successfully used for the separation of substituted benzene including methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, benzene series, phenolic acids, and benzoic acids derivates. High column efficiency of 1.5×10(5) N/m for methylbenzene was achieved. The formation of HKUST-1 grown in the capillary was confirmed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy images, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction. The column showed long lifetime and excellent stability. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day repeatability of the HKUST-1@capillary were lower than 7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Criticality safety of low-density storage arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T. H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a straightforward bounding method for the criticality safety analysis of fissionable materials configured into large arrays of standard containers. While criticality-safe storage limits have been well established for single containers, even under flooded conditions, it is also necessary to rule out any potential for criticality arising from neutronic interactions among multiple containers that might build up over long distances in a large array. Traditionally, the array problem has been approached by individual Monte Carlo analyses of explicit arrangements of single units and their surroundings. Deemphasizing specific configurations, the present technique takes advantage of low average density of fissionable material in typical storage arrays to separate neutron interactions that take place in the neutron's 'birth unit' from subsequent interactions in a dilute array. Numerous explicit Monte Carlo analyses show that array effects may be conservatively calculated by analyses that homogenize fissionable contents and depend only on the overall array shape, size, and reflective boundary

  10. Criticality safety of low-density storage arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a straightforward bounding method for the criticality safety analysis of fissionable materials configured into large arrays of standard containers. While criticality-safe storage limits have been well established for single containers, even under flooded conditions, it is also necessary to rule out any potential for criticality arising from neutronic interactions among multiple containers that might build up over long distances in a large array. Traditionally, the array problem has been approached by individual Monte Carlo analyses of explicit arrangements of single units and their surroundings. Deemphasizing specific configurations, the present technique takes advantage of low average density of fissionable material in typical storage arrays to separate neutron interactions that take place in the neutron's open-quotes birth unitclose quotes from subsequent interactions in a dilute array. Numerous explicit Monte Carlo analyses show that array effects may be conservatively calculated by analyses that homogenize fissionable contents and depend only on the overall array shape, size, and reflective boundary

  11. LOFAR, the low frequency array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a next-generation radio telescope designed by ASTRON, with antenna stations concentrated in the north of the Netherlands and currently spread into Germany, France, Sweden and the United Kingdom; plans for more LOFAR stations exist in several other countries. Utilizing a novel, phased-array design, LOFAR is optimized for the largely unexplored low frequency range between 30 and 240 MHz. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid re-pointing of the telescopes as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. Processing (e.g. cross-correlation) takes place in the LOFAR BlueGene/P supercomputer, and associated post-processing facilities. With its dense core (inner few km) array and long (more than 1000 km) interferometric baselines, LOFAR reaches unparalleled sensitivity and resolution in the low frequency radio regime. The International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) is now issuing its first call for observing projects that will be peer reviewed and selected for observing starting in December. Part of the allocations will be made on the basis of a fully Open Skies policy; there are also reserved fractions assigned by national consortia in return for contributions from their country to the ILT. In this invited talk, the gradually expanding complement of operationally verified observing modes and capabilities are reviewed, and some of the exciting first astronomical results are presented.

  12. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol-gel modified inner capillary wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, Vladimír; Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-09-29

    The aim of this article is to study the modification of an inner capillary wall with sol-gel coating (pure silica sol-gel or silica sol-gel containing porphyrin-brucine conjugate) and determine its influence on the separation process using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography method. After modification of the inner capillary surface the separation of analytes was performed using two different phosphate buffers (pH 2.5 and 9.0) and finally the changes in electrophoretic mobilities of various samples were calculated. To confirm that the modification of the inner capillary surface was successful, the parts of the inner surfaces of capillaries were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The analytes used as testing samples were oligopeptides, nucleosides, nucleobases and finally nucleotides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  14. Radionuclide diagnosis of pulmonary capillary protein leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Sturm, J.A.; Schober, O.; Nerlich, M.L.; Kant, C.J.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary extravascular albumin extra-vasation in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can be quantified with radionuclide techniques. While imaging procedures with a computerized gamma camera will allow reproducible ROIs, this will be the main limitation in nonimaging measurements with small scintillation probes. Repeated positioning by one operator results in a mean spatial variation of position of about 2 cm and a variation in count rate of 25%. For the estimation of PCPL the small probes must be positioned under scintigraphic control. Under these conditions the results of both techniques are identical. The upper limit of normal was estimated to be 1 x E-5/sec. The standard deviation abnormal measurements was about 10%. The pulmonary capillary protein leakage can be quantified by radionuclide techniques with good accuracy, using the combination of imaging and nonimaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  15. Imbibition Triggered by Capillary Condensation in Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Olivier; Marguet, Bastien; Stroock, Abraham D

    2017-02-21

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of water uptake by capillary condensation from unsaturated vapor in mesoporous silicon layers (pore radius r p ≃ 2 nm), taking advantage of the local changes in optical reflectance as a function of water saturation. Our experiments elucidate two qualitatively different regimes as a function of the imposed external vapor pressure: at low vapor pressures, equilibration occurs via a diffusion-like process; at high vapor pressures, an imbibition-like wetting front results in fast equilibration toward a fully saturated sample. We show that the imbibition dynamics can be described by a modified Lucas-Washburn equation that takes into account the liquid stresses implied by Kelvin equation.

  16. Capillary condensation and adsorption of binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, B; Darkrim-Lamari, F; Levesque, D

    2006-06-21

    The adsorption of equimolar binary mixtures of hydrogen-carbon dioxide, hydrogen-methane, and methane-carbon dioxide in porous material models is determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The material models have an adsorbent surface similar to that of nanofibers with a herringbone structure. Our main result, which is relevant for hydrogen purification and carbon dioxide capture, is that the adsorption selectivities calculated for the mixtures can differ significantly from those deduced from simulations of the adsorption of pure gases, in particular, when one of the adsorbed gases presents a capillary condensation induced by confinement within the pore network. A comparison of our data is also made with theoretical models used in the literature for predicting the properties of the mixture adsorption.

  17. Capillary Condensation with a Grain of Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Michal; Marmur, Abraham

    2017-11-21

    Capillary condensation (CC), namely, the formation from the vapor of a stable phase of drops below the saturation pressure, is a prevalent phenomenon. It may occur inside porous structures or between surfaces of particles. CC between surfaces, a liquid "bridge", is of particular practical interest because of its resulting adhesive force. To date, studies have focused on pure water condensation. However, nonvolatile materials, such as salts and surfactants, are prevalent in many environments. In the current study, the effect of these contaminants on CC is investigated from a thermodynamic point of view. This is done by computing the Gibbs energy of such systems and developing the modified Kelvin equation, based on the Kohler theory. The results demonstrate that nonvolatile solutes may have a number of major effects, including an increase in the critical radius and the stabilization of the newly formed phase.

  18. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and back...

  19. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  20. Subretinal Hemorrhage after Photodynamic Therapy for Juxtapapillary Retinal Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Baba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented with a juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH in her left eye. Twelve months after the initial examination, the size of the hemangioma had increased and the exudation from the RCH involved the macula. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA had decreased from 0.8 to 0.3. A total of five intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB; 1.25 mg was given but the RCH did not respond. A photodynamic therapy (PDT was done using multiple laser spots to avoid damaging the optic nerve head. After the first PDT, the subfoveal fluid was reduced but not completely gone. One week after the second PDT, a massive subretinal hemorrhage developed. The subretinal hemorrhage was successfully displaced by injecting intraocular sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas. At the 3-year follow-up examination, no subretinal hemorrhage or fluid was observed at the macula and the BCVA remained at 0.05. Our case was resistant to the combination of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and PDT and had a rare massive subretinal hemorrhage. A further collection of RCH cases treated with anti-VEGF and PDT that would justify this treatment is necessary.

  1. Developmental venous anomalies with capillary stain: a subgroup of symptomatic DVAs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccatagliata, Luca [Hopital Foch, Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Suresnes (France); University of Genoa, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Berg, Rene van den [AMC, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soderman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Boulin, Anne; Condette-Auliac, Stephanie; Rodesch, Georges [Hopital Foch, Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Suresnes (France)

    2012-05-15

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are considered benign vascular dispositions; they are asymptomatic in the vast majority of cases. They represent extreme variations of the venous drainage and may rarely be responsible for focal venous ischemia leading to neurological dysfunction. The aim of the study is to analyze a group of patients with symptomatic DVAs with capillary stain at angiography. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological features of patients in which a DVA was considered the cause of a neurological event. In all the patients, the DVA was suspected by angio-CT or MRI and conventional angiography was performed to detail the angioarchitecture of the DVA. A total of 7 patients and 11 DVAs were identified; three patients had multiple DVAs. Three DVAs were frontal, two were parietal, two were thalamic, one was in the midbrain, and three were cerebellar. Patients presented with progressive neurological deficits, seizures, or cerebral hemorrhage. All these DVAs were associated with a peculiar capillary stain at angiography. Although being normal anatomical variations, DVAs may create, because of hemodynamic unbalance, venous ischemia that induces angiogenic phenomena. MRI shows the suffering of the brain and angiography witnesses this angiogenesis under the form of capillary stain. Conventional angiography can thus provide useful information to recognize ''atypical'' symptomatic DVAs. (orig.)

  2. Developmental venous anomalies with capillary stain: a subgroup of symptomatic DVAs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccatagliata, Luca; Berg, Rene van den; Soderman, Michael; Boulin, Anne; Condette-Auliac, Stephanie; Rodesch, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are considered benign vascular dispositions; they are asymptomatic in the vast majority of cases. They represent extreme variations of the venous drainage and may rarely be responsible for focal venous ischemia leading to neurological dysfunction. The aim of the study is to analyze a group of patients with symptomatic DVAs with capillary stain at angiography. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological features of patients in which a DVA was considered the cause of a neurological event. In all the patients, the DVA was suspected by angio-CT or MRI and conventional angiography was performed to detail the angioarchitecture of the DVA. A total of 7 patients and 11 DVAs were identified; three patients had multiple DVAs. Three DVAs were frontal, two were parietal, two were thalamic, one was in the midbrain, and three were cerebellar. Patients presented with progressive neurological deficits, seizures, or cerebral hemorrhage. All these DVAs were associated with a peculiar capillary stain at angiography. Although being normal anatomical variations, DVAs may create, because of hemodynamic unbalance, venous ischemia that induces angiogenic phenomena. MRI shows the suffering of the brain and angiography witnesses this angiogenesis under the form of capillary stain. Conventional angiography can thus provide useful information to recognize ''atypical'' symptomatic DVAs. (orig.)

  3. Perturbations of the flow induced by a microcapsule in a capillary tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubspun, J; Deschamps, J; Georgelin, M; Leonetti, M [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, IRPHE, UMR7342, F-13384, Marseille (France); Loubens, C de [Universite Grenoble Alpes, LRP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Trozzo, R [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, M2P2, UMR7340, F-13451, Marseille (France); Edwards-Levy, F, E-mail: leonetti@irphe.univ-mrs.fr [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Reims, UMR7312, CNRS-Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, F-51100 Reims (France)

    2017-06-15

    Soft microcapsules moving in a cylindrical capillary deform from quasi-spherical shapes to elongated shapes with an inversion of curvature at the rear. We investigated the perturbation of the flow by particle tracking velocimetry around deformed microcapsules in confined flow. These experiments are completed by numerical simulations. Microcapsules are made of a thin membrane of polymerized human albumin and their shear elastic moduli are previously characterized in a cross flow chamber. Firstly, the velocity of the microcapsule can be calculated by theoretical predictions for rigid spheres, even for large deformations as ‘parachute-like’ shapes, if a relevant definition of the ratio of confinement is chosen. Secondly, at the rear and the front of the microcapsule, the existence of multiple recirculation regions is governed by the local curvature of the membrane. The amplitudes of these perturbations increase with the microcapsule deformation, whereas their axial extents are comparable to the radius of the capillary whatever the confinement and the capillary number. We conclude that whereas the motion of microcapsules in confined flow has quantitative similitudes with rigid spheres in terms of velocity and axial extent of the perturbation, their presence induces variations in the flow field that are related to the local deformation of the membrane as in droplets. (paper)

  4. Development of Capillary Loop Convective Polymerase Chain Reaction Platform with Real-Time Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Pin Chou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been one of the principal techniques of molecular biology and diagnosis for decades. Conventional PCR platforms, which work by rapidly heating and cooling the whole vessel, need complicated hardware designs, and cause energy waste and high cost. On the other hand, partial heating on the various locations of vessels to induce convective solution flows by buoyancy have been used for DNA amplification in recent years. In this research, we develop a new convective PCR platform, capillary loop convective polymerase chain reaction (clcPCR, which can generate one direction flow and make the PCR reaction more stable. The U-shaped loop capillaries with 1.6 mm inner diameter are designed as PCR reagent containers. The clcPCR platform utilizes one isothermal heater for heating the bottom of the loop capillary and a CCD device for detecting real-time amplifying fluorescence signals. The stable flow was generated in the U-shaped container and the amplification process could be finished in 25 min. Our experiments with different initial concentrations of DNA templates demonstrate that clcPCR can be applied for precise quantification. Multiple sample testing and real-time quantification will be achieved in future studies.

  5. A Novel DOA Estimation Algorithm Using Array Rotation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Lan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of traditional direction of arrival (DOA estimation algorithm based on uniform circular array (UCA is constrained by the array aperture. Furthermore, the array requires more antenna elements than targets, which will increase the size and weight of the device and cause higher energy loss. In order to solve these issues, a novel low energy algorithm utilizing array base-line rotation for multiple targets estimation is proposed. By rotating two elements and setting a fixed time delay, even the number of elements is selected to form a virtual UCA. Then, the received data of signals will be sampled at multiple positions, which improves the array elements utilization greatly. 2D-DOA estimation of the rotation array is accomplished via multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithms. Finally, the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB is derived and simulation results verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm with high resolution and estimation accuracy performance. Besides, because of the significant reduction of array elements number, the array antennas system is much simpler and less complex than traditional array.

  6. Criticality safety of low-density storage arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    This note proposes a straightforward and simple method for the criticality safety analysis of fissionable materials configured into large arrays of standard containers. While criticality-safe storage limits have been well-established for standard containers--even under flooded conditions, it is also necessary to rule out the potential for criticality arising from neutronic interactions among multiple containers that might build up over long distances in a large array. Traditionally, the array problem has been approached by individual Monte Carlo analyses of explicit arrangements of single units and their surroundings. Here, the authors show how multiple Monte Carlo analyses can be usefully combined for wide-ranging general application. The technique takes advantage of low average density of fissionable material in typical storage arrays to separate neutron interactions that take place in the neutron's ''birth unit'' from subsequent interactions in a highly dilute array. Effects of array size, in particular, are conservatively calculated by straightforward analyses which simply smear array contents uniformly across the extent of the array. For given unit loadings in standard containers, practical expressions for neutron multiplication depend only on overall array shape, size and reflective boundary

  7. Capillary sieving electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography produce highly correlated separation of tryptic digests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis on fluorescently labeled proteins and peptides. Capillary sieving electrophoresis was performed in the first dimension and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was performed in the second. A cellular homogenate was labeled with the fluorogenic reagent FQ and separated using the system. This homogenate generated a pair of ridges; the first had essentially constant migration time in the CSE dimension, while the second had essentially constant migration time in the MEKC dimension. In addition a few spots were scattered through the electropherogram. The same homogenate was digested using trypsin, and then labeled and subjected to the two dimensional separation. In this case, the two ridges observed from the original two-dimensional separation disappeared, and were replaced by a set of spots that fell along the diagonal. Those spots were identified using a local-maximum algorithm and each was fit using a two-dimensional Gaussian surface by an unsupervised nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The migration times of the tryptic digest components were highly correlated (r = 0.862). When the slowest migrating components were eliminated from the analysis, the correlation coefficient improved to r = 0.956. PMID:20564272

  8. Microarray MAPH: accurate array-based detection of relative copy number in genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Brian; Datta, Parikkhit; Wu, Ying; Chan, Alan; Al Armour, John

    2006-06-30

    Current methods for measurement of copy number do not combine all the desirable qualities of convenience, throughput, economy, accuracy and resolution. In this study, to improve the throughput associated with Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH) we aimed to develop a modification based on the 3-Dimensional, Flow-Through Microarray Platform from PamGene International. In this new method, electrophoretic analysis of amplified products is replaced with photometric analysis of a probed oligonucleotide array. Copy number analysis of hybridised probes is based on a dual-label approach by comparing the intensity of Cy3-labelled MAPH probes amplified from test samples co-hybridised with similarly amplified Cy5-labelled reference MAPH probes. The key feature of using a hybridisation-based end point with MAPH is that discrimination of amplified probes is based on sequence and not fragment length. In this study we showed that microarray MAPH measurement of PMP22 gene dosage correlates well with PMP22 gene dosage determined by capillary MAPH and that copy number was accurately reported in analyses of DNA from 38 individuals, 12 of which were known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Measurement of microarray-based endpoints for MAPH appears to be of comparable accuracy to electrophoretic methods, and holds the prospect of fully exploiting the potential multiplicity of MAPH. The technology has the potential to simplify copy number assays for genes with a large number of exons, or of expanded sets of probes from dispersed genomic locations.

  9. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for thermal therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin

    Currently, the success of hyperthermia and thermal surgery treatments is limited by the technology used in the design and fabrication of clinical heating devices and the completeness of the thermometry systems used for guidance. For both hyperthermia and thermal surgery, electrically focused ultrasound generated by phased arrays provides a means of controlling localized energy deposition in body tissues. Intracavitary applicators can be used to bring the energy source close to a target volume, such as the prostate, thereby minimizing normal tissue damage. The work performed in this study was aimed at improving noninvasive prostate thermal therapies and utilized three research approaches: (1) Acoustic, thermal and optimization simulations, (2) Design and fabrication of multiple phased arrays, (3) Ex vivo and in vivo experimental testing of the heating capabilities of the phased arrays. As part of this study, a novel aperiodic phased array design was developed which resulted in a 30- 45% reduction in grating lobe levels when compared to conventional phased arrays. Measured acoustic fields generated by the constructed aperiodic arrays agreed closely with the fields predicted by the theoretical simulations and covered anatomically appropriate ranges. The power capabilities of these arrays were demonstrated to be sufficient for the purposes of hyperthermia and thermal surgery. The advantage of using phased arrays in place of fixed focus transducers was shown by demonstrating the ability of electronic scanning to increase the size of the necrosed tissue volume while providing a more uniform thermal dose, which can ultimately reduce patient treatment times. A theoretical study on the feasibility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) thermometry for noninvasive temperature feedback control was investigated as a means to improve transient and steady state temperature distributions achieved in hyperthermia treatments. MRI guided ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrated

  10. SEPARATION AND DETECTION OF THREE ARYLTINS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-UV/VIS DIODE ARRAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trialkyltins and triphenyltins have widespread application as fungicides, antifouling coatings for porous surfaces, herbicides, insecticides, and generic biocides. Due to the varied toxicity of each species of organotins, it is important that methods address the speciation of...

  11. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  12. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the −6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double λ∕8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A −6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of −46.5 dB were achieved. PMID:19657405

  13. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 single crystal phased-array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S. T.; Li, H.; Wong, K. S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhou, D.; Li, Y. C.; Luo, H. S.; Shung, K. K.; Dai, J. Y.

    2009-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the -6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double λ /8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A -6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of -46.5 dB were achieved.

  14. Multiple matching scheme for broadband 0.72Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) single crystal phased-array transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S T; Li, H; Wong, K S; Zhou, Q F; Zhou, D; Li, Y C; Luo, H S; Shung, K K; Dai, J Y

    2009-05-01

    Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystal 0.72Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) (abbreviated as PMN-PT) was used to fabricate high performance ultrasonic phased-array transducer as it exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, we focus on the design and fabrication of a low-loss and wide-band transducer for medical imaging applications. A KLM model based simulation software PiezoCAD was used for acoustic design of the transducer including the front-face matching and backing. The calculated results show that the -6 dB transducer bandwidth can be improved significantly by using double lambda8 matching layers and hard backing. A 4.0 MHz PMN-PT transducer array (with 16 elements) was fabricated and tested in a pulse-echo arrangement. A -6 dB bandwidth of 110% and two-way insertion loss of -46.5 dB were achieved.

  15. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Michael [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Stutz, Hanno [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Ebner, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.ebner@jku.at [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)

    2016-08-03

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • SMIL coating allows generation of homogeneous ultra-flat surfaces. • Molecular electrostatic adhesion forces can be determined in the inner wall of CZE capillary with picoNewton accuracy. • Topographical images and simultaneously acquired adhesion maps yield morphological and chemical information at the nanoscale.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans using a polyamine running electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loegel, Thomas N.; Trombley, John D.; Taylor, Richard T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Danielson, Neil D., E-mail: danielnd@muohio.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethylenediamine is likely acting as an ion-pairing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate is last peak instead of first peak. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is about a factor of five improved detectability with a 12.5 min analysis time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of a 50 {mu}m ID capillary is possible. - Abstract: This study involves the use of polyamines as potential resolving agents for the capillary electrophoresis (CE) of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically heparin, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), and hyaluronan. All of the compounds can be separated from each other with the exception of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan. Using optimization software, the final run conditions are found to be 200 mM ethylenediamine and 45.5 mM phosphate as the electrolyte with -14 V applied across a 50 {mu}m ID Multiplication-Sign 24.5 cm fused silica capillary at 15 Degree-Sign C. The ion migration order, with OSCS as the last instead of the first peak, is in contrast to previous reports using either a high molarity TRIS or lithium phosphate run buffer with narrower bore capillaries. Total analysis time is 12. 5 min and the relative standard deviation of the heparin migration time is about 2.5% (n = 5). The interaction mechanism between selected polyamines and heparin is explored using conductivity measurements in addition to CE experiments to show that an ion-pairing mechanism is likely.

  17. Capillary electrophoresis: principles and applications in illicit drug analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaro, F; Turrina, S; Smith, F P

    1996-02-09

    Capillary electrophoresis, which appeared in the early 1980s, is now rapidly expanding into many scientific disciplines, including analytical chemistry, biotechnology and biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In capillary electrophoresis,electrokinetic separations are carried out in tiny capillaries at high voltages (10-30 kV), thus obtaining high efficiencies (N > 10(5)) and excellent mass sensitivities (down to 10(-18)-10(-20) moles). The main features of capillary electrophoresis are: versatility of application (from inorganic ions to large DNA fragments), use of different separation modes with different selectivity, extremely low demands on sample volume, negligible running costs, possibility of interfacing with different detection systems, ruggedness and simplicity of instrumentation. Capillary electrophoresis applications in forensic sciences have appeared only recently, but are now rapidly growing, particularly in forensic toxicology. The present paper briefly describes the basic principles of capillary electrophoresis, from both the instrumental and analytical points of view. Furthermore, the main applications in the analysis of illicit/controlled drugs in both illicit preparations and biological samples are presented and discussed (43 references). It is concluded that the particular separation mechanism and the high complementarity of this technique to chromatography makes capillary electrophoresis a new powerful tool of investigation in the hands of forensic toxicologists.

  18. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  19. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: capillary prewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-02-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangular pore exerting long-ranged dispersion forces on the fluid. In the T-μ plane the phase line of the new transition is tangential to the capillary condensation line at the capillary wetting temperature T(cw). The surface phase behavior of the system maps to planar wetting with the phase line of the new transition, termed capillary prewetting, mapping to the planar prewetting line. If capillary condensation is approached isothermally with T>T(cw), the meniscus forms at the capping wall and unbinds continuously, making capillary condensation a second-order phenomenon. We compute the corresponding critical exponent for the divergence of adsorption.

  20. Capillary contact angle in a completely wet groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Malijevský, A; Rascón, C

    2014-10-03

    We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θ(cap) > 0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.

  1. Effect of Pore Size and Pore Connectivity on Unidirectional Capillary Penetration Kinetics in 3-D Porous Media using Direct Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, An; Palakurthi, Nikhil; Konangi, Santosh; Comer, Ken; Jog, Milind

    2017-11-01

    The physics of capillary flow is used widely in multiple fields. Lucas-Washburn equation is developed by using a single pore-sized capillary tube with continuous pore connection. Although this equation has been extended to describe the penetration kinetics into porous medium, multiple studies have indicated L-W does not accurately predict flow patterns in real porous media. In this study, the penetration kinetics including the effect of pore size and pore connectivity will be closely examined since they are expected to be the key factors effecting the penetration process. The Liquid wicking process is studied from a converging and diverging capillary tube to the complex virtual 3-D porous structures with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) method within the OpenFOAM CFD Solver. Additionally Porous Medium properties such as Permeability (k) , Tortuosity (τ) will be also analyzed.

  2. An array-based study of increased system lifetime probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    Society's increased dependence on electronic systems calls for highly reliable power supplies comprised of multiple converters working in parallel. This paper describes a redundancy control scheme, based on the array technology that increases the overall reliability quite considerably and thereby...

  3. An array-based study of increased system lifetime probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Society's increased dependence on electronic systems calls for highly reliable power supplies comprised of multiple converters working in parallel. This paper describes a redundancy control scheme, based on the array technology that increases the overall reliability quite considerably and thereby...

  4. Improved Design of Microphone-Array Hearing Aids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Julie

    1994-01-01

    ...). Research on microphone array hearing aids is motivated by the lack of success of single-microphone systems, as well as the documented advantages of binaural hearing and multiple-element sensing systems...

  5. The Relationship Between Microscopic Grain Surface Structure and the Dynamic Capillary-Driven Advance of Water Films over Individual Dry Natural Sand Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, T. C. G.; Adegbule, A.; Yan, S.

    2017-12-01

    The movement of nonvolatile solutes in unsaturated porous media at low water contents depends on transport in surface-associated water films. The focus of the work described here was on studying solute movement in water films advancing by capillary forces over initially-dry grain surfaces, to understand how microscopic surface roughness features influence the initial velocity of water film advance. For this work, water containing a non-adsorbing conservative tracer was used to track the movement of advancing water films. A stainless steel capillary tube connected to an external reservoir a fixed distance below the grain surface was used to transmit solution to the grain surface under negative pressure (positive capillary pressure), consistent with conditions that might be expected in the unsaturated zone. The small internal diameter of the capillary prevents solution from draining out of the capillary back into the reservoir. When the capillary is contacted with a grain surface, capillary forces that result from contact between the fluid and the rough grain surface cause water films to wick across the grain surface. Multiple experiments were conducted on the same grain, rotating the grain and varying the capillary contact point around the circumference of the grain. Imaging was conducted at fixed intervals using an automated Extended Depth of Field (EDF) imaging system, and images were analyzed to determine initial velocity. Grain surfaces were then characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, using a hybrid stereoscopic reconstruction method designed to extract maximum detail in creating elevation maps of geologic surfaces from tilted pairs of SEM images. The resulting elevation maps were used to relate surface roughness profiles around the grain with initial velocities. Results suggest that velocity varies significant with contact point around an individual grain, and correlates quantitatively with the local grain surface structure

  6. Chemiluminescence generation and detection in a capillary-driven microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Charlotte; Temiz, Yuksel; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The use of microfluidic technology represents a strong opportunity for providing sensitive, low-cost and rapid diagnosis at the point-of-care and such a technology might therefore support better, faster and more efficient diagnosis and treatment of patients at home and in healthcare settings both in developed and developing countries. In this work, we consider luminescence-based assays as an alternative to well-established fluorescence-based systems because luminescence does not require a light source or expensive optical components and is therefore a promising detection method for point-of-care applications. Here, we show a proof-of-concept of chemiluminescence (CL) generation and detection in a capillary-driven microfluidic chip for potential immunoassay applications. We employed a commercial acridan-based reaction, which is catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We investigated CL generation under flow conditions using a simplified immunoassay model where HRP is used instead of the complete sandwich immunocomplex. First, CL signals were generated in a capillary microfluidic chip by immobilizing HRP on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sealing layer using stencil deposition and flowing CL substrate through the hydrophilic channels. CL signals were detected using a compact (only 5×5×2.5 cm3) and custom-designed scanner, which was assembled for less than $30 and comprised a 128×1 photodiode array, a mini stepper motor, an Arduino microcontroller, and a 3D-printed housing. In addition, microfluidic chips having specific 30-μm-deep structures were fabricated and used to immobilize ensembles of 4.50 μm beads functionalized with HRP so as to generate high CL signals from capillary-driven chips.

  7. Laser-induced capillary leakage for blood biomarker detection and vaccine delivery via the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeffrey H; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X

    2016-07-01

    Circulation system is the center for coordination and communication of all organs in our body. Examination of any change in its analytes or delivery of therapeutic drugs into the system consists of important medical practice in today's medicine. Two recent studies prove that brief illumination of skin with a low powered laser, at wavelengths preferentially absorbed by hemoglobin, increases the amount of circulating biomarkers in the epidermis and upper dermis by more than 1,000-fold. When probe-coated microneedle arrays are applied into laser-treated skin, plasma blood biomarkers can be reliably, accurately, and sufficiently quantified in 15∼30 min assays, with a maximal detection in one hr in a manner independent of penetration depth or a molecular mass of the biomarker. Moreover, the laser treatment permits a high efficient delivery of radiation-attenuated malarial sporozoites (RAS) into the circulation, leading to robust immunity against malaria infections, whereas similar immunization at sham-treated skin elicits poor immune responses. Thus this technology can potentially instruct designs of small, portable devices for onsite, in mobile clinics, or at home for point-of-care diagnosis and drug/vaccine delivery via the skin. Laser-induced capillary leakage (a) to induce extravasation of circualing molecules only (b) or facilitate entry of attenuated malaria sporozoites into the capillary (c). Skin illumination with a laser preferably absorbed by hemoglobin causes dilation of the capillary beneath the skin. The extravasated molecules can be sufficiently measured in the skin or guide sporozoites to enter the vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Capillary Rise: Validity of the Dynamic Contact Angle Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-08-15

    The classical Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR) equation, using the equilibrium contact angle, predicts a faster capillary rise process than experiments in many cases. The major contributor to the faster prediction is believed to be the velocity dependent dynamic contact angle. In this work, we investigated the dynamic contact angle models for their ability to correct the dynamic contact angle effect in the capillary rise process. We conducted capillary rise experiments of various wetting liquids in borosilicate glass capillaries and compared the model predictions with our experimental data. The results show that the LWR equations modified by the molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic model provide good predictions on the capillary rise of all the testing liquids with fitting parameters, while the one modified by Joos' empirical equation works for specific liquids, such as silicone oils. The LWR equation modified by molecular self-layering model predicts well the capillary rise of carbon tetrachloride, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and n-alkanes with the molecular diameter or measured solvation force data. The molecular self-layering model modified LWR equation also has good predictions on the capillary rise of silicone oils covering a wide range of bulk viscosities with the same key parameter W(0), which results from the molecular self-layering. The advantage of the molecular self-layering model over the other models reveals the importance of the layered molecularly thin wetting film ahead of the main meniscus in the energy dissipation associated with dynamic contact angle. The analysis of the capillary rise of silicone oils with a wide range of bulk viscosities provides new insights into the capillary dynamics of polymer melts.

  9. Innovations in biomedical nanoengineering: nanowell array biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, YoungTae; Jeong, Sunil; Lee, JuKyung; Choi, Hak Soo; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured biosensors have pioneered biomedical engineering by providing highly sensitive analyses of biomolecules. The nanowell array (NWA)-based biosensing platform is particularly innovative, where the small size of NWs within the array permits extremely profound sensing of a small quantity of biomolecules. Undoubtedly, the NWA geometry of a gently-sloped vertical wall is critical for selective docking of specific proteins without capillary resistances, and nanoprocessing has contributed to the fabrication of NWA electrodes on gold substrate such as molding process, e-beam lithography, and krypton-fluoride (KrF) stepper semiconductor method. The Lee group at the Mara Nanotech has established this NW-based biosensing technology during the past two decades by engineering highly sensitive electrochemical sensors and providing a broad range of detection methods from large molecules (e.g., cells or proteins) to small molecules (e.g., DNA and RNA). Nanosized gold dots in the NWA enhance the detection of electrochemical biosensing to the range of zeptomoles in precision against the complementary target DNA molecules. In this review, we discuss recent innovations in biomedical nanoengineering with a specific focus on novel NWA-based biosensors. We also describe our continuous efforts in achieving a label-free detection without non-specific binding while maintaining the activity and stability of immobilized biomolecules. This research can lay the foundation of a new platform for biomedical nanoengineering systems.

  10. Creeping motion of long bubbles and drops in capillary tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westborg, Henrik; Hassager, Ole

    1989-01-01

    The flow of inviscid bubbles and viscous drops in capillary tubes has been simulated by a Galerkin finite element method with surface tension included at the bubble/liquid interface. The results show good agreement with published experimental results. At low capillary numbers the front and the rear...... of the bubble are nearly spherical. As the capillary number increases the thickness of the wetting film between the tube wall and the bubble increases, and the bubble assumes a more slender shape with a characteristic bump at the rear. Recirculations are found in front and behind the bubble, which disappear...

  11. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  12. Recent advances of capillary electrophoresis in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntornsuk, Leena

    2010-09-01

    This review covers recent advances of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in pharmaceutical analysis. The principle, instrumentation, and conventional modes of CE are briefly discussed. Advances in the different CE techniques (non-aqueous CE, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography, capillary isotachophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, and immunoaffinity CE), detection techniques (mass spectrometry, light-emitting diode, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, and contactless conductivity), on-line sample pretreatment (flow injection) and chiral separation are described. Applications of CE to assay of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), drug impurity testing, chiral drug separation, and determination of APIs in biological fluids published from 2008 to 2009 are tabulated.

  13. Early Regimes of Water Capillary Flow in Slit Silica Nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Mejia, Andres

    2015-01-01

    on the dynamics of capillaryfilling. The results indicate that the nanoscale imbibition process is divided into three main flow regimes:an initial regime where the capillary force is balanced only by the inertial drag and characterized by aconstant velocity and a plug flow profile. In this regime, the meniscus...... velocity profiles identify the passage froman inviscid flow to a developing Poiseuille flow. Gas density profiles ahead of the capillary front indicatea transient accumulation of air on the advancing meniscus. Furthermore, slower capillary filling ratescomputed for higher air pressures reveal a significant...... retarding effect of the gas displaced by the advancing meniscus....

  14. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators

  15. Simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices for the generation of monodisperse multiple emulsions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Zhang, Jiaming; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    of expensive apparatus and a complex manufacturing procedure. Here, we report the design and fabrication of simple and inexpensive microfluidic devices based on microscope glass slides and pulled glass capillaries, for generating monodisperse multiple emulsions

  16. SU-F-T-32: Evaluation of the Performance of a Multiple-Array-Diode Detector for Quality Assurance Tests in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy with Ir-192 Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpool, K; De La Fuente Herman, T; Ahmad, S; Ali, I [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode- detector for geometric and dosimetric quality assurance (QA) tests of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an Ir-192-source. Methods: A phantom setup was designed that encapsulated a two-dimensional (2D) array-diode-detector (MapCheck2) and a catheter for the HDR brachytherapy Ir-192 source. This setup was used to perform both geometric and dosimetric quality assurance for the HDR-Ir192 source. The geometric tests included: (a) measurement of the position of the source and (b) spacing between different dwell positions. The dosimteric tests include: (a) linearity of output with time, (b) end effect and (c) relative dose verification. The 2D-dose distribution measured with MapCheck2 was used to perform the previous tests. The results of MapCheck2 were compared with the corresponding quality assurance testes performed with Gafchromic-film and well-ionization-chamber. Results: The position of the source and the spacing between different dwell-positions were reproducible within 1 mm accuracy by measuring the position of maximal dose using MapCheck2 in contrast to the film which showed a blurred image of the dwell positions due to limited film sensitivity to irradiation. The linearity of the dose with dwell times measured from MapCheck2 was superior to the linearity measured with ionization chamber due to higher signal-to-noise ratio of the diode readings. MapCheck2 provided more accurate measurement of the end effect with uncertainty < 1.5% in comparison with the ionization chamber uncertainty of 3%. Although MapCheck2 did not provide absolute calibration dosimeter for the activity of the source, it provided accurate tool for relative dose verification in HDR-brachytherapy. Conclusion: The 2D-array-diode-detector provides a practical, compact and accurate tool to perform quality assurance for HDR-brachytherapy with an Ir-192 source. The diodes in MapCheck2 have high radiation sensitivity and

  17. On-line stacking techniques for the nonaqueous capillary electrophoretic determination of acrylamide in processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, Filiz; Erim, F. Bedia

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, field amplified sample stacking (FASS) techniques in the nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) were introduced for the on-line concentration of the acrylamide to improve acrylamide detection at 210 nm by diode-array detection. Acetonitrile (ACN) as a nonaqueous solvent permits acrylamide to be protonated through the change of its acid-base chemistry, allowing capillary electrophoretic separation of this compound. Choosing 30 mmol L -1 HClO 4 , 20 mmol L -1 NaClO 4 , 218 mmol L -1 CH 3 COOH in ACN as the separation electrolyte and employing sample stacking methods, the LOD value of acrylamide was decreased to 2.6 ng mL -1 with electrokinetic injection and 4.4 ng mL -1 with hydrodynamic injection. Optimized stacking conditions were applied to the determination of acrylamide in several foodstuffs. The method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and widely applicable for the determination of acrylamide in food samples

  18. Concept for Sustained Plant Production on ISS Using VEGGIE Capillary Mat Rooting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth in microgravity presents unique challenges associated with maintaining appropriate conditions for seed germination, seedling establishment, maturation and harvest. They include maintaining appropriate soil moisture content, nutrient balance, atmospheric mixing and containment. Sustained production imposes additional challenges of harvesting, replanting, and safety. The VEGGIE is a deployable (collapsible) plant growth chamber developed as part of a NASA SBIR Phase II by Orbitec, Madison, WI. The intent of VEGGIE is to provide a low-resource system to produce fresh vegetables for the crew on long duration missions. The VEGGIE uses and LED array for lighting, an expandable bellows for containment, and a capillary matting system for nutrient and water delivery. The project evaluated a number of approaches to achieve sustained production, and repeated plantings, using the capillary rooting system. A number of different root media, seed containment, and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated and effects on seed germination and growth were evaluated. A number of issues limiting sustained production, such as accumulation of nutrients, uniform water, elevated vapor pressure deficit, and media containment were identified. A concept using pre-planted rooting packs shown to effectively address a number of those issues and is a promising approach for future development as a planting system for microgravity conditions.

  19. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  20. Ultralightweight PV Array Materials for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photovoltaic arrays for future deep space NASA missions demand multiple functionalities. They must efficiently generate electrical power, have very large areas and...

  1. High Resolution Tracking Devices Based on Capillaries Filled with Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonekamper, D; Vassiltchenko, V; Wolff, T

    2002-01-01

    %RD46 %title\\\\ \\\\The aim of the project is to develop high resolution tracking devices based on thin glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator. This technique provides high hit densities and a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m. Further, their radiation hardness makes them superior to other types of tracking devices with comparable performance. Therefore, the technique is attractive for inner tracking in collider experiments, microvertex devices, or active targets for short-lived particle detection. High integration levels in the read-out based on the use of multi-pixel photon detectors and the possibility of optical multiplexing allow to reduce considerably the number of output channels, and, thus, the cost for the detector.\\\\ \\\\New optoelectronic devices have been developed and tested: the megapixel Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD), a high resolution image-detector having an outstanding capability of single photo-electron detection; the Vacuum Image Pipeline (VIP), a high-speed gateable pi...

  2. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  3. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  4. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  5. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  6. Lab-on-capillary: a rapid, simple and quantitative genetic analysis platform integrating nucleic acid extraction, amplification and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

    2017-12-05

    In this work, we describe for the first time a genetic diagnosis platform employing a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA)-modified capillary and a liquid-based thermalization system for rapid, simple and quantitative DNA analysis with minimal user interaction. Positively charged PDDA is modified on the inner surface of the silicon dioxide capillary by using an electrostatic self-assembly approach that allows the negatively charged DNA to be separated from the lysate in less than 20 seconds. The capillary loaded with the PCR mix is incorporated in the thermalization system, which can achieve on-site real-time PCR. This system is based on the circulation of pre-heated liquids in the chamber, allowing for high-speed thermalization of the capillary and fast amplification. Multiple targets can be simultaneously analysed with multiplex spatial melting. Starting with live Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells in milk, as a realistic sample, the current method can achieve DNA extraction, amplification, and detection within 40 min.

  7. TECHNIQUES WITH POTENTIAL FOR HANDLING ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES IN CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of the methods for handling environmental samples prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) is presented for both aqueous and solid matrices. Sample handling in environmental analyses is the subject of ongoing research at the Environmental Protection Agency's National...

  8. Capillary-induced crack healing between surfaces of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylemez, Emrecan; de Boer, Maarten P

    2014-10-07

    Capillary forces are important in nature (granular materials, insect locomotion) and in technology (disk drives, adhesion). Although well studied in equilibrium state, the dynamics of capillary formation merit further investigation. Here, we show that microcantilever crack healing experiments are a viable experimental technique for investigating the influence of capillary nucleation on crack healing between rough surfaces. The average crack healing velocity, v̅, between clean hydrophilic polycrystalline silicon surfaces of nanoscale roughness is measured. A plot of v̅ versus energy release rate, G, reveals log-linear behavior, while the slope |d[log(v̅)]/dG| decreases with increasing relative humidity. A simplified interface model that accounts for the nucleation time of water bridges by an activated process is developed to gain insight into the crack healing trends. This methodology enables us to gain insight into capillary bridge dynamics, with a goal of attaining a predictive capability for this important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability failure mechanism.

  9. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I.; Williamson, Erik H.; Rubner, Michael F.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya

    2009-03-11

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Static Response of Microbeams due to Capillary and Electrostatic Forces

    KAUST Repository

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.; Ouakad, Hassen M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-sensors or micro-switches usually operate under the effect of electrostatic force and could face some environmental effects like humidity, which may lead to condensation underneath the beams and create strong capillary forces. Those tiny

  12. CAPILLARY CONDENSATION IN MMS AND PORE STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION. (R825959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenomena of capillary condensation and desorption in siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves (MMS) with cylindrical channels are studied by means of the non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results are compared with macroscopic thermodynamic approaches based on Kelv...

  13. Targeted functionalization of nanoparticle thin films via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I; Williamson, Erik H; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane).

  14. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  15. Omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a new association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, L.C.; Mol, A.C. de; Bulten, J.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Heijst, A.F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: First report of an infant with coexistent omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: We describe a term infant with omphalocele and respiratory insufficiency

  16. Capillary electrophoresis in the N-glycosylation analysis of biopharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guttman, András

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, JUL-AUG (2013), s. 132-143 ISSN 0165-9936 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : automated workflow * biopharmaceuticals * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.612, year: 2013

  17. Capillary Pressure-induced Lung Injury: Fact or Fiction?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... ing severe exercise, thus causing significant capillary hyper- tension. Pulmonary ... sponses evoked by high-pressure stress. To clarify the .... by an increased release of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2.

  18. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocek, P.; Gebauer, P.; Beckers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the

  19. Methods and instrumentation for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of novel instrumentation and analytical methodology for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is described in this thesis. Demanding only small quantities of reagents and samples, microfluidic instrumentation is highly advantageous. Fast separations at high voltages

  20. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.; Sprittles, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting

  1. CAPILLARY BARRIERS IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCKS OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.; Zhang, W.; Pan, L.; Hinds, J.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents modeling studies investigating the effects of capillary barriers on fluid-flow and tracer-transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for storing high-level radioactive waste. These studies are designed to identify factors controlling the formation of capillary barriers and to estimate their effects on the extent of possible large-scale lateral flow in unsaturated fracture rocks. The modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. Flow processes in fractured porous rock are described using a dual-continuum concept. In addition, approximate analytical solutions are developed and used for assessing capillary-barrier effects in fractured rocks. This study indicates that under the current hydrogeologic conceptualization of Yucca Mountain, strong capillary-barrier effects exist for significantly diverting moisture flow

  2. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, paracetamol, and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael R; Chaves, Sandro C; Ribeiro, Michelle M A C; Torres, Lívia M F C; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Dos Santos, Wallans T P; Richter, Eduardo M

    2015-05-01

    Paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen are found in over-the-counter pharmaceutical formulations. In this work, we propose two new methods for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, caffeine and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations. One method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and the other on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was achieved on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm(2), 5 μm) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 20-100% acetonitrile in 40 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer pH 7.0. The separation by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was achieved on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm length, 50 μm i.d.) using 10 mmol L(-1) 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and 10 mmol L(-1) β-alanine with pH adjustment to 10.4 with lithium hydroxide as background electrolyte. The determination of all three pharmaceuticals was carried out in 9.6 min by liquid chromatography and in 2.2 min by capillary electrophoresis. Detection limits for caffeine, paracetamol and ibuprofen were 4.4, 0.7, and 3.4 μmol L(-1) by liquid chromatography and 39, 32, and 49 μmol L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis, respectively. Recovery values for spiked samples were between 92-107% for both proposed methods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Pharmacology of post-irradiation damage of blood capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, J.; Pouckova, P.

    1979-01-01

    Available literature data are summed up on the effect of a number of substances on irradiation damage to blood capillaries. The substances include vitamins, bioflavonoids, serotonine, histamine, bradykinin, ACTH, adrenal hormones, vasopressin, estrogens, prostaglandins, escin 1-butanol, diisopropylfluorophosphate, phenoxybenzamine, 1,4-dihydroxybenzenesulphonic acid derivatives, and xi-aminohexanoic acid. The data include the effects of the substances administered before and after irradiation on blood capillary damage and on mortality. (Ha)

  4. Soft x-ray lasing in a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tong-Nyong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Dong-Eon

    1995-01-01

    Soft x-ray lasing in the C VI Balmer α transition is observed in a capillary discharge. The capillary is made of polyethylene with a bore diameter of 1.2 mm. Plasma radiation from the discharge is analyzed using a toroidal mirror and a two-meter grazing-incidence spectrograph-monochromator. The electron temperatures are measured at both the axial and the peripheral region close to the capillary wall, using space-resolved spectra. A comparison of the branching ratio in the hot (axial) and the cool (peripheral) plasma regions indicates that there is a large population inversion between n=3 and 2 states of C 5+ ions in the cool (Te∼13 eV) region of the capillary plasma. Relative line intensities of the C VI Hα and a number of non-lasing lines are compared in this cool region as a function of capillary length. The C VI Hα line intensity increases exponentially whereas those of non-lasing transitions increase linearly with an increase of the capillary length. The gain coefficient thus measured indicates 2.8 cm -1 . The lasing line intensity does not seem to increase exponentially beyond a capillary length of 16 mm and the gain-length product, gL, obtained here is 3.9, which is a typical value one would expect for a recombination soft x-ray laser. The photoelectric signals of the lasing line indicate that the lasing takes place about 40 ns after the current peak in the first half cycle of the capillary discharge, with a lasing pulse width of 60 ns in FWHM

  5. Field-portable Capillary Electrophoresis Instrument with Conductivity Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H F; Liu, X W; Wang, W; Wang, X L; Tian, L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel capillary electrophoresis chip (CEC) is presented with integrated platinum electrodes and simplified conductivity detector. CEC is fabricated by the method of mechanical modification with probe on organic glass. Capillary electrophoresis chip can rapidly completed ion separation by simulation of concentration distribution and zone-broadening. Detection circuit is simple which can detect pA order current. This system has those advantages such as small volume, low power consumption and linearity, and well suit for field analysis

  6. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: Capillary prewetting

    OpenAIRE

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangu...

  7. Soft x-ray amplification in an ablative capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwek, K.H.; Low, K.S.; Tan, C.A.; Lim, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Soft x-ray amplification in CVI 18.2 nm line is observed in an ablative UHMW-PE capillary discharge. The gain coefficient is measured to be 1.9 cm -1 . The electron density is about 2 x 10 19 cm -3 . This indicates that capillary discharge pumping device can be a source for a compact soft x-ray laser. (author)

  8. Capillary gel electrophoresis for rapid, high resolution DNA sequencing.

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, H; Gesteland, R

    1990-01-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis has been demonstrated for the separation and detection of DNA sequencing samples. Enzymatic dideoxy nucleotide chain termination was employed, using fluorescently tagged oligonucleotide primers and laser based on-column detection (limit of detection is 6,000 molecules per peak). Capillary gel separations were shown to be three times faster, with better resolution (2.4 x), and higher separation efficiency (5.4 x) than a conventional automated slab gel DNA sequenci...

  9. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  10. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  11. Possibilities of testing capillary absorption on microcores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeh Arpad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During inspection of reinforced concrete structures from the aspect of durability evaluation of concrete, the present methods generally use the test results obtained by the sophisticated and expensive equipment, which are usually not universal purpose, ie. they can be used only for one segment of durability evaluation of the concrete. This way any additional information about the condition of concrete is valuable, especially if it is not require an additional testing with special equipment. Tests of concrete and reinforced concrete with microcore drilling is considered to be a semi- destructive method, which slightly damages the structure itself, and it is primarily used for testing carbonation, density and absorption of concrete. The paper presents the results of capillary absorption according to SRPS EN 480-5 on standard-size samples and on the microcores extracted from cube form samples with edge length of 20 cm. In the article the testing results of penetration of water under pressure are also presented on the same samples, on which we previously gained microcores. These tests were carried out on with concrete mixtures designed for the most demanding exposure classes according to EN 206-1 and using a variety of additives that are known to affect the structure of pores and consequently also the durability of a hardened concrete.

  12. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  13. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  14. Familial Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis Early in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wirbelauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH is a rare disease, especially in infancy. Four infants have been reported up to the age of 12 months. So far, no familial patients are observed at this age. Patients. We report three siblings, two female newborns and a foetus of 15-week gestation of unrelated, healthy parents suffering from histologically proven PCH. The first girl presented with increased O2 requirements shortly after birth and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA. She subsequently developed progressive respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension and died at the age of five months. The second girl presented with clinical signs of bronchial obstruction at the age of three months. The work-up showed a PDA—which was surgically closed—pulmonary hypertension, and bronchial wall instability with stenosis of the left main bronchus. Transient oxygen therapy was required with viral infections. The girl is now six years old and clinically stable without additional O2 requirements. Failure to thrive during infancy and a somewhat delayed development may be the consequence of the disease itself but also could be attributed to repeated episodes of respiratory failure and a long-term systemic steroid therapy. The third pregnancy ended as spontaneous abortion. The foetus showed histological signs of PCH. Conclusion. Despite the differences in clinical course, the trias of PCH, PDA, and pulmonary hypertension in the two life born girls suggests a genetic background.

  15. Multianalyte detection using a capillary-based flow immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, U; Gauger, P R; Kusterbeck, A W; Ligler, F S

    1998-01-01

    A highly sensitive, dual-analyte detection system using capillary-based immunosensors has been designed for explosive detection. This model system consists of two capillaries, one coated with antibodies specific for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the other specific for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) combined into a single device. The fused silica capillaries are prepared by coating anti-TNT and anti-RDX antibodies onto the silanized inner walls using a hetero-bifunctional crosslinker. After immobilization, the antibodies are saturated with a suitable fluorophorelabeled antigen. A "T" connector is used to continuously flow the buffer solution through the individual capillaries. To perform the assay, an aliquot of TNT or RDX or a mixture of the two analytes is injected into the continuous flow stream. In each capillary, the target analyte displaces the fluorophore-labeled antigen from the binding pocket of the antibody. The labeled antigen displaced from either capillary is detected downstream using two portable spectrofluorometers. The limits of detection for TNT and RDX in the multi-analyte formate are 44 fmol (100 microliters of 0.1 ng/ml TNT solution) and 224 fmol (100 microliters of 0.5 ng/ml RDX solution), respectively. The entire assay for both analytes can be performed in less than 3 min.

  16. Factors affecting the separation performance of proteins in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueping; Li, Zhenqing; Wang, Ping; Shen, Lisong; Zhang, Dawei; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2018-04-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective tool for protein separation and analysis. Compared with capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (NGSCE) processes the superiority on operation, repeatability and automaticity. Herein, we investigated the effect of polymer molecular weight and concentration, electric field strength, and the effective length of the capillary on the separation performance of proteins, and find that (1) polymer with high molecular weight and concentration favors the separation of proteins, although concentrated polymer hinders its injection into the channel of the capillary due to its high viscosity. (2) The resolution between the adjacent proteins decreases with the increase of electric field strength. (3) When the effective length of the capillary is long, the separation performance improves at the cost of separation time. (4) 1.4% (w/v) hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), 100 V/cm voltage and 12 cm effective length offers the best separation for the proteins with molecular weight from 14,400 Da to 97,400 Da. Finally, we employed the optimal electrophoretic conditions to resolve Lysozyme, Ovalbumin, BSA and their mixtures, and found that they were baseline resolved within 15 min. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  18. THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cvetko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.

  19. Fabrication of microlens arrays using a CO2-assisted embossing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tzu-Chien; Chan, Bin-Da; Ciou, Jyun-Kai; Yang, Sen-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a method to fabricate microlens arrays with a low processing temperature and a low pressure. The method is based on embossing a softened polymeric substrate over a mold with micro-hole arrays. Due to the effect of capillary and surface tension, microlens arrays can be formed. The embossing medium is CO 2 gas, which supplies a uniform pressing pressure so that large-area microlens arrays can be fabricated. CO 2 gas also acts as a solvent to plasticize the polymer substrates. With the special dissolving ability and isotropic pressing capacity of CO 2 gas, microlens arrays can be fabricated at a low temperature (lower than T g ) and free of thermal-induced residual stress. Such a combined mechanism of dissolving and embossing with CO 2 gas makes the fabrication of microlens arrays direct with complex processes, and is more compatible for optical usage. In the study, it is also found that the sag height of microlens changes when different CO 2 dissolving pressure and time are used. This makes it easy to fabricate microlens arrays of different geometries without using different molds. The quality, uniformity and optical property of the fabricated microlens arrays have been verified with measurements of the dimensions, surface smoothness, focal length, transmittance and light intensity through the fabricated microlens arrays

  20. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  1. Fast separation of enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using a combination of two capillaries with different internal diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebestová, Andrea; Petr, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The combination of capillaries with different internal diameters was used to accelerate the separation of enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis. Separation of R,S-1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diyl hydrogen phosphate using isopropyl derivative of cyclofructan 6 was studied as a model system. The best separation conditions included 500 mM sodium borate pH 9.5 with 60 mM concentration of the chiral selector. Separation lasted approx. 1.5 min using the combination of 50 and 100 μm id capillaries of 9.7 cm and 22.9 cm, respectively. It allowed approx. 12-fold acceleration in comparison to the traditional long-end separation mainly due to the higher electroosmotic flow generated in the connected capillaries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  3. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, L.; Archer-Hartmann, S. A.; Holland, L.A.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2010-01-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17β-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17β-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was ≤2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17β-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17β-estradiol were ≤1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17β-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish.

  4. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Liliya; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie A; Holland, Lisa A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S

    2010-09-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17beta-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was < or =2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17beta-estradiol were < or =1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17beta-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  5. Self-sustained oscillations in blood flow through a honeycomb capillary network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Pozrikidis, C

    2014-09-01

    Numerical simulations of unsteady blood flow through a honeycomb network originating at multiple inlets and terminating at multiple outlets are presented and discussed under the assumption that blood behaves as a continuum with variable constitution. Unlike a tree network, the honeycomb network exhibits both diverging and converging bifurcations between branching capillary segments. Numerical results based on a finite difference method demonstrate that as in the case of tree networks considered in previous studies, the cell partitioning law at diverging bifurcations is an important parameter in both steady and unsteady flow. Specifically, a steady flow may spontaneously develop self-sustained oscillations at critical conditions by way of a Hopf bifurcation. Contrary to tree-like networks comprised entirely of diverging bifurcations, the critical parameters for instability in honeycomb networks depend weakly on the system size. The blockage of one or more network segments due to the presence of large cells or the occurrence of capillary constriction may cause flow reversal or trigger a transition to unsteady flow.

  6. Capillary Electrophoresis Artifact Due to Eosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathleen M.; Berg, Karin D.; Geiger, Tanya; Hafez, Michael; Flickinger, Katie A.; Cooper, Lisa; Pearson, Patrick; Eshleman, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a commonly used tool in the analysis of fluorescently labeled PCR amplification products. We have identified a CE artifact caused by the tissue stain eosin that can complicate the interpretation of CE data. The artifact was detected during routine analysis of a DNA sample isolated from a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sample considered histologically suspicious for a B-cell neoplasm. A standard clinical PCR and CE assay for immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement revealed a weak polyclonal population of rearranged IGH genes and a 71 base peak suspicious for IGH clonality. The spectral properties of the 71 base peak were unusual in that although the dominant fluorescence of the peak was blue, it also fluoresced in green and yellow (blue>green>yellow), raising the suspicion that the peak might represent an artifact. CE analysis of the genomic DNA sample without PCR amplification demonstrated the presence of the 71 base peak, suggesting that the artifact was caused by a contaminant within the DNA sample itself. We demonstrate that eosin, which was used to stain the formalin-fixed tissue during processing, yields a discrete 71 base peak of similar morphology to the contaminant peak on CE analysis. The data suggest that eosin in the fixed tissue was not completely eliminated during nucleic acid extraction, resulting in the artifact peak. We discuss the implications of this potentially common contaminant on the interpretation of CE data and demonstrate that artifacts caused by eosin can be avoided by using more stringent DNA purification steps. Histological dyes may fluoresce, and artifacts from them should be considered when primary peaks contain additional underlying peaks of other colors. PMID:15681487

  7. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  8. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary

  9. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase......-encoded coherent light source. Two-dimensional input phase distributions corresponding to the trapping patterns are encoded using a computer-programmable spatial light modulator, enabling each trap to be shaped and moved arbitrarily within the plane of observation. We demonstrate the generation of multiple dark...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  11. Viscoelastic capillary flow: the case of whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rabaud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of spontaneous capillary flow of Newtonian fluids is well-known and can be predicted by the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR law. However a wide variety of viscoelastic fluids such as alginate, xanthan and blood, does not exhibit the same Newtonian behavior.In this work we consider the Herschel-Bulkley (HB rheological model and Navier-Stokes equation to derive a generic expression that predicts the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The Herschel-Bulkley rheological model encompasses a wide variety of fluids, including the Power-law fluids (also called Ostwald fluids, the Bingham fluids and the Newtonian fluids. It will be shown that the proposed equation reduces to the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law for Newtonian fluids and to the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney (WRM law for power-law fluids. Although HB model cannot reduce to Casson’s law, which is often used to model whole blood rheology, HB model can fit the whole blood rheology with the same accuracy.Our generalized expression for the capillary flow of non-Newtonian fluid was used to accurately fit capillary flow of whole blood. The capillary filling of a cylindrical microchannel by whole blood was monitored. The blood first exhibited a Newtonian behavior, then after 7 cm low shear stress and rouleaux formation made LWR fails to fit the data: the blood could not be considered as Newtonian anymore. This non-Newtonian behavior was successfully fit by the proposed equation.

  12. Transmission of fast highly charged ions through straight and tapered glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyad, Asma M; Keerthisinghe, D; Kayani, A; Tanis, J A; Dassanayake, B S; Ikeda, T

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of 1 and 3 MeV protons through a borosilicate straight glass capillary and a tapered glass capillary was investigated. The straight capillary had a diameter of ∼0.18 mm and a length of ∼14.4 mm, while the tapered capillary had an inlet diameter of ∼0.71 mm, an outlet diameter of ∼0.10 mm and a length of ∼28 mm. The results show that the 1 and 3 MeV protons traverse through both samples without energy loss, while the tapered capillary showed better transmission than the straight capillary. (paper)

  13. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  14. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  15. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  16. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose...

  17. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  18. The application of capillary microsampling in GLP toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Tom; Dillen, Lieve; Stieltjes, Hans; Zwart, Loeckie de; Feyen, Bianca; Diels, Luc; Vroman, Ann; Timmerman, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Capillary microsampling (CMS) to collect microplasma volumes is gradually replacing traditional, larger volume sampling from rats in GLP toxicology studies. About 32 µl of blood is collected with a capillary, processed to plasma and stored in a 10- or 4-µl capillary which is washed out further downstream in the laboratory. CMS has been standardized with respect to materials, assay validation experiments and application for sample analysis. The implementation of CMS has resulted in blood volume reductions in the rat from 300 to 32 µl per time point and the elimination of toxicokinetic satellite groups in the majority of the rat GLP toxicology studies. The technique has been successfully applied in 26 GLP studies for 12 different projects thus far.

  19. Integration of amperometric sensors for microchip capillary electrophoresis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicorato, F; Moore, E; Glennon, J

    2011-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a technique for the separation and analysis of chemical compounds. Techniques adopted from the microchip technology knowledge have led to recent developments of electrophoresis system with integration on microchip. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (μCE) systems offer a series of advantages as easy integration for Lab-on-a-chip applications, high performance, portability, speed, minimal solvent and sample requirements. A new technological challenge aims at the development of an economic modular microchip capillary electrophoresis systems using separable and independent units concerning the sensor. In this project we worked on the development of an interchangeable amperometric sensor in order to provide a solution to such electrode passivation and facilitating the use of tailored sensors for specific analyte detection besides. Fluidic chips have been machined from cyclic olefin polymer pallets (Zeonor) using a micro-injection molding machine.

  20. The free-jet expansion from a capillary source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Fineman, M.A.; Murphy, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the free-jet expansions originating from an orifice and a capillary by measuring the terminal gas properties. Time-of-flight and intensity data are reported for pure gases (He, Ar, CO 2 ) and mixtures of CO 2 /He, together with condensed dimer intensities for Ar and Co 2 . Pitot tube data are reported for N 2 . The results suggest that the free-jet expansions are nearly the same, provided the capillary is modeled as a non-isentropic Fanno flow process. The Fanno flow is slightly non-adiabatic, which complicates the analysis. Only the condensation kinetics appear strongly sensitive to the differences in the initial conditions for the supersonic expansion; any kinetic process relaxing near the capillary orifice exit would be affected

  1. Capillary condensation and evaporation in alumina nanopores with controlled modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Liu, Lifeng; Lee, Woo; Gösele, Ulrich; Coasne, Benoit

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide presenting not interconnected pores with controlled modulations is studied using adsorption experiments and molecular simulations. Both the experimental and simulation data show that capillary condensation and evaporation are driven by the smallest size of the nanopore (constriction). The adsorption isotherms for the open and closed pores are almost identical if constrictions are added to the system. The latter result implies that the type of pore ending does not matter in modulated pores. Thus, the presence of hysteresis loops observed in adsorption isotherms measured in straight nanopores with closed bottom ends can be explained in terms of geometrical inhomogeneities along the pore axis. More generally, these results provide a general picture of capillary condensation and evaporation in constricted or modulated pores that can be used for the interpretation of adsorption in disordered porous materials.

  2. X-ray Talbot interferometry with capillary plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    An X-ray Talbot interferometer consisting of two capillary plates, which were used as X-ray amplitude gratings, was evaluated for X-ray phase imaging. A theoretical aspect of capillary X-ray Talbot interferometry is presented with a preliminary operation result using synchrotron radiation. A two-dimensional X-ray Talbot effect, or self-imaging effect, which was the basis of Talbot interferometry, was observed with the capillary plate, and moire images formed by the X-ray Talbot interferometer exhibited contrasts corresponding to the differential phase shift caused by phase objects placed in front of the interferometer. Finally, the possibility of quantitative phase measurement with a fringe scanning technique is discussed. (author)

  3. An improved interface for capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Loo, J.A.; Barinaga, C.J.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-06-01

    We have recently developed an improved electrospray ionization interface for capillary electrophoresis mass-spectrometry (CZE-MS). Our initial interface employed a vacuum deposited metal film at the exit of the capillary to make an electrical contact with he eluting buffer and establish the electrospray field gradient. This interface did, however, impose significant limitations on the range of capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations that could be performed. To circumvent these limitations, an interface that does not require a metalized tip was designed nd developed. In the new approach, the electrical contact at the column exit is made through a flowing liquid sheath. The principal advantage of this interface is that it allows operation with a much broader range of electrophoresis conditions. The sheath flow can be readily varied in both composition and volume. An electrospray ionization spectrum is given for a previously intractable buffer solution. 5 refs., 2 figs

  4. Using evaporation to control capillary instabilities in micro-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; Laghezza, Gianluca; Yeomans, Julia M; Vella, Dominic

    2017-12-06

    The instabilities of fluid interfaces represent both a limitation and an opportunity for the fabrication of small-scale devices. Just as non-uniform capillary pressures can destroy micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS), so they can guide the assembly of novel solid and fluid structures. In many such applications the interface appears during an evaporation process and is therefore only present temporarily. It is commonly assumed that this evaporation simply guides the interface through a sequence of equilibrium configurations, and that the rate of evaporation only sets the timescale of this sequence. Here, we use Lattice-Boltzmann simulations and a theoretical analysis to show that, in fact, the rate of evaporation can be a factor in determining the onset and form of dynamical capillary instabilities. Our results shed light on the role of evaporation in previous experiments, and open the possibility of exploiting diffusive mass transfer to directly control capillary flows in MEMS applications.

  5. Integration of amperometric sensors for microchip capillary electrophoresis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicorato, F; Moore, E [Life Sciences Interface Group, Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Glennon, J, E-mail: eric.moore@tyndall.ie [Chemistry Department, University College Cork, College Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    Capillary electrophoresis is a technique for the separation and analysis of chemical compounds. Techniques adopted from the microchip technology knowledge have led to recent developments of electrophoresis system with integration on microchip. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis ({mu}CE) systems offer a series of advantages as easy integration for Lab-on-a-chip applications, high performance, portability, speed, minimal solvent and sample requirements. A new technological challenge aims at the development of an economic modular microchip capillary electrophoresis systems using separable and independent units concerning the sensor. In this project we worked on the development of an interchangeable amperometric sensor in order to provide a solution to such electrode passivation and facilitating the use of tailored sensors for specific analyte detection besides. Fluidic chips have been machined from cyclic olefin polymer pallets (Zeonor) using a micro-injection molding machine.

  6. Delayed post-traumatic capillary haemangioma of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Hamish; Goldschlager, Tony; Kelman, Anthony; Xenos, Chris

    2011-11-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are well-circumscribed aggregates of closely packed, thin-walled capillaries separated by connective tissue stroma. In subcutaneous tissue they are termed pyogenic granuloma and commonly follow trauma. They rarely occur in the spine. We present a 43-year-old woman with a 6-week history of thoracic myelopathy and back pain on a background of T7 and T8 vertebral compression fractures from a motor vehicle accident 10 years previously. MRI demonstrated a posteriorly based extradural homogeneously enhancing mass at this level. The lesion was resected and diagnosed histopathologically as a capillary haemangioma. The patient's symptoms resolved and she made an uneventful recovery. The literature is reviewed and the possible pathogenesis is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface tension in microsystems engineering below the capillary length

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This book describes how surface tension effects can be used by engineers to provide mechanical functions in miniaturized products (<1 mm). Even if precursors of this field such as Jurin or Laplace already date back to the 18th century, describing surface tension effects from a mechanical perspective is very recent. The originality of this book is to consider the effects of capillary bridges on solids, including forces and torques exerted both statically and dynamically by the liquid along the 6 degrees-of-freedom. It provides a comprehensive approach to various applications, such as capillary adhesion (axial force), centering force in packaging and micro-assembly (lateral force) and recent developments such as a capillary motor (torque). It devises how surface tension can be used to provide mechanical functions such as actuation (bubble-actuated compliant table), sealing and tightness, energy harvesting, nanodispending.

  8. Investigation into the suitability of capillary tubes for microcrystalline testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Leonie E; Baron, Mark G; Croxton, Ruth S; Elie, Mathieu P

    2013-07-01

    A comparison between microcrystalline tests performed on microscope slides and flat capillary tubes with inner diameters ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mm was carried out to explore the appropriateness of tubes for rapid testing of suspected drugs of abuse in the laboratory as well as in the field. Tests for mephedrone, cocaine, and phencyclidine were chosen as examples to investigate the handling of the capillary tubes, the influence on crystal habit, size, and the effects on the limit of detection. Image stacking software was used to increase the depth of field of micrographs taken from developed microcrystals greatly enhancing the interpretability even months after carrying out the microcrystalline test. Additionally, the potential of seeding capillary tubes with a reagent was studied. Pre-treatment of tubes would allow microcrystalline tests to be carried out quicker and anywhere without the necessity of taking along expensive and hazardous reagents. The sealing of capillary tubes containing developed microcrystalline tests in order to preserve results for a long period of time was successfully done by applying paraffin wax to the open ends. Finally, it was concluded that capillary tubes are suitable vessels for performing microcrystalline tests. The increased portability of the improved set-up allows tests to be safely executed outside laboratories without impairing the quality of the result. Findings were applied to six legal high samples purchased online between May and August 2011. The active ingredients like MDAI as well as cutting agents like caffeine were successfully identified using the microcrystalline test technique in capillary tubes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Density functional study of condensation in capped capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, P; Savva, N; Kalliadasis, S

    2015-07-15

    We study liquid adsorption in narrow rectangular capped capillaries formed by capping two parallel planar walls (a slit pore) with a third wall orthogonal to the two planar walls. The most important transition in confined fluids is arguably condensation, where the pore becomes filled with the liquid phase which is metastable in the bulk. Depending on the temperature T, the condensation in capped capillaries can be first-order (at T≤Tcw) or continuous (at T>Tcw), where Tcw is the capillary wetting temperature. At T>Tcw, the capping wall can adsorb mesoscopic amounts of metastable under-condensed liquid. The onset of condensation is then manifested by the continuous unbinding of the interface between the liquid adsorbed on the capping wall and the gas filling the rest of the capillary volume. In wide capped capillaries there may be a remnant of wedge filling transition, which is manifested by the adsorption of liquid drops in the corners. Our classical statistical mechanical treatment predicts a possibility of three-phase coexistence between gas, corner drops and liquid slabs adsorbed on the capping wall. In sufficiently wide capillaries we find that thick prewetting films of finite length may be nucleated at the capping wall below the boundary of the prewetting transition. Prewetting then proceeds in a continuous manner manifested by the unbinding interface between the thick and thin films adsorbed on the side walls. Our analysis is based on a detailed numerical investigation of the density functional theory for the fluid equilibria for a number of illustrative case studies.

  10. Experimental and numerical studies of choked flow through adiabatic and diabatic capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deodhar, Subodh D.; Kothadia, Hardik B.; Iyer, K.N.; Prabhu, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Capillary tubes are extensively used in several cooling applications like refrigeration, electronic cooling etc. Local pressure variation in adiabatic straight capillary tube (mini channel) is studied experimentally and numerically with R134a as the working fluid. Experiments are performed on two straight capillary tubes. It is found that the diameter is the most sensitive design parameter of the capillary tube. Experiments are performed on five helically coiled capillary tubes to quantify the effect of pitch and curvature of helically coiled capillary tube on the pressure drop. Non dimensionalized factor to account coiling of capillary tube is derived to calculate mass flow rate in helically coiled capillary tubes. Flow visualization in adiabatic capillary tube confirms the bubbly nature of two phase flow. Numerical and experimental investigations in diabatic capillary tube suggest that the use of positive displacement pump and choking at the exit of the channel ensures flow stability. - Highlights: • Model is developed to design capillary tube in adiabatic and diabatic condition. • Effect of coil curvature on pressure drop is studied experimentally. • Correlation is developed to predict mass flow rate in helical capillary tubes. • Flow visualization is carried out to check the type of two phase flow. • Effect of choked flow on diabatic capillary tubes is studied experimentally.

  11. Capillary electrophoretic separation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschonig, H. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria); Schmid, M.G.; Guebitz, G. [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was used to separate arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic and diphenylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, phenyl- and p-aminophenyl arsonic acid, phenylarsineoxide and phenarsazinic acid. Anionic and uncharged species were separated in a fused silica capillary with on-column UV detection at 200 nm. A 15 mM phosphate solution adjusted to pH 6.5 containing 10 mM sodium dodecylsulfonate served as background electrolyte. The influence of pH and applied voltage on separation efficiency, as well as the feasibility of identification of arsenic compounds in spiked urine, were investigated. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.

  12. Antiresonant hollow core fiber with seven nested capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio-Lopez, Jose E.; Habib, Selim; Van Newkirk, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We report an antiresonant hollow core fiber formed of 7 non-touching capillaries with inner tubes. The fiber has a core diameter of ∼33μm and a core wall of ∼780nm of thickness. We demonstrate robust single mode operation at 1064nm and broad transmission bandwidth.......We report an antiresonant hollow core fiber formed of 7 non-touching capillaries with inner tubes. The fiber has a core diameter of ∼33μm and a core wall of ∼780nm of thickness. We demonstrate robust single mode operation at 1064nm and broad transmission bandwidth....

  13. Capillary condensation, invasion percolation, hysteresis, and discrete memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyer, R.A.; McCall, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    A model of the capillary condensation process, i.e., of adsorption-desorption isotherms, having only pore-pore interactions is constructed. The model yields (1) hysteretic isotherms, (2) invasion percolation on desorption, and (3) hysteresis with discrete memory for interior chemical potential loops. All of these features are seen in experiment. The model is compared to a model with no pore-pore interactions (the Preisach model) and to a related model of interacting pore systems (the random field Ising model). The capillary condensation model differs from both. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Conjugation of colloidal clusters and chains by capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Stein, Andreas

    2009-07-29

    Capillary condensation was used to establish connections in colloidal clusters and 1D colloidal chains with high regional selectivity. This vapor-phase process produced conjugated clusters and chains with anisotropic functionality. The capillary condensation method is simple and can be applied to a wide range of materials. It can tolerate geometric variations and even permits conjugation of spatially separated particles. The selective deposition was also used to modulate the functionality on the colloid surfaces, producing tip-tethered nanosized building blocks that may be suitable for further assembly via directional interactions.

  15. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  16. Laser–capillary interaction for the EXIN project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisesto, F.G., E-mail: fabrizio.giuseppe.bisesto@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anania, M.P. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bacci, A.L. [INFN – Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Universit degli studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via di Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Curcio, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Galletti, M.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marocchino, A.; Mostacci, A.; Petrarca, M. [Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); INFN – Roma1, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Pompili, R. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rossi, A.R.; Serafini, L. [INFN – Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Vaccarezza, C. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The EXIN project is under development within the SPARC-LAB facility of the National Laboratory of Frascati (LNF-INFN). This project aims to accelerate pre-existing electron bunches with high brightness by exploiting the wakefield plasma acceleration technique, while preserving the initial brightness. The wakefield is excited inside a dielectric capillary by high intensity laser pulses produced by the FLAME laser interacting with a gas. In this work, we present numerical simulations in order to optimize energy coupling between our laser with super-Gaussian transverse profile and a dielectric capillary. Moreover, an overview of the experimental layout will be given.

  17. [Determination of acetochlor and oxyfluorfen by capillary gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Qing

    2002-09-01

    A method is described for the determination of acetochlor and oxyfluorfen by capillary gas chromatography with FID and an SE-30 capillary column (60 m x 0.53 mm i. d., 1.5 microm), using dibutyl phthalate as the internal standard. The standard deviations for acetochlor and oxyfluorfen concentration(mass fraction) were 0.44% and 0.47% respectively. The relative standard deviations for acetochlor and oxyfluorfen were 0.79% and 0.88% and the average recoveries for acetochlor and oxyfluorfen were 99.3% and 101.1% respectively. The method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  18. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  19. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  20. A Practical Guide To Solar Array Simulation And PCDU Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Noah; Carroll, Greg; Clegg, Russell

    2011-10-01

    Solar arrays consisting of multiple photovoltaic segments provide power to satellites and charge internal batteries for use during eclipse. Solar arrays have unique I-V characteristics and output power which vary with environmental and operational conditions such as temperature, irradiance, spin, and eclipse. Therefore, specialty power solutions are needed to properly test the satellite on the ground, especially the Power Control and Distribution Unit (PCDU) and the Array Power Regulator (APR.) This paper explores some practical and theoretical considerations that should be taken into account when choosing a commercial, off-the-shelf solar array simulator (SAS) for verification of the satellite PCDU. An SAS is a unique power supply with I-V output characteristics that emulate the solar arrays used to power a satellite. It is important to think about the strengths and the limitations of this emulation capability, how closely the SAS approximates a real solar panel, and how best to design a system using SAS as components.

  1. Silicon monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, J. A.; Freitas, B. L.; Crawford, J.; Satariano, J.; Utterback, E.; DiMercurio, L.; Cutter, K.; Sutton, S.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array is demonstrated that allows multiple diode-bar mounting with negligible thermal cross talk. The heat sink comprises two main components: a wet-etched Si layer that is anodically bonded to a machined glass block. The continuous wave (cw) thermal resistance of the 10 bar diode array is 0.032 degree sign C/W, which matches the performance of discrete microchannel-cooled arrays. Up to 1.5 kW/cm 2 is achieved cw at an emission wavelength of ∼808 nm. Collimation of a diode array using a monolithic lens frame produced a 7.5 mrad divergence angle by a single active alignment. This diode array offers high average power/brightness in a simple, rugged, scalable architecture that is suitable for large two-dimensional areas. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  2. Active cancellation of probing in linear dipole phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2015-01-01

    In this book, a modified improved LMS algorithm is employed for weight adaptation of dipole array for the generation of beam pattern in multiple signal environments. In phased arrays, the generation of adapted pattern according to the signal scenario requires an efficient adaptive algorithm. The antenna array is expected to maintain sufficient gain towards each of the desired source while at the same time suppress the probing sources. This cancels the signal transmission towards each of the hostile probing sources leading to active cancellation. In the book, the performance of dipole phased array is demonstrated in terms of fast convergence, output noise power and output signal-to-interference-and noise ratio. The mutual coupling effect and role of edge elements are taken into account. It is established that dipole array along with an efficient algorithm is able to maintain multilobe beamforming with accurate and deep nulls towards each probing source. This work has application to the active radar cross secti...

  3. Solving “Antenna Array Thinning Problem” Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thinning involves reducing total number of active elements in an antenna array without causing major degradation in system performance. Dynamic thinning is the process of achieving this under real-time conditions. It is required to find a strategic subset of antenna elements for thinning so as to have its optimum performance. From a mathematical perspective this is a nonlinear, multidimensional problem with multiple objectives and many constraints. Solution for such problem cannot be obtained by classical analytical techniques. It will be required to employ some type of search algorithm which can lead to a practical solution in an optimal. The present paper discusses an approach of using genetic algorithm for array thinning. After discussing the basic concept involving antenna array, array thinning, dynamic thinning, and application methodology, simulation results of applying the technique to linear and planar arrays are presented.

  4. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

  5. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  6. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use

  7. EzArray: A web-based highly automated Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuelin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though microarray experiments are very popular in life science research, managing and analyzing microarray data are still challenging tasks for many biologists. Most microarray programs require users to have sophisticated knowledge of mathematics, statistics and computer skills for usage. With accumulating microarray data deposited in public databases, easy-to-use programs to re-analyze previously published microarray data are in high demand. Results EzArray is a web-based Affymetrix expression array data management and analysis system for researchers who need to organize microarray data efficiently and get data analyzed instantly. EzArray organizes microarray data into projects that can be analyzed online with predefined or custom procedures. EzArray performs data preprocessing and detection of differentially expressed genes with statistical methods. All analysis procedures are optimized and highly automated so that even novice users with limited pre-knowledge of microarray data analysis can complete initial analysis quickly. Since all input files, analysis parameters, and executed scripts can be downloaded, EzArray provides maximum reproducibility for each analysis. In addition, EzArray integrates with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO and allows instantaneous re-analysis of published array data. Conclusion EzArray is a novel Affymetrix expression array data analysis and sharing system. EzArray provides easy-to-use tools for re-analyzing published microarray data and will help both novice and experienced users perform initial analysis of their microarray data from the location of data storage. We believe EzArray will be a useful system for facilities with microarray services and laboratories with multiple members involved in microarray data analysis. EzArray is freely available from http://www.ezarray.com/.

  8. In-beam conversion electron spectroscopy using the SACRED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.; Cann, K.J.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Jones, G.D.; Julin, R.; Schulze, B.; Smith, J.F.; Wilson, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conversion electron studies of medium-heavy to heavy nuclear mass systems are important where the internal conversion process begins to dominate over gamma-ray emission. The use of a segmented detector array sensitive to conversion electrons has been used to study multiple conversion electron cascades from nuclear transitions. The application of the silicon array for conversion electron detection (SACRED) for in-beam measurements has successfully been implemented. (orig.). With 2 figs

  9. Environmental photobioreactor array (EPBRA) systems and apparatus related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David; Zegarac, Robert; Lucker, Ben F.; Hall, Christopher; Abernathy, Casey; Carpenter, Joel; Cruz, Jeffrey

    2017-11-14

    A system is described herein that comprises one or more modular environmental photobioreactor arrays, each array containing two or more photobioreactors, wherein the system is adapted to monitor each of the photobioreactors and/or modulate the conditions with each of the photobioreactors. The photobioreactors are also adapted for measurement of multiple physiological parameters of a biomass contained therein. Various methods for selecting and characterizing biomass are also provided. In one embodiment, the biomass is algae.

  10. The effects of hypercapnia on cortical capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) in anesthetized mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Eugenio; Angleys, Hugo; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup

    2018-01-01

    Capillary flow patterns are highly heterogeneous in the resting brain. During hyperemia, capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH) decreases, in proportion to blood's mean transit time (MTT) in passive, compliant microvascular networks. Previously, we found that functional activation reduces...

  11. Ion guiding in macro-size insulating capillaries: straight, tapered, and curved shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takao M.

    2018-02-01

    When keV energy ions are injected into a tilted insulating capillary, a certain fraction of the injected ions are transported through the tilt angle of the capillary. This ion guiding phenomenon is considered to be caused by a self-organizing charge distribution, where the inner wall of the capillary becomes charged by initial incoming ions. The charge distribution, which is formed, can guide following ions toward the exit of the capillary. Since the initial discovery of this effect, studies of ion guiding by insulating capillaries have been extended to various materials, and different sizes and shapes of capillaries. In recent years, some investigations of the guiding effect of macro-size curved capillaries have also been reported. In this review, relevant studies in a history of ion guiding in curved capillaries are discussed and future directions in this field are considered.

  12. Ergot alkaloids as chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis and other electromigration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sinibaldi, M.; Messina, A.; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2010), s. 233-243 ISSN 0976-5514 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * capillary electrochromatography * chiral analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  13. Radial Peripapillary Capillary Network Visualized Using Wide-Field Montage Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Tomoko; Ishibazawa, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Taiji; Yokota, Harumasa; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2016-07-01

    We quantitatively analyzed the features of a radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network visualized using wide-field montage optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in healthy human eyes. Twenty eyes of 20 healthy subjects were recruited. En face 3 × 3-mm OCT angiograms of multiple locations in the posterior pole were acquired using the RTVue XR Avanti, and wide-field montage images of the RPC were created. To evaluate the RPC density, the montage images were binarized and skeletonized. The correlation between the RPC density and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by an OCT circle scan was investigated. The RPC at the temporal retina was detected as far as 7.6 ± 0.7 mm from the edge of the optic disc but not around the perifoveal area within 0.9 ± 0.1 mm of the fovea. Capillary-free zones beside the first branches of the arterioles were significantly (P optic disc edge were 13.6 ± 0.8, 11.9 ± 0.9, and 10.4 ± 0.9 mm-1. The RPC density also was correlated significantly (r = 0.64, P network. The RPC is present in the superficial peripapillary retina in proportion to the RNFL thickness, supporting the idea that the RPC may be the vascular network primarily responsible for RNFL nourishment.

  14. ANALYSIS OF GLYCANS DERIVED FROM GLYCOCONJUGATES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechref, Yehia

    2012-01-01

    The high structural variation of glycan derived from glycoconjugates, which substantially increases with the molecular size of a protein, contributes to the complexity of glycosylation patterns commonly associated with glycoconjugates. In the case of glycoproteins, such variation originates from the multiple glycosylation sites of proteins and the number of glycan structures associated with each site (microheterogeneity). The ability to comprehensively characterize highly complex mixture of glycans has been analytically stimulating and challenging. Although the most powerful mass spectrometric (MS) and tandem MS techniques are capable of providing a wealth of structural information, they are still not able to readily identify isomeric glycan structures without high order tandem MS (MSn). The analysis of isomeric glycan structures has been attained using several separation methods, including high-pH anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and gas chromatography (GC). However, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidics capillary electrophoresis (MCE) offer high separation efficiency and resolutions, allowing the separation of closely related glycan structures. Therefore, interfacing CE and MCE to MS is a powerful analytical approach, allowing potentially comprehensive and sensitive analysis of complex glycan samples. This review describes and discusses the utility of different CE and MCE approaches in the structural characterization of glycoproteins and the feasibility of interfacing these approaches to mass spectrometry. PMID:22180203

  15. Concurrent array-based queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  16. Intravenous Immunoglobulins Improve Survival in Monoclonal Gammopathy-Associated Systemic Capillary-Leak Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Gousseff, Marie; Mauhin, Wladimir; Lega, Jean-Christophe; Lambert, Marc; Rivière, Sophie; Dossier, Antoine; Ruivard, Marc; Lhote, François; Blaison, Gilles; Alric, Laurent; Agard, Christian; Saadoun, David; Graveleau, Julie; Soubrier, Martin; Lucchini-Lecomte, Marie-Josée; Christides, Christine; Bosseray, Annick; Levesque, Hervé; Viallard, Jean-François; Tieulie, Nathalie; Lovey, Pierre-Yves; Le Moal, Sylvie; Bibes, Béatrice; Malizia, Giuseppe; Abgueguen, Pierre; Lifermann, François; Ninet, Jacques; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Amoura, Zahir

    2017-10-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome, also known as Clarkson disease, is a rare condition characterized by recurrent life-threatening episodes of capillary hyperpermeability in the context of a monoclonal gammopathy. This study was conducted to better describe the clinical characteristics, natural history, and long-term outcome of monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. We conducted a cohort analysis of all patients included in the European Clarkson disease (EurêClark) registry between January 1997 and March 2016. From diagnosis to last follow-up, studied outcomes (eg, the frequency and severity of attacks, death, and evolution toward multiple myeloma) and the type of preventive treatments administered were monitored every 6 months. Sixty-nine patients (M/F sex ratio 1:1; mean ± SD age at disease onset 52 ± 12 years) were included in the study. All patients had monoclonal gammopathy of immunoglobulin G type, with kappa light chains in 47 (68%). Median (interquartile range) follow-up duration was 5.1 (2.5-9.7) years. Twenty-four patients (35%) died after 3.3 (0.9-8) years. Fifty-seven (86%) patients received at least one preventive treatment, including intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) n = 48 (73.8%), theophylline n = 22 (33.8%), terbutaline n = 22 (33.8%), and thalidomide n = 5 (7.7%). In the 65 patients with follow-up, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 78% (n = 35) and 69% (n = 17), respectively. Multivariate analysis found preventive treatment with IVIg (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70; P = .007) and terbutaline (hazard ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.96; P = .041) to be independent predictors of mortality. We describe the largest cohort to date of patients with well-defined monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. Preventive treatment with IVIg was the strongest factor associated with survival, suggesting the use of IVIg as the first

  17. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol–gel modified inner capillary wall

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, V.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1517, Sep 29 (2017), s. 185-194 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : capillary electrochromatography (CEC) * open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) * nucleo-compounds * oligopeptides * sol–gel methods * Porphyrin * scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; CE - Biochemistry (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Biochemistry and molecular biology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  18. Optics of multiple ultrasharp grooves in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjølstrup, Enok Johannes Haahr; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    . When the multiple-groove array is illuminated by a plane wave the out-of-plane scattering is found to be extraordinarily large compared with the expected maximum from a geometric-optics estimate even for array widths of many wavelengths. The out-of-plane scattering is even higher per groove compared......The optics of multiple ultrasharp sub-wavelength grooves in metal is studied theoretically. Focus is on the transition from a single groove, where the scattering cross section is significant and can exceed the groove width, to infinitely many grooves in a periodic array with very low reflectance...

  19. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  20. Capillary Optics as an x-ray Condensing Lens An Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Cappuccio, G

    2000-01-01

    The procedure of capillary lens alignment is described in detail. The theoretical basis of capillary optics is given in the framework of a comparative analysis of monocapillary and polycapillary optics. The results of x-ray $9 distribution scanning behind the capillary lens for various angle planes, together with the tting results, are presented. A qualitative explanation is given for the discrepancy between the expected and observed divergences of x-ray $9 beams transmitted by the capillary lens.