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Sample records for multiple brain regions

  1. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  2. Common DNA methylation alterations in multiple brain regions in autism.

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    Ladd-Acosta, C; Hansen, K D; Briem, E; Fallin, M D; Kaufmann, W E; Feinberg, A P

    2014-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorders defined clinically by a triad of features including impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication in social situations and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests, with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. Although heritability estimates for ASD are high, conventional genetic-based efforts to identify genes involved in ASD have yielded only few reproducible candidate genes that account for only a small proportion of ASDs. There is mounting evidence to suggest environmental and epigenetic factors play a stronger role in the etiology of ASD than previously thought. To begin to understand the contribution of epigenetics to ASD, we have examined DNA methylation (DNAm) in a pilot study of postmortem brain tissue from 19 autism cases and 21 unrelated controls, among three brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum. We measured over 485,000 CpG loci across a diverse set of functionally relevant genomic regions using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and identified four genome-wide significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using a bump hunting approach and a permutation-based multiple testing correction method. We replicated 3/4 DMRs identified in our genome-wide screen in a different set of samples and across different brain regions. The DMRs identified in this study represent suggestive evidence for commonly altered methylation sites in ASD and provide several promising new candidate genes.

  3. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

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    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior that is used to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory. Importantly, significant inductions of the CREB target immediate-early genes c-fos and Arc were observed in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 regions), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (basolateral region) when social recognition memory was generated. Pharmacological experiments using a microinfusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin showed that protein synthesis in these brain regions is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. These findings suggested that social recognition memory is consolidated through the activation of CREB-mediated gene expression in the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala. Network analyses suggested that these four brain regions show functional connectivity with other brain regions and, more importantly, that the hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas the ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. We have found that a brain network composed of the hippocampus/mPFC/ACC/amygdala is required for the consolidation of social recognition memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here, we identify brain networks composed of multiple brain regions for the consolidation of social recognition memory. We

  4. Multiple determinants of whole and regional brain volume among terrestrial carnivorans.

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    Eli M Swanson

    Full Text Available Mammalian brain volumes vary considerably, even after controlling for body size. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this variation, most research in mammals on the evolution of encephalization has focused on primates, leaving the generality of these explanations uncertain. Furthermore, much research still addresses only one hypothesis at a time, despite the demonstrated importance of considering multiple factors simultaneously. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate simultaneously the importance of several factors previously hypothesized to be important in neural evolution among mammalian carnivores, including social complexity, forelimb use, home range size, diet, life history, phylogeny, and recent evolutionary changes in body size. We also tested hypotheses suggesting roles for these variables in determining the relative volume of four brain regions measured using computed tomography. Our data suggest that, in contrast to brain size in primates, carnivoran brain size may lag behind body size over evolutionary time. Moreover, carnivore species that primarily consume vertebrates have the largest brains. Although we found no support for a role of social complexity in overall encephalization, relative cerebrum volume correlated positively with sociality. Finally, our results support negative relationships among different brain regions after accounting for overall endocranial volume, suggesting that increased size of one brain regions is often accompanied by reduced size in other regions rather than overall brain expansion.

  5. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

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    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections immunostained for smooth muscle actin (a marker of arterioles) and CD34 (an endothelial marker), with separate analyses on grey and white matter. A total of 43 834 smooth muscle actin-positive vascular profiles and 603 798 CD34-positive vascular profiles were evaluated. In frontal cortex of cases with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing, smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive arterioles had thicker walls (P < 0.05), larger perimeters (P < 0

  6. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neltner, Janna H.; Abner, Erin L.; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Smith, Charles D.; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A.; Brenowitz, Willa D.; Van Eldik, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case–control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections immunostained for smooth muscle actin (a marker of arterioles) and CD34 (an endothelial marker), with separate analyses on grey and white matter. A total of 43 834 smooth muscle actin-positive vascular profiles and 603 798 CD34-positive vascular profiles were evaluated. In frontal cortex of cases with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing, smooth muscle actin

  7. Structural abnormalities and altered regional brain activity in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Liu, Yi; Xiong, Hua; Han, Yongliang; Sah, Shambhu Kumar; Zeng, Chun; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    To assess the changes of the structural and functional abnormalities in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement (MS-SSCI) by using resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI), voxel based morphology (VBM) and diffusion tensor tractography. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of 22 patients with MS-SSCI and 22 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender and education were compared by using RS-fMRI. We also compared the volume, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient of the brain regions in baseline brain activity by using VBM and diffusion tensor imaging. The relationships between the expanded disability states scale (EDSS) scores, changed parameters of structure and function were further explored. (1) Compared with HCs, the ALFF of the bilateral hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus in MS-SSCI decreased significantly. However, patients exhibited increased ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus, left posterior cingulate gyrus and right middle occipital gyrus ( two-sample t-test, after AlphaSim correction, p 40). The volume of right middle frontal gyrus reduced significantly (p right hippocampus, the FA of left hippocampus and right middle temporal gyrus were significantly different. (2) A significant correlation between EDSS scores and ALFF was noted only in the left posterior cingulate gyrus. Our results detected structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI and functional parameters were associated with clinical abnormalities. Multimodal imaging plays an important role in detecting structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI. Advances in knowledge: This is the first time to apply RS-fMRI, VBM and diffusion tensor tractography to study the structural and functional abnormalities in MS-SSCI, and to explore its correlation with EDSS score.

  8. Multiple sclerosis patients lacking oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid have less global and regional brain atrophy.

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    Ferreira, Daniel; Voevodskaya, Olga; Imrell, Kerstin; Stawiarz, Leszek; Spulber, Gabriela; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hillert, Jan; Westman, Eric; Karrenbauer, Virginija Danylaité

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal immunoglobulin G bands (OCB) differ in brain atrophy. Twenty-eight OCB-negative and thirty-five OCB-positive patients were included. Larger volumes of total CSF and white matter (WM) lesions; smaller gray matter (GM) volume in the basal ganglia, diencephalon, cerebellum, and hippocampus; and smaller WM volume in corpus callosum, periventricular-deep WM, brainstem, and cerebellum, were observed in OCB-positives. OCB-negative patients, known to differ genetically from OCB-positives, are characterized by less global and regional brain atrophy. This finding supports the notion that OCB-negative MS patients may represent a clinically relevant MS subgroup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Global and regional brain atrophy is associated with low or retrograde facial vein flow in multiple sclerosis

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    Dejan Jakimovski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased collateral facial vein (FV flow may be associated with structural damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The objective was to assess differences in FV flow and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-derived outcomes in MS. The study included 136 MS patients who underwent neck and head vascular system examination by echo-color Doppler. Inflammatory MRI markers were assessed on a 3T MRI using a semi-automated edge detection and contouring/ thresholding technique. MRI volumetric outcomes of whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, cortex, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF, deep gray matter (DGM, thalamus, caudate nucleus (CN, putamen, globus pallidus (GP, and hippocampus were calculated. Independent t-test and ANCOVA, adjusted for age, were used to compare groups based on FV flow quartiles. Thirty-four MS patients with FV flow ≤327.8 mL/min (lowest quartile had significantly lower WB (P327.8 mL/min (higher quartiles. There were no differences in T1-, T2- and gadolinium- enhancing lesion volumes between the quartile groups. The lack of an association between FV blood flow and inflammatory MRI measures in MS patients, but an association with brain atrophy, suggests that the severity of neurodegenerative process may be related to hemodynamic alterations. MS patients with more advanced global and regional brain atrophy showed low or retrograde FV volume flow.

  11. Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex

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    Gregory D. Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl’s gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity, a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case, as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral versus perifoveal visual stimulation (11-15° vs. 2°-7° in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl’s gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral versus perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex, frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in

  12. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions.

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    Headley, Drew B; DeLucca, Michael V; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Acute stress evokes sexually dimorphic, stressor-specific patterns of neural activation across multiple limbic brain regions in adult rats.

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    Sood, Ankit; Chaudhari, Karina; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2018-03-01

    Stress enhances the risk for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Stress responses vary across sex and may underlie the heightened vulnerability to psychopathology in females. Here, we examined the influence of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and a two-day short-term forced swim stress (FS) on neural activation in multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions, implicated as targets of stress and in the regulation of neuroendocrine stress responses, in male and female rats using Fos as a neural activity marker. AIS evoked a sex-dependent pattern of neural activation within the cingulate and infralimbic subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), lateral septum (LS), habenula, and hippocampal subfields. The degree of neural activation in the mPFC, LS, and habenula was higher in males. Female rats exhibited reduced Fos positive cell numbers in the dentate gyrus hippocampal subfield, an effect not observed in males. We addressed whether the sexually dimorphic neural activation pattern noted following AIS was also observed with the short-term stress of FS. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the amygdala, FS similar to AIS resulted in robust increases in neural activation in both sexes. The pattern of neural activation evoked by FS was distinct across sexes, with a heightened neural activation noted in the prelimbic mPFC subdivision and hippocampal subfields in females and differed from the pattern noted with AIS. This indicates that the sex differences in neural activation patterns observed within stress-responsive brain regions are dependent on the nature of stressor experience.

  14. Multiple toxic doses of methamphetamine alter neurotensin concentrations in various region of the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.R.; Merchant, K.; Gibb, J.W.; Letter, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that multiple high doses of methamphetamine (METH) alter neuronal monoamine metabolism and release. Recently, Hokfelt et al. showed that neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, has neurotransmitter properties which may be involved with DA neuronal activity. In the present study they investigated the possible effects of METH on the CNS neurotensin system. Five doses of METH (15 mg/kg) were administered every 6 h; control and treated rats were sacrificed 18 h after the last dose and concentrations of neurotensin-like immuno-reactivity (NTLI) were measured by radioimmunoassay. NTLI was elevated 200-300% in the nucleus accumbens, neostriatum, and substantia nigra; 30-40% increases in NTLI were measured in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. No change was observed in amygdala, A-10 or periaqueductal gray. In contrast to the above measured areas, the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb showed decreases of 25-35%. These findings demonstrate that METH treatment alters the activities of several CNS neurotensin systems, possibly due to the influence of this drug on DA pathways. The variability in the type and magnitude of these responses suggests that DA and neurotensin systems interact by more than one mechanism

  15. Synaptic genes are extensively downregulated across multiple brain regions in normal human aging and Alzheimer’s disease

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    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Coleman, Paul D.; Cribbs, David H.; Rogers, Joseph; Gillen, Daniel L.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Synapses are essential for transmitting, processing, and storing information, all of which decline in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because synapse loss only partially accounts for the cognitive declines seen in aging and AD, we hypothesized that existing synapses might undergo molecular changes that reduce their functional capacity. Microarrays were used to evaluate expression profiles of 340 synaptic genes in aging (20–99 years) and AD across 4 brain regions from 81 cases. The analysis revealed an unexpectedly large number of significant expression changes in synapse-related genes in aging, with many undergoing progressive downregulation across aging and AD. Functional classification of the genes showing altered expression revealed that multiple aspects of synaptic function are affected, notably synaptic vesicle trafficking and release, neurotransmitter receptors and receptor trafficking, postsynaptic density scaffolding, cell adhesion regulating synaptic stability, and neuromodulatory systems. The widespread declines in synaptic gene expression in normal aging suggests that function of existing synapses might be impaired, and that a common set of synaptic genes are vulnerable to change in aging and AD. PMID:23273601

  16. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; Van der Zwaag, W.

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and

  17. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B.; Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S.; Graham, Andrew; Hodges, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  18. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  19. Acute and chronic glucocorticoid treatments regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in multiple brain regions in vivo

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    Bradley S. Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have primarily interpreted gene expression regulation by glucocorticoids in the brain in terms of impact on neurons; however, less is known about the corresponding impact of glucocorticoids on glia and specifically astrocytes in vivo. Recent microarray experiments have identified glucocorticoid-sensitive mRNAs in primary astrocyte cell culture, including a number of mRNAs that have reported astrocyte-enriched expression patterns relative to other brain cell types. Here, we have tested whether elevations of glucocorticoids regulate a subset of these mRNAs in vivo following acute and chronic corticosterone exposure in adult mice. Acute corticosterone exposure was achieved by a single injection of 10 mg/kg corticosterone, and tissue samples were harvested two hours post-injection. Chronic corticosterone exposure was achieved by administering 10 mg/mL corticosterone via drinking water for two weeks. Gene expression was then assessed in two brain regions associated with glucocorticoid action (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus by qPCR and by in situ hybridization. The majority of measured mRNAs regulated by glucocorticoids in astrocytes in vitro were similarly regulated by acute and/or chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vivo. In addition, the expression levels for mRNAs regulated in at least one corticosterone exposure condition (acute/chronic demonstrated moderate positive correlation between the two conditions by brain region. In situ hybridization analyses suggest that select mRNAs are regulated by chronic corticosterone exposure specifically in astroctyes based on (1 similar general expression patterns between corticosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals and (2 similar expression patterns to the pan-astrocyte marker Aldh1l1. Our findings demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate astrocyte-enriched mRNAs in vivo and suggest that glucocorticoids regulate gene expression in the brain in a cell type-dependent fashion.

  20. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  1. Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Gregory D.; Karns, Christina M.; Dow, Mark W.; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants wer...

  2. Cloaks with multiple invisible regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Zhu, Shouzheng; He, Lianxing; Wang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general method of extending the effective invisible regions for both the shell-like interior cloak and the complementary media exterior cloak, without affecting their original cloaking regions. The proposed method is based on layered spatial mapping instead of the intact mapping. Certain interior or exterior invisible regions can be obtained by properly using a compressed or folded transformation in each space layer. Therefore, the proposal enables the as-designed cloaks to provide multiple invisible regions of different types simultaneously. Thus objects can be hidden in the interior cavity and/or in the exterior space, or even be embedded between the cloaking shells

  3. Widespread increases in malondialdehyde immunoreactivity in dopamine-rich and dopamine-poor regions of rat brain following multiple, high doses of methamphetamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Ashley eHorner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with multiple high doses of methamphetamine (METH can induce oxidative damage, including dopamine (DA-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, which may contribute to the neurotoxic damage of monoamine neurons and long-term depletion of DA in the caudate putamen (CPu and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc. Malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation by ROS, is commonly used as a marker of oxidative damage and treatment with multiple high doses of METH increases MDA reactivity in the CPu of humans and experimental animals. Recent data indicate that MDA itself may contribute to the destruction of DA neurons, as MDA causes the accumulation of toxic intermediates of DA metabolism via its chemical modification of the enzymes necessary for the breakdown of DA. However, it has been shown that in human METH abusers there is also increased MDA reactivity in the frontal cortex, which receives relatively fewer DA afferents than the CPu. These data suggest that METH may induce neuronal damage regardless of the regional density of DA or origin of DA input. The goal of the current study was to examine the modification of proteins by MDA in the DA-rich nigrostriatal and mesoaccumbal systems, as well as the less DA-dense cortex and hippocampus following a neurotoxic regimen of METH treatment. Animals were treated with METH (10 mg/kg every 2h for 6h, sacrificed one week later, and examined using immunocytochemistry for changes in MDA-adducted proteins. Multiple, high doses of METH significantly increased MDA immunoreactivity (MDA-ir in the CPu, SNpc, cortex and hippocampus. Multiple METH administration also increased MDA-ir in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and nucleus accumbens (NAc. Our data indicate that multiple METH treatment can induce persistent and widespread neuronal damage that may not necessarily be limited to the nigrostriatal DA system.

  4. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies.

  5. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP)] of four diverse age groups [1 Month (young), 4 Month (adult), 12 Month (middle-aged), 24 Month (old age)] to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters and enzyme activity were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State 111 respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12 and 24 Month age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age- and brain-region specific. In general changes associated with age were more pronounced, with

  6. Brain Region-Specific Activity Patterns after Recent or Remote Memory Retrieval of Auditory Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Jhang, Jinho; Kim, Hyung-Su; Lee, Sujin; Han, Jin-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Memory is thought to be sparsely encoded throughout multiple brain regions forming unique memory trace. Although evidence has established that the amygdala is a key brain site for memory storage and retrieval of auditory conditioned fear memory, it remains elusive whether the auditory brain regions may be involved in fear memory storage or…

  7. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan, Yunyun, E-mail: xiaoyun81.love@163.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); He, Yong, E-mail: yong.h.he@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yu, Chunshui, E-mail: csyuster@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: jun_wang@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Jing, E-mail: sainthj@126.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Ye, Jing, E-mail: jingye.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Parizel, Paul M., E-mail: paul.parizel@ua.ac.be [Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, 8 Belgium (Belgium); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shu, Ni, E-mail: nshu55@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS.

  8. Whole brain white matter changes revealed by multiple diffusion metrics in multiple sclerosis: A TBSS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jun; Huang, Jing; Ye, Jing; Parizel, Paul M.; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whole brain white matter changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) by multiple diffusion indices, we examined patients with diffusion tensor imaging and utilized tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method to analyze the data. Methods: Forty-one relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 41 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included in this study. Diffusion weighted images were acquired by employing a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence on a 1.5 T MR scanner. Voxel-wise analyses of multiple diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed with TBSS. Results: The MS patients had significantly decreased FA (9.11%), increased MD (8.26%), AD (3.48%) and RD (13.17%) in their white matter skeletons compared with the controls. Through TBSS analyses, we found abnormal diffusion changes in widespread white matter regions in MS patients. Specifically, decreased FA, increased MD and increased RD were involved in whole-brain white matter, while several regions exhibited increased AD. Furthermore, white matter regions with significant correlations between the diffusion metrics and the clinical variables (the EDSS scores, disease durations and white matter lesion loads) in MS patients were identified. Conclusion: Widespread white matter abnormalities were observed in MS patients revealed by multiple diffusion metrics. The diffusion changes and correlations with clinical variables were mainly attributed to increased RD, implying the predominant role of RD in reflecting the subtle pathological changes in MS

  9. Regional growth and atlasing of the developing human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Wright, Robert; Hüning, Britta; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Tusor, Nora; Hajnal, Joseph V; Edwards, A David; Counsell, Serena J; Rueckert, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Detailed morphometric analysis of the neonatal brain is required to characterise brain development and define neuroimaging biomarkers related to impaired brain growth. Accurate automatic segmentation of neonatal brain MRI is a prerequisite to analyse large datasets. We have previously presented an accurate and robust automatic segmentation technique for parcellating the neonatal brain into multiple cortical and subcortical regions. In this study, we further extend our segmentation method to detect cortical sulci and provide a detailed delineation of the cortical ribbon. These detailed segmentations are used to build a 4-dimensional spatio-temporal structural atlas of the brain for 82 cortical and subcortical structures throughout this developmental period. We employ the algorithm to segment an extensive database of 420 MR images of the developing brain, from 27 to 45weeks post-menstrual age at imaging. Regional volumetric and cortical surface measurements are derived and used to investigate brain growth and development during this critical period and to assess the impact of immaturity at birth. Whole brain volume, the absolute volume of all structures studied, cortical curvature and cortical surface area increased with increasing age at scan. Relative volumes of cortical grey matter, cerebellum and cerebrospinal fluid increased with age at scan, while relative volumes of white matter, ventricles, brainstem and basal ganglia and thalami decreased. Preterm infants at term had smaller whole brain volumes, reduced regional white matter and cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes, and reduced cortical surface area compared with term born controls, while ventricular volume was greater in the preterm group. Increasing prematurity at birth was associated with a reduction in total and regional white matter, cortical and subcortical grey matter volume, an increase in ventricular volume, and reduced cortical surface area. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  10. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each ac...

  11. Construction of Individual Morphological Brain Networks with Multiple Morphometric Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have increased attentions to the morphological brain network, which is generally constructed by measuring the mathematical correlation across regions using a certain morphometric feature, such as regional cortical thickness and voxel intensity. However, cerebral structure can be characterized by various factors, such as regional volume, surface area, and curvature. Moreover, most of the morphological brain networks are population-based, which has limitations in the investigations of individual difference and clinical applications. Hence, we have extended previous studies by proposing a novel method for realizing the construction of an individual-based morphological brain network through a combination of multiple morphometric features. In particular, interregional connections are estimated using our newly introduced feature vectors, namely, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the concatenation of seven morphometric features. Experiments were performed on a healthy cohort of 55 subjects (24 males aged from 20 to 29 and 31 females aged from 20 to 28 each scanned twice, and reproducibility was evaluated through test–retest reliability. The robustness of morphometric features was measured firstly to select the more reproducible features to form the connectomes. Then the topological properties were analyzed and compared with previous reports of different modalities. Small-worldness was observed in all the subjects at the range of the entire network sparsity (20–40%, and configurations were comparable with previous findings at the sparsity of 23%. The spatial distributions of the hub were found to be significantly influenced by the individual variances, and the hubs obtained by averaging across subjects and sparsities showed correspondence with previous reports. The intraclass coefficient of graphic properties (clustering coefficient = 0.83, characteristic path length = 0.81, betweenness centrality = 0.78 indicates

  12. Intracranial Tumor Cell Migration and the Development of Multiple Brain Metastases in Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude G. Simonsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A majority of patients with melanoma brain metastases develop multiple lesions, and these patients show particularly poor prognosis. To develop improved treatment strategies, detailed insights into the biology of melanoma brain metastases, and particularly the development of multiple lesions, are needed. The purpose of this preclinical investigation was to study melanoma cell migration within the brain after cell injection into a well-defined intracerebral site. METHODS: A-07, D-12, R-18, and U-25 human melanoma cells transfected with green fluorescent protein were injected stereotactically into the right cerebral hemisphere of nude mice. Moribund mice were killed and autopsied, and the brain was evaluated by fluorescence imaging or histological examination. RESULTS: Intracerebral inoculation of melanoma cells produced multiple lesions involving all regions of the brain, suggesting that the cells were able to migrate over substantial distances within the brain. Multiple modes of transport were identified, and all transport modes were observed in all four melanoma lines. Thus, the melanoma cells were passively transported via the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the meninges and ventricles, they migrated actively along leptomeningeal and brain parenchymal blood vessels, and they migrated actively along the surfaces separating different brain compartments. CONCLUSION: Migration of melanoma cells after initial arrest, extravasation, and growth at a single location within the brain may contribute significantly to the development of multiple melanoma brain metastases.

  13. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  14. Building an organic computing device with multiple interconnected brains

    OpenAIRE

    Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Chiuffa, Gabriela; Lebedev, Mikhail; Yadav, Amol; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed that Brainets, i.e. networks formed by multiple animal brains, cooperating and exchanging information in real time through direct brain-to-brain interfaces, could provide the core of a new type of computing device: an organic computer. Here, we describe the first experimental demonstration of such a Brainet, built by interconnecting four adult rat brains. Brainets worked by concurrently recording the extracellular electrical activity generated by populations of cortical ...

  15. Whole Brain Irradiation With Hippocampal Sparing and Dose Escalation on Multiple Brain Metastases: A Planning Study on Treatment Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, Vesna; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Fels, Franziska; Schmucker, Marianne; Nieder, Carsten; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new treatment planning strategy in patients with multiple brain metastases. The goal was to perform whole brain irradiation (WBI) with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Two treatment concepts were investigated: simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and WBI followed by stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy sequential concept (SC). Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for both concepts were calculated for 10 patients with 2-8 brain metastases using volumetric modulated arc therapy. In the SIB concept, the prescribed dose was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain and 51 Gy in 12 fractions to individual brain metastases. In the SC concept, the prescription was 30 Gy in 12 fractions to the whole brain followed by 18 Gy in 2 fractions to brain metastases. All plans were optimized for dose coverage of whole brain and lesions, simultaneously minimizing dose to the hippocampus. The treatment plans were evaluated on target coverage, homogeneity, and minimal dose to the hippocampus and organs at risk. Results: The SIB concept enabled more successful sparing of the hippocampus; the mean dose to the hippocampus was 7.55 ± 0.62 Gy and 6.29 ± 0.62 Gy, respectively, when 5-mm and 10-mm avoidance regions around the hippocampus were used, normalized to 2-Gy fractions. In the SC concept, the mean dose to hippocampus was 9.8 ± 1.75 Gy. The mean dose to the whole brain (excluding metastases) was 33.2 ± 0.7 Gy and 32.7 ± 0.96 Gy, respectively, in the SIB concept, for 5-mm and 10-mm hippocampus avoidance regions, and 37.23 ± 1.42 Gy in SC. Conclusions: Both concepts, SIB and SC, were able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage and radiosurgery-equivalent dose distributions to individual brain metastases. The SIB technique achieved better sparing of the hippocampus, especially when a10-mm hippocampal avoidance region was used.

  16. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  18. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  19. Emotional Arousal and Multiple Memory Systems in the Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Packard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the type of memory they mediate. Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the cognitive and stimulus-response habit memory processes subserved by the hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively. Evidence indicates that stress or the peripheral injection of anxiogenic drugs can bias animals and humans towards the use of striatal-dependent habit memory in dual-solution tasks in which both hippocampal and stritatal-based strategies can provide an adequate solution. A bias towards the use of habit memory can also be produced by intra-basolateral amygdala administration of anxiogenic drugs, consistent with the well documented role of efferent projections of this brain region in mediating the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on memory. In some learning situations, the bias towards the use of habit memory produced by emotional arousal appears to result from an impairing effect on hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. Further research examining the neural mechanisms linking emotion and the relative use of multiple memory systems should prove useful in view of the potential role for maladaptive habitual behaviors in various human psychopathologies.

  20. Multiple Regions of a Cortical Network Commonly Encode the Meaning of Words in Multiple Grammatical Positions of Read Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Lalor, Edmund C; Lin, Feng; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Raizada, Rajeev D S; Grimm, Scott; Wang, Xixi

    2018-05-16

    Deciphering how sentence meaning is represented in the brain remains a major challenge to science. Semantically related neural activity has recently been shown to arise concurrently in distributed brain regions as successive words in a sentence are read. However, what semantic content is represented by different regions, what is common across them, and how this relates to words in different grammatical positions of sentences is weakly understood. To address these questions, we apply a semantic model of word meaning to interpret brain activation patterns elicited in sentence reading. The model is based on human ratings of 65 sensory/motor/emotional and cognitive features of experience with words (and their referents). Through a process of mapping functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging activation back into model space we test: which brain regions semantically encode content words in different grammatical positions (e.g., subject/verb/object); and what semantic features are encoded by different regions. In left temporal, inferior parietal, and inferior/superior frontal regions we detect the semantic encoding of words in all grammatical positions tested and reveal multiple common components of semantic representation. This suggests that sentence comprehension involves a common core representation of multiple words' meaning being encoded in a network of regions distributed across the brain.

  1. Multiple-region directed functional connectivity based on phase delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelman, Gadi; Dan, Rotem

    2017-03-01

    Network analysis is increasingly advancing the field of neuroimaging. Neural networks are generally constructed from pairwise interactions with an assumption of linear relations between them. Here, a high-order statistical framework to calculate directed functional connectivity among multiple regions, using wavelet analysis and spectral coherence has been presented. The mathematical expression for 4 regions was derived and used to characterize a quartet of regions as a linear, combined (nonlinear), or disconnected network. Phase delays between regions were used to obtain network's temporal hierarchy and directionality. The validity of the mathematical derivation along with the effects of coupling strength and noise on its outcomes were studied by computer simulations of the Kuramoto model. The simulations demonstrated correct directionality for a large range of coupling strength and low sensitivity to Gaussian noise compared with pairwise coherences. The analysis was applied to resting-state fMRI data of 40 healthy young subjects to characterize the ventral visual system, motor system and default mode network (DMN). It was shown that the ventral visual system was predominantly composed of linear networks while the motor system and the DMN were composed of combined (nonlinear) networks. The ventral visual system exhibits its known temporal hierarchy, the motor system exhibits center ↔ out hierarchy and the DMN has dorsal ↔ ventral and anterior ↔ posterior organizations. The analysis can be applied in different disciplines such as seismology, or economy and in a variety of brain data including stimulus-driven fMRI, electrophysiology, EEG, and MEG, thus open new horizons in brain research. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1374-1386, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H.; Mori, K.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  3. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S; Harada, M; Nishitani, H [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  4. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  5. Altered Regional Brain Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Macey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RationaleObstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects 2–5% of all children and is associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, resulting in poor school performance. These psychological deficits may arise from brain injury, as seen in preliminary findings of lower gray matter volume among pediatric OSA patients. However, the psychological deficits in OSA are closely related to functions in the cortex, and such brain areas have not been specifically assessed. The objective was to determine whether cortical thickness, a marker of possible brain injury, is altered in children with OSA.MethodsWe examined regional brain cortical thicknesses using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in 16 pediatric OSA patients (8 males; mean age ± SD = 8.4 ± 1.2 years; mean apnea/hypopnea index ± SD = 11 ± 6 events/h and 138 controls (8.3 ± 1.1 years; 62 male; 138 subjects from the NIH Pediatric MRI database to identify cortical thickness differences in pediatric OSA subjects.ResultsCortical thinning occurred in multiple regions including the superior frontal, ventral medial prefrontal, and superior parietal cortices. The left side showed greater thinning in the superior frontal cortex. Cortical thickening was observed in bilateral precentral gyrus, mid-to-posterior insular cortices, and left central gyrus, as well as right anterior insula cortex.ConclusionChanges in cortical thickness are present in children with OSA and likely indicate disruption to neural developmental processes, including maturational patterns of cortical volume increases and synaptic pruning. Regions with thicker cortices may reflect inflammation or astrocyte activation. Both the thinning and thickening associated with OSA in children may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral dysfunction frequently found in the condition.

  6. A case of multiple tuberculomas in brain presenting as hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis of central nervous system can be present in many different clinical and radiological patterns with disseminated or miliary brain tuberculomas as a rare presentation. Multiple central nervous system tuberculoma is commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Tuberculomas develop following haematogenous dissemination of bacilli from an infection elsewhere in the body, usually lung. Here we describe a case of immunocompetent host with a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis, presenting with headache and generalised weakness, and later was diagnosed as a case of multiple tuberculoma brain.

  7. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of providing us with information about central region anatomy of the brain but also in terms of the help of this information for the plans to be applied in neurosurgery. Objective: In the present study, central region morphometry of a ...

  8. Brain noise is task dependent and region specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Bratislav; Mills, Travis; Taylor, Margot J; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2010-11-01

    The emerging organization of anatomical and functional connections during human brain development is thought to facilitate global integration of information. Recent empirical and computational studies have shown that this enhanced capacity for information processing enables a diversified dynamic repertoire that manifests in neural activity as irregularity and noise. However, transient functional networks unfold over multiple time, scales and the embedding of a particular region depends not only on development, but also on the manner in which sensory and cognitive systems are engaged. Here we show that noise is a facet of neural activity that is also sensitive to the task context and is highly region specific. Children (6-16 yr) and adults (20-41 yr) performed a one-back face recognition task with inverted and upright faces. Neuromagnetic activity was estimated at several hundred sources in the brain by applying a beamforming technique to the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). During development, neural activity became more variable across the whole brain, with most robust increases in medial parietal regions, such as the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. For young children and adults, activity evoked by upright faces was more variable and noisy compared with inverted faces, and this effect was reliable only in the right fusiform gyrus. These results are consistent with the notion that upright faces engender a variety of integrative neural computations, such as the relations among facial features and their holistic constitution. This study shows that transient changes in functional integration modulated by task demand are evident in the variability of regional neural activity.

  9. Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of ... brain volume reaches the peak at the age of 14.5 in men ..... child and adolescent brain and effects of genetic variation.

  10. Multiple brain abscesses in an infant: a case report | Mathews ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ex-preterm baby who was treated successfully for staphylococcus aureus septicaemia and skin abscess in the neonatal period represented at the age of 13 weeks (corrected gestation 41 weeks) with gradual enlargement of the head size. A diagnosis of multiple staphylococcus aureus brain abscesses was made.

  11. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter– vs multiple isocenter–based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algan, Ozer; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)–based or multiple isocenter (MI)–based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63 mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V_1_0_0. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V_9_5, V_9_9, and D_1_0_0 were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  12. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter- vs multiple isocenter-based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algan, Ozer; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)-based or multiple isocenter (MI)-based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V100. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V95, V99, and D100 were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of

  13. Comparison of doses received by the hippocampus in patients treated with single isocenter– vs multiple isocenter–based stereotactic radiation therapy to the brain for multiple brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algan, Ozer, E-mail: oalgan@ouhsc.edu; Giem, Jared; Young, Julie; Ali, Imad; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Hossain, Sabbir

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiation therapy using a single isocenter (SI)–based or multiple isocenter (MI)–based treatment planning in patients with less than 4 brain metastases. In total, 10 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating 2-3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study, and 2 sets of stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans (SI vs MI) were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences, and doses received by the hippocampus and the brain were calculated and compared between the 2 treatment techniques. A total of 23 lesions in 10 patients were evaluated. The median tumor volume, the right hippocampus volume, and the left hippocampus volume were 3.15, 3.24, and 2.63 mL, respectively. In comparing the 2 treatment plans, there was no difference in the planning target volume (PTV) coverage except in the tail for the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curve. The only statistically significant dosimetric parameter was the V{sub 100}. All of the other measured dosimetric parameters including the V{sub 95}, V{sub 99}, and D{sub 100} were not significantly different between the 2 treatment planning techniques. None of the dosimetric parameters evaluated for the hippocampus revealed any statistically significant difference between the MI and SI plans. The total brain doses were slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose region, although this difference was not statistically different. The use of SI-based treatment plan resulted in a 35% reduction in beam-on time. The use of SI treatments for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain when compared with MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  14. Clinical Relevance of Brain Volume Measures in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Stefano, Nicola; Airas, Laura; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with an inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathology. Axonal loss and neurodegeneration occurs early in the disease course and may lead to irreversible neurological impairment. Changes in brain volume, observed from the earliest stage of MS...... therefore have important clinical implications affecting treatment decisions, with several clinical trials now demonstrating an effect of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) on reducing brain volume loss. In clinical practice, it may therefore be important to consider the potential impact of a therapy...

  15. Brain intra- and extracellular sodium concentration in multiple sclerosis: a 7 T MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, Maria; Vancea, Roxana O; Fleysher, Lazar; Jonkman, Laura E; Oesingmann, Niels; Inglese, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    Intra-axonal accumulation of sodium ions is one of the key mechanisms of delayed neuro-axonal degeneration that contributes to disability accrual in multiple sclerosis. In vivo sodium magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated an increase of brain total sodium concentration in patients with multiple sclerosis, especially in patients with greater disability. However, total sodium concentration is a weighted average of intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration whose changes reflect different tissue pathophysiological processes. The in vivo, non-invasive measurement of intracellular sodium concentration is quite challenging and the few applications in patients with neurological diseases are limited to case reports and qualitative assessments. In the present study we provide first evidence of the feasibility of triple quantum filtered (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T, and provide in vivo quantification of global and regional brain intra- and extra-cellular sodium concentration in 19 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 17 heathy controls. Global grey matter and white matter total sodium concentration (respectively P brain regional level, clusters of increased total sodium concentration and intracellular sodium concentration and decreased intracellular sodium volume fraction were found in several cortical, subcortical and white matter regions when patients were compared with healthy controls (P Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Coronaviruses in brain tissue from patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, R B; Lisby, G; Frederiksen, J L

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue from 25 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) and as controls brain tissue from 36 patients without neurological disease was tested for the presence of human coronaviral RNA. Four PCR assays with primers specific for N-protein of human coronavirus strain 229E...... and three PCR assays with primers specific for the nucleocapsid protein of human coronavirus strain OC43 were performed. Sporadic positive PCR assays were observed in both patients and controls in some of the PCR assays. However, these results were not reproducible and there was no difference...... in the proportion of positive signals from the MS patients compared to controls. Evidence for a chronic infection with the human coronaviruses strain 229E or OC43 in brain tissue from patients with MS or controls has not been found in this study....

  17. The Multiple Facets of Regional Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Siller; Christoph Hauser; Janette Walde; Gottfried Tappeiner

    2014-01-01

    Measuring innovation activities involves critical decisions in selecting appropriate indicators and levels of observation. The present article contributes to the literature on this subject by addressing innovation measurement on the regional level. The dimensionality of regional innovation is examined by applying a principal component analysis on seven innovation output indicators in European regions from the Community Innovation Survey and two traditional indicators, i.e. patent applications...

  18. Localizing Brain Activity from Multiple Distinct Sources via EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dassios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important question arousing in the framework of electroencephalography (EEG is the possibility to recognize, by means of a recorded surface potential, the number of activated areas in the brain. In the present paper, employing a homogeneous spherical conductor serving as an approximation of the brain, we provide a criterion which determines whether the measured surface potential is evoked by a single or multiple localized neuronal excitations. We show that the uniqueness of the inverse problem for a single dipole is closely connected with attaining certain relations connecting the measured data. Further, we present the necessary and sufficient conditions which decide whether the collected data originates from a single dipole or from numerous dipoles. In the case where the EEG data arouses from multiple parallel dipoles, an isolation of the source is, in general, not possible.

  19. Value of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with multiple brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie; Lin Zhiguo; Li Qingguo; Shen Hong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prognostic factors and evaluate the effect of stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple brain metastases. Methods: Comparison was made in 53 such patients treated by stereotactic radiosurgery plus radiotherapy and 53 treated by radiotherapy alone. Patients were matched-paired according to the following criteria: age, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) before treatment, extent of systemic cancer and number of brain metastasis. Forty patients had stereotactic radiosurgery, 13 patients stereotactic fractionated radiosurgery. In the stereotactic radiosurgery group, the patients were given a mean marginal dose of 20 Gy. Methods of stereotactic fractionated radiosurgery was 4-12 Gy per fraction , twice a week to a total dose of 15-30 Gy. Whole brain radiotherapy was given immediately after stereotactic radiosurgery. For patients treated by radiotherapy alone, the entire brain was treated by 30-40 Gy in 3-4 weeks. Results: The median survival was 11.6 months in stereotactic radiosurgery plus radiotherapy and 6.7 months in radiotherapy alone. The one year survival rate and one year local control rate were 44.3%, 17.1% and 50.9%, 13. 2%. Those with KPS increased after treatment gave 1-year survivals of 69.8% and 30.2%, respectively. The validity rates in CT or MRI three months after treatment were 82.0% and 55.0%. The difference in the two groups was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01). 23.3% of death in the stereotactic radiosurgery plus radiotherapy group was due to brain metastasis vs 51.0% in the radiotherapy alone group (P < 0.05). Complication of the two groups was similar. Conclusion: Stereotactic radiosurgery plus radiotherapy is superior to radiotherapy alone for multiple brain metastases in improving the local control and ultimate outcome

  20. Fused cerebral organoids model interactions between brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Joshua A; Reumann, Daniel; Bian, Shan; Lévi-Strauss, Julie; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2017-07-01

    Human brain development involves complex interactions between different regions, including long-distance neuronal migration or formation of major axonal tracts. Different brain regions can be cultured in vitro within 3D cerebral organoids, but the random arrangement of regional identities limits the reliable analysis of complex phenotypes. Here, we describe a coculture method combining brain regions of choice within one organoid tissue. By fusing organoids of dorsal and ventral forebrain identities, we generate a dorsal-ventral axis. Using fluorescent reporters, we demonstrate CXCR4-dependent GABAergic interneuron migration from ventral to dorsal forebrain and describe methodology for time-lapse imaging of human interneuron migration. Our results demonstrate that cerebral organoid fusion cultures can model complex interactions between different brain regions. Combined with reprogramming technology, fusions should offer researchers the possibility to analyze complex neurodevelopmental defects using cells from neurological disease patients and to test potential therapeutic compounds.

  1. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Veronica; Agosta, Federica; Hulst, Hanneke E

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS).......To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  2. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Turner, Karly M; Alexander, Suzanne; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken. Thus, the current study determined the regional concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and associated metabolites, in DVD-deficient neonates. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. Neurotransmitter concentration was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem neonatal brain tissue. Ubiquitous reductions in the levels of glutamine (12-24%) were observed in DVD-deficient neonates compared with control neonates. Similarly, in multiple brain regions DVD-deficient neonates had increased levels of noradrenaline and serine compared with control neonates. In contrast, increased levels of dopamine and decreased levels of serotonin in DVD-deficient neonates were limited to striatal subregions compared with controls. Our results confirm that DVD deficiency leads to changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonate brain. Importantly, this regionally-based assessment in DVD-deficient neonates identified both widespread neurotransmitter changes (glutamine/noradrenaline) and regionally selective neurotransmitter changes (dopamine/serotonin). Thus, vitamin D may have both general and local actions depending on the neurotransmitter system being investigated. Taken together, these data suggest that DVD deficiency alters neurotransmitter systems relevant to schizophrenia in the developing rat

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Multiple Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Kyu; Lee, Sang Ryul; Cho, Jin Mo; Yang, Kyung Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with multiple brain metastases and to investigate prognostic factors related to treatment outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed clinico-radiological and dosimetric data of 36 patients with 4-14 brain metastases who underwent GKRS for 264 lesions between August 2008 and April 2011. The most common primary tumor site was the lung (n=22), followed by breast (n=7). At GKRS, the median Karnofsky performance scale score was 90 and the mean tumor volume was 1.2 cc (0.002-12.6). The mean prescription dose of 17.8 Gy was delivered to the mean 61.1% isodose line. Among 264 metastases, 175 lesions were assessed for treatment response by at least one imaging follow-up. Results The overall median survival after GKRS was 9.1±1.7 months. Among various factors, primary tumor control was a significant prognostic factor (11.1±1.3 months vs. 3.3±2.4 months, p=0.031). The calculated local tumor control rate at 6 and 9 months after GKRS were 87.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Paddick's conformity index (>0.75) was significantly related to local tumor control. The actuarial peritumoral edema reduction rate was 22.4% at 6 months. Conclusion According to our results, GKRS can provide beneficial effect for the patients with multiple (4 or more) brain metastases, when systemic cancer is controlled. And, careful dosimetry is essential for local tumor control. Therefore, GKRS can be considered as one of the treatment modalities for multiple brain metastase. PMID:22102945

  4. Computing multiple-output regression quantile regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2012), s. 840-853 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : halfspace depth * multiple-output regression * parametric linear programming * quantile regression Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.304, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/siman-0376413.pdf

  5. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  6. Brain viscoelasticity alteration in chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar-Josche Streitberger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Viscoelastic properties indicate structural alterations in biological tissues at multiple scales with high sensitivity. Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE is a novel technique that directly visualizes and quantitatively measures biomechanical tissue properties in vivo. MRE recently revealed that early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS is associated with a global decrease of the cerebral mechanical integrity. This study addresses MRE and MR volumetry in chronic-progressive disease courses of MS. METHODS: We determined viscoelastic parameters of the brain parenchyma in 23 MS patients with primary or secondary chronic progressive disease course in comparison to 38 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals by multifrequency MRE, and correlated the results with clinical data, T2 lesion load and brain volume. Two viscoelastic parameters, the shear elasticity μ and the powerlaw exponent α, were deduced according to the springpot model and compared to literature values of relapsing-remitting MS. RESULTS: In chronic-progressive MS patients, μ and α were reduced by 20.5% and 6.1%, respectively, compared to healthy controls. MR volumetry yielded a weaker correlation: Total brain volume loss in MS patients was in the range of 7.5% and 1.7% considering the brain parenchymal fraction. All findings were significant (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic-progressive MS disease courses show a pronounced reduction of the cerebral shear elasticity compared to early relapsing-remitting disease. The powerlaw exponent α decreased only in the chronic-progressive stage of MS, suggesting an alteration in the geometry of the cerebral mechanical network due to chronic neuroinflammation.

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, Hu; Hong, Shan; Mingyue, Luo; Shaoqiong, Chen; Wang, Kang; Bingjun, He; Yan, Zou [Department of Radiology, the 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (China); Binbin, Ye

    2007-02-15

    Objective: To demonstrate the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, periplaque white matter regions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) regions in patients with MS, and to evaluate the clinical values of DTI and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of MS. Methods: Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in 32 patients with MS and 32 age-matched control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated and coregistered with T{sub 2}-weighted MR images. FA and ADC values were calculated in regions of interest in plaques, periplaque white matter regions, NAWM regions and white matter regions in control subjects. And three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps were generated by using the DTI. Results: The ADC was (1.233 {+-} 0.119) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in MS plaques, (0.973 {+-} 0.098) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in periplaque white matter regions, (0.748 {+-} 0.089) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in NAWM, and (0.620 {+-} 0.094) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s in control subjects. The FA was 0.225 {+-} 0.052 in MS plaques, 0.311 {+-} 0.050 in periplaque white matter regions, 0.421 {+-} 0.070 in NAWM, and 0.476 {+-} 0.069 in control subjects. Significant differences in FA and ADC values were observed among all white matter regions (P<0.01). MS plaques were demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. Conclusion: FA and ADC maps are helpful for the evaluation of all white matter changes of MS. The abnormalities of white matter fiber tracts in MS plaques could be demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. (authors)

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Bing; Shan Hong; Luo Mingyue; Chen Shaoqiong; Kang Wang; He Bingjun; Zou Yan; Ye Binbin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, periplaque white matter regions and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) regions in patients with MS, and to evaluate the clinical values of DTI and three-dimensional brain fiber tracking for the diagnosis of MS. Methods: Conventional MRI and DTI were performed in 32 patients with MS and 32 age-matched control subjects. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated and coregistered with T 2 -weighted MR images. FA and ADC values were calculated in regions of interest in plaques, periplaque white matter regions, NAWM regions and white matter regions in control subjects. And three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps were generated by using the DTI. Results: The ADC was (1.233 ± 0.119) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in MS plaques, (0.973 ± 0.098) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in periplaque white matter regions, (0.748 ± 0.089) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in NAWM, and (0.620 ± 0.094) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s in control subjects. The FA was 0.225 ± 0.052 in MS plaques, 0.311 ± 0.050 in periplaque white matter regions, 0.421 ± 0.070 in NAWM, and 0.476 ± 0.069 in control subjects. Significant differences in FA and ADC values were observed among all white matter regions (P<0.01). MS plaques were demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. Conclusion: FA and ADC maps are helpful for the evaluation of all white matter changes of MS. The abnormalities of white matter fiber tracts in MS plaques could be demonstrated in three-dimensional brain fiber tracking maps. (authors)

  9. Automated recognition of brain region mentions in neuroscience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon French

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to computationally extract mentions of neuroanatomical regions from the literature would assist linking to other entities within and outside of an article. Examples include extracting reports of connectivity or region-specific gene expression. To facilitate text mining of neuroscience literature we have created a corpus of manually annotated brain region mentions. The corpus contains 1,377 abstracts with 18,242 brain region annotations. Interannotator agreement was evaluated for a subset of the documents, and was 90.7% and 96.7% for strict and lenient matching respectively. We observed a large vocabulary of over 6,000 unique brain region terms and 17,000 words. For automatic extraction of brain region mentions we evaluated simple dictionary methods and complex natural language processing techniques. The dictionary methods based on neuroanatomical lexicons recalled 36% of the mentions with 57% precision. The best performance was achieved using a conditional random field (CRF with a rich feature set. Features were based on morphological, lexical, syntactic and contextual information. The CRF recalled 76% of mentions at 81% precision, by counting partial matches recall and precision increase to 86% and 92% respectively. We suspect a large amount of error is due to coordinating conjunctions, previously unseen words and brain regions of less commonly studied organisms. We found context windows, lemmatization and abbreviation expansion to be the most informative techniques. The corpus is freely available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/WhiteText/.

  10. Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic, cognitive and clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS was always considered as a white matter inflammatory disease. Today, there is an important body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that gray matter involvement and the neurodegenerative mechanism are at least partially independent from inflammation. Gray matter atrophy develops faster than white matter atrophy, and predominates in the initial stages of the disease. The neurodegenerative mechanism creates permanent damage and correlates with physical and cognitive disability. In this review we describe the current available evidence regarding brain atrophy and its consequence in MS patients.

  11. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  12. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Stephen J.; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Chang Lijan; Tong Junchao; Ginovart, Nathalie; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  13. Airport choice model in multiple airport regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Muñoz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to analyze travel choices made by air transportation users in multi airport regions because it is a crucial component when planning passenger redistribution policies. The purpose of this study is to find a utility function which makes it possible to know the variables that influence users’ choice of the airports on routes to the main cities in the Colombian territory. Design/methodology/approach: This research generates a Multinomial Logit Model (MNL, which is based on the theory of maximizing utility, and it is based on the data obtained on revealed and stated preference surveys applied to users who reside in the metropolitan area of Aburrá Valley (Colombia. This zone is the only one in the Colombian territory which has two neighboring airports for domestic flights. The airports included in the modeling process were Enrique Olaya Herrera (EOH Airport and José María Córdova (JMC Airport. Several structure models were tested, and the MNL proved to be the most significant revealing the common variables that affect passenger airport choice include the airfare, the price to travel the airport, and the time to get to the airport. Findings and Originality/value: The airport choice model which was calibrated corresponds to a valid powerful tool used to calculate the probability of each analyzed airport of being chosen for domestic flights in the Colombian territory. This is done bearing in mind specific characteristic of each of the attributes contained in the utility function. In addition, these probabilities will be used to calculate future market shares of the two airports considered in this study, and this will be done generating a support tool for airport and airline marketing policies.

  14. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi; Valls, Laia; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis; Rovira, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  15. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  16. Brain atrophy at onset and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients during the disease onset predicts long term disability. METHODS: MS patients with follow-up time of at least 7 years from disease onset and with baseline and second magnetic resonance 12 months later were included to measure brain atrophy. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS was categorized in three groups, EDSS=0, EDSS=1 and 2.5 and EDSS>2.5, and used as disability measure. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included. Mean atrophy during the first year in patients that reached an EDSS≥3 was -0.76±0.45 %, in patients with an EDSS between 1 and 2.5 was -0.59±0.56, while in patients with an EDSS of 0 it was -0.38±0.42 (p=0.003. DISCUSSION: Brain atrophy rates during the first year of disease were predictive of disease progression in our population.

  17. Multiple brain metastases irradiation with Eleka Axesse stereotactic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, P. V.; Polovnikov, E. S.; Orlov, K. Yu.; Krutko, A. V.; Kirilova, I. A.; Moskalev, A. V.; Filatova, E. V.; Zheravin, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Brain metastases are one of the factors complicating the treatment of a malignant tumor. Radiation therapy, especially radiosurgery, plays an important role in the modern treatment practice. During 2011-2016, 32 patients (from 29 to 67 years old) with multiple brain metastases underwent the treatment with SRS or SRT in our center. The number of secondary lesions varied from 2 to 11. Eight patients underwent microsurgery resection. Seven patients had recurrence after whole brain radiotherapy. Thirty patient underwent single fraction SRS and two patients with large metastases (bigger than 3 cm) underwent fractionated SRT. The treatment was done with dedicated linear accelerator stereotactic system Elekta Axesse (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). Different stereotactic fixation devices were used, namely, Leksell G frame, non-invasive HeadFIX frame, and reinforced thermoplastic mask (IMRT perforation). All treatments included a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique and of Inage Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) technique. All lesions were treated from a single isocenter, which allowed reducing the treatment time and overall dose to the patient's body. All patients suffered the treatment satisfactorily. No adverse reactions or complications were met in any case during or right after the treatment. Different stereotactic fixation devices and modern treatment techniques allowed creating an optimal, safe and comfortable way for patient treatment. The treatment time was from 15 to 50 minutes. Patient position verification after or during the treatment demonstrated good accuracy for all fixation types and low level of intrafraction motion.

  18. Human capital in European peripheral regions: brain - drain and brain - gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Project goal - The overall goal of the project is to build a legitimate transnational network to transfer ideas and experiences and implement measures to reduce brain drain and foster brain gain while reinforcing the economical and spatial development of peripheral regions in NWE. This means a

  19. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  20. Brain in complex regional pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) causes disabling and severe limb pain that is difficult to treat. The pain typically increases during motor actions, but is present also at rest. The pathophysiology of CRPS is incompletely understood. Some of the symptoms suggest involvement of the central nervous system, and accordingly, patients have been shown to display alterations in, for instance, the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and indications of neuroinflammation. More thorough pathophysiol...

  1. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bültmann, Eva; Nägele, Thomas; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic.

  2. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Naegele, Thomas; Klose, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  3. Changes of brain metabolite concentrations during maturation in different brain regions measured by chemical shift imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueltmann, Eva; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Naegele, Thomas [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Klose, Uwe [University of Tuebingen, Section of Experimental MR of the CNS, Department of Neuroradiology, Radiological University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits. Seventy-one patients (4.5 months-20 years) were identified. Using LC Model, spectra were evaluated from voxels in the white matter, caudate head, and corpus callosum. The concentration of total N-acetylaspartate increased in all regions during infancy and childhood except in the right caudate head where it remained constant. The concentration of total creatine decreased in the caudate nucleus and splenium and minimally in the frontal white matter and genu. It remained largely constant in the parietal white matter. The concentration of choline-containing compounds had the tendency to decrease in all regions except in the parietal white matter where it remained constant. The concentration of myoinositol decreased slightly in the splenium and right frontal white matter, remained constant on the left side and in the caudate nucleus, and rose slightly in the parietal white matter and genu. CSI determined metabolite concentrations in multiple cerebral regions during routine MRI. The obtained data will be helpful in future pediatric CSI measurements deciding whether the ratios of the main metabolites are within the range of normal values or have to be considered as probably pathologic. (orig.)

  4. Regional brain morphometry predicts memory rehabilitation outcome after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS. Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at one month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores. We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.

  5. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  6. Altered α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin isoform levels in multiple system atrophy brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2016-01-01

    Together with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a member of a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies. Previously, it has been shown that α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 display disease-specific transcript......Together with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a member of a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies. Previously, it has been shown that α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 display disease......-specific transcription patterns in frontal cortex in PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and MSA, and thus may mediate the development of α-synucleinopathies. In this study, the differential expression of α-synuclein isoforms on transcriptional and translational levels was ascertained in MSA patients in comparison with PD......-synuclein in the brain. We report differential expression of α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 isoforms in multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus Parkinson's disease and normal control brains. We have focused on brain regions that are severely affected by α-synuclein pathology and neurodegeneration in MSA. The reported...

  7. Brain region-dependent differential expression of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-04-15

    α-Synuclein, the major constituent of Lewy bodies (LBs), is normally expressed in presynapses and is involved in synaptic function. Abnormal intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein is observed as LBs and Lewy neurites in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies. Accumulated evidence suggests that abundant intracellular expression of α-synuclein is one of the risk factors for pathological aggregation. Recently, we reported differential expression patterns of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal neurons. Here we further investigated the precise expression profile in the adult mouse brain with special reference to vulnerable regions along the progression of idiopathic PD. The results show that α-synuclein was highly expressed in the neuronal cell bodies of some early PD-affected brain regions, such as the olfactory bulb, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Synaptic expression of α-synuclein was mostly accompanied by expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1, an excitatory presynaptic marker. In contrast, expression of α-synuclein in the GABAergic inhibitory synapses was different among brain regions. α-Synuclein was clearly expressed in inhibitory synapses in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, but not in the cerebral cortex, subthalamic nucleus, or thalamus. These results suggest that some neurons in early PD-affected human brain regions express high levels of perikaryal α-synuclein, as happens in the mouse brain. Additionally, synaptic profiles expressing α-synuclein are different in various brain regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of 133 Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors. (author)

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izunaga, Hiroshi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Fuwa, Isao; Kodama, Takafumi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-10-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined on seventeen patients with brain tumors. Ring type single photon emission CT (SPECT) was used following intravenous injection of /sup 133/Xe. Case materials included eleven meningiomas and six malignant gliomas. Evaluation was performed with emphasis on the following points; 1. Correlation of the flow data within tumors to the angiographic tumor stains, 2. Influence of tumors on the cerebral blood flow of the normal brain tissue, 3. Correlation between degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemispheres. There was significant correlation between flow data within tumors and angiographic tumor stains in meningiomas. Influence of tumors on cerebral blood flow of the normal tissue was greater in meningiomas than in gliomas. There was negative correlation between the degree of peripheral edema and the flow data of the affected hemisphere. It has been concluded that the measurement of CBF in brain tumors is a valuable method in evaluation of brain tumors.

  10. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E.; Webb, Sam; Nichol, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  11. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  12. Protein profiles of serum, brain regions and hypophyses of pubertal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a toxin produced mainly by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that grow on maize worldwide, on protein profiles of serum, brain regions and hypophyses were studied in 24 male Large White weanling pigs randomly divided into four groups (n = 6). In a completely ...

  13. Influence of ketamine on regional brain glucose use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.W.; Mans, A.M.; Biebuyck, J.F.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of ketamine on cerebral function at the level of individual brain structures as reflected by glucose use. Rats received either 5 or 30 mg/kg ketamine intravenously as a loading dose, followed by an infusion to maintain a steady-state level of the drug. An additional group received 30 mg/kg as a single injection only, and was studied 20 min later, by which time they were recovering consciousness (withdrawal group). Regional brain energy metabolism was evaluated with [6- 14 C]glucose and quantitative autoradiography during a 5-min experimental period. A subhypnotic, steady-state dose (5 mg/kg) of ketamine caused a stimulation of glucose use in most brain areas, with an average increase of 20%. At the larger steady-state dose (30 mg/kg, which is sufficient to cause anesthesia), there was no significant effect on most brain regions; some sensory nuclei were depressed (inferior colliculus, -29%; cerebellar dentate nucleus, -18%; vestibular nucleus, -16%), but glucose use in the ventral posterior hippocampus was increased by 33%. In contrast, during withdrawal from a 30-mg/kg bolus, there was a stimulation of glucose use throughout the brain (21-78%), at a time when plasma ketamine levels were similar to the levels in the 5 mg/kg group. At each steady-state dose, as well as during withdrawal, ketamine caused a notable stimulation of glucose use by the hippocampus

  14. Location of brain lesions predicts conversion of clinically isolated syndromes to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgio, Antonio; Battaglini, Marco; Rocca, Maria Assunta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess in a large population of patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) the relevance of brain lesion location and frequency in predicting 1-year conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, clinical and MRI data at onset......: In CIS patients with hemispheric, multifocal, and brainstem/cerebellar onset, lesion probability map clusters were seen in clinically eloquent brain regions. Significant lesion clusters were not found in CIS patients with optic nerve and spinal cord onset. At 1 year, clinically definite MS developed...... in the converting group in projection, association, and commissural WM tracts, with larger clusters being in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, and cingulum. CONCLUSIONS: Higher frequency of lesion occurrence in clinically eloquent WM tracts can characterize CIS subjects with different types of onset...

  15. Brain Interaction during Cooperation: Evaluating Local Properties of Multiple-Brain Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Nicolina; Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-07-21

    Subjects' interaction is the core of most human activities. This is the reason why a lack of coordination is often the cause of missing goals, more than individual failure. While there are different subjective and objective measures to assess the level of mental effort required by subjects while facing a situation that is getting harder, that is, mental workload, to define an objective measure based on how and if team members are interacting is not so straightforward. In this study, behavioral, subjective and synchronized electroencephalographic data were collected from couples involved in a cooperative task to describe the relationship between task difficulty and team coordination, in the sense of interaction aimed at cooperatively performing the assignment. Multiple-brain connectivity analysis provided information about the whole interacting system. The results showed that averaged local properties of a brain network were affected by task difficulty. In particular, strength changed significantly with task difficulty and clustering coefficients strongly correlated with the workload itself. In particular, a higher workload corresponded to lower clustering values over the central and parietal brain areas. Such results has been interpreted as less efficient organization of the network when the subjects' activities, due to high workload tendencies, were less coordinated.

  16. Differential susceptibility of brain regions to tributyltin chloride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is explicitly used in many industrial applications. Previously we have shown its neurotoxic potential on cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. As the effect of TBT on other brain regions is not known, we planned this study to evaluate its effect on four brain regions (cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum). Four-week-old male Wistar rats were gavaged with a single dose of TBT-chloride (TBTC) (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and sacrificed on days 3 and 7, respectively. Effect of TBTC on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and tin (Sn) accumulation were measured. Oxidative stress indexes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were analyzed as they play an imperative role in various neuropathological conditions. Since metal catalyzed reactions are a major source of oxidant generation, levels of essential metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) were estimated. We found that TBTC disrupted BBB and increased Sn accumulation, both of which appear significantly correlated. Altered metal homeostasis and ROS generation accompanied by elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation indicated oxidative damage which appeared more pronounced in the striatum than in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. This could be associated to the depleted GSH levels in striatum. These results suggest that striatum is more susceptible to TBTC induced oxidative damage as compared with other brain regions under study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Time series analysis of brain regional volume by MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mika; Tarusawa, Ayaka; Nihei, Mitsuyo; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Wu, Jin; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The present study proposed a methodology of time series analysis of volumes of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes and cerebellum because such volumetric reports along the process of individual's aging have been scarcely presented. Subjects analyzed were brain images of 2 healthy males and 18 females of av. age of 69.0 y, of which T1-weighted 3D SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled in the steady state) acquisitions with a GE SIGNA EXCITE HD 1.5T machine were conducted for 4 times in the time series of 42-50 months. The image size was 256 x 256 x (86-124) voxels with digitization level 16 bits. As the template for the regions, the standard gray matter atlas (icbn452 a tlas p robability g ray) and its labeled one (icbn.Labels), provided by UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, were used for individual's standardization. Segmentation, normalization and coregistration were performed with the MR imaging software SPM8 (Statistic Parametric Mapping 8). Volumes of regions were calculated as their voxel ratio to the whole brain voxel in percent. It was found that the regional volumes decreased with aging in all above lobes examined and cerebellum in average percent per year of -0.11, -0.07, -0.04, -0.02, and -0.03, respectively. The procedure for calculation of the regional volumes, which has been manually operated hitherto, can be automatically conducted for the individual brain using the standard atlases above. (T.T.)

  18. Multiple [3H]-nemonapride binding sites in calf brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmeste, D M; Tang, S W; Li, M; Fang, H

    1997-07-01

    [3H]-Nemonapride has been the ligand of choice to label D4 dopamine receptors. Its specificity was questioned when it was discovered that sigma (sigma) sites were also labeled by [3H]-nemonapride. To further characterize the binding of [3H]-nemonapride, three areas of calf brain (striatum, frontal cortex and cerebellum) were examined. In all three areas, [3H]-nemonapride labeled multiple sites. Dopaminergic and sigma sites were the most prominent. The sigma binding profile was sigma-1 like with a Ki binding profile as follows (in order of decreasing potency): haloperidol, PPAP, pentazocine, DTG, U-50488, R(+)-3-PPP. Experiments using sulpiride and pentazocine to block striatal dopaminergic and sigma sites, respectively, revealed additional, not previously characterized binding sites for [3H]-nemonapride. One component which was present in striatum but not in frontal cortex or cerebellum, had affinity for some neuroleptics and WB-4101, but not for typical serotonergic agents. Thus, [3H]-nemonapride has no selectivity for dopamine receptors unless stringent experimental conditions are met.

  19. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C. Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow. Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age smokers (n = 34 and non-smokers (n = 27 were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  20. High-resolution temporal and regional mapping of MAPT expression and splicing in human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Marco M; Farrell, Kurt; Kim, SoongHo; Bowles, Kathryn R; Fowkes, Mary E; Raj, Towfique; Crary, John F

    2018-01-01

    The microtubule associated protein tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies suggest that tau also plays a role in disorders of neuronal connectivity, including epilepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder. Animal studies have shown that the MAPT gene, which codes for the tau protein, undergoes complex pre-mRNA alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms during brain development. Human data, particularly on temporal and regional variation in tau splicing during development are however lacking. In this study, we present the first detailed examination of the temporal and regional sequence of MAPT alternative splicing in the developing human brain. We used a novel computational analysis of large transcriptomic datasets (total n = 502 patients), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting to examine tau expression and splicing in post-mortem human fetal, pediatric and adult brains. We found that MAPT exons 2 and 10 undergo abrupt shifts in expression during the perinatal period that are unique in the canonical human microtubule-associated protein family, while exon 3 showed small but significant temporal variation. Tau isoform expression may be a marker of neuronal maturation, temporally correlated with the onset of axonal growth. Immature brain regions such as the ganglionic eminence and rhombic lip had very low tau expression, but within more mature regions, there was little variation in tau expression or splicing. We thus demonstrate an abrupt, evolutionarily conserved shift in tau isoform expression during the human perinatal period that may be due to tau expression in maturing neurons. Alternative splicing of the MAPT pre-mRNA may play a vital role in normal brain development across multiple species and provides a basis for future investigations into the developmental and pathological functions of the tau protein.

  1. Symbolic joint entropy reveals the coupling of various brain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Huang, Xiaolin; Du, Sidan; Liu, Hongxing; Ning, Xinbao

    2018-01-01

    The convergence and divergence of oscillatory behavior of different brain regions are very important for the procedure of information processing. Measurements of coupling or correlation are very useful to study the difference of brain activities. In this study, EEG signals were collected from ten subjects under two conditions, i.e. eyes closed state and idle with eyes open. We propose a nonlinear algorithm, symbolic joint entropy, to compare the coupling strength among the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes and between two different states. Instead of decomposing the EEG into different frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta, gamma etc.), the novel algorithm is to investigate the coupling from the entire spectrum of brain wave activities above 4Hz. The coupling coefficients in two states with different time delay steps are compared and the group statistics are presented as well. We find that the coupling coefficient of eyes open state with delay consistently lower than that of eyes close state across the group except for one subject, whereas the results without delay are not consistent. The differences between two brain states with non-zero delay can reveal the intrinsic inter-region coupling better. We also use the well-known Hénon map data to validate the algorithm proposed in this paper. The result shows that the method is robust and has a great potential for other physiologic time series.

  2. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... to be densely packed with serotonin transporters (5-hydroxytryptaminic [5-HTT] system). METHODS: A template set for the raphe nuclei, based on their high content of 5-HTT as visualized in parametric (11)C-labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile PET images, was created for 10...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared...

  3. The multiple brain abscesses associated with congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seok; Lim, Dong-Jun; Chung, Yong-Gu; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Lim, Seong-Jun; Kim, Woo-Jae; Park, Jung-Yul; Suh, Jung-Keun

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of multiple brain abscesses associated with diffuse congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Although the cases of brain abscesses associated with congenital PAVM are very rare, the brain abscess could be an initial clinical manifestation in asymptomatic PAVM as in the case presented in this report. PAVM may contribute to the development of a brain abscess by allowing easy bacterial access to systemic circulation through the right-to-left pul...

  4. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relevance of brain lesion location to cognition in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rossi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between cognition and brain white matter (WM lesion distribution and frequency in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR MS. METHODS: MRI-based T2 lesion probability map (LPM was used to assess the relevance of brain lesion location for cognitive impairment in a group of 142 consecutive patients with RRMS. Significance of voxelwise analyses was p<0.05, cluster-corrected for multiple comparisons. The Rao Brief Repeatable Battery was administered at the time of brain MRI to categorize the MS population into cognitively preserved (CP and cognitively impaired (CI. RESULTS: Out of 142 RRMS, 106 were classified as CP and 36 as CI. Although the CI group had greater WM lesion volume than the CP group (p = 0.001, T2 lesions tended to be less widespread across the WM. The peak of lesion frequency was almost twice higher in CI (61% in the forceps major than in CP patients (37% in the posterior corona radiata. The voxelwise analysis confirmed that lesion frequency was higher in CI than in CP patients with significant bilateral clusters in the forceps major and in the splenium of the corpus callosum (p<0.05, corrected. Low scores of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test correlated with higher lesion frequency in these WM regions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall these results suggest that in MS patients, areas relevant for cognition lie mostly in the commissural fiber tracts. This supports the notion of a functional (multiple disconnection between grey matter structures, secondary to damage located in specific WM areas, as one of the most important mechanisms leading to cognitive impairment in MS.

  6. Regional homogeneity of the resting-state brain activity correlates with individual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiqiong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-01-25

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has confirmed that the strengths of the long distance functional connectivity between different brain areas are correlated with individual differences in intelligence. However, the association between the local connectivity within a specific brain region and intelligence during rest remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between local connectivity and intelligence. Fifty-nine right-handed healthy adults participated in the study. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to assess the strength of local connectivity. The associations between ReHo and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores were studied in a voxel-wise manner using partial correlation analysis controlling for age and sex. We found that the FSIQ scores were positively correlated with the ReHo values of the bilateral inferior parietal lobules, middle frontal, parahippocampal and inferior temporal gyri, the right thalamus, superior frontal and fusiform gyri, and the left superior parietal lobule. The main findings are consistent with the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, supporting the view that general intelligence involves multiple brain regions throughout the brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  8. Region based Brain Computer Interface for a home control application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman Aydin, Eda; Bay, Omer Faruk; Guler, Inan

    2015-08-01

    Environment control is one of the important challenges for disabled people who suffer from neuromuscular diseases. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) provides a communication channel between the human brain and the environment without requiring any muscular activation. The most important expectation for a home control application is high accuracy and reliable control. Region-based paradigm is a stimulus paradigm based on oddball principle and requires selection of a target at two levels. This paper presents an application of region based paradigm for a smart home control application for people with neuromuscular diseases. In this study, a region based stimulus interface containing 49 commands was designed. Five non-disabled subjects were attended to the experiments. Offline analysis results of the experiments yielded 95% accuracy for five flashes. This result showed that region based paradigm can be used to select commands of a smart home control application with high accuracy in the low number of repetitions successfully. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was not observed between the level accuracies.

  9. High intensity region segmentation in MR imaging of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F; Filipuzzi, M; Graffigna, J P; Isoardi, R; Noceti, M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathologies are often manifest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as hyperintense or bright regions as compared to normal tissue. It is of particular interest to develop an algorithm to detect, identify and define those Regions of Interest (ROI) when analyzing MRI studies, particularly for lesions of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study is to analyze those parameters which optimize segmentation of the areas of interest. To establish which areas should be considered as hyperintense regions, we developed a database (DB), with studies of patients diagnosed with MS. This disease causes axonal demyelination and it is expressed as bright regions in PD, T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences. Thus, with more than 4300 hyperintense regions validated by an expert physician, an algorithm was developed to detect such spots, approximating the results the expert obtained. Alongside these hyperintense lesion regions, it also detected bone regions with high intensity levels, similar to the intensity of the lesions, but with other features that allow a good differentiation.The algorithm will then detect ROIs with similar intensity levels and performs classification through data mining techniques

  10. Expression of Tau Pathology-Related Proteins in Different Brain Regions: A Molecular Basis of Tau Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Yanchong; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregated in affected neurons in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. The tau pathology starts from the entorhinal cortex (EC), spreads to the hippocampus and frontal and temporal cortices, and finally to all isocortex areas, but the cerebellum is spared from tau lesions. The molecular basis of differential vulnerability of different brain regions to tau pathology is not understood. In the present study, we analyzed brain regional expressions of tau and tau pathology-related proteins. We found that tau was hyperphosphorylated at multiple sites in the frontal cortex (FC), but not in the cerebellum, from AD brain. The level of tau expression in the cerebellum was about 1/4 of that seen in the frontal and temporal cortices in human brain. In the rat brain, the expression level of tau with three microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau) was comparable in the hippocampus, EC, FC, parietal-temporal cortex (PTC), occipital-temporal cortex (OTC), striatum, thalamus, olfactory bulb (OB) and cerebellum. However, the expression level of 4R-tau was the highest in the EC and the lowest in the cerebellum. Tau phosphatases, kinases, microtubule-related proteins and other tau pathology-related proteins were also expressed in a region-specific manner in the rat brain. These results suggest that higher levels of tau and tau kinases in the EC and low levels of these proteins in the cerebellum may accounts for the vulnerability and resistance of these representative brain regions to the development of tau pathology, respectively. The present study provides the regional expression profiles of tau and tau pathology-related proteins in the brain, which may help understand the brain regional vulnerability to tau pathology in neurodegenerative tauopathies.

  11. A case of lung adenocarcinoma with multiple intracranial hemorrhages of brain metastases after whole-brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Hirano, Satoshi; Asao, Tetsuhiko; Takeda, Yuichiro; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is widely applied in cases of brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there are few case reports on hemorrhages of brain metastases occurring after WBRT. A 63-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of stage IV (T4N0M1b) lung adenocarcinoma about 4 years previously, and received chemotherapy regimens and gamma knife radiosurgery. However, her brain metastases exacerbated and she received WBRT in November 2010 and docetaxel monotherapy in December 2010. Two weeks after completing WBRT, she experienced dysarthria and an MRI showed multiple hemorrhages within brain metastases. Over a period of careful observation, these hemorrhages repeatedly alternated between improvement and exacerbation. Radiotherapy for metastatic brain tumors is considered to suppress hemorrhagic events of brain metastases. However, multiple intracranial hemorrhages of brain metastases occurred after WBRT in the present case. The accumulation of further studies of similar cases is necessary to identify the exact mechanism of these hemorrhages. (author)

  12. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-09-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D-/sup 2/ala, D-/sup 5/leu leucine enkephalin (/sup 3/H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand /sup 3/H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex.

  13. Radioreceptor assay of opioid peptides in selected canine brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiderio, D.M.; Takeshita, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay using the opioid delta receptor-preferring ligand D- 2 ala, D- 5 leu leucine enkephalin ( 3 H-DADL) and the broader-specificity ligand 3 H-etorphine was used to measure five HPLC-purified neuropeptide fractions derived from the peptide-rich fraction of tissue homogenates of nine anatomical regions of the canine brain. The receptoractive peptides studied were methionine enkephalin, alpha-neo-endorphin, dynorphin 1-8, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe, and leucine enkephalin. These peptides derive from two larger precursors: proenkephalin A, which contains methionine enkephalin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin-Arg-Phe; and proenkephalin B, which contains alpha-neo-endorphin and dynorphin 1-8. Receptoractive peptides were measured in the peptide-rich fraction derived from homogenates of canine hypothalamus, pituitary, caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, mid-brain, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cortex

  14. Study of the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Zhang Benshu; Cai Li; Zhang Meiyun; Gao Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: Forty-six MSA patients with cerebellar or Parkinsonian symptoms and 18 healthy controls with similar age as patients were included. According to the disease duration,the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (≤ 12 months, n=14), group 2 (13-24 months, n=13), group 3 (≥ 25 months, n=19). All patients and controls underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging. To compare metabolic distributions between different groups, SPM 8 software and two-sample t test were used for image data analysis. When P<0.005, the result was considered statistically significant. Results: At the level of P<0.005, the hypometabolism in group 1 (all t>3.49) was identified in the frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and anterior cerebellar hemisphere. The regions of hypometabolism extended to posterolateral putamen and part of posterior cerebellar hemisphere in group 2 (all t>3.21). In group 3, the whole parts of putamen and cerebellar hemisphere were involved as hypometabolism (all t>4.08). In addition to the hypometabolism regions, there were also stabled hypermetabolism regions mainly in the parietal lobe, medial temporal lobe and the thalamus in all patient groups (all t>3.27 in group 1, all t>3.02 in group 2,all t>3.30 in group 3). Conclusions: Disease duration is closely related to the FDG metabolism in the MSA patients. Frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus can be involved at early stage of the disease. Putaminal hypometabolism begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early at its anterior part. Besides, thalamus shows hypermetabolism in the whole duration. 18 F-FDG metabolic changes of brain can reflect the development of mixed-type MSA. (authors)

  15. Dynamics and heterogeneity of brain damage in multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Kotelnikova, Ekaterina

    2017-10-26

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease driving inflammatory and degenerative processes that damage the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is not well understood how these events interact and evolve to evoke such a highly dynamic and heterogeneous disease. We established a hypothesis whereby the variability in the course of MS is driven by the very same pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the disease, the autoimmune attack on the CNS that leads to chronic inflammation, neuroaxonal degeneration and remyelination. We propose that each of these processes acts more or less severely and at different times in each of the clinical subgroups. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model that was constrained by experimental data (the expanded disability status scale [EDSS] time series) obtained from a retrospective longitudinal cohort of 66 MS patients with a long-term follow-up (up to 20 years). Moreover, we validated this model in a second prospective cohort of 120 MS patients with a three-year follow-up, for which EDSS data and brain volume time series were available. The clinical heterogeneity in the datasets was reduced by grouping the EDSS time series using an unsupervised clustering analysis. We found that by adjusting certain parameters, albeit within their biological range, the mathematical model reproduced the different disease courses, supporting the dynamic CNS damage hypothesis to explain MS heterogeneity. Our analysis suggests that the irreversible axon degeneration produced in the early stages of progressive MS is mainly due to the higher rate of myelinated axon degeneration, coupled to the lower capacity for remyelination. However, and in agreement with recent pathological studies, degeneration of chronically demyelinated axons is not a key feature that distinguishes this phenotype. Moreover, the model reveals that lower rates of axon degeneration and more rapid remyelination make relapsing MS more resilient than the

  16. Dynamics and heterogeneity of brain damage in multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Kotelnikova, Ekaterina; Kiani, Narsis A.; Abad, Elena; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H.; Andorra, Magi; Zubizarreta, Irati; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Pertsovskaya, Inna; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.; Olsson, Tomas; Martin, Roland; Paul, Friedemann; Tegner, Jesper; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Villoslada, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease driving inflammatory and degenerative processes that damage the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is not well understood how these events interact and evolve to evoke such a highly dynamic and heterogeneous disease. We established a hypothesis whereby the variability in the course of MS is driven by the very same pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the disease, the autoimmune attack on the CNS that leads to chronic inflammation, neuroaxonal degeneration and remyelination. We propose that each of these processes acts more or less severely and at different times in each of the clinical subgroups. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model that was constrained by experimental data (the expanded disability status scale [EDSS] time series) obtained from a retrospective longitudinal cohort of 66 MS patients with a long-term follow-up (up to 20 years). Moreover, we validated this model in a second prospective cohort of 120 MS patients with a three-year follow-up, for which EDSS data and brain volume time series were available. The clinical heterogeneity in the datasets was reduced by grouping the EDSS time series using an unsupervised clustering analysis. We found that by adjusting certain parameters, albeit within their biological range, the mathematical model reproduced the different disease courses, supporting the dynamic CNS damage hypothesis to explain MS heterogeneity. Our analysis suggests that the irreversible axon degeneration produced in the early stages of progressive MS is mainly due to the higher rate of myelinated axon degeneration, coupled to the lower capacity for remyelination. However, and in agreement with recent pathological studies, degeneration of chronically demyelinated axons is not a key feature that distinguishes this phenotype. Moreover, the model reveals that lower rates of axon degeneration and more rapid remyelination make relapsing MS more resilient than the

  17. Multiple brain metastases - current management and perspectives for treatment with electrochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Gehl, Julie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the advanced oncological treatments of cancer, an overall increase in cancer incidence, and better diagnostic tools, the incidence of brain metastases is on the rise. This review addresses the current treatment options for patients with multiple brain metastases, presenting...... of the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin by 300 times. Preclinical data are promising and the first patient has been treated in an ongoing clinical trial for patients with brain metastases. Perspectives for ECT in the brain include treatment of primary and secondary brain tumors as well as soft tissue metastases elsewhere....

  18. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Puthiyedth

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation.The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC, Hippocampus (HIP, Middle temporal gyrus (MTG, Posterior cingulate cortex (PC, Superior frontal gyrus (SFG and visual cortex (VCX brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets.We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD. In addition, we

  19. Intellectual enrichment lessens the effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Wylie, Glenn R; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2010-06-15

    Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in neurologic populations. The literature on cognitive reserve has focused mainly on Alzheimer disease. The current research examines whether greater intellectual enrichment lessens the negative effect of brain atrophy on learning and memory in patients with MS. Forty-four persons with MS completed neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory, and a vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy was estimated with third ventricle width measured from 3-T magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo MRIs. Hierarchical regression was used to predict learning and memory with brain atrophy, intellectual enrichment, and the interaction between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Brain atrophy predicted worse learning and memory, and intellectual enrichment predicted better learning; however, these effects were moderated by interactions between brain atrophy and intellectual enrichment. Specifically, higher intellectual enrichment lessened the negative impact of brain atrophy on both learning and memory. These findings help to explain the incomplete relationship between multiple sclerosis disease severity and cognition, as the effect of disease on cognition is attenuated among patients with higher intellectual enrichment. As such, intellectual enrichment is supported as a protective factor against disease-related cognitive impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  20. The distribution of multiple opiate receptors in bovine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Hunt, S.P.; Emson, P.C.; Iversen, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of μ and delta opiate receptors in bovine brain has been investigated using the selective radioligands [ 3 H]morphine and D-[ 3 H]Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 -enkephalin. Their distributions were found to vary independently through different brain areas with up to a 10-fold difference between the ratio of μ to delta binding sites for the substantia nigra and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. (Auth.)

  1. Regional distribution of enkephalinase in rat brain by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, G.; Hamel, E.; Besselievre, R.; Fournie-Zaluski, M.C.; Roques, B.P.; Bouboutou, R.

    1984-01-01

    The first visualization of enkephalinase (neutral metalloendopeptidase, E.C.3.4.24.11) in rat brain was obtained by autoradiography, using a new tritiated inhibitor: [ 3 H]N-[(R, S) 3-(N-hydroxy) carboxamido-2-benzyl propanoyl]-glycine ( 3 H-HCBP-Gly). The preliminary analysis of sections clearly showed a discrete localization of enkephalinase in enkephalin enriched regions, such as caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Moreover 3 H-HCBP-Gly binding also occured in choroid plexus and spinal cord [fr

  2. Association between resting-state brain network topological organization and creative ability: Evidence from a multiple linear regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Bingqing; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Li, Junchao; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated a tight linkage between resting-state functional connectivity of the human brain and creative ability. This study aimed to further investigate the association between the topological organization of resting-state brain networks and creativity. Therefore, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 22 high-creativity participants and 22 low-creativity participants (as determined by their Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking scores). We then constructed functional brain networks for each participant and assessed group differences in network topological properties before exploring the relationships between respective network topological properties and creative ability. We identified an optimized organization of intrinsic brain networks in both groups. However, compared with low-creativity participants, high-creativity participants exhibited increased global efficiency and substantially decreased path length, suggesting increased efficiency of information transmission across brain networks in creative individuals. Using a multiple linear regression model, we further demonstrated that regional functional integration properties (i.e., the betweenness centrality and global efficiency) of brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and sensorimotor network (SMN), significantly predicted the individual differences in creative ability. Furthermore, the associations between network regional properties and creative performance were creativity-level dependent, where the difference in the resource control component may be important in explaining individual difference in creative performance. These findings provide novel insights into the neural substrate of creativity and may facilitate objective identification of creative ability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2015-01-01

    in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison...... with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging...... fluid as well as levels of CXCL10 and MMP9 in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, may provide novel pathological information as a marker of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis, to some extent...

  4. Multiple serotonin receptors: regional distribution and effect of raphe lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackshear, M.A.; Sanders-Bush, E.; Steranka, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    These studies confirm and extend the recent work suggesting that [ 3 H]lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) labels two distinct binding sites in rat brain resembling serotonin (5HT) receptors. Although Scatchard analyses of [ 3 H]LSD binding to membranes prepared from cortex/hippocampus were linear, the heterogeneity of the [ 3 H]LSD binding sites was clearly demonstrated in displacement studies. The displacement curves for both 5HT and spiperone were bisigmoidal with the concentration required to saturate the high affinity components nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations necessary to saturate the low affinity components. Additivity studies suggested that the sites with high affinity for 5HT and spiperone are different, independent sites. These sites are referred to as 5HT 1 and 5HT 2 respectively. Regional analyses showed, that in the frontal cortex, the density of the 5HT 2 site was slightly greater than the 5HT 1 site whereas the 5HT 1 site was predominant in all other brain areas, including the spinal cord. The pharmacological properties of the two sites have features in common with 5HT receptors; however, electrolytic lesions of the midbrain raphe nuclei did not change the densities or binding constants of the two apparent 5HT receptor subtypes, even though the number of high affinity 5HT uptake sites was markedly reduced. (Auth.)

  5. Neurons derived from different brain regions are inherently different in vitro: a novel multiregional brain-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauth, Stephanie; Maoz, Ben M; Sheehy, Sean P; Hemphill, Matthew A; Murty, Tara; Macedonia, Mary Kate; Greer, Angie M; Budnik, Bogdan; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2017-03-01

    Brain in vitro models are critically important to developing our understanding of basic nervous system cellular physiology, potential neurotoxic effects of chemicals, and specific cellular mechanisms of many disease states. In this study, we sought to address key shortcomings of current brain in vitro models: the scarcity of comparative data for cells originating from distinct brain regions and the lack of multiregional brain in vitro models. We demonstrated that rat neurons from different brain regions exhibit unique profiles regarding their cell composition, protein expression, metabolism, and electrical activity in vitro. In vivo, the brain is unique in its structural and functional organization, and the interactions and communication between different brain areas are essential components of proper brain function. This fact and the observation that neurons from different areas of the brain exhibit unique behaviors in vitro underline the importance of establishing multiregional brain in vitro models. Therefore, we here developed a multiregional brain-on-a-chip and observed a reduction of overall firing activity, as well as altered amounts of astrocytes and specific neuronal cell types compared with separately cultured neurons. Furthermore, this multiregional model was used to study the effects of phencyclidine, a drug known to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in vivo, on individual brain areas separately while monitoring downstream effects on interconnected regions. Overall, this work provides a comparison of cells from different brain regions in vitro and introduces a multiregional brain-on-a-chip that enables the development of unique disease models incorporating essential in vivo features. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Due to the scarcity of comparative data for cells from different brain regions in vitro, we demonstrated that neurons isolated from distinct brain areas exhibit unique behaviors in vitro. Moreover, in vivo proper brain function is dependent on the

  6. Measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability with positron emission tomography in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieschi, C.; Pozzilli, C.; Bernardi, S.; Bozzao, L.; Lenzi, G.L.; Picozzi, P.; Iannotti, F.; Conforti, P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to elucidate the role of positron emission tomography using 68 Ga-EDTA in the study of blood-brain barrier abnormalities associated with multiple sclerosis. 14 refs.; 1 figure

  7. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during ...

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow in the patient with brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shohei

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT) in 21 cases of intracranial tumors (13 meningiomas, 5 gliomas, 3 metastatic brain tumors). Peritumoral edema was graded as mild, moderate or severe based on the extent of edema on CT and MRI. According to intratumoral blood flow distribution patterns, three patterns were classified as central type with relatively high blood flow at the center of the tumor, homogeneous type with an almost homogeneous blood flow distribution, and marginal type with relatively high blood flow at the periphery of the tumor. High grade astrocytoma and metastatic brain tumor showed marginal type blood flow and moderate or severe edema except in one case. Five meningiomas with severe peritumoral edema revealed marginal type blood flow and four with mild peritumoral edema showed central type blood flow, except for one case. No correlation was found between the extent of peritumoral edema and histological subtype, tumor size, location, duration of clinical history, vascularization on angiogram, and mean blood flow in the tumor. These results suggest that blood flow distribution patterns within the tumor may affect the extension of peritumoral edema. Pre- and postoperative rCBFs were evaluated with Xe-CT and IMP-SPECT in 7 cases, mean rCBF of peritumoral edema was 6.2 ml/100 g/min preoperatively, and discrepancy between rCBF on Xe-CT and that on IMP-SPECT was shown in the remote cortical region ipsilateral to the tumor. Postoperative rCBF revealed an improved blood flow in both adjacent and remote areas, suggesting that the decreased blood flow associated with brain tumors might be relieved after surgery. (author) 53 refs

  9. Acetamiprid Accumulates in Different Amounts in Murine Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Terayama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids such as acetamiprid (ACE belong to a new and widely used single class of pesticides. Neonicotinoids mimic the chemical structure of nicotine and share agonist activity with the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR. Neonicotinoids are widely considered to be safe in humans; however, they have recently been implicated in a number of human health disorders. A wide range of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disorders associated with high doses of neonicotinoids administered to animals have also been reported. Consequently, we used a mouse model to investigate the response of the central nervous system to ACE treatment. Our results show that exposure to ACE-containing water for three or seven days (decuple and centuple of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL/day caused a decrease in body weight in 10-week old A/JJmsSlc (A/J mice. However, the treatments did not affect brain histology or expression of CD34. ACE concentrations were significantly higher in the midbrain of ACE-treated mice than that of the normal and vehicle groups. Expression levels of α7, α4, and β2 nAChRs were found to be low in the olfactory bulb and midbrain of normal mice. Furthermore, in the experimental group (centuple ACE-containing water for seven days, β2 nAChR expression decreased in many brain regions. Information regarding the amount of accumulated ACE and expression levels of the acetylcholine receptor in each region of the brain is important for understanding any clinical symptoms that may be associated with ACE exposure.

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging using multiple coils for mouse brain connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouls, John C; Badea, Alexandra; Anderson, Robert B J; Cofer, Gary P; Allan Johnson, G

    2018-04-19

    The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner. Preservation of the quality factor of each coil is essential to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance and throughput, because mouse brain specimen imaging at 7 T takes place in the coil-dominated noise regime. In that regime, we show a shielding configuration causing no SNR degradation in the two-coil system. To acquire data from several coils simultaneously, the coils are placed in the magnet bore, around the isocenter, in which gradient field distortions can bias diffusion tensor imaging metrics, affect tractography and contaminate measurements of the connectivity matrix. We quantified the experimental alterations in fractional anisotropy and eigenvector direction occurring in each coil. We showed that, when the coils were placed 12 mm away from the isocenter, measurements of the brain connectivity matrix appeared to be minimally altered by gradient field distortions. Simultaneous measurements on two mouse brain specimens demonstrated a full doubling of the diffusion tensor imaging throughput in practice. Each coil produced images devoid of shading or artifact. To further improve the throughput of mouse brain connectomics, we suggested a future expansion of the system to four coils. To better understand acceptable trade-offs between imaging throughput and connectivity

  11. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine SF Moullé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  12. A novel fiber-free technique for brain activity imaging in multiple freely behaving mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Shigenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Nagai, Takeharu

    2018-02-01

    Brain functions and related psychiatric disorders have been investigated by recording electrophysiological field potential. When recording it, a conventional method requires fiber-based apparatus connected to the brain, which however hampers the simultaneous measurement in multiple animals (e.g. by a tangle of fibers). Here, we propose a fiber-free recording technique in conjunction with a ratiometric bioluminescent voltage indicator. Our method allows investigation of electrophysiological filed potential dynamics in multiple freely behaving animals simultaneously over a long time period. Therefore, this fiber-free technique opens up the way to investigate a new mechanism of brain function that governs social behaviors and animal-to-animal interaction.

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Concurrent Urodynamic Testing Identifies Brain Structures Involved in Micturition Cycle in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, Rose; Karmonik, Christof; Shy, Michael; Fletcher, Sophie; Boone, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, which is common in patients with multiple sclerosis, has a significant impact on quality of life. In this study we sought to determine brain activity processes during the micturition cycle in female patients with multiple sclerosis and neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. We report brain activity on functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous urodynamic testing in 23 ambulatory female patients with multiple sclerosis. Individual functional magnetic resonance imaging activation maps at strong desire to void and at initiation of voiding were calculated and averaged at Montreal Neuroimaging Institute. Areas of significant activation were identified in these average maps. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with elicitable neurogenic detrusor overactivity or detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Group analysis of all patients at strong desire to void yielded areas of activation in regions associated with executive function (frontal gyrus), emotional regulation (cingulate gyrus) and motor control (putamen, cerebellum and precuneus). Comparison of the average change in activation between previously reported healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis showed predominantly stronger, more focal activation in the former and lower, more diffused activation in the latter. Patients with multiple sclerosis who had demonstrable neurogenic detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia showed a trend toward distinct brain activation at full urge and at initiation of voiding respectively. We successfully studied brain activation during the entire micturition cycle in female patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and multiple sclerosis using a concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging/urodynamic testing platform. Understanding the central neural processes involved in specific parts of micturition in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction may identify areas

  14. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  15. Staphylococcus cohnii as a cause of multiple brain abscesses in Weber-Christian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Yonemura, Kiminobu; Sugimoto, Ryoko; Tokunaga, Makoto; Uchino, Makoto

    2005-11-15

    We report a patient with multiple brain abscesses due to Staphylococcus cohnii. While these brain abscesses markedly responded to the antibiotics, this patient was subsequently suffered from subcutaneous inflammatory nodules in the adipose tissue, which diagnosed him as having Weber-Christian disease (WCD). This is the first report that subcutaneous inflammatory nodules in the adipose tissue, which lead the diagnosis of WCD, followed multiple brain abscesses. To our knowledge, S. cohnii has not yet been reported to cause multiple brain abscesses in humans. Although the etiology of WCD is unknown, an immune mechanism has been implicated in the pathogenesis. Therefore, we should notice that patients with WCD could be immunocompromised hosts with a higher risk to suffer from severe opportunistic infections.

  16. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99 Tc m -HMPAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in amphetamine abusers. Twenty-one amphetamine abusers were included and 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT performed to evaluate rCBF. The drug-using periods ranged from 1 month to several years. The demonstrated neuropsychogenic symptoms and signs of the abusers were from normal presentation to various neurologic complications. The brain SPECT scans were interpreted visually as either normal or abnormal. The degree of abnormality was classified into mild or severe. The results revealed that (a) most SPECT studies in abusers show small defects (95%, 20/21 cases); 71% (15/21) of cases revealed multiple defects over both hemispheres (classified as severe); 24% (5/21) of the cases had focal defects (classified as mild); and only one case (5%, 1/21) demonstrated a normal SPECT finding; (b) the degree of abnormality on SPECT scans was not related to the dose and duration of drug use or the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. In conclusion, 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT is a sensitive but not specific test for neuropsychogenic abnormalities associated with amphetamine abuse. (Author)

  17. Tartrazine induced neurobiochemical alterations in rat brain sub-regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Diksha; Vyas, Krati; Singh, Shakuntala; John, P J; Soni, Inderpal

    2018-03-01

    Tartrazine is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring. The present study aimed to screen the neurobiochemical effects of Tartrazine in Wistar rats after administering the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) level. Tartrazine (7.5 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to 21 day old weanling rats through oral gavage once daily for 40 consecutive days. On 41st day, the animals were sacrificed and brain sub regions namely, frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were used to determine activities of anti-oxidant enzymes viz. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione-Stransferase (GST), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and levels of lipid peroxides using Thio-barbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) assay. Our investigation showed a significant decrease in SOD and CAT activity, whereas there occurred a decline in GST and GR activity with an increase in GPx activity to counteract the oxidative damage caused by significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides. The possible mechanism of this oxidative damage might be attributed to the production of sulphanilc acid as a metabolite in azofission of tartrazine. It may be concluded that the ADI levels of food azo dyes adversely affect and alter biochemical markers of brain tissue and cause oxidative damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SU-E-T-79: Comparison of Doses Received by the Hippocampus in Patients Treated with Single Vs Multiple Isocenter Based Stereotactic Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Multiple Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algan, O; Giem, J; Young, J; Ali, I; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiotherapy utilizing a single isocenter (SI) versus multiple isocenter (MI) in patients with multiple intracranial metastases. Methods: Seven patients imaged with MRI including SPGR sequence and diagnosed with 2–3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study. Two sets of stereotactic IMRT treatment plans, (MI vs SI), were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences and doses received by the hippocampus and whole brain were calculated. The prescribed dose was 25Gy in 5 fractions. The two groups were compared using t-test analysis. Results: There were 17 lesions in 7 patients. The median tumor, right hippocampus, left hippocampus and brain volumes were: 3.37cc, 2.56cc, 3.28cc, and 1417cc respectively. In comparing the two treatment plans, there was no difference in the PTV coverage except in the tail of the DVH curve. All tumors had V95 > 99.5%. The only statistically significant parameter was the V100 (72% vs 45%, p=0.002, favoring MI). All other evaluated parameters including the V95 and V98 did not reveal any statistically significant differences. None of the evaluated dosimetric parameters for the hippocampus (V100, V80, V60, V40, V20, V10, D100, D90, D70, D50, D30, D10) revealed any statistically significant differences (all p-values > 0.31) between MI and SI plans. The total brain dose was slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose regions, although this difference was not statistically significant. Utilizing brain-sub-PTV volumes did not change these results. Conclusion: The use of SI treatment planning for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain compared to MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  20. SU-E-T-79: Comparison of Doses Received by the Hippocampus in Patients Treated with Single Vs Multiple Isocenter Based Stereotactic Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algan, O; Giem, J; Young, J; Ali, I; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiotherapy utilizing a single isocenter (SI) versus multiple isocenter (MI) in patients with multiple intracranial metastases. Methods: Seven patients imaged with MRI including SPGR sequence and diagnosed with 2–3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study. Two sets of stereotactic IMRT treatment plans, (MI vs SI), were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences and doses received by the hippocampus and whole brain were calculated. The prescribed dose was 25Gy in 5 fractions. The two groups were compared using t-test analysis. Results: There were 17 lesions in 7 patients. The median tumor, right hippocampus, left hippocampus and brain volumes were: 3.37cc, 2.56cc, 3.28cc, and 1417cc respectively. In comparing the two treatment plans, there was no difference in the PTV coverage except in the tail of the DVH curve. All tumors had V95 > 99.5%. The only statistically significant parameter was the V100 (72% vs 45%, p=0.002, favoring MI). All other evaluated parameters including the V95 and V98 did not reveal any statistically significant differences. None of the evaluated dosimetric parameters for the hippocampus (V100, V80, V60, V40, V20, V10, D100, D90, D70, D50, D30, D10) revealed any statistically significant differences (all p-values > 0.31) between MI and SI plans. The total brain dose was slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose regions, although this difference was not statistically significant. Utilizing brain-sub-PTV volumes did not change these results. Conclusion: The use of SI treatment planning for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain compared to MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment

  1. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  2. A Means for the Scintigraphic Imaging of Regional Brain Dynamics. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Regional Cerebral Blood Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potchen, E. J.; Bentley, R.; Gerth, W.; Hill, R. L.; Davis, D. O. [Washington University School Of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1969-05-15

    The use of freely diffusable inert radioactive gas as a washout indicator to measure regional cerebral blood flow has become a standardized kinetic procedure in many laboratories. Recent investigations with this technique have led us to conclude that we can reliably distinguish regional flow with perfusion against regional flow without perfusion from the early portion of the curve. Based on a detailed study of the early curve kinetics in patients with and without cerebral vascular disease we have defined the sampling duration necessary for application of the Anger gamma camera imaging process to regional changes in cerebral radioactivity. Using a standard camera and a small computer, a procedure has been developed and based upon entire field to determine the time of maximum height followed by analysis of the data in a matrix. This will permit a contour plot presentation of calculated regional cerebral blood flow in millilitres per 100 grams perfused brain per minute. In addition, we propose to augment this data by the display of regional non-perfusion blood flow versus regional cerebral flow with perfusion. Preliminary investigation on sampling duration, and Compton scattering were prerequisite to clinical scintigraphy of regional cerebral blood flow. In addition, the method of interface for the conventional Anger gamma camera to digital computers used in this procedure are discussed. Applications to further assess regional cerebral dynamics by scintigraphy are presented. (author)

  3. Cerebellar contribution to motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: An MRI sub-regional volumetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Alessandro; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12). Multivariate linear regression models assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and motor/cognitive scores. Compared to HC, only secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients had lower cerebellar volumes (total and posterior cerebellum). In MS patients, lower anterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted worse motor performance, whereas lower posterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted poor cognitive performance. Global measures of brain volume and infratentorial T2 LV were not selected by the final multivariate models. Cerebellar volumetric abnormalities are likely to play an important contribution to explain motor and cognitive performance in MS patients. Consistently with functional mapping studies, cerebellar posterior-inferior volume accounted for variance in cognitive measures, whereas anterior cerebellar volume accounted for variance in motor performance, supporting the assessment of cerebellar damage at sub-regional level.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  5. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  6. MAPT expression and splicing is differentially regulated by brain region: relation to genotype and implication for tauopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabzuni, Daniah; Wray, Selina; Vandrovcova, Jana; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Luk, Connie; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Dillman, Allissa; Hernandez, Dena G.; Arepalli, Sampath; Singleton, Andrew B.; Cookson, Mark R.; Pittman, Alan M.; de Silva, Rohan; Weale, Michael E.; Hardy, John; Ryten, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) locus is one of the most remarkable in neurogenetics due not only to its involvement in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parksinson's disease and possibly Alzheimer's disease, but also due its genetic evolution and complex alternative splicing features which are, to some extent, linked and so all the more intriguing. Therefore, obtaining robust information regarding the expression, splicing and genetic regulation of this gene within the human brain is of immense importance. In this study, we used 2011 brain samples originating from 439 individuals to provide the most reliable and coherent information on the regional expression, splicing and regulation of MAPT available to date. We found significant regional variation in mRNA expression and splicing of MAPT within the human brain. Furthermore, at the gene level, the regional distribution of mRNA expression and total tau protein expression levels were largely in agreement, appearing to be highly correlated. Finally and most importantly, we show that while the reported H1/H2 association with gene level expression is likely to be due to a technical artefact, this polymorphism is associated with the expression of exon 3-containing isoforms in human brain. These findings would suggest that contrary to the prevailing view, genetic risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases at the MAPT locus are likely to operate by changing mRNA splicing in different brain regions, as opposed to the overall expression of the MAPT gene. PMID:22723018

  7. MR brain scanning in patients with vasculitis: Differentiation from multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; Ormerod, I.E.C.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.; Gibson, A.

    1987-01-01

    We performed MR (magnetic resonance) brain imaging on 24 patients with a systemic vasculitis. MRI proved to be a sensitive method for detecting brain lesions (clinically silent or manifest) in these patients. The most frequent abnormalities were periventricular lesions seen in 12 cases. Such changes are not specific for vascular disease, and are often seen in multiple sclerosis. However, additional changes were commonly seen which suggested the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. The role of stereotactic radiation therapy and whole-brain radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiujun; Xiao Jianping; Li Xiangpan; Jiang Xuesong; Zhang Ye; Xu Yingjie; Dai Jianrong; Li Yexiong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the results of stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) with or without whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in the treatment of multiple brain metastasis. Methods: From May 1995 to April 2010, totally 98 newly diagnosed multiple (2 - 13 lesions) brain metastases patients were treated in our centre. Forty-four patients were treated with SRT alone and 54 with SRT + WBRT. Dose fractionation schemes were 15 -26 Gy in 1 fraction or 24.0 -52.5 Gy in 2 - 15 fractions with 3.5 - 12.0 Gy per fraction, depending on the tumor volume, location, and history of prior irradiation. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used for survival analysis. The median age of the whole group was 55 years. The survival time was calculated from the date of radiation treatment to the day of death by any cause. Results: The median follow-up time for the whole group was 12 months, and the follow-up rate was 100%. The median overall survival time was 13.5 months for the whole group, there was no difference between SRT alone group and SRT + WBRT group (13.0 months vs. 13.5 months, χ 2 =0.31, P =0.578). The Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) at the time of treatment (χ 2 =6.25, P =0.012), the interval between the diagnosis of the primary tumor and brain metastases (χ 2 =7.34, P =0.025) and the status of extracranial metastases (χ 2 =4.20, P =0.040) were independent prognosis factors for survival in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiation therapy is an effective and alternative treatment choice for multiple brain metastases. (authors)

  9. Region of interest evaluation of SPECT image reconstruction methods using a realistic brain phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Weishi; Glick, S.J.; Soares, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    A realistic numerical brain phantom, developed by Zubal et al, was used for a region-of-interest evaluation of the accuracy and noise variance of the following SPECT reconstruction methods: (1) Maximum-Likelihood reconstruction using the Expectation-Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm; (2) an EM algorithm using ordered-subsets (OS-EM); (3) a re-scaled block iterative EM algorithm (RBI-EM); and (4) a filtered backprojection algorithm that uses a combination of the Bellini method for attenuation compensation and an iterative spatial blurring correction method using the frequency-distance principle (FDP). The Zubal phantom was made from segmented MRI slices of the brain, so that neuro-anatomical structures are well defined and indexed. Small regions-of-interest (ROIs) from the white matter, grey matter in the center of the brain and grey matter from the peripheral area of the brain were selected for the evaluation. Photon attenuation and distance-dependent collimator blurring were modeled. Multiple independent noise realizations were generated for two different count levels. The simulation study showed that the ROI bias measured for the EM-based algorithms decreased as the iteration number increased, and that the OS-EM and RBI-EM algorithms (16 and 64 subsets were used) achieved the equivalent accuracy of the ML-EM algorithm at about the same noise variance, with much fewer number of iterations. The Bellini-FDP restoration algorithm converged fast and required less computation per iteration. The ML-EM algorithm had a slightly better ROI bias vs. variance trade-off than the other algorithms

  10. Measurements and applications of neutron multiple scattering in resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Makio

    1977-02-01

    Capture yield of neutrons impinging on a thick material is complicated due to self-shielding and multiple scattering, especially in the resonance region. When the incident neutron energy is equal to a resonance energy of the material, capture probability of the neutron increases with sample thickness and reaches a saturation value P sub(CO). There is a simple relation between P sub(CO) and GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA and the recoil energy by the Monte-Carlo calculation. To examine validity of the relation, P sub(CO) was measured for 19 resonances in 12 nuclides with thick samples, using a JAERI linac time-of-flight spectrometer with Moxon-Rae type gamma ray detector and transmission type neutron flux monitor. Results of the measurements confirmed the validity. With this relation, the GAMMA sub(n)/GAMMA or GAMMA sub(γ)/GAMMA value can be obtained from the measured P sub(CO), and also the level spins be determined by combining the transmission data. Because of the definition of P sub(CO), determination of the resonance parameters is not sensitive to the sample thickness as far as it is sufficiently thick. (auth.)

  11. Automated selection of brain regions for real-time fMRI brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Michael; Sorger, Bettina; Goebel, Rainer; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) implemented with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) use fMRI time-courses from predefined regions of interest (ROIs). To reach best performances, localizer experiments and on-site expert supervision are required for ROI definition. To automate this step, we developed two unsupervised computational techniques based on the general linear model (GLM) and independent component analysis (ICA) of rt-fMRI data, and compared their performances on a communication BCI. Approach. 3 T fMRI data of six volunteers were re-analyzed in simulated real-time. During a localizer run, participants performed three mental tasks following visual cues. During two communication runs, a letter-spelling display guided the subjects to freely encode letters by performing one of the mental tasks with a specific timing. GLM- and ICA-based procedures were used to decode each letter, respectively using compact ROIs and whole-brain distributed spatio-temporal patterns of fMRI activity, automatically defined from subject-specific or group-level maps. Main results. Letter-decoding performances were comparable to supervised methods. In combination with a similarity-based criterion, GLM- and ICA-based approaches successfully decoded more than 80% (average) of the letters. Subject-specific maps yielded optimal performances. Significance. Automated solutions for ROI selection may help accelerating the translation of rt-fMRI BCIs from research to clinical applications.

  12. Brain Region-Dependent Rejection of Neural Precursor Cell Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Fainstein

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of CNS as an immune-privileged site has been challenged by the occurrence of immune surveillance and allogeneic graft rejection in the brain. Here we examined whether the immune response to allogeneic neural grafts is determined by the site of implantation in the CNS. Dramatic regional differences were observed between immune responses to allogeneic neural precursor/stem cell (NPC grafts in the striatum vs. the hippocampus. Striatal grafts were heavily infiltrated with IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells and completely rejected. In contrast, hippocampal grafts exhibited milder IBA-1+ cell infiltration, were not penetrated efficiently by CD3+ cells, and survived efficiently for at least 2 months. To evaluate whether the hippocampal protective effect is universal, astrocytes were then transplanted. Allogeneic astrocyte grafts elicited a vigorous rejection process from the hippocampus. CD200, a major immune-inhibitory signal, plays an important role in protecting grafts from rejection. Indeed, CD200 knock out NPC grafts were rejected more efficiently than wild type NPCs from the striatum. However, lack of CD200 expression did not elicit NPC graft rejection from the hippocampus. In conclusion, the hippocampus has partial immune-privilege properties that are restricted to NPCs and are CD200-independent. The unique hippocampal milieu may be protective for allogeneic NPC grafts, through host-graft interactions enabling sustained immune-regulatory properties of transplanted NPCs. These findings have implications for providing adequate immunosuppression in clinical translation of cell therapy.

  13. Regional differences in brain glucose metabolism determined by imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    André Kleinridders; Heather A. Ferris; Michelle L. Reyzer; Michaela Rath; Marion Soto; M. Lisa Manier; Jeffrey Spraggins; Zhihong Yang; Robert C. Stanton; Richard M. Caprioli; C. Ronald Kahn

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Glucose is the major energy substrate of the brain and crucial for normal brain function. In diabetes, the brain is subject to episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia resulting in acute outcomes ranging from confusion to seizures, while chronic metabolic dysregulation puts patients at increased risk for depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we aimed to determine how glucose is metabolized in different regions of the brain using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Metho...

  14. Deficits in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow on Brain SPECT Predict Treatment Resistant Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Taylor, Derek V; Meysami, Somayeh; Raji, Cyrus A

    2018-03-22

    Depression remains an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, yet few neuroimaging biomarkers are available to identify treatment response in depression. To analyze and compare functional perfusion neuroimaging in persons with treatment resistant depression (TRD) compared to those experiencing full remission. A total of 951 subjects from a community psychiatry cohort were scanned with perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain in both resting and task related settings. Of these, 78% experienced either full remission (n = 506) or partial remission (n = 237) and 11% were minimally responsive (n = 103) or non-responsive (11%. n = 106). Severity of depression symptoms were used to define these groups with changes in the Beck Depression Inventory prior to and following treatment. Voxel-based analyses of brain SPECT images from full remission compared to the worsening group was conducted with the statistical parametric mapping software, version 8 (SPM 8). Multiple comparisons were accounted for with a false discovery rate (p <  0.001). Persons with depression that worsened following treatment had reduced cerebral perfusion compared to full remission in the multiple regions including the bilateral frontal lobes, right hippocampus, left precuneus, and cerebellar vermis. Such differences were observed on both resting and concentration SPECT scans. Our findings identify imaging-based biomarkers in persons with depression related to treatment response. These findings have implications in understanding both depression to prognosis and its role as a risk factor for dementia.

  15. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  16. Carnosine reverses the aging-induced down regulation of brain regional serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Ghosh, Tushar K; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the role of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide biomolecule, on brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) serotonergic system during aging. Results showed an aging-induced brain region specific significant (a) increase in Trp (except cerebral cortex) and their 5-HIAA steady state level with an increase in their 5-HIAA accumulation and declination, (b) decrease in their both 5-HT steady state level and 5-HT accumulation (except cerebral cortex). A significant decrease in brain regional 5-HT/Trp ratio (except cerebral cortex) and increase in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were also observed during aging. Carnosine at lower dosages (0.5-1.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) didn't produce any significant response in any of the brain regions, but higher dosages (2.0-2.5μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) showed a significant response on those aging-induced brain regional serotonergic parameters. The treatment with carnosine (2.0μg/Kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days), attenuated these brain regional aging-induced serotonergic parameters and restored towards their basal levels that observed in 4 months young control rats. These results suggest that carnosine attenuates and restores the aging-induced brain regional down regulation of serotonergic system towards that observed in young rats' brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional|segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  18. Prognostic index to identify patients who may not benefit from whole brain radiotherapy for multiple brain metastases from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, P.; Yeghiaian, R.; Gebski, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Palliative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is often recommended in the management of multiple brain metastases. Allowing for WBRT waiting time, duration of the WBRT course and time to clinical response, it may take 6 weeks from the point of initial assessment for a benefit from WBRT to manifest. Patients who die within 6 weeks ('early death') may not benefit from WBRT and may instead experience a decline in quality of life. This study aimed to develop a prognostic index (PI) that identifies the subset of patients with lung cancer with multiple brain metastases who may not benefit from WBRT because of'early death'. The medical records of patients with lung cancer who had WBRT recommended for multiple brain metastases over a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as either having died within 6 weeks or having lived beyond 6 weeks. Potential prognostic indicators were evaluated for correlation with 'early death'. A PI was constructed by modelling the survival classification to determine the contribution of these factors towards shortened survival. Of the 275 patients recommended WBRT, 64 (23.22%) died within 6 weeks. The main prognostic factor predicting early death was Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status >2. Patients with a high PI score (>13) were at higher risk of'early death'. Twenty-three per cent of patients died prior to benefit from WBRT. ECOG status was the most predictive for 'early death'. Other factors may also contribute towards a poor outcome. With further refinement and validation, the PI could be a valuable clinical decision tool.

  19. Brain regions involved in observing and trying to interpret dog behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; van der Wiel, Alko; Brass, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Humans and dogs have interacted for millennia. As a result, humans (and especially dog owners) sometimes try to interpret dog behaviour. While there is extensive research on the brain regions that are involved in mentalizing about other peoples' behaviour, surprisingly little is known of whether we use these same brain regions to mentalize about animal behaviour. In this fMRI study we investigate whether brain regions involved in mentalizing about human behaviour are also engaged when observing dog behaviour. Here we show that these brain regions are more engaged when observing dog behaviour that is difficult to interpret compared to dog behaviour that is easy to interpret. Interestingly, these results were not only obtained when participants were instructed to infer reasons for the behaviour but also when they passively viewed the behaviour, indicating that these brain regions are activated by spontaneous mentalizing processes.

  20. Aberrant regional brain activities in alcohol dependence: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu XZ

    2018-03-01

    the right cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL, left rectal gyrus (RG, and right cluster of pons and cerebellum anterior lobe (CAL. ROC curve revealed high area under the curve (AUC values (mean ± SD: 0.864 ± 0.028; range: 0.828–0.911 of ReHo differences. Diagnostic analysis showed that these areas alone discriminated alcohol-dependent subjects from healthy controls with high degree of sensitivities (mean ± SD: 81.25% ± 11.49%; range: 62.5%–100% and specificities (mean ± SD: 81.75% ± 12.36%; range: 67.5%–100%. Years of drink showed negative correlation with left RG (r = -0.493, p = 0.007, the same finding was shown between AUDIT and right CPL (r = -0.52, p = 0.004. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence is associated with aberrant regional activities in multiple brain areas. ReHo analysis may be a useful biological indicator for the detection of regional brain activities in individuals with alcohol dependence. Keywords: alcohol dependence, regional homogeneity, receiver operating characteristic

  1. [H-3]dihydroalprenolol binding to beta adrenergic receptors in multiple sclerosis brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, E; Wilczak, N; De Keyser, J

    2000-01-01

    By using immunocytochemistry we previously reported the absence of beta(2) adrenergic receptors on astrocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) white matter. Here, we measured beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptor concentrations in postmortem brain sections of six MS patients and six controls by using

  2. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to characterize location and extent of BBB disruptions in focal MS lesions. We employed quantitative T1 measurements before...

  3. The polygenic risk for bipolar disorder influences brain regional function relating to visual and default state processing of emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Danai; de Jong, Simone; Breen, Gerome; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wise association studies have identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each of small effect, associated with risk to bipolar disorder (BD). Several risk-conferring SNPs have been individually shown to influence regional brain activation thus linking genetic risk for BD to altered brain function. The current study examined whether the polygenic risk score method, which models the cumulative load of all known risk-conferring SNPs, may be useful in the identification of brain regions whose function may be related to the polygenic architecture of BD. We calculated the individual polygenic risk score for BD (PGR-BD) in forty-one patients with the disorder, twenty-five unaffected first-degree relatives and forty-six unrelated healthy controls using the most recent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to define task-related brain activation patterns in response to facial affect and working memory processing. We found significant effects of the PGR-BD score on task-related activation irrespective of diagnostic group. There was a negative association between the PGR-BD score and activation in the visual association cortex during facial affect processing. In contrast, the PGR-BD score was associated with failure to deactivate the ventromedial prefrontal region of the default mode network during working memory processing. These results are consistent with the threshold-liability model of BD, and demonstrate the usefulness of the PGR-BD score in identifying brain functional alternations associated with vulnerability to BD. Additionally, our findings suggest that the polygenic architecture of BD is not regionally confined but impacts on the task-dependent recruitment of multiple brain regions.

  4. Global and regional annual brain volume loss rates in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippling, Sven; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Suppa, Per; Spies, Lothar; Manogaran, Praveena; Gocke, Carola; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Opfer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to estimate average global and regional percentage brain volume loss per year (BVL/year) of the physiologically ageing brain. Two independent, cross-sectional single scanner cohorts of healthy subjects were included. The first cohort (n = 248) was acquired at the Medical Prevention Center (MPCH) in Hamburg, Germany. The second cohort (n = 316) was taken from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Brain parenchyma (BP), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), corpus callosum (CC), and thalamus volumes were calculated. A non-parametric technique was applied to fit the resulting age-volume data. For each age, the BVL/year was derived from the age-volume curves. The resulting BVL/year curves were compared between the two cohorts. For the MPCH cohort, the BVL/year curve of the BP was an increasing function starting from 0.20% at the age of 35 years increasing to 0.52% at 70 years (corresponding values for GM ranged from 0.32 to 0.55%, WM from 0.02 to 0.47%, CC from 0.07 to 0.48%, and thalamus from 0.25 to 0.54%). Mean absolute difference between BVL/year trajectories across the age range of 35-70 years was 0.02% for BP, 0.04% for GM, 0.04% for WM, 0.11% for CC, and 0.02% for the thalamus. Physiological BVL/year rates were remarkably consistent between the two cohorts and independent from the scanner applied. Average BVL/year was clearly age and compartment dependent. These results need to be taken into account when defining cut-off values for pathological annual brain volume loss in disease models, such as multiple sclerosis.

  5. Iron-related gene variants and brain iron in multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hagemeier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron homeostasis is known to be disturbed in multiple sclerosis (MS, yet little is known about the association of common gene variants linked to iron regulation and pathological tissue changes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the association of genetic determinants linked to iron regulation with deep gray matter (GM magnetic susceptibility in both healthy controls (HC and MS patients. Four hundred (400 patients with MS and 150 age- and sex-matched HCs were enrolled and obtained 3 T MRI examination. Three (3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with iron regulation were genotyped: two SNPs in the human hereditary hemochromatosis protein gene HFE: rs1800562 (C282Y mutation and rs1799945 (H63D mutation, as well as the rs1049296 SNP in the transferrin gene (C2 mutation. The effects of disease and genetic status were studied using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM voxel-based analysis (VBA and region-of-interest (ROI analysis of the deep GM. The general linear model framework was used to compare groups. Analyses were corrected for age and sex, and adjusted for false discovery rate. We found moderate increases in susceptibility in the right putamen of participants with the C282Y (+6.1 ppb and H63D (+6.9 ppb gene variants vs. non-carriers, as well as a decrease in thalamic susceptibility of progressive MS patients with the C282Y mutation (left: −5.3 ppb, right: −6.7 ppb, p < 0.05. Female MS patients had lower susceptibility in the caudate (−6.0 ppb and putamen (left: −3.9 ppb, right: −4.6 ppb than men, but only when they had a wild-type allele (p < 0.05. Iron-gene linked increases in putamen susceptibility (in HC and relapsing remitting MS and decreases in thalamus susceptibility (in progressive MS, coupled with apparent sex interactions, indicate that brain iron in healthy and disease states may be influenced by genetic factors.

  6. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F; Struik, Dicky; Makris, Konstantinos C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Frederiksen, Hanne; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain

  7. Pathways linking regional hyperintensities in the brain and slower gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Aizenstein, Howard; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore; Yaffe, Kristine; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne; Rosano, Caterina

    2014-10-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are involved in the evolution of impaired mobility and executive functions. Executive functions and mobility are also associated. Thus, WMHs may impair mobility directly, by disrupting mobility-related circuits, or indirectly, by disrupting circuits responsible for executive functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying impaired mobility in late life will increase our capacity to develop effective interventions. To identify regional WMHs most related to slower gait and to examine whether these regional WMHs directly impact mobility, or indirectly by executive functions. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-one WMH variables (i.e., total WMH volume and WMHs in 20 tracts), gait speed, global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; 3MS), and executive functions and processing speed (Digit-Symbol Substitution Test; DSST) were assessed. An L1-L2 regularized regression (i.e., Elastic Net model) identified the WMH variables most related to slower gait. Multivariable linear regression models quantified the association between these WMH variables and gait speed. Formal tests of mediation were also conducted. Community-based sample. Two hundred fifty-three adults (mean age: 83years, 58% women, 41% black). Gait speed. In older adults with an average gait speed of 0.91m/sec, total WMH volume, WMHs located in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATRR) and frontal corpuscallosum (CCF) were most associated with slower gait. There was a >10% slower gait for each standard deviation of WMH in CCF, ATRR or total brain (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.11 [p=0.046], -0.15 [p=0.007] and -0.14 [p=0.010], respectively). These associations were substantially and significantly attenuated after adjustment for DSST. This effect was stronger for WMH in CCF than for ATRR or total WMH (standardized beta in m/sec [p value]: -0.07 [p=0.190], -0.12 [p=0.024] and -0.10 [p=0.049], respectively). Adjustment for 3MS did not change these

  8. Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; van Berlo, Damien; Cassee, Flemming R; Schins, Roel P F; Wang, Kate; Campbell, Arezoo

    2010-05-17

    The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM), present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP), derived from a specific source (diesel engine), and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha) were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-kappaB) and (AP-1) was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI). Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution, however, it is valuable to assess if and to

  9. Regional infant brain development: an MRI-based morphometric analysis in 3 to 13 month olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Myong-Sun; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Makris, Nikos; Gregas, Matt; Bacic, Janine; Haehn, Daniel; Kennedy, David; Pienaar, Rudolph; Caviness, Verne S; Benasich, April A; Grant, P Ellen

    2013-09-01

    Elucidation of infant brain development is a critically important goal given the enduring impact of these early processes on various domains including later cognition and language. Although infants' whole-brain growth rates have long been available, regional growth rates have not been reported systematically. Accordingly, relatively less is known about the dynamics and organization of typically developing infant brains. Here we report global and regional volumetric growth of cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem with gender dimorphism, in 33 cross-sectional scans, over 3 to 13 months, using T1-weighted 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo images and detailed semi-automated brain segmentation. Except for the midbrain and lateral ventricles, all absolute volumes of brain regions showed significant growth, with 6 different patterns of volumetric change. When normalized to the whole brain, the regional increase was characterized by 5 differential patterns. The putamen, cerebellar hemispheres, and total cerebellum were the only regions that showed positive growth in the normalized brain. Our results show region-specific patterns of volumetric change and contribute to the systematic understanding of infant brain development. This study greatly expands our knowledge of normal development and in future may provide a basis for identifying early deviation above and beyond normative variation that might signal higher risk for neurological disorders.

  10. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Soreq, Lilach; Rose, Jamie; Soreq, Eyal; Hardy, John; Trabzuni, Daniah; Cookson, Mark R.; Smith, Colin; Ryten, Mina; Patani, Rickie; Ule, Jernej

    2017-01-01

    Summary Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in?age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte-?and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional express...

  11. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Henson, Richard N A; Tyler, Lorraine K; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E; Rowe, James B

    2016-03-16

    -based cohort (n = 602, 18-88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. Copyright © 2016 Tsvetanov et al.

  12. A simple and efficient methodology to improve geometric accuracy in gamma knife radiation surgery: implementation in multiple brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, Pantelis; Moutsatsos, Argyris; Pappas, Eleftherios; Georgiou, Evangelos; Roussakis, Arkadios; Torrens, Michael; Seimenis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    To propose, verify, and implement a simple and efficient methodology for the improvement of total geometric accuracy in multiple brain metastases gamma knife (GK) radiation surgery. The proposed methodology exploits the directional dependence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-related spatial distortions stemming from background field inhomogeneities, also known as sequence-dependent distortions, with respect to the read-gradient polarity during MRI acquisition. First, an extra MRI pulse sequence is acquired with the same imaging parameters as those used for routine patient imaging, aside from a reversal in the read-gradient polarity. Then, "average" image data are compounded from data acquired from the 2 MRI sequences and are used for treatment planning purposes. The method was applied and verified in a polymer gel phantom irradiated with multiple shots in an extended region of the GK stereotactic space. Its clinical impact in dose delivery accuracy was assessed in 15 patients with a total of 96 relatively small (series. Due to these uncertainties, a considerable underdosage (5%-32% of the prescription dose) was found in 33% of the studied targets. The proposed methodology is simple and straightforward in its implementation. Regarding multiple brain metastases applications, the suggested approach may substantially improve total GK dose delivery accuracy in smaller, outlying targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Somatic DNA recombination yielding circular DNA and deletion of a genomic region in embryonic brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Chijiiwa, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Hideo; Sakoda, Saburo; Tani, Kenzaburo; Suzuki, Tomokazu

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a mouse genomic region is identified that undergoes DNA rearrangement and yields circular DNA in brain during embryogenesis. External region-directed inverse polymerase chain reaction on circular DNA extracted from late embryonic brain tissue repeatedly detected DNA of this region containing recombination joints. Wide-range genomic PCR and digestion-circularization PCR analysis showed this region underwent recombination accompanied with deletion of intervening sequences, including the circularized regions. This region was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to C1 on mouse chromosome 16, where no gene and no physiological DNA rearrangement had been identified. DNA sequence in the region has segmental homology to an orthologous region on human chromosome 3q.13. These observations demonstrated somatic DNA recombination yielding genomic deletions in brain during embryogenesis

  14. Automatic detection of the hippocampal region associated with Alzheimer's disease from microscopic images of mice brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaidhani, Tahseen; Hawkes, Cheryl; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2016-05-01

    The hippocampus is the region of the brain that is primarily associated with memory and spatial navigation. It is one of the first brain regions to be damaged when a person suffers from Alzheimer's disease. Recent research in this field has focussed on the assessment of damage to different blood vessels within the hippocampal region from a high throughput brain microscopic images. The ultimate aim of our research is the creation of an automatic system to count and classify different blood vessels such as capillaries, veins, and arteries in the hippocampus region. This work should provide biologists with efficient and accurate tools in their investigation of the causes of Alzheimer's disease. Locating the boundary of the Region of Interest in the hippocampus from microscopic images of mice brain is the first essential stage towards developing such a system. This task benefits from the variation in colour channels and texture between the two sides of the hippocampus and the boundary region. Accordingly, the developed initial step of our research to locating the hippocampus edge uses a colour-based segmentation of the brain image followed by Hough transforms on the colour channel that isolate the hippocampus region. The output is then used to split the brain image into two sides of the detected section of the boundary: the inside region and the outside region. Experimental results on a sufficiently number of microscopic images demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed solution.

  15. Declarative and nondeclarative memory: multiple brain systems supporting learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1992-01-01

    Abstract The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered from a biological point of view. Fact-and-event (declarative, explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of non conscious (non-declarative, implicit) memory abilities including skills and habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed indicating that declarative and non declarative forms of memory have different operating characteristics and depend on separate brain systems. A brain-systems framework for understanding memory phenomena is developed in light of lesion studies involving rats, monkeys, and humans, as well as recent studies with normal humans using the divided visual field technique, event-related potentials, and positron emission tomography (PET).

  16. Brain region specific mitophagy capacity could contribute to selective neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabel Claus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD is histologically well defined by its characteristic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Remarkably, divergent PD-related mutations can generate comparable brain region specific pathologies. This indicates that some intrinsic region-specificity respecting differential neuron vulnerability exists, which codetermines the disease progression. To gain insight into the pathomechanism of PD, we investigated protein expression and protein oxidation patterns of three different brain regions in a PD mouse model, the PINK1 knockout mice (PINK1-KO, in comparison to wild type control mice. The dysfunction of PINK1 presumably affects mitochondrial turnover by disturbing mitochondrial autophagic pathways. The three brain regions investigated are the midbrain, which is the location of substantia nigra; striatum, the major efferent region of substantia nigra; and cerebral cortex, which is more distal to PD pathology. In all three regions, mitochondrial proteins responsible for energy metabolism and membrane potential were significantly altered in the PINK1-KO mice, but with very different region specific accents in terms of up/down-regulations. This suggests that disturbed mitophagy presumably induced by PINK1 knockout has heterogeneous impacts on different brain regions. Specifically, the midbrain tissue seems to be most severely hit by defective mitochondrial turnover, whereas cortex and striatum could compensate for mitophagy nonfunction by feedback stimulation of other catabolic programs. In addition, cerebral cortex tissues showed the mildest level of protein oxidation in both PINK1-KO and wild type mice, indicating either a better oxidative protection or less reactive oxygen species (ROS pressure in this brain region. Ultra-structural histological examination in normal mouse brain revealed higher incidences of mitophagy vacuoles in cerebral cortex than in striatum and substantia

  17. Quantitative expression profile of distinct functional regions in the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Kasukawa

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B* project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/ for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems.

  18. Detection and quantification of regional cortical gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis utilizing gradient echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical gray matter (GM damage is now widely recognized in multiple sclerosis (MS. The standard MRI does not reliably detect cortical GM lesions, although cortical volume loss can be measured. In this study, we demonstrate that the gradient echo MRI can reliably and quantitatively assess cortical GM damage in MS patients using standard clinical scanners. High resolution multi-gradient echo MRI was used for regional mapping of tissue-specific MRI signal transverse relaxation rate values (R2* in 10 each relapsing–remitting, primary-progressive and secondary-progressive MS subjects. A voxel spread function method was used to correct artifacts induced by background field gradients. R2* values from healthy controls (HCs of varying ages were obtained to establish baseline data and calculate ΔR2* values – age-adjusted differences between MS patients and HC. Thickness of cortical regions was also measured in all subjects. In cortical regions, ΔR2* values of MS patients were also adjusted for changes in cortical thickness. Symbol digit modalities (SDMT and paced auditory serial addition (PASAT neurocognitive tests, as well as Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg test results were also obtained on all MS subjects. We found that ΔR2* values were lower in multiple cortical GM and normal appearing white matter (NAWM regions in MS compared with HC. ΔR2* values of global cortical GM and several specific cortical regions showed significant (p < 0.05 correlations with SDMT and PASAT scores, and showed better correlations than volumetric measures of the same regions. Neurological tests not focused on cognition (Expanded Disability Status Score, 25-foot timed walk and nine-hole peg tests showed no correlation with cortical GM ΔR2* values. The technique presented here is robust and reproducible. It requires less than 10 min and can be implemented on any MRI scanner. Our results show that quantitative tissue-specific R2

  19. The infinite interface limit of multiple-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R.; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We show the stepped-pressure equilibria that are obtained from a generalization of Taylor relaxation known as multi-region, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRXMHD) are also generalizations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD). We show this by proving that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, MRXMHD reduces to ideal MHD. Numerical convergence studies illustrating this limit are presented.

  20. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Z

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhibao Mi,1 Dimitri Novitzky,2 Joseph F Collins,1 David KC Cooper3 1Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center, VA Maryland Health Care Systems, Perry Point, MD, USA; 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA, are statistically conservative. Hsu’s multiple comparisons with the best (MCB – adapted from the Dunnett’s multiple comparisons with control (MCC – has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM, and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS, among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation. Keywords: best treatment selection, brain-dead organ donors, hormonal replacement, multiple binary endpoints, organ procurement, multiple comparisons

  1. SU-E-T-306: Dosimetric Comparison of Leaf with Or Without Interdigitation in Multiple Brain Metastasis VMAT Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of leaf with or without interdigitation in multiple brain metastasis volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: Twenty patients with 2 to 6 brain metastases of our hospital were retrospectively studied to be planned with dual arc VMAT using Monaco 3.3 TPS on the Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. The prescription dose of PTV was 60Gy/30 fractions. Two plans with or without leaf interdigitation were designed. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose volume histograms (DVHs), monitor unit (MU), treatment time (T), the segments, the dose coverage of the target, were all evaluated. Results: The plans with leaf interdigitation could achieve better CI (p<0.05) than without leaf interdigitation, while no significant difference were found in HI (p> 0.05) and the dose coverage of the target (p> 0.05).The MU,T, and the segments of the plan with leaf interdigitation were more than the plan without leaf interdigitation (p<0.05). There was no significant difference found in radiation dose of spinal cord, lenses and parotids, while the maximum dose of brain stem of leaf without interdigitation was higher than leaf with interdigitation (p< 0.05). It was worth noting that the areas of low dose regions with leaf interdigitation plan were much less than the without leaf interdigitation plan in the doublication planes (p< 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that leaf with interdigitation has some advantages than leaf without interdigitation in multiple brain metastasis VMAT plans although the clinical relevance remains to be proven.

  2. SU-E-T-306: Dosimetric Comparison of Leaf with Or Without Interdigitation in Multiple Brain Metastasis VMAT Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of leaf with or without interdigitation in multiple brain metastasis volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. Methods: Twenty patients with 2 to 6 brain metastases of our hospital were retrospectively studied to be planned with dual arc VMAT using Monaco 3.3 TPS on the Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. The prescription dose of PTV was 60Gy/30 fractions. Two plans with or without leaf interdigitation were designed. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), dose volume histograms (DVHs), monitor unit (MU), treatment time (T), the segments, the dose coverage of the target, were all evaluated. Results: The plans with leaf interdigitation could achieve better CI (p<0.05) than without leaf interdigitation, while no significant difference were found in HI (p> 0.05) and the dose coverage of the target (p> 0.05).The MU,T, and the segments of the plan with leaf interdigitation were more than the plan without leaf interdigitation (p<0.05). There was no significant difference found in radiation dose of spinal cord, lenses and parotids, while the maximum dose of brain stem of leaf without interdigitation was higher than leaf with interdigitation (p< 0.05). It was worth noting that the areas of low dose regions with leaf interdigitation plan were much less than the without leaf interdigitation plan in the doublication planes (p< 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that leaf with interdigitation has some advantages than leaf without interdigitation in multiple brain metastasis VMAT plans although the clinical relevance remains to be proven

  3. Nano-multiplication region avalanche photodiodes and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode with a nano-scale reach-through structure comprising n-doped and p-doped regions, formed on a silicon island on an insulator, so that the avalanche photodiode may be electrically isolated from other circuitry on other silicon islands on the same silicon chip as the avalanche photodiode. For some embodiments, multiplied holes generated by an avalanche reduces the electric field in the depletion region of the n-doped and p-doped regions to bring about self-quenching of the avalanche photodiode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  4. Screening of Toll-like receptors expression in multiple system atrophy brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Agander, Tina Klitmøller

    2013-01-01

    The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a key role in controlling innate immune responses to a wide variety of pathogen-associated molecules. It was recently suggested that TLRs have an important role in the crosstalk between neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system, thus...... inclusions in oligodendrocytes. α-Synuclein can act as a danger-associated molecular pattern and alter TLR expression thereby activating inflammatory responses in the brain. In this study, using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of TLRs (TLR1-10) in selected areas of MSA brains (substantia nigra......TLR-1 mRNA were elevated in substantia nigra and striatum whereas levels of hTLR-8 and hTLR-9 mRNAs were significantly higher in cerebella from MSA patients. The concerted alteration of expression of multiple TLRs in MSA brains can be of relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of the disease....

  5. A Simple and Efficient Methodology To Improve Geometric Accuracy in Gamma Knife Radiation Surgery: Implementation in Multiple Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaiskos, Pantelis, E-mail: pkaraisk@med.uoa.gr [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens (Greece); Gamma Knife Department, Hygeia Hospital, Athens (Greece); Moutsatsos, Argyris; Pappas, Eleftherios; Georgiou, Evangelos [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens (Greece); Roussakis, Arkadios [CT and MRI Department, Hygeia Hospital, Athens (Greece); Torrens, Michael [Gamma Knife Department, Hygeia Hospital, Athens (Greece); Seimenis, Ioannis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To propose, verify, and implement a simple and efficient methodology for the improvement of total geometric accuracy in multiple brain metastases gamma knife (GK) radiation surgery. Methods and Materials: The proposed methodology exploits the directional dependence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-related spatial distortions stemming from background field inhomogeneities, also known as sequence-dependent distortions, with respect to the read-gradient polarity during MRI acquisition. First, an extra MRI pulse sequence is acquired with the same imaging parameters as those used for routine patient imaging, aside from a reversal in the read-gradient polarity. Then, “average” image data are compounded from data acquired from the 2 MRI sequences and are used for treatment planning purposes. The method was applied and verified in a polymer gel phantom irradiated with multiple shots in an extended region of the GK stereotactic space. Its clinical impact in dose delivery accuracy was assessed in 15 patients with a total of 96 relatively small (<2 cm) metastases treated with GK radiation surgery. Results: Phantom study results showed that use of average MR images eliminates the effect of sequence-dependent distortions, leading to a total spatial uncertainty of less than 0.3 mm, attributed mainly to gradient nonlinearities. In brain metastases patients, non-eliminated sequence-dependent distortions lead to target localization uncertainties of up to 1.3 mm (mean: 0.51 ± 0.37 mm) with respect to the corresponding target locations in the “average” MRI series. Due to these uncertainties, a considerable underdosage (5%-32% of the prescription dose) was found in 33% of the studied targets. Conclusions: The proposed methodology is simple and straightforward in its implementation. Regarding multiple brain metastases applications, the suggested approach may substantially improve total GK dose delivery accuracy in smaller, outlying targets.

  6. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, E.; Schagen, S.E.E.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Veltman, D.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Bakkera, J.

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  7. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, J.

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural

  8. A randomised trial to compare cognitive outcome after gamma knife radiosurgery versus whole brain radiation therapy in patients with multiple brain metastases : Research protocol CAR-study B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, W.C.M.; Verhaak, E.; Hanssens, Patrick E. J.; Gehring, K.; Sitskoorn, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is increasingly applied in patients with multiple brain metastases and is expected to have less adverse effects in cognitive functioning than whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Effective treatment with the least negative cognitive side effects is

  9. Multiple brain abscesses due to Enterobacter cloacae in an immune-competent child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi G. Saini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscesses due to Enterobacteriaceae in immune-competent children are rare, and those due to Enterobacter cloacae are even rarer. We report an interesting case of community-acquired E. cloacae neuroinfection resulting in multiple brain abscesses in a young child with no underlying risk-factors. A 10 year-old-boy presented with low-grade fever, headache, neck pain and progressive deterioration of sensorium. On examination, he was conscious but drowsy with photophobia, normal fundii, meningeal signs, mild hypertonia, brisk muscle stretch reflexes and extensor plantar responses. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed bilateral, multiple pyogenic abscesses. Culture of the abscess material aspirated at the time of surgical drainage showed growth of E. cloacae. He received intravenous imipenem for 18 weeks guided by clinical and radiological response. A pragmatic approach combining early surgical drainage, targeted antimicrobial therapy and patient-tailored duration based on the clinico-radiological response is needed in such difficult cases. Keywords: Neuroinfection, Enterobacter, Brain abscess, Pyogenic, Carbapenems

  10. musical mnemonics aid verbal memory and induce learning related brain plasticity in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eThaut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music andrhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory weinvestigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis and ifmusic assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measuredsystems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music assisted learning.Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG in alpha andbeta frequency bands in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The study sample was randomlydivided into 2 groups, either hearing a spoken or musical (sung presentation of Rey’s Auditory VerbalLearning Test (RAVLT. We defined the learning-related synchronization (LRS as the percent changein EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent wordencoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and spoken conditions in low alpha andupper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better wordorder memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. Theevidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization inprefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicitin musical stimuli enhances ‘deep encoding’ during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neuraldynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS

  11. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING:A BRAIN-BASED PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arnold

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is presented as a cognitive perspective on intelligence which has profound implications for education in general. More specifically, it has led to the application of eight of these frames to language teaching and learning. In this chapter, we will argue in favour of the application of MIT to the EFL classroom, using as support some of the major insights for language teaching from brain science.

  12. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.; Rizzu, Patrizia; Francescatto, Margherita; Vitezic, Morana; Leday, Gwenaë l G.R.; Sanchez, Javier Simon; Khamis, Abdullah M.; Takahashi, Hazuki; van de Berg, Wilma D.J.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Daub, Carsten O.; Carninci, Piero; Heutink, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites

  13. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charboneau, Evonne J.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Martin, Peter R.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  14. Multiple squamous cell carcinomas within the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuro; Hanazawa, Hideyuki; Sato, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Sugata

    2004-01-01

    Clinical features of multiple squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases within the head and neck that were treated in our department during the recent 10 years are discussed. Multiple SCCs arose in 6.6% of the cases with primary SCC; 67% of the cases had two carcinomas, and 33% had more than three carcinomas. The most common site of the multiple SCCs was the oral cavity (54%). The most frequent interval between treatment of previous carcinoma and diagnosis of subsequent carcinoma was simultaneous, but more than 5 years' interval was observed in 36% of the patients. The most common initial treatment of the carcinoma was irradiation, but the ratio of surgery increased for subsequent carcinomas. Prognosis of the patients with more than three carcinomas was not worse than that of patients with two carcinomas. Therefore, early diagnosis of the subsequent carcinomas based on careful long-term observation in the head and neck is necessary for follow-up of the patients with SCC of the head and neck. Treatment strategies considering the treatment of subsequent carcinomas are needed for the patients with primary head and neck SCC. (author)

  15. Exosomal biomarkers of brain insulin resistance associated with regional atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Roger J; Mustapic, Maja; Goetzl, Edward J; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ 42 ). Exosomes were isolated from plasma, enriched for neural origin using immunoprecipitation for L1CAM, and measured for pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 phosphotypes. MPRAGE images were segmented by brain tissue type and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for gray matter against pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 was conducted. Given the regionally variable brain expression of IRS-1, we used the Allen Brain Atlas to make spatial comparisons between VBM results and IRS-1 expression. Brain volume was positively associated with P-panTyr-IRS-1 and negatively associated with pSer 312 -IRS-1 in a strikingly similar regional pattern (bilateral parietal-occipital junction, R middle temporal gyrus). This volumetric association pattern was spatially correlated with Allen Human Brain atlas normal brain IRS-1 expression. Exosomal biomarkers of brain IR are thus associated with atrophy in AD as could be expected by their pathophysiological roles and do so in a pattern that reflects regional IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, neural-origin plasma exosomes may recover molecular signals from specific brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1933-1940, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Global and regional brain mean diffusivity changes in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mary A; Palomares, Jose A; Macey, Paul M; Fonarow, Gregg C; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients show gray and white matter changes in multiple brain sites, including autonomic and motor coordination areas. It is unclear whether the changes represent acute or chronic tissue pathology, a distinction necessary for understanding pathological processes that can be resolved with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based mean diffusivity (MD) procedures. We collected four DTI series from 16 HF (age 55.1 ± 7.8 years, 12 male) and 26 control (49.7 ± 10.8 years, 17 male) subjects with a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. MD maps were realigned, averaged, normalized, and smoothed. Global and regional MD values from autonomic and motor coordination sites were calculated by using normalized MD maps and brain masks; group MD values and whole-brain smoothed MD maps were compared by analysis of covariance (covariates; age and gender). Global brain MD (HF vs. controls, units × 10(-6) mm(2) /sec, 1103.8 ± 76.6 vs. 1035.9 ± 69.4, P = 0.038) and regional autonomic and motor control site values (left insula, 1,085.4 ± 95.7 vs. 975.7 ± 65.4, P = 0.001; right insula, 1,050.2 ± 100.6 vs. 965.7 ± 58.4, P = 0.004; left hypothalamus, 1,419.6 ± 165.2 vs. 1,234.9 ± 136.3, P = 0.002; right hypothalamus, 1,446.5 ± 178.8 vs. 1,273.3 ± 136.9, P = 0.004; left cerebellar cortex, 889.1 ± 81.9 vs. 796.6 ± 46.8, P right cerebellar cortex, 797.8 ± 50.8 vs. 750.3 ± 27.5, P = 0.001; cerebellar deep nuclei, 1,236.1 ± 193.8 vs. 1,071.7 ± 107.1, P = 0.002) were significantly higher in HF vs. control subjects, indicating chronic tissue changes. Whole-brain comparisons showed increased MD values in HF subjects, including limbic, basal-ganglia, thalamic, solitary tract nucleus, frontal, and cerebellar regions. Brain injury occurs in autonomic and motor control areas, which may contribute to deficient function in HF patients. The chronic tissue changes likely

  17. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Rajtmajer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity. Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks. These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP, which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity. To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity.

  18. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  19. Whole Genome Scan to Detect Chromosomal Regions Affecting Multiple Traits in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, C.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosomal regions affecting multiple traits ( multiple trait quantitative trait regions or MQR) in dairy cattle were detected using a method based on results from single trait analyses to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL). The covariance between contrasts for different traits in single trait

  20. Brain MRI lesions and atrophy are associated with employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauhid, Shahamat; Chu, Renxin; Sasane, Rahul; Glanz, Bonnie I; Neema, Mohit; Miller, Jennifer R; Kim, Gloria; Signorovitch, James E; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L; Bakshi, Rohit

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects occupational function. We investigated the link between brain MRI and employment status. Patients with MS (n = 100) completed a Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) (general health version) survey measuring employment status, absenteeism, presenteeism, and overall work and daily activity impairment. Patients "working for pay" were considered employed; "temporarily not working but looking for work," "not working or looking for work due to age," and "not working or looking for work due to disability" were considered not employed. Brain MRI T1 hypointense (T1LV) and T2 hyperintense (T2LV) lesion volumes were quantified. To assess lesional destructive capability, we calculated each subject's ratio of T1LV to T2LV (T1/T2). Normalized brain parenchymal volume (BPV) assessed brain atrophy. The mean (SD) age was 45.5 (9.7) years; disease duration was 12.1 (8.1) years; 75 % were women, 76 % were relapsing-remitting, and 76 % were employed. T1LV, T1/T2, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and activity impairment were lower and BPV was higher in the employed vs. not employed group (Wilcoxon tests, p 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression modeling, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration, higher T1LV predicted a lower chance of employment (p 0.05). We report a link between brain atrophy and lesions, particularly lesions with destructive potential, to MS employment status.

  1. A deep convolutional neural network-based automatic delineation strategy for multiple brain metastases stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate and automatic brain metastases target delineation is a key step for efficient and effective stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS treatment planning. In this work, we developed a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN algorithm for segmenting brain metastases on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI datasets. We integrated the CNN-based algorithm into an automatic brain metastases segmentation workflow and validated on both Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation challenge (BRATS data and clinical patients' data. Validation on BRATS data yielded average DICE coefficients (DCs of 0.75±0.07 in the tumor core and 0.81±0.04 in the enhancing tumor, which outperformed most techniques in the 2015 BRATS challenge. Segmentation results of patient cases showed an average of DCs 0.67±0.03 and achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.98±0.01. The developed automatic segmentation strategy surpasses current benchmark levels and offers a promising tool for SRS treatment planning for multiple brain metastases.

  2. A putative Alzheimer's disease risk allele in PCK1 influences brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqi Xia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction are neurodegenerative features of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. We used a candidate gene approach to address whether genetic variants implicated in susceptibility to late onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD influence brain volume and cognition in MS patients.MS subjects were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps associated with susceptibility to AD: PICALM, CR1, CLU, PCK1, and ZNF224. We assessed brain volume using Brain Parenchymal Fraction (BPF measurements obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data and cognitive function using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT. Genotypes were correlated with cross-sectional BPF and SDMT scores using linear regression after adjusting for sex, age at symptom onset, and disease duration. 722 MS patients with a mean (±SD age at enrollment of 41 (±10 years were followed for 44 (±28 months. The AD risk-associated allele of a non-synonymous SNP in the PCK1 locus (rs8192708G is associated with a smaller average brain volume (P=0.0047 at the baseline MRI, but it does not impact our baseline estimate of cognition. PCK1 is additionally associated with higher baseline T2-hyperintense lesion volume (P=0.0088. Finally, we provide technical validation of our observation in a subset of 641 subjects that have more than one MRI study, demonstrating the same association between PCK1 and smaller average brain volume (P=0.0089 at the last MRI visit.Our study provides suggestive evidence for greater brain atrophy in MS patients bearing the PCK1 allele associated with AD-susceptibility, yielding new insights into potentially shared neurodegenerative process between MS and late onset AD.

  3. Significance of MDR1 and multiple drug resistance in refractory human epileptic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Gabriele

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multiple drug resistance protein (MDR1/P-glycoprotein is overexpressed in glia and blood-brain barrier (BBB endothelium in drug refractory human epileptic tissue. Since various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs can act as substrates for MDR1, the enhanced expression/function of this protein may increase their active extrusion from the brain, resulting in decreased responsiveness to AEDs. Methods Human drug resistant epileptic brain tissues were collected after surgical resection. Astrocyte cell cultures were established from these tissues, and commercially available normal human astrocytes were used as controls. Uptake of fluorescent doxorubicin and radioactive-labeled Phenytoin was measured in the two cell populations, and the effect of MDR1 blockers was evaluated. Frozen human epileptic brain tissue slices were double immunostained to locate MDR1 in neurons and glia. Other slices were exposed to toxic concentrations of Phenytoin to study cell viability in the presence or absence of a specific MDR1 blocker. Results MDR1 was overexpressed in blood vessels, astrocytes and neurons in human epileptic drug-resistant brain. In addition, MDR1-mediated cellular drug extrusion was increased in human 'epileptic' astrocytes compared to 'normal' ones. Concomitantly, cell viability in the presence of cytotoxic compounds was increased. Conclusions Overexpression of MDR1 in different cell types in drug-resistant epileptic human brain leads to functional alterations, not all of which are linked to drug pharmacokinetics. In particular, the modulation of glioneuronal MDR1 function in epileptic brain in the presence of toxic concentrations of xenobiotics may constitute a novel cytoprotective mechanism.

  4. Regional brain distribution of toluene in rats and in a human autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameno, Kiyoshi; Kiriu, Takahiro; Fuke, Chiaki; Ameno, Setsuko; Shinohara, Toyohiko; Ijiri, Iwao (Kagawa Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Forensic Medicine)

    1992-02-01

    Toluene concentrations in 9 brain regions of acutely exposed rats and that in 11 brain regions of a human case who inhaled toluene prior to death are described. After exposure to toluene by inhalation (2000 or 10 000 ppm) for 0.5 h or by oral dosing (400 mg/kg.), rats were killed by decapitation 0.5 and 4 h after onset of inhalation and 2 and 10 h after oral ingestion. After each experimental condition the highest range of brain region/blood toluene concentration ratio (BBCR) was in the brain stem regions (2.85-3.22) such as the pons and medulla oblongata, the middle range (1.77-2.12) in the midbrain, thalamus, caudate-putamen, hypothalamus and cerebellum, and the lowest range (1.22-1.64) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These distribution patterns were quite constant. Toluene concentration in various brain regions were unevenly distributed and directly related blood levels. In a human case who had inhaled toluene vapor, the distribution among brain regions was relatively similar to that in rats, the highest concentration ratios being in the corpus callosum (BBCR:2.66) and the lowest in the hippocampus (BBCR:1.47). (orig.).

  5. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal

  6. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhibao; Novitzky, Dimitri; Collins, Joseph F; Cooper, David Kc

    2015-01-01

    The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy) is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA), are statistically conservative. Hsu's multiple comparisons with the best (MCB) - adapted from the Dunnett's multiple comparisons with control (MCC) - has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM) or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation.

  7. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal lobe is

  8. Bisensory stimulation increases gamma-responses over multiple cortical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowitz, O W; Quiroga, R Q; Schürmann, M; Başar, E

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the discussion about gamma (approx. 40 Hz) oscillations as information carriers in the brain, we investigated the relationship between gamma responses in the EEG and intersensory association. Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were compared with bisensory evoked potentials (BEPs; simultaneous auditory and visual stimulation) in 15 subjects. Gamma responses in AEPs, VEPs and BEPs were assessed by means of wavelet decomposition. Overall maximum gamma-components post-stimulus were highest in BEPs (P < 0.01). Bisensory evoked gamma-responses also showed significant central, parietal and occipital amplitude-increases (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively; prestimulus interval as baseline). These were of greater magnitude when compared with the unisensory responses. As a correlate of the marked gamma responses to bimodal stimulation we suggest a process of 'intersensory association', i.e. one of the steps between sensory transmission and perception. Our data may be interpreted as a further example of function-related gamma responses in the EEG.

  9. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitation of blood-brain barrier defect by magnetic resonance imaging and gadolinium-DTPA in patients with multiple sclerosis and brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Frederiksen, J L

    1990-01-01

    In this study quantitation of the degree of deficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with multiple sclerosis or brain tumors, by using MRI, is shown to be possible. As a measure of permeability of the BBB to Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) the flux per unit of distribution volume per unit...... of brain mass was used. This quantity was found by introducing the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) as a measure of concentration of Gd-DTPA in the brain tissue in the mathematical model for the transcapillary transport over the BBB. High accordance between the observed data points and the model was found...

  11. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain...... and BMI triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and benzyl paraben) were detected, while five npEDCs (bisphenol A...

  12. Quantification of blood-to-brain transfer rate in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Saeid; Rosenberg, Gary A.; Ford, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption visualized in lesions by MRI is a major biomarker of disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, in MS, destruction occurs to a variable extent in lesions as well as in gray matter (GM) and in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM). A method to quantify the BBB disruption in lesions as well as in non-lesion areas would be useful for assessment of MS progression and treatments. The objective of this study was to quantify the BBB transfer rate (Ki) in WM lesions, in the NAWM, and in the full-brain of MS patients. Thirteen MS patients with active lesions and 10 healthy controls with age and gender matching were recruited for full-brain and WM Ki studies. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) scans were conducted using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR), a fast T1 mapping technique, following administration of a quarter-dose of the contrast agent Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). The Patlak modeling technique was used to derive a voxel-based map of Ki. In all patients contrast-enhanced lesions, quantified by Ki maps, were observed. Compared with controls, patients with MS exhibited an increase in mean Ki of the full-brain (P-value<0.05) but no significant difference in mean Ki of NAWM. The identified increase in full-brain Ki of MS patients suggests a global vascular involvement associated with MS disease. The lack of observed significant decrease in Ki in NAWM suggests lower involvement of WM vasculature than full-brain vasculature in MS. Ki maps constructed from time series data acquired by DCEMRI provide additional information about BBB that could be used for evaluation of vascular involvement in MS and monitoring treatment effectiveness. PMID:25877634

  13. Nanoelectrospray high capacity ion trap multiple stage mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of human brain gangliosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelic, Zeljka; Ratiu, Cornelia; Grozescu, Ioan; Zamfir, Alina Diana

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A novel protocol based on electrospray ionization (ESI) multiple stage high capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for glycosphingolipidomic surveys. The method was optimized for detailed structural elucidation of human brain gangliosides and particularly applied to human hippocampus-associated structures. The multiple stage MS experiments allowed for a complete structural characterization of GM1 ganglioside species, which was achieved by elucidation of the oligosaccharide sequence, identification of the GM1 a structural isomer from the data upon sialic acid localization along the sugar backbone and determination of the d18:1/18:0 of fatty acid/sphingoid base composition of the ceramide moiety. The methodology developed here is of general practical applicability for glycolipids and represents a step forward in the implementation of the advanced and most modern MS methods in glycomics. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, which consist of a mono- to polysialylated oligosaccharide chain of variable length attached to a ceramide portion of different composition with respect to the type of sphingoid base and fatty acid residues. Among all body systems, the central nervous system (CNS) possesses the highest content of gangliosides and they are playing a particularly important biological role at this level. Specific changes in the ganglioside expression and type of the expressed structures were observed to occur during brain development, maturation, and aging, and due to diseases or neurodegeneration processes. Gangliosides represent, therefore, an important class of biomarkers, carriers of information upon various CNS processes and events. Though in the human brain, their expression was observed to have a regional and tissue development induced specificity, the differences in ganglioside structure, composition and quantity were not systematically investigated or rigorously determined so far. (authors)

  14. Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis: a structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Andrea; Strammer, Erzsebet; Aradi, Mihaly; Orsi, Gergely; Perlaki, Gabor; Hajnal, Andras; Sandor, Janos; Banati, Miklos; Illes, Eniko; Zaitsev, Alexander; Herold, Robert; Guttmann, Charles R G; Illes, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others' mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially relevant information (left temporal pole). Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients.

  15. Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis: a structural MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mike

    Full Text Available Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others' mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus. Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed, processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex and socially relevant information (left temporal pole. Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients.

  16. Differential Diagnosis Tool for Parkinsonian Syndrome Using Multiple Structural Brain Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Ota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes such as the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P and cerebellar subtype (MSA-C from Parkinson's disease is difficult in the early stage of the disease. To identify the correlative pattern of brain changes for differentiating parkinsonian syndromes, we applied discriminant analysis techniques by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. T1-weighted volume data and diffusion tensor images were obtained by MRI in eighteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 21 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and 21 healthy controls. They were evaluated using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively. Discriminant functions derived by step wise methods resulted in correct classification rates of 0.89. When differentiating these diseases with the use of three independent variables together, the correct classification rate was the same as that obtained with step wise methods. These findings support the view that each parkinsonian syndrome has structural deviations in multiple brain areas and that a combination of structural brain measures can help to distinguish parkinsonian syndromes.

  17. Long-term global and regional brain volume changes following severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal study with clinical correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Annette; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2009-01-01

    with percent brain volume change (%BVC) ranging between − 0.6% and − 9.4% (mean − 4.0%). %BVC correlated significantly with injury severity, functional status at both scans, and with 1-year outcome. Moreover, %BVC improved prediction of long-term functional status over and above what could be predicted using......Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neurodegenerative changes that progress for months, perhaps even years post-injury. However, there is little information on the spatial distribution and the clinical significance of this late atrophy. In 24 patients who had sustained severe TBI we acquired 3D...... scan time point using SIENAX. Regional distribution of atrophy was evaluated using tensor-based morphometry (TBM). At the first scan time point, brain parenchymal volume was reduced by mean 8.4% in patients as compared to controls. During the scan interval, patients exhibited continued atrophy...

  18. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning - Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey's auditory verbal learning test. We defined the "learning-related synchronization" (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances "deep encoding" during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS.

  19. Brain Region and Cell Type Transcripts for Informative Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    related with neurological condition and is on average larger in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The blue circle region represents the...in a number of neurological conditions. Furthermore, this region is usually larger for schizophrenia , bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer’s disease...pathways such as calcium signaling pathway, mapK signaling pathway, Gaba pathway, and long- term depression pathways etc., are confirmed pathways through

  20. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in internet gaming addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guangheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Internet gaming addiction (IGA, as a subtype of internet addiction disorder, is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IGA should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity of IGA. This study investigated the brain functions in IGA patients with resting-state fMRI. Methods Fifteen IGA subjects and fourteen healthy controls participated in this study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo measures were used to detect the abnormal functional integrations. Results Comparing to the healthy controls, IGA subjects show enhanced ReHo in brainstem, inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cerebellum, and left middle frontal gyrus. All of these regions are thought related with sensory-motor coordination. In addition, IGA subjects show decreased ReHo in temporal, occipital and parietal brain regions. These regions are thought responsible for visual and auditory functions. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-time online game playing enhanced the brain synchronization in sensory-motor coordination related brain regions and decreased the excitability in visual and auditory related brain regions.

  1. Total regional and global number of synapses in the human brain neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Y.; Nyengaard, J.R.; Groot, D.M.G. de; Jorgen, H.; Gundersen, G.

    2001-01-01

    An estimator of the total number of synapses in neocortex of human autopsy brains based on unbiased stereological principles is described. Each randomly chosen cerebral hemisphere was stratified into the four major neocortical regions. Uniform sampling with a varying sampling fraction in each region

  2. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  3. Longitudinal Regional Brain Development and Clinical Risk Factors in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S; Counsell, Serena J; Benders, Manon J N L

    2016-11-01

    To investigate third-trimester extrauterine brain growth and correlate this with clinical risk factors in the neonatal period, using serially acquired brain tissue volumes in a large, unselected cohort of extremely preterm born infants. Preterm infants (gestational age regions covering the entire brain. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the influence of clinical variables on volumes at both scans, as well as on volumetric growth. MRIs at term equivalent age were available for 210 infants and serial data were available for 131 infants. Growth over these 10 weeks was greatest for the cerebellum, with an increase of 258%. Sex, birth weight z-score, and prolonged mechanical ventilation showed global effects on brain volumes on both scans. The effect of brain injury on ventricular size was already visible at 30 weeks, whereas growth data and volumes at term-equivalent age revealed the effect of brain injury on the cerebellum. This study provides data about third-trimester extrauterine volumetric brain growth in preterm infants. Both global and local effects of several common clinical risk factors were found to influence serial volumetric measurements, highlighting the vulnerability of the human brain, especially in the presence of brain injury, during this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative brain stem lesions on MRI of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain stem lesions are common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, neuromyelitis optica (NMO, and multiple sclerosis (MS. OBJECTIVES: To investigate comparative brain stem lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. METHODS: Sixty-five adult patients with ADEM (n = 17, NMO (n = 23, and MS (n = 25 who had brain stem lesions on MRI were enrolled. Morphological features of brain stem lesions among these diseases were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with ADEM had a higher frequency of midbrain lesions than did patients with NMO (94.1% vs. 17.4%, P<0.001 and MS (94.1% vs. 40.0%, P<0.001; patients with NMO had a lower frequency of pons lesions than did patients with MS (34.8% vs. 84.0%, P<0.001 and ADEM (34.8% vs. 70.6%, P = 0.025; and patients with NMO had a higher frequency of medulla oblongata lesions than did patients with ADEM (91.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001 and MS (91.3% vs. 36.0%, P<0.001. On the axial section of the brain stem, the majority (82.4% of patients with ADEM showed lesions on the ventral part; the brain stem lesions in patients with NMO were typically located in the dorsal part (91.3%; and lesions in patients with MS were found in both the ventral (44.0% and dorsal (56.0% parts. The lesions in patients with ADEM (100% and NMO (91.3% had poorly defined margins, while lesions of patients with MS (76.0% had well defined margins. Brain stem lesions in patients with ADEM were usually bilateral and symmetrical (82.4%, while lesions in patients with NMO (87.0% and MS (92.0% were asymmetrical or unilateral. CONCLUSIONS: Brain stem lesions showed various morphological features among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. The different lesion locations may be helpful in distinguishing these diseases.

  5. Comparison of regional gene expression differences in the brains of the domestic dog and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennerly Erin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of the expression profiles of 2,721 genes in the cerebellum, cortex and pituitary gland of three American Staffordshire terriers, one beagle and one fox hound revealed regional expression differences in the brain but failed to reveal marked differences among breeds, or even individual dogs. Approximately 85 per cent (42 of 49 orthologue comparisons of the regional differences in the dog are similar to those that differentiate the analogous human brain regions. A smaller percentage of human differences were replicated in the dog, particularly in the cortex, which may generally be evolving more rapidly than other brain regions in mammals. This study lays the foundation for detailed analysis of the population structure of transcriptional variation as it relates to cognitive and neurological phenotypes in the domestic dog.

  6. Feasibility of Single-Isocenter Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiosurgery for Treatment of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Grant M.; Popple, Richard A.; Young, P. Edward; Fiveash, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relative plan quality of single-isocenter vs. multi-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for radiosurgical treatment of multiple central nervous system metastases. Methods and Materials: VMAT plans were created using RapidArc technology for treatment of simulated patients with three brain metastases. The plans consisted of single-arc/single-isocenter, triple-arc (noncoplanar)/single-isocenter, and triple-arc (coplanar)/triple-isocenter configurations. All VMAT plans were normalized to deliver 100% of the 20-Gy prescription dose to all lesions. The plans were evaluated by calculation of Paddick and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conformity index scores, Paddick gradient index scores, and 12-Gy isodose volumes. Results: All plans were judged clinically acceptable, but differences were observed in the dosimetric parameters, with the use of multiple noncoplanar arcs showing small improvements in the conformity indexes compared with the single-arc/single-isocenter and triple-arc (coplanar)/triple-isocenter plans. Multiple arc plans (triple-arc [noncoplanar]/single-isocenter and triple-arc [coplanar]/triple-isocenter) showed smaller 12-Gy isodose volumes in scenarios involving three metastases spaced closely together, with only small differences noted among all plans involving lesions spaced further apart. Conclusion: Our initial results suggest that single-isocenter VMAT plans can be used to deliver conformity equivalent to that of multiple isocenter VMAT techniques. For targets that are closely spaced, multiple noncoplanar single-isocenter arcs might be required. VMAT radiosurgery for multiple targets using a single isocenter can be efficiently delivered, requiring less than one-half the beam time required for multiple isocenter set ups. VMAT radiosurgery will likely replace multi-isocenter techniques for linear accelerator-based treatment of multiple targets.

  7. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  8. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery

  9. Activating whole brain® innovation: A means of nourishing multiple intelligence in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise De Boer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The interconnectedness of the constructs ‘whole brain® thinking’ and ‘multiple intelligence’ forms the epicentre of this article. We depart from the premise that when whole brain® thinking is activated multiple intelligence can be nourished. When this becomes evident in a higher education practice it can be claimed that such a practice is innovative. Whole brain® thinking that informs intelligence and vice versa is inevitable when it comes to facilitating learning with a view to promoting quality learning in the context of higher education. If higher education is concerned about the expectations of industry and the world of work there is no other option as to prepare students in such a way that they develo as holistic – whole brained and intelligent – employers, employees and entrepreneurs who take responsibility for maximising their full potential. Becoming a self-regulated professional and being reflexive are some of the attributes of the 21st century which should be cultivated in all students. Research on whole brain® thinking and multiple intelligence shows that these human attributes form an integral part of one’s interaction with life – one’s environment and especially people as integral part of the environment. This focus on people highlights the need for developing soft skills within every curriculum. The epistemological underpinning of our reporting of experience in practice and research of the application of the principals of the constructs is meta- reflective in nature. Instead of a typical traditional stance to research we do not report on the numerous sets of data obtained over a period of more than 15 years. Our approach is that of a meta-reflective narrative as most of the studies we were involved in and still are, are reflective as it is most often than not action research-driven. And action research is a reflective process. We report on evidence-based practice that includes fields of specialisation such as

  10. Use of Multichannel Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Relationships Between Brain Regions and Neurocognitive Tasks of Selective/Divided Attention and 2-Back Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Imai, Shoji; Kanayama, Yusuke; Kawashima, Issaku; Kumano, Hiroaki

    2017-06-01

    While dichotic listening (DL) was originally intended to measure bottom-up selective attention, it has also become a tool for measuring top-down selective attention. This study investigated the brain regions related to top-down selective and divided attention DL tasks and a 2-back task using alphanumeric and Japanese numeric sounds. Thirty-six healthy participants underwent near-infrared spectroscopy scanning while performing a top-down selective attentional DL task, a top-down divided attentional DL task, and a 2-back task. Pearson's correlations were calculated to show relationships between oxy-Hb concentration in each brain region and the score of each cognitive task. Different brain regions were activated during the DL and 2-back tasks. Brain regions activated in the top-down selective attention DL task were the left inferior prefrontal gyrus and left pars opercularis. The left temporopolar area was activated in the top-down divided attention DL task, and the left frontopolar area and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were activated in the 2-back task. As further evidence for the finding that each task measured different cognitive and brain area functions, neither the percentages of correct answers for the three tasks nor the response times for the selective attentional task and the divided attentional task were correlated to one another. Thus, the DL and 2-back tasks used in this study can assess multiple areas of cognitive, brain-related dysfunction to explore their relationship to different psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, R S; Li, C-T; Terry, G E; Zoghbi, S S; Morse, C; Pike, V W; Volkow, N D; Huestis, M A; Innis, R B

    2012-06-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke cannabis. Downregulation correlated with years of cannabis smoking and was selective to cortical brain regions. After ∼4 weeks of continuously monitored abstinence from cannabis on a secure research unit, CB(1) receptor density returned to normal levels. This is the first direct demonstration of cortical cannabinoid CB(1) receptor downregulation as a neuroadaptation that may promote cannabis dependence in human brain.

  12. Fingolimod's Impact on MRI Brain Volume Measures in Multiple Sclerosis: Results from MS-MRIUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, Robert; Medin, Jennie; Khan, Nasreen; Korn, Jonathan R; Bergsland, Niels; Dwyer, Michael G; Chitnis, Tanuja; Naismith, Robert T; Alvarez, Enrique; Kinkel, Peter; Cohan, Stanley; Hunter, Samuel F; Silva, Diego; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2018-05-11

    Evidence is needed to understand the effect of fingolimod on slowing down brain atrophy progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in clinical practice. We investigated the effect of fingolimod on brain atrophy in MS patients with active disease (clinically and/or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) versus no evidence of active disease (NEAD). MS and clinical outcome and MRI in the United States (MS-MRIUS) is a multicenter, retrospective study that included 590 relapsing-remitting MS patients, who initiated fingolimod, and were followed for a median of 16 months. Patients with active disease at baseline (245, 41.5%) were defined as those who had one or more relapses in the year previous starting fingolimod, and/or displayed gadolinium enhancing lesions(s) at baseline MRI scan, whereas patients with NEAD at baseline (345, 58.5%) did not fulfill these criteria. Annualized percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and percentage lateral ventricle volume change (PLVVC) over the follow-up were analyzed in both groups. Over the follow-up, the rate of PBVC was -.38% in active disease and -.25% in NEAD patients (P = .076), whereas PLLVC was 1.76% in active disease and .28% in NEAD patients (P = .046). No changes in timed 25-foot walk (P = .619) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (P = .275) scores or MRI lesion accumulation (P > 0.08) were detected, although the active disease group had a higher proportion of relapses during the follow-up period (P = .02). The study provides real-world evidence that rate of brain atrophy in MS patients with underlying active disease and NEAD in fingolimod treated patients is below the established pathological cutoff for loss of whole brain volume (>-.4%) or expansion of lateral ventricles (> 3.5%). Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Multiple sessions of liposomal doxorubicin delivery via focused ultrasound mediated blood-brain barrier disruption: a safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Muna; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Zhang, Yong-Zhi; McDannold, Nathan

    2015-04-28

    Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound is a rapidly advancing method for delivering therapeutic and imaging agents to the brain. It has the ability to facilitate the passage of therapeutics from the vasculature to the brain parenchyma, which is normally protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The method's main advantages are that it is both targeted and noninvasive, and that it can be easily repeated. Studies have shown that liposomal doxorubicin (Lipo-DOX), a chemotherapy agent with promise for tumors in the central nervous system, can be delivered into the brain across BBB. However, prior studies have suggested that doxorubicin can be significantly neurotoxic, even at small concentrations. Here, we studied whether multiple sessions of Lipo-DOX administered after FUS-induced BBB disruption (FUS-BBBD) induces severe adverse events in the normal brain tissues. First, we used fluorometry to measure the doxorubicin concentrations in the brain after FUS-BBBD to ensure that a clinically relevant doxorubicin concentration was achieved in the brain. Next, we performed three weekly sessions with FUS-BBBD±Lipo-DOX administration. Five to twelve targets were sonicated each week, following a schedule described previously in a survival study in glioma-bearing rats (Aryal et al., 2013). Five rats received three weekly sessions where i.v. injected Lipo-DOX was combined with FUS-BBBD; an additional four rats received FUS-BBBD only. Animals were euthanized 70days from the first session and brains were examined in histology. We found that clinically-relevant concentrations of doxorubicin (4.8±0.5μg/g) were delivered to the brain with the sonication parameters (0.69MHz; 0.55-0.81MPa; 10ms bursts; 1Hz PRF; 60s duration), microbubble concentration (Definity, 10μl/kg), and the administered Lipo-DOX dose (5.67mg/kg) used. The resulting concentration of Lipo-DOX was reduced by 32% when it was injected 10min after the last sonication compared to cases where the agent was

  14. Quantitative measures of walking and strength provide insight into brain corticospinal tract pathology in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative measures of strength and walking are associated with brain corticospinal tract pathology. The addition of these quantitative measures to basic clinical information explains more of the variance in corticospinal tract fractional anisotropy and magnetization transfer ratio than the basic clinical information alone. Outcome measurement for multiple sclerosis clinical trials has been notoriously challenging; the use of quantitative measures of strength and walking along with tract-specific imaging methods may improve our ability to monitor disease change over time, with intervention, and provide needed guidelines for developing more effective targeted rehabilitation strategies.

  15. Her versus his migraine: multiple sex differences in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Nasim; Linnman, Clas; Brawn, Jennifer; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-08-01

    Migraine is twice as common in females as in males, but the mechanisms behind this difference are still poorly understood. We used high-field magnetic resonance imaging in male and female age-matched interictal (migraine free) migraineurs and matched healthy controls to determine alterations in brain structure. Female migraineurs had thicker posterior insula and precuneus cortices compared with male migraineurs and healthy controls of both sexes. Furthermore, evaluation of functional responses to heat within the migraine groups indicated concurrent functional differences in male and female migraineurs and a sex-specific pattern of functional connectivity of these two regions with the rest of the brain. The results support the notion of a 'sex phenotype' in migraine and indicate that brains are differentially affected by migraine in females compared with males. Furthermore, the results also support the notion that sex differences involve both brain structure as well as functional circuits, in that emotional circuitry compared with sensory processing appears involved to a greater degree in female than male migraineurs.

  16. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, RS; Li, C-T; Terry, GE; Zoghbi, SS; Morse, C; Pike, VW; Volkow, ND; Huestis, MA; Innis, RB

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke ca...

  17. Parallel Beam-Beam Simulation Incorporating Multiple Bunches and Multiple Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, F W; Pieloni, T

    2007-01-01

    The simulation code COMBI has been developed to enable the study of coherent beam-beam effects in the full collision scenario of the LHC, with multiple bunches interacting at multiple crossing points over many turns. The program structure and input are conceived in a general way which allows arbitrary numbers and placements of bunches and interaction points (IP's), together with procedural options for head-on and parasitic collisions (in the strong-strong sense), beam transport, statistics gathering, harmonic analysis, and periodic output of simulation data. The scale of this problem, once we go beyond the simplest case of a pair of bunches interacting once per turn, quickly escalates into the parallel computing arena, and herein we will describe the construction of an MPI-based version of COMBI able to utilize arbitrary numbers of processors to support efficient calculation of multi-bunch multi-IP interactions and transport. Implementing the parallel version did not require extensive disruption of the basic ...

  18. Selectively stimulating neural populations in the subthalamic region using a novel deep brain stimulation lead design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees Joab; Verhagen, R.; Bour, L.J.; Heida, Tjitske

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) is widely used in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease(PD) and has proven to be an effective treatment of the various motor symptoms. The therapy involves implanting a lead consisting of multiple electrodes in the STN through which

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoutai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mituhiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  20. Structural covariance of brain region volumes is associated with both structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Yohan; Fernandes, Darren J; French, Leon; Ellegood, Jacob; Cahill, Lindsay S; Vousden, Dulcie A; Spencer Noakes, Leigh; Scholz, Jan; van Eede, Matthijs C; Nieman, Brian J; Sled, John G; Lerch, Jason P

    2018-05-18

    An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI. We then used a seed-based approach and determined, for 108 different seed regions across the brain and using mouse gene expression and connectivity data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, the variation in structural covariance data that could be explained by distance to seed, transcriptomic similarity to seed, and connectivity to seed. We found that overall, correlations in structure volumes hierarchically clustered into distinct anatomical systems, similar to findings from other studies and similar to other types of networks in the brain, including structural connectivity and transcriptomic similarity networks. Across seeds, this structural covariance was significantly explained by distance (17% of the variation, up to a maximum of 49% for structural covariance to the visceral area of the cortex), transcriptomic similarity (13% of the variation, up to maximum of 28% for structural covariance to the primary visual area) and connectivity (15% of the variation, up to a maximum of 36% for structural covariance to the intermediate reticular nucleus in the medulla) of covarying structures. Together, distance, connectivity, and transcriptomic similarity explained 37% of structural covariance, up to a maximum of 63% for structural covariance to the

  1. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION AND SEGREGATION OF BRAIN MRI IMAGES INTO IMAGES CAPTURED WITH RESPECT TO VENTRICULAR REGION AND EYE-BALL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arunkumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI images of the brain are used for detection of various brain diseases including tumor. In such cases, classification of MRI images captured with respect to ventricular and eye ball regions helps in automated location and classification of such diseases. The methods employed in the paper can segregate the given MRI images of brain into images of brain captured with respect to ventricular region and images of brain captured with respect to eye ball region. First, the given MRI image of brain is segmented using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, which is an optimized algorithm for MRI image segmentation. The algorithm proposed in the paper is then applied on the segmented image. The algorithm detects whether the image consist of a ventricular region or an eye ball region and classifies it accordingly.

  2. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  3. A Phase I Study of Short-Course Accelerated Whole Brain Radiation Therapy for Multiple Brain Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravatta, Luciana; Deodato, Francesco; Ferro, Marica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II' , Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II' , Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Massaccesi, Mariangela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II' , Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Padula, Gilbert D.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary' s Health Care, Grand Rapids, Michigan (United States); Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura ' Giovanni Paolo II' , Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Carrozza, Francesco [Department of Oncology, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Campobasso (Italy); Flocco, Mariano [Madre Teresa di Calcutta Hospice, Larino (Italy); Cantore, Giampaolo [Department of Neurological Sciences, Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Pozzilli (Italy); Scapati, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, ' San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy); Buwenge, Milly [Department of Radiotherapy, Mulago Hospital, Kampala (Uganda); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a SHort-course Accelerated whole brain RadiatiON therapy (SHARON) in the treatment of patients with multiple brain metastases. Methods and Materials: A phase 1 trial in 4 dose-escalation steps was designed: 12 Gy (3 Gy per fraction), 14 Gy (3.5 Gy per fraction), 16 Gy (4 Gy per fraction), and 18 Gy (4.5 Gy per fraction). Eligibility criteria included patients with unfavorable recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class > or =2 with at least 3 brain metastases or metastatic disease in more than 3 organ systems, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the MTD. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any acute toxicity {>=}grade 3, according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Information on the status of the main neurologic symptoms and quality of life were recorded. Results: Characteristics of the 49 enrolled patients were as follows: male/female, 30/19; median age, 66 years (range, 23-83 years). ECOG performance status was <3 in 46 patients (94%). Fourteen patients (29%) were considered to be in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 3. Grade 1-2 acute neurologic (26.4%) and skin (18.3%) toxicities were recorded. Only 1 patient experienced DLT (neurologic grade 3 acute toxicity). With a median follow-up time of 5 months (range, 1-23 months), no late toxicities have been observed. Three weeks after treatment, 16 of 21 symptomatic patients showed an improvement or resolution of presenting symptoms (overall symptom response rate, 76.2%; confidence interval 0.95: 60.3-95.9%). Conclusions: Short-course accelerated radiation therapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days is tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase 2 study has been planned to evaluate the efficacy on overall survival, symptom control, and quality of life indices.

  4. Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kate

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM, present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP, derived from a specific source (diesel engine, and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Results Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-κB and (AP-1 was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI. Conclusions Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution

  5. Prescription Dose Guideline Based on Physical Criterion for Multiple Metastatic Brain Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahgal, Arjun; Barani, Igor J.; Novotny, Josef; Zhang Beibei; Petti, Paula; Larson, David A.; Ma Lijun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Existing dose guidelines for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are primarily based on single-target treatment data. This study investigated dose guidelines for multiple targets treated with SRS. Methods and Materials: A physical model was developed to relate the peripheral isodose volume dependence on an increasing number of targets and prescription dose per target. The model was derived from simulated and clinical multiple brain metastatic cases treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion at several institutions, where the total number of targets ranged from 2 to 60. The relative increase in peripheral isodose volumes, such as the 12-Gy volume, was studied in the multitarget treatment setting based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 90-05 study dose levels. Results: A significant increase in the 12-Gy peripheral isodose volumes was found in comparing multiple target SRS to single-target SRS. This increase strongly correlated (R 2 = 0.92) with the total number of targets but not the total target volumes (R 2 = 0.06). On the basis of the correlated curve, the 12-Gy volume for multiple target treatment was found to increase by approximately 1% per target when a low target dose such as 15 Gy was used, but approximately 4% per target when a high dose such as 20-24 Gy was used. Reduction in the prescription dose was quantified for each prescription level in maintaining the 12-Gy volume. Conclusion: Normal brain dose increases predictably with increasing number of targets for multitarget SRS. A reduction of approximately 1-2 Gy in the prescribed dose is needed compared with single target radiosurgery.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis brain lesions: A semeiologic study by multiple spin-echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caires, M.C.; Scheiber, C.; Rumbach, L.; Gounot, D.; Dumitresco, B.; Warter, J.M.; Collard, M.; Chambron, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) if the brain is now known as a very sensitive tool for clearly revealing lesions in white matter, and has thus become important in the study of multiple sclerosis (MS). Since 1981, others have shown the best of MRI: we can see 6 x more lesions than CT. MRI contrast bases mainly on the spatial heterogeneity of the relaxation time of different tissues. The sensitivity depends on the longer T1 and/or T2 of the pathological tissues compared to those of normal tissues. In our series, the authors use mainly T2 weighted MR images and they evaluate their interest for the diagnosis of MS. They study the frequency of the abnormalities and their semeiology in a small number of transversal sections imaged at the level of the lateral ventricles. The authors' aim is to describe the NMR-derived morphological signs of MS and to prospect its interest in the physiopathological studies of this disease

  7. Emotion and attention interactions in social cognition: brain regions involved in processing anger prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, David; Grandjean, Didier; Pourtois, Gilles; Schwartz, Sophie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Scherer, Klaus R; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2005-12-01

    Multiple levels of processing are thought to be involved in the appraisal of emotionally relevant events, with some processes being engaged relatively independently of attention, whereas other processes may depend on attention and current task goals or context. We conducted an event-related fMRI experiment to examine how processing angry voice prosody, an affectively and socially salient signal, is modulated by voluntary attention. To manipulate attention orthogonally to emotional prosody, we used a dichotic listening paradigm in which meaningless utterances, pronounced with either angry or neutral prosody, were presented simultaneously to both ears on each trial. In two successive blocks, participants selectively attended to either the left or right ear and performed a gender-decision on the voice heard on the target side. Our results revealed a functional dissociation between different brain areas. Whereas the right amygdala and bilateral superior temporal sulcus responded to anger prosody irrespective of whether it was heard from a to-be-attended or to-be-ignored voice, the orbitofrontal cortex and the cuneus in medial occipital cortex showed greater activation to the same emotional stimuli when the angry voice was to-be-attended rather than to-be-ignored. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed a strong correlation between orbitofrontal regions and sensitivity on a behavioral inhibition scale measuring proneness to anxiety reactions. Our results underscore the importance of emotion and attention interactions in social cognition by demonstrating that multiple levels of processing are involved in the appraisal of emotionally relevant cues in voices, and by showing a modulation of some emotional responses by both the current task-demands and individual differences.

  8. Hierarchical clustering into groups of human brain regions according to elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen brain regions were dissected from both hemispheres of fifteen 'normal' ageing subjects (8 females, 7 males) of mean age 79±7 years. Elemental compositions were determined by simultaneous application of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses using a 2 MeV, 4 nA proton beam scanned over 4 mm 2 of the sample surface. Elemental concentrations were found to be dependent upon the brain region and hemisphere studied. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to group the brain regions according to the sample concentrations of eight elements. The resulting dendrogram is presented and its clusters related to the sample compositions of grey and white matter. (author)

  9. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  10. Regional brain [(11)C]carfentanil binding following tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Edward F; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Ni, Lisong; Guthrie, Sally K; Zubieta, Jon Kar

    2015-06-03

    To determine if overnight tobacco abstinent carriers of the AG or GG (*G) vs. the AA variant of the human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) differ in [(11)C]carfentanil binding after tobacco smoking. Twenty healthy American male smokers who abstained from tobacco overnight were genotyped and completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mu opioid receptor agonist, [(11)C]carfentanil. They smoked deniconized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) cigarettes during the PET scans. Smoking avnic cigarette decreased the binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]carfentanil in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPfc; 6, 56, 18), left anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPfc; -2, 46, 44), right ventral striatum (vStr; 16, 3, -10), left insula (Ins; -42, 10, -12), right hippocampus (Hippo; 18, -6, -14) and left cerebellum (Cbl; -10, -88, -34), and increased the BPND in left amygdala (Amy; -20, 0, -22), left putamen (Put; -22, 10, -6) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc; -10, 12, -8). In the AA allele carriers, avnic cigarette smoking significantly changed the BPND compared to after denic smoking in most brain areas listed above. However in the *G carriers the significant BPND changes were confirmed in only amPfc and vStr. Free mu opioid receptor availability was significantly less in the *G than the AA carriers in the Amy and NAcc. The present study demonstrates that BPND changes induced by avnic smoking in OPRM1 *G carriers were blunted compared to the AA carriers. Also *G smokers had less free mu opioid receptor availability in Amy and NAcc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional apparent diffusion coefficient values in 3rd trimester fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Chen; Weisz, Boaz; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad; Yaniv, Gal; Bergman, Dafi; Biegon, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the developing fetus can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal brain pathologies. To this end, we measured regional ADC in a relatively large cohort of normal fetal brains in utero. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 48 non-sedated 3rd trimester fetuses with normal structural MR imaging results. ADC was measured in white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Regional ADC values were compared by one-way ANOVA with gestational age as covariate. Regression analysis was used to examine gestational age-related changes in regional ADC. Four other cases of CMV infection were also examined. Median gestational age was 32 weeks (range, 26-33 weeks). There was a highly significant effect of region on ADC, whereby ADC values were highest in white matter, with significantly lower values in basal ganglia and cerebellum and the lowest values in thalamus and pons. ADC did not significantly change with gestational age in any of the regions tested. In the four cases with fetal CMV infection, ADC value was associated with a global decrease. ADC values in normal fetal brain are relatively stable during the third trimester, show consistent regional variation, and can make an important contribution to the early diagnosis and possibly prognosis of fetal brain pathologies. (orig.)

  12. Regional apparent diffusion coefficient values in 3rd trimester fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Chen [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Sheba Medical Center, Diagnostic Imaging, 52621, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Weisz, Boaz; Lipitz, Shlomo; Katorza, Eldad [Tel Aviv University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Yaniv, Gal; Bergman, Dafi [Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv (Israel); Biegon, Anat [Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the developing fetus can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of prenatal brain pathologies. To this end, we measured regional ADC in a relatively large cohort of normal fetal brains in utero. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in 48 non-sedated 3rd trimester fetuses with normal structural MR imaging results. ADC was measured in white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes), basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Regional ADC values were compared by one-way ANOVA with gestational age as covariate. Regression analysis was used to examine gestational age-related changes in regional ADC. Four other cases of CMV infection were also examined. Median gestational age was 32 weeks (range, 26-33 weeks). There was a highly significant effect of region on ADC, whereby ADC values were highest in white matter, with significantly lower values in basal ganglia and cerebellum and the lowest values in thalamus and pons. ADC did not significantly change with gestational age in any of the regions tested. In the four cases with fetal CMV infection, ADC value was associated with a global decrease. ADC values in normal fetal brain are relatively stable during the third trimester, show consistent regional variation, and can make an important contribution to the early diagnosis and possibly prognosis of fetal brain pathologies. (orig.)

  13. From the "little brain" gastrointestinal infection to the "big brain" neuroinflammation: a proposed fast axonal transport pathway involved in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deretzi, Georgia; Kountouras, Jannis; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Zavos, Christos; Chatzigeorgiou, Stavros; Koutlas, Evangelos; Tsiptsios, Iakovos

    2009-11-01

    The human central nervous system (CNS) is targeted by different pathogens which, apart from pathogens' intranasal inoculation or trafficking into the brain through infected blood cells, may use a distinct pathway to bypass the blood-brain barrier by using the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) retrograde axonal transport through sensory or motor fibres. The recent findings regarding the enteric nervous system (often called the "little brain") similarities with CNS and GIT axonal transport of infections resulting in CNS neuroinflammation are mainly reviewed in this article. We herein propose that the GIT is the vulnerable area through which pathogens (such as Helicobacter pylori) may influence the brain and induce multiple sclerosis pathologies, mainly via the fast axonal transport by the afferent neurones connecting the GIT to brain.

  14. Regional gray matter growth, sexual dimorphism, and cerebral asymmetry in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Prastawa, Marcel W; Looney, Christopher B; Vetsa, Y Sampath K; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Evans, Dianne D; Smith, J Keith; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Gerig, Guido

    2007-02-07

    Although there has been recent interest in the study of childhood and adolescent brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life. In older children, there are regional differences in cortical gray matter development, whereas cortical gray and white matter growth after birth has not been studied to a great extent. The adult human brain is also characterized by cerebral asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms, although very little is known about how these asymmetries and dimorphisms develop. We used magnetic resonance imaging and an automatic segmentation methodology to study brain structure in 74 neonates in the first few weeks after birth. We found robust cortical gray matter growth compared with white matter growth, with occipital regions growing much faster than prefrontal regions. Sexual dimorphism is present at birth, with males having larger total brain cortical gray and white matter volumes than females. In contrast to adults and older children, the left hemisphere is larger than the right hemisphere, and the normal pattern of fronto-occipital asymmetry described in older children and adults is not present. Regional differences in cortical gray matter growth are likely related to differential maturation of sensory and motor systems compared with prefrontal executive function after birth. These findings also indicate that whereas some adult patterns of sexual dimorphism and cerebral asymmetries are present at birth, others develop after birth.

  15. Identification of a set of genes showing regionally enriched expression in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Marco A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleiades Promoter Project aims to improve gene therapy by designing human mini-promoters ( Results We have utilized LongSAGE to identify regionally enriched transcripts in the adult mouse brain. As supplemental strategies, we also performed a meta-analysis of published literature and inspected the Allen Brain Atlas in situ hybridization data. From a set of approximately 30,000 mouse genes, 237 were identified as showing specific or enriched expression in 30 target regions of the mouse brain. GO term over-representation among these genes revealed co-involvement in various aspects of central nervous system development and physiology. Conclusion Using a multi-faceted expression validation approach, we have identified mouse genes whose human orthologs are good candidates for design of mini-promoters. These mouse genes represent molecular markers in several discrete brain regions/cell-types, which could potentially provide a mechanistic explanation of unique functions performed by each region. This set of markers may also serve as a resource for further studies of gene regulatory elements influencing brain expression.

  16. Multiple sclerosis, brain radiotherapy, and risk of neurotoxicity: The Mayo Clinic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Robert C.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Keegan, B. Mark; Gavrilova, Ralitza H.; Brown, Paul D.; Weinshenker, Brian G.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was a retrospective assessment of neurotoxicity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the brain. Methods and Materials: We studied 15 consecutively treated patients with MS who received brain EBRT. Neurologic toxicity was assessed with the Common Toxicity Criteria v.3.0. Results: Median follow-up for the 5 living patients was 6.0 years (range, 3.3-27.4 years). No exacerbation of MS occurred in any patient during EBRT. Five patients had Grade 4 neurologic toxicity and 1 had possible Grade 5 toxicity. Kaplan-Meier estimated risk of neurotoxicity greater than Grade 4 at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 27%-82%). Toxicity occurred at 37.5 to 54.0 Gy at a median of 1.0 year (range, 0.2-4.3 years) after EBRT. Univariate analysis showed an association between opposed-field irradiation of the temporal lobes, central white matter, and brainstem and increased risk of neurotoxicity (p < 0.04). Three of 6 cases of toxicity occurred in patients treated before 1986. Conclusions: External beam radiotherapy of the brain in patients with MS may be associated with an increased risk of neurotoxicity compared with patients without demyelinating illnesses. However, this risk is associated with treatment techniques that may not be comparable to modern, conformal radiotherapy

  17. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento; Santos, A. C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de, E-mail: murta@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2010-01-15

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  18. Increased determinism in brain electrical activity occurs in association with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Simona; Minagar, Alireza; Chesson, Andrew L; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Increased determinism (decreased complexity) of brain electrical activity has been associated with some brain diseases. Our objective was to determine whether a similar association occurred for multiple sclerosis (MS). Ten subjects with a relapsing-remitting course of MS who were in remission were studied; the controls were age- and gender-matched clinically normal subjects. Recurrence plots were calculated using representative electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs (1-7 seconds) from six derivations; the plots were quantified using the nonlinear variables percent recurrence (%R) and percent determinism (%D). The results were averaged over all derivations for each participant, and the means were compared between the groups. As a linear control procedure the groups were also compared using spectral analysis. The mean±SD of %R for the MS subjects was 6·6±1·3%, compared with 5·1±1·3% in the normal group (P = 0·017), indicating that brain activity in the subjects with MS was less complex, as hypothesized. The groups were not distinguishable using %D or spectral analysis. Taken together with our earlier report that %R could be used to discriminate between MS and normal subjects based on the ability to exhibit evoked potentials, the evidence suggests that complexity analysis of the EEG has potential for development as a diagnostic test for MS.

  19. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.B. Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously.

  20. Brain tissue segmentation using q-entropy in multiple sclerosis magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, P.R.B.; Brum, D.G.; Santos, A. C.; Murta-Junior, L.O.; Araujo, D.B. de

    2010-01-01

    The loss of brain volume has been used as a marker of tissue destruction and can be used as an index of the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we tested a new method for tissue segmentation based on pixel intensity threshold using generalized Tsallis entropy to determine a statistical segmentation parameter for each single class of brain tissue. We compared the performance of this method using a range of different q parameters and found a different optimal q parameter for white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the conclusion that the differences in structural correlations and scale invariant similarities present in each tissue class can be accessed by generalized Tsallis entropy, obtaining the intensity limits for these tissue class separations. In order to test this method, we used it for analysis of brain magnetic resonance images of 43 patients and 10 healthy controls matched for gender and age. The values found for the entropic q index were 0.2 for cerebrospinal fluid, 0.1 for white matter and 1.5 for gray matter. With this algorithm, we could detect an annual loss of 0.98% for the patients, in agreement with literature data. Thus, we can conclude that the entropy of Tsallis adds advantages to the process of automatic target segmentation of tissue classes, which had not been demonstrated previously. (author)

  1. Functional and Structural Brain Plasticity Enhanced by Motor and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Prosperini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations.

  2. [Intensive care treatment of traumatic brain injury in multiple trauma patients : Decision making for complex pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, H; Herzer, G; Schöchl, H; Voelckel, W G

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock due to uncontrolled bleeding are the major causes of death after severe trauma. Mortality rates are threefold higher in patients suffering from multiple injuries and additionally TBI. Factors known to impair outcome after TBI, namely hypotension, hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, coagulopathy and hypothermia are aggravated by the extent and severity of extracerebral injuries. The mainstays of TBI intensive care may be, at least temporarily, contradictory to the trauma care concept for multiple trauma patients. In particular, achieving normotension in uncontrolled bleeding situations, maintenance of normocapnia in traumatic lung injury and thromboembolic prophylaxis are prone to discussion. Due to an ongoing uncertainty about the definition of normotensive blood pressure values, a cerebral perfusion pressure-guided cardiovascular management is of key importance. In contrast, there is no doubt that early goal directed coagulation management improves outcome in patients with TBI and multiple trauma. The timing of subsequent surgical interventions must be based on the development of TBI pathology; therefore, intensive care of multiple trauma patients with TBI requires an ongoing and close cooperation between intensivists and trauma surgeons in order to individualize patient care.

  3. Molecular regionalization in the compact brain of the meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Dinophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerbl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelida is a morphologically diverse animal group that exhibits a remarkable variety in nervous system architecture (e.g., number and location of longitudinal cords, architecture of the brain. Despite this heterogeneity of neural arrangements, the molecular profiles related to central nervous system patterning seem to be conserved even between distantly related annelids. In particular, comparative molecular studies on brain and anterior neural region patterning genes have focused so far mainly on indirect-developing macrofaunal taxa. Therefore, analyses on microscopic, direct-developing annelids are important to attain a general picture of the evolutionary events underlying the vast diversity of annelid neuroanatomy. Results We have analyzed the expression domains of 11 evolutionarily conserved genes involved in brain and anterior neural patterning in adult females of the direct-developing meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus. The small, compact brain shows expression of dimmed, foxg, goosecoid, homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle, orthopedia, pax6, six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1. Although most of the studied markers localize to specific brain areas, the genes six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1 are expressed in nearly all perikarya of the brain. All genes except for goosecoid, pax6 and nk2.2 overlap in the anterior brain region, while the respective expression domains are more separated in the posterior brain. Conclusions Our findings reveal that the expression patterns of the genes foxg, orthodenticle, orthopedia and six3/6 correlate with those described in Platynereis dumerilii larvae, and homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle and synaptotagmin-1 resemble the pattern of late larvae of Capitella teleta. Although data on other annelids are limited, molecular similarities between adult Dinophilus and larval Platynereis and Capitella suggest an overall conservation of molecular mechanisms patterning the anterior neural regions, independent

  4. Cortical region of interest definition on SPECT brain images using X-ray CT registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzourio, N.; Sutton, D. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot); Joliot, M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot INSERM, Orsay (France)); Mazoyer, B.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Orsay (France). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot Antenne d' Information Medicale, C.H.U. Bichat, Paris (France)); Charlot, V. (Hopital Louis Mourier, Colombes (France). Service de Psychiatrie); Salamon, G. (CHU La Timone, Marseille (France). Service de Neuroradiologie)

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) analysis based on individual registration of anatomical (CT) and functional ([sup 133]Xe regional cerebral blood flow) images and on the definition of three-dimensional functional regions of interest. Registration of CT and SPECT is performed through adjustment of CT-defined cortex limits to the SPECT image. Regions are defined by sectioning a cortical ribbon on the CT images, copied over the SPECT images and pooled through slices to give 3D cortical regions of interest. The proposed method shows good intra- and interobserver reproducibility (regional intraclass correlation coefficient [approx equal]0.98), and good accuracy in terms of repositioning ([approx equal]3.5 mm) as compared to the SPECT image resolution (14 mm). The method should be particularly useful for analysing SPECT studies when variations in brain anatomy (normal or abnormal) must be accounted for. (orig.).

  5. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  6. Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Anne Lobier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual attention (VA span deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia posits that impaired multiple element processing can be responsible for poor reading outcomes. In VA span impaired dyslexic children, poor performance on letter report tasks is associated with reduced parietal activations for multiple letter processing. While this hints towards a non-specific, attention-based dysfunction, it is still unclear whether reduced parietal activity generalizes to other types of stimuli. Furthermore, putative links between reduced parietal activity and reduced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT in dyslexia have yet to be explored. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in 12 VA span impaired dyslexic adults and 12 adult skilled readers while they carried out a categorization task on single or multiple alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric characters. While healthy readers activated parietal areas more strongly for multiple than single element processing (right-sided for alphanumeric and bilateral for non-alphanumeric, similar stronger multiple element right parietal activations were absent for dyslexic participants. Contrasts between skilled and dyslexic readers revealed significantly reduced right superior parietal lobule (SPL activity for dyslexic readers regardless of stimuli type. Using a priori anatomically defined ROI, we showed that neural activity was reduced for dyslexic participants in both SPL and vOT bilaterally. Finally, we used multiple regressions to test whether SPL activity could predict vOT activity in each group. In the left hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity for both normal and dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the right hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity only for dyslexic readers. These results bring critical support to the visual attention interpretation of the VA Span deficit. In addition, they offer a new insight on how deficits in automatic vOT based word recognition could arise in developmental dyslexia.

  7. Brain regional uptake of radioactive Sc, Mn, Zn, Se, Rb and Zr tracers into normal mice during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, R.; Enomoto, S.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive multitracer technique was applied to study the brain regional uptake of trace elements by the normal mice during aging. The brain regional radioactivities of 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 65 Zn, 75 Se, 83 Rb and 88 Zr were measured 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection of a solution in normal mice aged 6 to 52 weeks to evaluate the brain regional (corpus striatum, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and pons and medulla) uptakes. The radioactive distributions of 46 Sc, 54 Mn and 88 Zr tracers were variable and region-specific in the brain, while those of 65 Zn, 75 Se and 83 Rb tracers were comparable among all regions of interest. The brain regional uptakes of all tracers slightly increased with age from 10 to 28 weeks, and then remained constant during aging after 28 weeks. These uptake variations may be involved in the functional degenerative process of the blood-brain barrier during aging. (author)

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased lesion burden and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Natalie; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Hagemeier, Jesper; Kennedy, Cheryl; Melia, Rebecca; Carl, Ellen; Ramasamy, Deepa P; Cherneva, Mariya; Durfee, Jacqueline; Bergsland, Niels; Dwyer, Michael G; Kolb, Channa; Hojnacki, David; Ramanathan, Murali; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors have been associated with changes in clinical outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the frequency of CV risks in patients with MS and their association with MRI outcomes. In a prospective study, 326 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 163 patients with progressive MS, 61 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and 175 healthy controls (HCs) were screened for CV risks and scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. Examined CV risks included hypertension, heart disease, smoking, overweight/obesity and type 1 diabetes. MRI measures assessed lesion volumes (LVs) and brain atrophy. Association between individual or multiple CV risks and MRI outcomes was examined adjusting for age, sex, race, disease duration and treatment status. Patients with MS showed increased frequency of smoking (51.7% vs 36.5%, p = 0.001) and hypertension (33.9% vs 24.7%, p=0.035) compared with HCs. In total, 49.9% of patients with MS and 36% of HCs showed ≥ 2 CV risks (p = 0.003), while the frequency of ≥ 3 CV risks was 18.8% in the MS group and 8.6% in the HCs group (p = 0.002). In patients with MS, hypertension and heart disease were associated with decreased grey matter (GM) and cortical volumes (p < 0.05), while overweight/obesity was associated with increased T1-LV (p < 0.39) and smoking with decreased whole brain volume (p = 0.049). Increased lateral ventricle volume was associated with heart disease (p = 0.029) in CIS. Patients with MS with one or more CV risks showed increased lesion burden and more advanced brain atrophy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Region-specific protein misfolding cyclic amplification reproduces brain tropism of prion strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Etienne; Yildirim, Serfildan; Hannaoui, Samia; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Béringue, Vincent; Seilhean, Danielle; Haïk, Stéphane

    2017-10-06

    Human prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are transmissible brain proteinopathies, characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded isoform of the host cellular prion protein (PrP) in the brain. According to the prion model, prions are defined as proteinaceous infectious particles composed solely of this abnormal isoform of PrP (PrP Sc ). Even in the absence of genetic material, various prion strains can be propagated in experimental models. They can be distinguished by the pattern of disease they produce and especially by the localization of PrP Sc deposits within the brain and the spongiform lesions they induce. The mechanisms involved in this strain-specific targeting of distinct brain regions still are a fundamental, unresolved question in prion research. To address this question, we exploited a prion conversion in vitro assay, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), by using experimental scrapie and human prion strains as seeds and specific brain regions from mice and humans as substrates. We show here that region-specific PMCA in part reproduces the specific brain targeting observed in experimental, acquired, and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases. Furthermore, we provide evidence that, in addition to cellular prion protein, other region- and species-specific molecular factors influence the strain-dependent prion conversion process. This important step toward understanding prion strain propagation in the human brain may impact research on the molecular factors involved in protein misfolding and the development of ultrasensitive methods for diagnosing prion disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Music mnemonics aid Verbal Memory and Induce Learning – Related Brain Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H.; Peterson, David A.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on music and brain function has suggested that the temporal pattern structure in music and rhythm can enhance cognitive functions. To further elucidate this question specifically for memory, we investigated if a musical template can enhance verbal learning in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and if music-assisted learning will also influence short-term, system-level brain plasticity. We measured systems-level brain activity with oscillatory network synchronization during music-assisted learning. Specifically, we measured the spectral power of 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in alpha and beta frequency bands in 54 patients with MS. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either hearing a spoken or a musical (sung) presentation of Rey’s auditory verbal learning test. We defined the “learning-related synchronization” (LRS) as the percent change in EEG spectral power from the first time the word was presented to the average of the subsequent word encoding trials. LRS differed significantly between the music and the spoken conditions in low alpha and upper beta bands. Patients in the music condition showed overall better word memory and better word order memory and stronger bilateral frontal alpha LRS than patients in the spoken condition. The evidence suggests that a musical mnemonic recruits stronger oscillatory network synchronization in prefrontal areas in MS patients during word learning. It is suggested that the temporal structure implicit in musical stimuli enhances “deep encoding” during verbal learning and sharpens the timing of neural dynamics in brain networks degraded by demyelination in MS. PMID:24982626

  11. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sharleen T; Arsznov, Bradley M; Hristova, Ani E; Yoon, Elise J; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions ( Panthera leo ), leopards ( Panthera pardus ), cougars ( Puma concolor ), and cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls ( n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC

  12. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  13. Automatic treatment of multiple wound coils in 3D finite element problems including multiply connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, P.J.; Lai, H.C.; Eastham, J.F.; Al-Akayshee, Q.H. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an efficient scheme for incorporating multiple wire wound coils into 3D finite element models. The scheme is based on the magnetic scalar representation with an additional basis for each coil. There are no restrictions on the topology of coils with respect to ferromagnetic and conductor regions. Reduced scalar regions and cuts are automatically generated.

  14. Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mike, Andrea; Strammer, Erzsebet; Aradi, Mihaly

    2013-01-01

    performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched...

  15. Regionalization of Crustal and Upper Mantle Q Structure in Eastern Eurasia Using Multiple Regional Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaherty, James; Lerner-Lam, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    We have mapped lateral variations in seismic Q in eastern Eurasia, including continental China, central Asia, Mongolia and Siberia, using high-frequency regional phases Lg and Pn, as well as long-period Rayleigh waves...

  16. Joint Labeling Of Multiple Regions of Interest (Rois) By Enhanced Auto Context Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Wu, Guorong; Guo, Yanrong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-04-01

    Accurate segmentation of a set of regions of interest (ROIs) in the brain images is a key step in many neuroscience studies. Due to the complexity of image patterns, many learning-based segmentation methods have been proposed, including auto context model (ACM) that can capture high-level contextual information for guiding segmentation. However, since current ACM can only handle one ROI at a time, neighboring ROIs have to be labeled separately with different ACMs that are trained independently without communicating each other. To address this, we enhance the current single-ROI learning ACM to multi-ROI learning ACM for joint labeling of multiple neighboring ROIs (called e ACM). First, we extend current independently-trained single-ROI ACMs to a set of jointly-trained cross-ROI ACMs, by simultaneous training of ACMs for all spatially-connected ROIs to let them to share their respective intermediate outputs for coordinated labeling of each image point. Then, the context features in each ACM can capture the cross-ROI dependence information from the outputs of other ACMs that are designed for neighboring ROIs. Second, we upgrade the output labeling map of each ACM with the multi-scale representation, thus both local and global context information can be effectively used to increase the robustness in characterizing geometric relationship among neighboring ROIs. Third, we integrate ACM into a multi-atlases segmentation paradigm, for encompassing high variations among subjects. Experiments on LONI LPBA40 dataset show much better performance by our e ACM, compared to the conventional ACM.

  17. Region-Specific Defects of Respiratory Capacities in the Ndufs4(KO Mouse Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst-Bernhard Kayser

    Full Text Available Lack of NDUFS4, a subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, causes Leigh syndrome (LS, a progressive encephalomyopathy. Knocking out Ndufs4, either systemically or in brain only, elicits LS in mice. In patients as well as in KO mice distinct regions of the brain degenerate while surrounding tissue survives despite systemic complex I dysfunction. For the understanding of disease etiology and ultimately for the development of rationale treatments for LS, it appears important to uncover the mechanisms that govern focal neurodegeneration.Here we used the Ndufs4(KO mouse to investigate whether regional and temporal differences in respiratory capacity of the brain could be correlated with neurodegeneration. In the KO the respiratory capacity of synaptosomes from the degeneration prone regions olfactory bulb, brainstem and cerebellum was significantly decreased. The difference was measurable even before the onset of neurological symptoms. Furthermore, neither compensating nor exacerbating changes in glycolytic capacity of the synaptosomes were found. By contrast, the KO retained near normal levels of synaptosomal respiration in the degeneration-resistant/resilient "rest" of the brain. We also investigated non-synaptic mitochondria. The KO expectedly had diminished capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (state 3 respiration with complex I dependent substrate combinations pyruvate/malate and glutamate/malate but surprisingly had normal activity with α-ketoglutarate/malate. No correlation between oxidative phosphorylation (pyruvate/malate driven state 3 respiration and neurodegeneration was found: Notably, state 3 remained constant in the KO while in controls it tended to increase with time leading to significant differences between the genotypes in older mice in both vulnerable and resilient brain regions. Neither regional ROS damage, measured as HNE-modified protein, nor regional complex I stability, assessed by blue native

  18. Chronic ethanol exposure produces time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Osterndorff-Kahanek

    Full Text Available Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY, nucleus accumbens (NAC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000 at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600. Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%. All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global 'rewiring' of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes.

  19. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  20. Combining region- and network-level brain-behavior relationships in a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Taylor; Prince, Emily B; Nomi, Jason S; Messinger, Daniel; Llabre, Maria M; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2018-01-15

    Brain-behavior associations in fMRI studies are typically restricted to a single level of analysis: either a circumscribed brain region-of-interest (ROI) or a larger network of brain regions. However, this common practice may not always account for the interdependencies among ROIs of the same network or potentially unique information at the ROI-level, respectively. To account for both sources of information, we combined measurement and structural components of structural equation modeling (SEM) approaches to empirically derive networks from ROI activity, and to assess the association of both individual ROIs and their respective whole-brain activation networks with task performance using three large task-fMRI datasets and two separate brain parcellation schemes. The results for working memory and relational tasks revealed that well-known ROI-performance associations are either non-significant or reversed when accounting for the ROI's common association with its corresponding network, and that the network as a whole is instead robustly associated with task performance. The results for the arithmetic task revealed that in certain cases, an ROI can be robustly associated with task performance, even when accounting for its associated network. The SEM framework described in this study provides researchers additional flexibility in testing brain-behavior relationships, as well as a principled way to combine ROI- and network-levels of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional differences in actomyosin contraction shape the primary vesicles in the embryonic chicken brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filas, Benjamen A; Oltean, Alina; Majidi, Shabnam; Bayly, Philip V; Taber, Larry A; Beebe, David C

    2012-01-01

    In the early embryo, the brain initially forms as a relatively straight, cylindrical epithelial tube composed of neural stem cells. The brain tube then divides into three primary vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain), as well as a series of bulges (rhombomeres) in the hindbrain. The boundaries between these subdivisions have been well studied as regions of differential gene expression, but the morphogenetic mechanisms that generate these constrictions are not well understood. Here, we show that regional variations in actomyosin-based contractility play a major role in vesicle formation in the embryonic chicken brain. In particular, boundaries did not form in brains exposed to the nonmuscle myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin, whereas increasing contractile force using calyculin or ATP deepened boundaries considerably. Tissue staining showed that contraction likely occurs at the inner part of the wall, as F-actin and phosphorylated myosin are concentrated at the apical side. However, relatively little actin and myosin was found in rhombomere boundaries. To determine the specific physical mechanisms that drive vesicle formation, we developed a finite-element model for the brain tube. Regional apical contraction was simulated in the model, with contractile anisotropy and strength estimated from contractile protein distributions and measurements of cell shapes. The model shows that a combination of circumferential contraction in the boundary regions and relatively isotropic contraction between boundaries can generate realistic morphologies for the primary vesicles. In contrast, rhombomere formation likely involves longitudinal contraction between boundaries. Further simulations suggest that these different mechanisms are dictated by regional differences in initial morphology and the need to withstand cerebrospinal fluid pressure. This study provides a new understanding of early brain morphogenesis. (paper)

  2. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  3. Positron-emission tomography of brain regions activated by recognition of familiar music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, M; Takeda, K; Nagata, K; Shimosegawa, E; Kuzuhara, S

    2006-05-01

    We can easily recognize familiar music by listening to only one or 2 of its opening bars, but the brain regions that participate in this cognitive processing remain undetermined. We used positron-emission tomography (PET) to study changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) that occur during listening to familiar music. We used a PET subtraction technique to elucidate the brain regions associated with the recognition of familiar melodies such as well-known nursery tunes. Nonmusicians performed 2 kinds of musical tasks: judging the familiarity of musical pieces (familiarity task) and detecting deliberately altered notes in the pieces (alteration-detecting task). During the familiarity task, bilateral anterior portions of bilateral temporal lobes, superior temporal regions, and parahippocampal gyri were activated. The alteration-detecting task bilaterally activated regions in the precunei, superior/inferior parietal lobules, and lateral surface of frontal lobes, which seemed to show a correlation with the analysis of music. We hypothesize that during the familiarity task, activated brain regions participate in retrieval from long-term memory and verbal and emotional processing of familiar melodies. Our results reinforced the hypothesis reported in the literature as a result of group and case studies, that temporal lobe regions participate in the recognition of familiar melodies.

  4. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Qiaobing; Wan, Lihong; Yi, Yahui; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected). Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002). Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN.

  6. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...... brain structures like hippocampus, this paper investigates the relationship and proximity between regions in the brain and uses this information as a novel way of classifying normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and AD subjects.METHODS:A longitudinal cohort of 528 subjects (170 NC, 240...... to whole brain and hippocampus volume.RESULTS:We found that both our markers was able to significantly classify the subjects. The surface connectivity marker showed the best results with an area under the curve (AUC) at 0.877 (p...

  7. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  8. Regional brain gray and white matter changes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Manoj K.; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Keller, Margaret A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Michalik, David E.; Deville, Jaime; Church, Joseph A.; Thomas, M. Albert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), perinatally infected HIV remains a major health problem worldwide. Although advance neuroimaging studies have investigated structural brain changes in HIV-infected adults, regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume changes have not been reported in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated regional GM and WM changes in 16 HIV-infected youths receiving ART (age 17.0 ± 2.9 years) compared with age-matched 14 healthy controls (age 16.3 ± 2.3 years) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based high-resolution T1-weighted images with voxel based morphometry (VBM) analyses. White matter atrophy appeared in perinatally HIV-infected youths in brain areas including the bilateral posterior corpus callosum (CC), bilateral external capsule, bilateral ventral temporal WM, mid cerebral peduncles, and basal pons over controls. Gray matter volume increase was observed in HIV-infected youths for several regions including the left superior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, gyrus rectus, right mid cingulum, parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls. Global WM and GM volumes did not differ significantly between groups. These results indicate WM injury in perinatally HIV-infected youths, but the interpretation of the GM results, which appeared as increased regional volumes, is not clear. Further longitudinal studies are needed to clarify if our results represent active ongoing brain infection or toxicity from HIV treatment resulting in neuronal cell swelling and regional increased GM volume. Our findings suggest that assessment of regional GM and WM volume changes, based on VBM procedures, may be an additional measure to assess brain integrity in HIV-infected youths and to evaluate success of current ART therapy for efficacy in the brain. PMID:24380059

  9. Regional brain gray and white matter changes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Sarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART, perinatally infected HIV remains a major health problem worldwide. Although advance neuroimaging studies have investigated structural brain changes in HIV-infected adults, regional gray matter (GM and white matter (WM volume changes have not been reported in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated regional GM and WM changes in 16 HIV-infected youths receiving ART (age 17.0 ± 2.9 years compared with age-matched 14 healthy controls (age 16.3 ± 2.3 years using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based high-resolution T1-weighted images with voxel based morphometry (VBM analyses. White matter atrophy appeared in perinatally HIV-infected youths in brain areas including the bilateral posterior corpus callosum (CC, bilateral external capsule, bilateral ventral temporal WM, mid cerebral peduncles, and basal pons over controls. Gray matter volume increase was observed in HIV-infected youths for several regions including the left superior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, gyrus rectus, right mid cingulum, parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls. Global WM and GM volumes did not differ significantly between groups. These results indicate WM injury in perinatally HIV-infected youths, but the interpretation of the GM results, which appeared as increased regional volumes, is not clear. Further longitudinal studies are needed to clarify if our results represent active ongoing brain infection or toxicity from HIV treatment resulting in neuronal cell swelling and regional increased GM volume. Our findings suggest that assessment of regional GM and WM volume changes, based on VBM procedures, may be an additional measure to assess brain integrity in HIV-infected youths and to evaluate success of current ART therapy for efficacy in the brain.

  10. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  11. Neuropeptide processing in regional brain slices: Effect of conformation and sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.W.; Bijl, W.A.; van Nispen, J.W.; Brendel, K.; Davis, T.P. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The central enzymatic stability of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and its synthetic analogs (cycloN alpha 6, C delta 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) and (Pro7, Lys(Ac)9)-beta-endorphin(6-17) was studied in vitro using a newly developed, regionally dissected rat brain slice, time course incubation procedure. Tissue slice viability was estimated as the ability of the brain slice to take up or release gamma-(3H)aminobutyric acid after high K+ stimulation. Results demonstrated stability of uptake/release up to 5 hr of incubation, suggesting tissue viability over this period. The estimated half-life of peptides based on the results obtained in our incubation protocol suggest that the peptides studied are metabolized at different rates in the individual brain regions tested. A good correlation exists between the high enzyme activity of neutral endopeptidase and the rapid degradation of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin and (cycloN alpha 6, C delata 11)beta-endorphin-(6-17) in caudate putamen. Proline substitution combined with lysine acetylation appears to improve resistance to enzymatic metabolism in caudate putamen and hypothalamus. However, cyclization of des-enkephalin-gamma-endorphin forming an amide bond between the alpha-NH2 of the N-terminal threonine and the gamma-COOH of glutamic acid did not improve peptide stability in any brain region tested. The present study has shown that the brain slice technique is a valid and unique approach to study neuropeptide metabolism in small, discrete regions of rat brain where peptides, peptidases and receptors are colocalized and that specific structural modifications can improve peptide stability.

  12. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 ± 3, post 6 ± 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 ± 2, post 3 ± 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  13. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilach Soreq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions. In line with these changes, high-resolution immunohistochemistry demonstrated decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes and of neuronal subpopulations in the aging brain cortex. Finally, glial-specific genes predict age with greater precision than neuron-specific genes, thus highlighting the need for greater mechanistic understanding of neuron-glia interactions in aging and late-life diseases.

  14. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreq, Lilach; Rose, Jamie; Soreq, Eyal; Hardy, John; Trabzuni, Daniah; Cookson, Mark R; Smith, Colin; Ryten, Mina; Patani, Rickie; Ule, Jernej

    2017-01-10

    Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions. In line with these changes, high-resolution immunohistochemistry demonstrated decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes and of neuronal subpopulations in the aging brain cortex. Finally, glial-specific genes predict age with greater precision than neuron-specific genes, thus highlighting the need for greater mechanistic understanding of neuron-glia interactions in aging and late-life diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain regions for sound processing and song release in a small grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvantray Bhavsar, Mit; Stumpner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    We investigated brain regions - mostly neuropils - that process auditory information relevant for the initiation of response songs of female grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus during bidirectional intraspecific acoustic communication. Male-female acoustic duets in the species Ch. biguttulus require the perception of sounds, their recognition as a species- and gender-specific signal and the initiation of commands that activate thoracic pattern generating circuits to drive the sound-producing stridulatory movements of the hind legs. To study sensory-to-motor processing during acoustic communication we used multielectrodes that allowed simultaneous recordings of acoustically stimulated electrical activity from several ascending auditory interneurons or local brain neurons and subsequent electrical stimulation of the recording site. Auditory activity was detected in the lateral protocerebrum (where most of the described ascending auditory interneurons terminate), in the superior medial protocerebrum and in the central complex, that has previously been implicated in the control of sound production. Neural responses to behaviorally attractive sound stimuli showed no or only poor correlation with behavioral responses. Current injections into the lateral protocerebrum, the central complex and the deuto-/tritocerebrum (close to the cerebro-cervical fascicles), but not into the superior medial protocerebrum, elicited species-typical stridulation with high success rate. Latencies and numbers of phrases produced by electrical stimulation were different between these brain regions. Our results indicate three brain regions (likely neuropils) where auditory activity can be detected with two of these regions being potentially involved in song initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellu...

  17. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age- and brain region-dependent α-synuclein oligomerization is attributed to alterations in intrinsic enzymes regulating α-synuclein phosphorylation in aging monkey brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Xin; Li, Xuran; Wang, Peng; Yue, Feng; Yang, Hui; Chan, Piu; Yu, Shun

    2016-02-23

    We previously reported that the levels of α-syn oligomers, which play pivotal pathogenic roles in age-related Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, increase heterogeneously in the aging brain. Here, we show that exogenous α-syn incubated with brain extracts from older cynomolgus monkeys and in Lewy body pathology (LBP)-susceptible brain regions (striatum and hippocampus) forms higher amounts of phosphorylated and oligomeric α-syn than that in extracts from younger monkeys and LBP-insusceptible brain regions (cerebellum and occipital cortex). The increased α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization in the brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions were associated with higher levels of polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), an enzyme promoting α-syn phosphorylation, and lower activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), an enzyme inhibiting α-syn phosphorylation, in these brain extracts. Further, the extent of the age- and brain-dependent increase in α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization was reduced by inhibition of PLK2 and activation of PP2A. Inversely, phosphorylated α-syn oligomers reduced the activity of PP2A and showed potent cytotoxicity. In addition, the activity of GCase and the levels of ceramide, a product of GCase shown to activate PP2A, were lower in brain extracts from older monkeys and in LBP-susceptible brain regions. Our results suggest a role for altered intrinsic metabolic enzymes in age- and brain region-dependent α-syn oligomerization in aging brains.

  19. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona; Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita; Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Malik, Gyanendra K.; Das, Vinita; Pradhan, Mandakini; Pandey, Chandra M.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA ≤ 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA≤22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  20. Region-specific maturation of cerebral cortex in human fetal brain: diffusion tensor imaging and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Richa; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Saksena, Sona [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Lucknow, UP (India); Husain, Nuzhat; Srivastava, Savita [CSM Medical University, Department of Pathology, Lucknow (India); Rathore, Ram K.S.; Sarma, Manoj K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Kanpur (India); Malik, Gyanendra K. [CSM Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucknow (India); Das, Vinita [CSM Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lucknow (India); Pradhan, Mandakini [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Genetics, Lucknow (India); Pandey, Chandra M. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, Lucknow (India); Narayana, Ponnada A. [University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical analysis in different cortical regions in fetal brains at different gestational age (GA) were performed. DTI was performed on 50 freshly aborted fetal brains with GA ranging from 12 to 42 weeks to compare age-related fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in different cerebral cortical regions that include frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes at the level of thalami. GFAP immunostaining was performed and the percentage of GFAP-positive areas was quantified. The cortical FA values in the frontal lobe peaked at around 26 weeks of GA, occipital and temporal lobes at around 20 weeks, and parietal lobe at around 23 weeks. A significant, but modest, positive correlation (r=0.31, p=0.02) was observed between cortical FA values and percentage area of GFAP expression in cortical region around the time period during which the migrational events are at its peak, i.e., GA {<=} 28 weeks for frontal cortical region and GA{<=}22 weeks for rest of the lobes. The DTI-derived FA quantification with its GFAP immunohistologic correlation in cortical regions of the various lobes of the cerebral hemispheres supports region-specific migrational and maturational events in human fetal brain. (orig.)

  1. Delineation of separate brain regions used for scientific versus engineering modes of thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clair C.

    1994-08-01

    Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in

  2. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-guo Jiang; Shi-li Jin; Gong-ying Li; Qing-qing Li; Zhi-ruo Li; Hong-xia Ma; Chuan-jun Zhuo; Rong-huan Jiang; Min-jie Ye

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no signiifcant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our ifndings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  3. Normal regional brain iron concentration in restless legs syndrome measured by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Knake

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Knake1, Johannes T Heverhagen2, Katja Menzler1, Boris Keil2, Wolfgang H Oertel1, Karin Stiasny-Kolster11Department of Neurology, Center of Nervous Diseases, 2Department of Radiology, Philipps University, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Using a T2* gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI sequence, regional T2 signal intensity (SI values, a surrogate marker for T2 values, were determined in 12 regions of interest (substantia nigra, pallidum, caudate head, thalamus, occipital white matter, and frontal white matter bilaterally and in two reference regions (cerebrospinal fluid and bone in 12 patients suffering from moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS; mean age 58.5 ± 8.7 years for 12.1 ± 9.1 years and in 12 healthy control subjects (mean age 56.8 ± 10.6 years. Iron deposits shorten T2 relaxation times on T2-weighted MRI. We used regional T2* SI to estimate regional T2-values. A T2-change ratio was calculated for each region of interest relative to the reference regions. We did not find significant differences in any of the investigated brain regions. In addition, serum measures involved in iron metabolism did not correlate with T2 SI values. We could not replicate earlier findings describing reduced regional brain iron concentrations in patients with RLS. Our results do not support the view of substantially impaired regional brain iron in RLS.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, pathophysiology, iron, MRI, substantia nigra

  4. Novel region of interest interrogation technique for diffusion tensor imaging analysis in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan Y; Middleton, Dana M; Chen, Steven; White, Leonard; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Dickson, Patricia; Vite, Charles; Bradbury, Allison; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose We describe a novel technique for measuring diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the canine brain. We hypothesized that a standard method for region of interest placement could be developed that is highly reproducible, with less than 10% difference in measurements between raters. Methods Two sets of canine brains (three seven-week-old full-brains and two 17-week-old single hemispheres) were scanned ex-vivo on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. Strict region of interest placement criteria were developed and then used by two raters to independently measure diffusion tensor imaging metrics within four different white-matter regions within each specimen. Average values of fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and the three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, and λ3) within each region in each specimen overall and within each individual image slice were compared between raters by calculating the percentage difference between raters for each metric. Results The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when pooled by each region and specimen was 1.44% (range: 0.01-5.17%). The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when compared by individual image slice was 2.23% (range: 0.75-4.58%) per hemisphere. Conclusion Our results indicate that the technique described is highly reproducible, even when applied to canine specimens of differing age, morphology, and image resolution. We propose this technique for future studies of diffusion tensor imaging analysis in canine brains and for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of canine brain models of human central nervous system disease.

  5. In vivo magnetic resonance diffusion measurement in the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C; Frederiksen, J

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of water self-diffusion in the brain in 25 patients with multiple sclerosis was performed by magnetic resonance imaging. Quantitative diffusion measurements were obtained using single spin-echo pulse sequences with pulsed magnetic field gradients of different magnitude. Twenty......-two of these patients also underwent measurement of the transverse relaxation time (T2). Only one plaque was evaluated in each patient. Based on prior knowledge, 12 plaques were classified as being 3 mo or less in age, and 7 plaques were classified as being more than 3 mo old. In all 25 plaques, water self......-diffusion was found to be higher than in apparently normal white matter. Furthermore, water self-diffusion was found to be higher in acute plaques compared with chronic plaques. Finally, a slight tendency toward a relationship between the diffusion capability and T2 was found. We believe that an increased diffusion...

  6. A comparision of Brain-Behavioral Systems in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kobra Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare   Brain-Behavioral Systems in patient with multiple sclerocis (MS and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: This research was a post facto comparative study, subjects included  healthy persons and all patients with MS, which in summer and autumn 2013 referred to neurologists in the Lorestan province. Of the population using as samples, 117 cases (75 patients and 42 normal subjects were selected, then Gray- Wilson Personality Questionnaire was completed for them. To analyze the data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA test  was used to compare the two groups. Results: The results showed, in BAS scales, people with MS had significantly lower scores than normal subjects Conclusion: What comes from findings indicates that a low score in behavioral activation as a pathological factors in chronic diseases such as MS is concerned and is in need of psychological treatment.

  7. On the blood-brain barrier to peptides: [3H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J.; Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R.

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of [ 3 H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone ([ 3 H]GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g -1 of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of [ 3 H]GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated [ 3 H]OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of [ 3 H]GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for [ 3 H]GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated. (author)

  8. Using large-scale Granger causality to study changes in brain network properties in the Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) stage of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Z.; Chockanathan, Udaysankar; DSouza, Adora M.; Inglese, Matilde; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) is often considered to be the first neurological episode associated with Multiple sclerosis (MS). At an early stage the inflammatory demyelination occurring in the CNS can manifest as a change in neuronal metabolism, with multiple asymptomatic white matter lesions detected in clinical MRI. Such damage may induce topological changes of brain networks, which can be captured by advanced functional MRI (fMRI) analysis techniques. We test this hypothesis by capturing the effective relationships of 90 brain regions, defined in the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas, using a large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) framework. The resulting networks are then characterized using graph-theoretic measures that quantify various network topology properties at a global as well as at a local level. We study for differences in these properties in network graphs obtained for 18 subjects (10 male and 8 female, 9 with CIS and 9 healthy controls). Global network properties captured trending differences with modularity and clustering coefficient (pdifferences in some regions of the inferior frontal and parietal lobe. We conclude that multivariate analysis of fMRI time-series can reveal interesting information about changes occurring in the brain in early stages of MS.

  9. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  10. Motor Imagery Learning Modulates Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Systems in Resting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning. PMID:24465577

  11. Brain reserve against physical disability progression over 5 years in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Rocca, Maria A; Leavitt, Victoria M; Meani, Alessandro; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena; Preziosa, Paolo; Habeck, Christian G; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-05-24

    The brain reserve hypothesis links larger maximal lifetime brain growth (MLBG, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) with lower risk for cognitive decline/dementia. We examined whether larger MLBG is also linked to less physical disability progression over 5 years in a prospective sample of treatment-naive patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical disability was measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at baseline and 5-year follow-up in 52 treatment-naive Serbian patients with MS. MRI measured disease burden (cerebral atrophy, T2 lesion volume) and MLBG: a genetically determined, premorbid (established during adolescence, stable thereafter) patient characteristic estimated with ICV (adjusted for sex). Logistic regression tested whether MLBG (smaller vs larger) predicts disability progression (stable vs worsened) independently of disease burden. Disability progression was observed in 29 (55.8%) patients. Larger MLBG predicted lower risk for progression (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.78), independently of disease burden. We also calculated absolute change in EDSS scores, and observed that patients with smaller MLBG showed worse EDSS change (0.91 ± 0.71) than patients with larger MLBG (0.42 ± 0.87). Larger MLBG was linked to lower risk for disability progression in patients with MS over 5 years, which is the first extension of the brain reserve hypothesis to physical disability. MLBG (ICV) represents a clinically available metric that may help gauge risk for future disability in patients with MS, which may advance the science and practice of early intervention. Potential avenues for future research are discussed. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: neural correlates and the role of non-invasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa A. Chalah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and the major cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Fatigue is a frequent symptom reported by the majority of MS patients during their disease course and drastically af-fects their quality of life. Despite its significant prevalence and impact, the underlying patho-physiological mechanisms are not well elucidated. MS fatigue is still considered the result of multifactorial and complex constellations, and is commonly classified into primary fatigue related to the pathological changes of the disease itself, and secondary fatigue attributed to mimicking symptoms, comorbid sleep and mood disorders, and medications side effects. Data from neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neuroendocrine and neuroimmune studies have raised hypotheses regarding the origin of this symptom, some of which have succeeded in identifying an association between MS fatigue and structural or functional abnormalities within various brain networks. Hence, the aim of this work is to reappraise the neural correlates of MS fatigue and to discuss the rationale for the emergent use of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques as potential treatments. This will include a presentation of the various NIBS modalities and a proposition of their potential mechanisms of action in this context. Specific issues related to the value of transcranial direct current stimulation will be addressed.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid B cells correlate with early brain inflammation in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Kuenz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence from immunological, pathological and therapeutic studies that B cells are key components in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this prospective study we have for the first time investigated the differences in the inflammatory response between relapsing and progressive MS by comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cell profiles from patients at the onset of the disease (clinically isolated syndrome, CIS, relapsing-remitting (RR and chronic progressive (CP MS by flow cytometry. As controls we have used patients with other neurological diseases. We have found a statistically significant accumulation of CSF mature B cells (CD19+CD138- and plasma blasts (CD19+CD138+ in CIS and RRMS. Both B cell populations were, however, not significantly increased in CPMS. Further, this accumulation of B cells correlated with acute brain inflammation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and with inflammatory CSF parameters such as the number of CSF leukocytes, intrathecal immunoglobulin M and G synthesis and intrathecal production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 and the B cell chemokine CxCL-13. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support an important role of CSF B cells in acute brain inflammation in CIS and RRMS.

  14. Serotonin: A mediator of the gut-brain axis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Tsveta S; Dijkstra, Christine D; de Vries, Helga E

    2017-11-01

    The significance of the gut microbiome for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established, although the underlying signaling mechanisms of this interaction have not been sufficiently explored. We address this point and use serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-a microbial-modulated neurotransmitter (NT) as a showcase to demonstrate that NTs regulated by the gut microbiome are potent candidates for mediators of the gut-brain axis in demyelinating disorders. Methods, Results, and Conclusion: Our comprehensive overview of literature provides evidence that 5-HT levels in the gut are controlled by the microbiome, both via secretion and through regulation of metabolites. In addition, we demonstrate that the gut microbiome can influence the formation of the serotonergic system (SS) in the brain. We also show that SS alterations have been related to MS directly-altered expression of 5-HT transporters in central nervous system (CNS) and indirectly-beneficial effects of 5-HT modulating drugs on the course of the disease and higher prevalence of depression in patients with MS. Finally, we discuss briefly the role of other microbiome-modulated NTs such as γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine in MS to highlight a new direction for future research aiming to relate microbiome-regulated NTs to demyelinating disorders.

  15. The effects of intracranial volume adjustment approaches on multiple regional MRI volumes in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eVoevodskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In neurodegeneration research, normalization of regional volumes by intracranial volume (ICV is important to estimate the extent of disease-driven atrophy. There is little agreement as to whether raw volumes, volume-to-ICV fractions or regional volumes from which the ICV factor has been regressed out should be used for volumetric brain imaging studies. Using multiple regional cortical and subcortical volumetric measures generated by Freesurfer (51 in total, the main aim of this study was to elucidate the implications of these adjustment approaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data were analyzed from two large cohorts, the population-based PIVUS cohort (N=406, all subjects age 75 and the Alzheimer disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort (N=724. Further, we studied whether the chosen ICV normalization approach influenced the relationship between hippocampus and cognition in the three diagnostic groups of the ADNI cohort (Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy individuals. The ability of raw vs adjusted hippocampal volumes to predict diagnostic status was also assessed. In both cohorts raw volumes correlate positively with ICV, but do not scale directly proportionally with it. The correlation direction is reversed for all volume-to-ICV fractions, except the lateral and third ventricles. Most grey matter fractions are larger in females, while lateral ventricle fractions are greater in males. Residual correction effectively eliminated the correlation between the regional volumes and ICV and removed gender differences. The association between hippocampal volumes and cognition was not altered by ICV normalization. Comparing prediction of diagnostic status using the different approaches, small but significant differences were found. The choice of normalization approach should be carefully considered when designing a volumetric brain imaging study.

  16. Impairment of visuospatial/visuoconstructional skills in multiple sclerosis patients: the correlation with regional lesion load and subcortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasescu, R; Cerezo Garcia, M; Aladro Benito, Y

    2016-04-01

    About 20% to 26% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show alterations in visuospatial/visuoconstructive (VS-VC) skills even though temporo-parieto-occipital impairment is a frequent finding in magnetic resonance imaging. No studies have specifically analysed the relationship between these functions and lesion volume (LV) in these specific brain areas. To evaluate the relationship between VS-VC impairment and magnetic resonance imaging temporo-parieto-occipital LV with subcortical atrophy in patients with MS. Of 100 MS patients undergoing a routine neuropsychological evaluation, 21 were selected because they displayed VS-VC impairments in the following tests: Incomplete picture, Block design (WAIS-III), and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. We also selected 13 MS patients without cognitive impairment (control group). Regional LV was measured in FLAIR and T1-weighted images using a semiautomated method; subcortical atrophy was measured by bicaudate ratio and third ventricle width. Partial correlations (controlling for age and years of school) and linear regression analysis were employed to analyse correlations between magnetic resonance imaging parameters and cognitive performance. All measures of LV and brain atrophy were significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment. Regional LV, bicaudate ratio, and third ventricle width are significantly and inversely correlated with cognitive performance; the strongest correlation was between third ventricle width and VC performance (Block design: P=.001; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P<.000). In the multivariate analysis, third ventricle width only had a significant effect on performance of VC tasks (Block design: P=.000; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P=.000), and regional FLAIR VL was linked to the VS task (Incomplete picture; P=.002). Measures of subcortical atrophy explain the variations in performance on visuocostructive tasks, and regional FLAIR VL measures are linked to VS tasks. Copyright © 2015

  17. Individual differences in personality traits reflect structural variance in specific brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Simona; Cloninger, C Robert; Venneri, Annalena

    2009-06-30

    Personality dimensions such as novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PER) are said to be heritable, stable across time and dependent on genetic and neurobiological factors. Recently a better understanding of the relationship between personality traits and brain structures/systems has become possible due to advances in neuroimaging techniques. This Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) study investigated if individual differences in these personality traits reflected structural variance in specific brain regions. A large sample of eighty five young adult participants completed the Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and had their brain imaged with MRI. A voxel-based correlation analysis was carried out between individuals' personality trait scores and grey matter volume values extracted from 3D brain scans. NS correlated positively with grey matter volume in frontal and posterior cingulate regions. HA showed a negative correlation with grey matter volume in orbito-frontal, occipital and parietal structures. RD was negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus and in the rectal frontal gyrus. PER showed a positive correlation with grey matter volume in the precuneus, paracentral lobule and parahippocampal gyrus. These results indicate that individual differences in the main personality dimensions of NS, HA, RD and PER, may reflect structural variance in specific brain areas.

  18. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  19. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  20. Optimization of multiple coils immersed in a conducting liquid for half-hemisphere or whole-brain deep transcranial magnetic stimulation: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sónia C P; Almeida, Jorge; Cavaleiro Miranda, Pedro; Salvador, Ricardo; Silvestre, João; Simões, Hugo; Crespo, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was proposed in 1985. Nevertheless, its wider use in the treatment of several neurologic diseases has been hindered by its inability to stimulate deep-brain regions. This is mainly due to the physical limiting effect arising from the presence of surface discontinuities, particularly between the scalp and air. Here, we present the optimization of a system of large multiple coils for whole-brain and half-hemisphere deep TMS, termed orthogonal configuration. COMSOL(®)-based simulations show that the system is capable of reaching the very center of a spherical brain phantom with 58% induction relative to surface maximum. Such penetration capability surpasses to the best of our knowledge that of existing state of the art TMS systems. This induction capability strongly relies on the immersion of the stimulating coils and part of the head of the patient in a conducting liquid (e.g. simple saline solution). We show the impact of the presence of this surrounding conducting liquid by comparing the performance of our system with and without such liquid. In addition, we also compare the performance of the proposed coil with that of a circular coil, a figure-eight coil, and the H-coil. Finally, in addition to its whole-brain stimulation capability (e.g. potentially useful for prophylaxis of epileptic patients) the system is also able to stimulate mainly one brain hemisphere, which may be useful in stroke rehabilitation, among other applications.

  1. Regional brain glucose use in unstressed rats after two days of starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional brain glucose use was measured in conscious, unrestrained, fed rats and after 2 days of starvation, using quantitative autoradiography and [6- 14 C]glucose. Plasma glucose, lactate, and ketone body concentrations and brain glucose and lactate content were measured in separate groups of rats. Glucose concentrations were lower in starved rats in both plasma and brain; plasma ketone body concentrations were elevated. Glucose use was found to be lower throughout the brain by about 12%. While some areas seemed to be affected more than others, statistical analysis showed that none were exceptionally different. The results could not be explained by increased loss of 14 C as lactate or pyruvate during the experimental period, because the arteriovenous differences of these species were insignificant. The calculated contribution by ketone bodies to the total energy consumption was between 3 and 9% for the brain as a whole in the starved rats and could, therefore, partially account for the depression seen in glucose use. It was concluded that glucose oxidation is slightly depressed throughout the brain after 2 days of starvation

  2. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  3. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Li, Feng; Tie, Chang-Le; Dong, Jie; Wang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2013-03-05

    Bipolar disorder patients experiencing a depressive episode (BD-dep) without an observed history of mania are often misdiagnosed and are consequently treated as having unipolar depression (UD), leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. An essential solution to this problem is to identify objective biological markers that distinguish BD-dep and UD patients at an early stage. However, studies directly comparing the brain dysfunctions associated with BD-dep and UD are rare. More importantly, the specificity of the differences in brain activity between these mental disorders has not been examined. With whole-brain regional homogeneity analysis and region-of-interest (ROI) based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we aimed to compare the resting-state brain activity of BD-dep and UD patients. Furthermore, we examined the specific differences and whether these differences were attributed to the brain abnormality caused by BD-dep, UD, or both. Twenty-one bipolar and 21 unipolar depressed patients, as well as 26 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and educational levels, participated in the study. We compared the differences in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the BD-dep and UD groups and further identified their pathophysiological abnormality. In the brain regions showing a difference between the BD-dep and UD groups, we further conducted receptive operation characteristic (ROC) analyses to confirm the effectiveness of the identified difference in classifying the patients. We observed ReHo differences between the BD-dep and UD groups in the right ventrolateral middle frontal gyrus, right dorsal anterior insular, right ventral anterior insular, right cerebellum posterior gyrus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum anterior gyrus. Further ROI comparisons and ROC analysis on these ROIs showed that the right parahippocampal gyrus reflected abnormality specific to the BD-dep group, while the right

  4. SU-E-T-428: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Single and multiple Isocenter Stereotactic IMRT Treatment Plans for multiple Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giem, J; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Ali, I; Young, J; Hossain, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied. The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases

  5. Influence of the topography of brain damage on depression and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, C; Rocca, M A; Riccitelli, G; Pagani, E; Messina, R; Preziosa, P; Colombo, B; Rodegher, M; Falini, A; Comi, G; Filippi, M

    2014-02-01

    Involvement of selected central nervous system (CNS) regions has been associated with depression and fatigue in MS. We assessed whether specific regional patterns of lesion distribution and atrophy of the gray (GM) and white matter (WM) are associated with these symptoms in MS. Brain dual-echo and 3D T1-weighted images were acquired from 123 MS patients (69 depressed (D), 54 non-depressed (nD), 64 fatigued, 59 non-fatigued) and 90 controls. Lesion distribution, GM and WM atrophy were estimated using VBM and SPM8. Gender, age, disease duration and conventional MRI characteristics did not differ between D-MS and nD-MS patients. Fatigued patients experienced higher EDSS and depression than non-fatigued ones. Lesion distribution and WM atrophy were not related to depression and fatigue. Atrophy of regions in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes had a combined effect on depression and fatigue. Atrophy of the left middle frontal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus were selectively related to depression. No specific pattern of GM atrophy was found to be related to fatigue. Depression in MS is linked to atrophy of cortical regions located in the bilateral frontal lobes. A distributed pattern of GM atrophy contributes to the concomitant presence of depression and fatigue in these patients.

  6. The Combined Quantification and Interpretation of Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Enlightens Longitudinal Changes Compatible with Brain Repair in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnier, Guillaume; Maréchal, Benedicte; Fartaria, Mário João; Falkowskiy, Pavel; Marques, José P; Simioni, Samanta; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Krueger, Gunnar; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration, and repair. Moreover, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true tissue-related information and limit measurement noise. In this work, we combined multiple advanced MRI parameters to assess focal and diffuse brain changes over 2 years in a group of early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients. Thirty relapsing-remitting MS patients with less than 5 years disease duration and nine healthy subjects underwent 3T MRI at baseline and after 2 years including T1, T2, T2* relaxometry, and magnetization transfer imaging. To assess longitudinal changes in normal-appearing (NA) tissue and lesions, we used analyses of variance and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the correlation between clinical outcome and multiparametric MRI changes in lesions and NA tissue. In patients, we measured a significant longitudinal decrease of mean T2 relaxation times in NA white matter ( p  = 0.005) and a decrease of T1 relaxation times in the pallidum ( p  decrease in T1 relaxation time ( p -value  0.4, p  < 0.05). In summary, the combination of multiple advanced MRI provided evidence of changes compatible with focal and diffuse brain repair at early MS stages as suggested by histopathological studies.

  7. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanping Wang,1,2 Xiaoling Zhang,2 Qiaobing Guan,2 Lihong Wan,2 Yahui Yi,2 Chun-Feng Liu1 1Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 2Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected. Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002. Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN. Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, resting fMRI, brain, chronic pain, local connectivity

  8. Age-related differences in regional brain volumes: A comparison of optimized voxel-based morphometry to manual volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Voss, Michelle W.; Colcombe, Stan J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Acker, James D.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Regional manual volumetry is the gold standard of in vivo neuroanatomy, but is labor-intensive, can be imperfectly reliable, and allows for measuring limited number of regions. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has perfect repeatability and assesses local structure across the whole brain. However, its anatomic validity is unclear, and with its increasing popularity, a systematic comparison of VBM to manual volumetry is necessary. The few existing comparison studies are limited by small samples, qualitative comparisons, and limited selection and modest reliability of manual measures. Our goal was to overcome those limitations by quantitatively comparing optimized VBM findings with highly reliable multiple regional measures in a large sample (N = 200) across a wide agespan (18–81). We report a complex pattern of similarities and differences. Peak values of VBM volume estimates (modulated density) produced stronger age differences and a different spatial distribution from manual measures. However, when we aggregated VBM-derived information across voxels contained in specific anatomically defined regions (masks), the patterns of age differences became more similar, although important discrepancies emerged. Notably, VBM revealed stronger age differences in the regions bordering CSF and white matter areas prone to leukoaraiosis, and VBM was more likely to report nonlinearities in age-volume relationships. In the white matter regions, manual measures showed stronger negative associations with age than the corresponding VBM-based masks. We conclude that VBM provides realistic estimates of age differences in the regional gray matter only when applied to anatomically defined regions, but overestimates effects when individual peaks are interpreted. It may be beneficial to use VBM as a first-pass strategy, followed by manual measurement of anatomically-defined regions. PMID:18276037

  9. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  10. Recommendations to improve imaging and analysis of brain lesion load and atrophy in longitudinal studies of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrenken, H; Jenkinson, M; Horsfield, M A

    2013-01-01

    resonance image analysis methods for assessing brain lesion load and atrophy, this paper makes recommendations to improve these measures for longitudinal studies of MS. Briefly, they are (1) images should be acquired using 3D pulse sequences, with near-isotropic spatial resolution and multiple image......Focal lesions and brain atrophy are the most extensively studied aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the image acquisition and analysis techniques used can be further improved, especially those for studying within-patient changes of lesion load and atrophy longitudinally. Improved accuracy...

  11. Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of phospholipids in brain regions during hypoxic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Viola, M.; Serra, I.; Mistretta, A.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acute administration of CDP-choline (i.p. 100 mg/Kg b.w.), 10 min before the intraventricular injection of labeled precursors, [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C]-palmitate, was able to correct the impairment caused by hypoxic treatment of lipid metabolism in some brain regions, ie, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem. After CDP-choline treatment, an increase of the specific radioactivity of total lipids and of phospholipids was observed in mitochondria purified from the three above-mentioned brain regions of the hypoxic animals, while no effect on the other subcellular fractions was found. CDP-Choline had a stimulating effect particularly on the incorporation of both precursors into mitochondrial PC, PE, and polyglycerophosphatides isolated form the three brain regions examined. The results obtained show that the action of CDP-choline in restoring lipid metabolism was more pronounced in brain mitochondria, which, among subcellular fractions, were the most affected by the hypoxic treatment

  12. Repeated verum but not placebo acupuncture normalizes connectivity in brain regions dysregulated in chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Egorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, an ancient East Asian therapy, is aimed at rectifying the imbalance within the body caused by disease. Studies evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture with neuroimaging tend to concentrate on brain regions within the pain matrix, associated with acute pain. We, however, focused on the effect of repeated acupuncture treatment specifically on brain regions known to support functions dysregulated in chronic pain disorders. Transition to chronic pain is associated with increased attention to pain, emotional rumination, nociceptive memory and avoidance learning, resulting in brain connectivity changes, specifically affecting the periaqueductal gray (PAG, medial frontal cortex (MFC and bilateral hippocampus (Hpc. We demonstrate that the PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in patients with chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis indeed correlates with clinical severity scores and further show that verum acupuncture-induced improvement in pain scores (compared to sham is related to the modulation of PAG–MFC and PAG–Hpc connectivity in the predicted direction. This study shows that repeated verum acupuncture might act by restoring the balance in the connectivity of the key pain brain regions, altering pain-related attention and memory.

  13. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was o...

  14. Theory of Mind Performance in Children Correlates with Functional Specialization of a Brain Region for Thinking about Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Hyowon; Dodell-Feder, David; Bedny, Marina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Thinking about other people's thoughts recruits a specific group of brain regions, including the temporo-parietal junctions (TPJ), precuneus (PC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). The same brain regions were recruited when children (N = 20, 5-11 years) and adults (N = 8) listened to descriptions of characters' mental states, compared to…

  15. Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Ranard, Katherine M; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Renner, Lauren; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19.0, 74.2, and 338 nmol/kg, supplemented formula-fed; SF) (n = 8), or fed a formula with low amounts of these carotenoids (38.6, 2.3, 21.5, and 0 nmol/kg, unsupplemented formula-fed; UF) (n = 7). The concentrations of carotenoids in serum and tissues were analyzed by HPLC. At 6 mo of age, the BF group exhibited significantly higher lutein concentrations in serum, all brain regions, macular and peripheral retina, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues compared to both formula-fed groups (P Lutein concentrations were higher in the SF group than in the UF group in serum and all tissues, with the exception of macular retina. Lutein was differentially distributed across brain areas, with the highest concentrations in the occipital cortex, regardless of the diet. Zeaxanthin was present in all brain regions but only in the BF infants; it was present in both retinal regions in all groups but was significantly enhanced in BF infants compared to either formula group (P lutein concentrations compared to unsupplemented formula, concentrations were still well below those in BF infants. Regardless of diet, occipital cortex showed selectively higher lutein deposition than other brain regions, suggesting lutein's role in visual processing in early life. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional Brain Shrinkage over Two Years: Individual Differences and Effects of Pro-Inflammatory Genetic Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, N.; Ghisletta, P.; Dahle, C.L.; Bender, A.R.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, P.; Daugherty, A.M.; Raz, N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N = 167, age 19-79 years at baseline; N = 90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (HC), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the HC, CbH, In, OF, and the PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants mediated shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1βC-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFRC677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan. PMID:25264227

  17. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p  0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. Clinical application of RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, four or more multiple brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jin Ho; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kim, Yun Mi [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To determine feasibility of RapidArc in sequential or simultaneous integrated tumor boost in whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for poor prognostic patients with four or more brain metastases. Nine patients with multiple ({>=}4) brain metastases were analyzed. Three patients were classified as class II in recursive partitioning analysis and 6 were class III. The class III patients presented with hemiparesis, cognitive deficit, or apraxia. The ratio of tumor to whole brain volume was 0.8-7.9%. Six patients received 2-dimensional bilateral WBRT, (30 Gy/10- 12 fractions), followed by sequential RapidArc tumor boost (15-30 Gy/4-10 fractions). Three patients received RapidArc WBRT with simultaneous integrated boost to tumors (48-50 Gy) in 10-20 fractions. The median biologically effective dose to metastatic tumors was 68.1 Gy10 and 67.2 Gy10 and the median brain volume irradiated more than 100 Gy3 were 1.9% (24 cm3) and 0.8% (13 cm3) for each group. With less than 3 minutes of treatment time, RapidArc was easily applied to the patients with poor performance status. The follow-up period was 0.3-16.5 months. Tumor responses among the 6 patients who underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging were partial and stable in 3 and 3, respectively. Overall survival at 6 and 12 months were 66.7% and 41.7%, respectively. The local progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months were 100% and 62.5%, respectively. RapidArc as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, multiple brain metastases is an effective and safe modality with easy application.

  19. A randomised trial to compare cognitive outcome after gamma knife radiosurgery versus whole brain radiation therapy in patients with multiple brain metastases: research protocol CAR-study B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Wietske C M; Verhaak, Eline; Hanssens, Patrick E J; Gehring, Karin; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2018-02-21

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is increasingly applied in patients with multiple brain metastases and is expected to have less adverse effects in cognitive functioning than whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Effective treatment with the least negative cognitive side effects is increasingly becoming important, as more patients with brain metastases live longer due to more and better systemic treatment options. There are no published randomized trials yet directly comparing GKRS to WBRT in patients with multiple brain metastases that include objective neuropsychological testing. CAR-Study B is a prospective randomised trial comparing cognitive outcome after GKRS or WBRT in adult patients with 11-20 newly diagnosed brain metastases on a contrast-enhanced MRI-scan, KPS ≥70 and life expectancy of at least 3 months. Randomisation by the method of minimization, is stratified by the cumulative tumour volume in the brain, systemic treatment, KPS, histology, baseline cognitive functioning and age. The primary endpoint is the between-group difference in the percentage of patients with significant memory decline at 3 months. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, local control, development of new brain metastases, cognitive functioning over time, quality of life, depression, anxiety and fatigue. Cognitive functioning is assessed by a standardised neuropsychological test battery. Assessments (cognitive testing, questionnaires and MRI-scans) are scheduled at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months after treatment. Knowledge gained from this trial may be used to inform individual patients with BM more precisely about the cognitive effects they can expect from treatment, and to assist both doctors and patients in making (shared) individual treatment decisions. This trial is currently recruiting. Target accrual: 23 patients at 3-months follow-up in both groups. The Netherlands Trials Register number NTR5463. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT02953717

  20. Multiple brain networks underpinning word learning from fluent speech revealed by independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barroso, Diana; Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Mohammadi, Bahram; Münte, Thomas F; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth

    2015-04-15

    Although neuroimaging studies using standard subtraction-based analysis from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have suggested that frontal and temporal regions are involved in word learning from fluent speech, the possible contribution of different brain networks during this type of learning is still largely unknown. Indeed, univariate fMRI analyses cannot identify the full extent of distributed networks that are engaged by a complex task such as word learning. Here we used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to characterize the different brain networks subserving word learning from an artificial language speech stream. Results were replicated in a second cohort of participants with a different linguistic background. Four spatially independent networks were associated with the task in both cohorts: (i) a dorsal Auditory-Premotor network; (ii) a dorsal Sensory-Motor network; (iii) a dorsal Fronto-Parietal network; and (iv) a ventral Fronto-Temporal network. The level of engagement of these networks varied through the learning period with only the dorsal Auditory-Premotor network being engaged across all blocks. In addition, the connectivity strength of this network in the second block of the learning phase correlated with the individual variability in word learning performance. These findings suggest that: (i) word learning relies on segregated connectivity patterns involving dorsal and ventral networks; and (ii) specifically, the dorsal auditory-premotor network connectivity strength is directly correlated with word learning performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence , with its realization in the SP computer model , aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory- SP-neural -is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory-outlined in the paper-provides indirect support for SP-neural. In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract), all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns , where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a "pattern" is realized as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly , similar to Hebb's concept of a "cell assembly" but with important differences. Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP) and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment , borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another. It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from sensory information and from the

  2. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gerard Wolff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The SP theory of intelligence, with its realisation in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realised in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory -- SP-neural -- is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory -- outlined in the paper -- provides indirect support for SP-neural.In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract, all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns, where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a ‘pattern’ is realised as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly, similar to Hebb's concept of a ‘cell assembly’ but with important differences.Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment, borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another.It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from

  3. Heuristic knowledge-based planning for single-isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery to multiple brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Benjamin P; Sanghvi, Parag; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona; Moore, Kevin L

    2017-10-01

    Single-isocenter, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple brain metastases (multimets) can deliver highly conformal dose distributions and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other techniques. However, treatment planning for multimet cases is highly complex due to variability in numbers and sizes of brain metastases, as well as their relative proximity to organs-at-risk (OARs). The purpose of this study was to automate the VMAT planning of multimet cases through a knowledge-based planning (KBP) approach that adapts single-target SRS dose predictions to multiple target predictions. Using a previously published artificial neural network (ANN) KBP system trained on single-target, linac-based SRS plans, 3D dose distribution predictions for multimet patients were obtained by treating each brain lesion as a solitary target and subsequently combining individual dose predictions into a single distribution. Spatial dose distributions di(r→) for each of the i = 1…N lesions were merged using the combination function d(r→)=∑iNdin(r→)1/n. The optimal value of n was determined by minimizing root-mean squared (RMS) difference between clinical multimet plans and predicted dose per unit length along the line profile joining each lesion in the clinical cohort. The gradient measure GM=[3/4π]1/3V50%1/3-V100%1/3 is the primary quality metric for SRS plan evaluation at our institution and served as the main comparative metric between clinical plans and the KBP results. A total of 41 previously treated multimet plans, with target numbers ranging from N = 2-10, were used to validate the ANN predictions and subsequent KBP auto-planning routine. Fully deliverable KBP plans were developed by converting predicted dose distribution into patient-specific optimization objectives for the clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Plan parity was maintained through identical arc configuration and target normalization. Overall

  4. Functional integration changes in regional brain glucose metabolism from childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Nicola; Archambaud, Frédérique; Goldman, Serge; Baete, Kristof; Van Laere, Koen; Wens, Vincent; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Chiron, Catherine; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in resting-state neurometabolic connectivity from childhood to adulthood (6-50 years old). Fifty-four healthy adult subjects and twenty-three pseudo-healthy children underwent [(18) F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at rest. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), age and age squared were first used as covariate of interest to identify linear and non-linear age effects on the regional distribution of glucose metabolism throughout the brain. Then, by selecting voxels of interest (VOI) within the regions showing significant age-related metabolic changes, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to search for age-induced changes in the contribution of VOIs to the metabolic activity in other brain areas. Significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism were found in prefrontal cortices (DMPFC/ACC), cerebellar lobules, and thalamo-hippocampal areas bilaterally. Decreases were found in the contribution of thalamic, hippocampal, and cerebellar regions to DMPFC/ACC metabolic activity as well as in the contribution of hippocampi to preSMA and right IFG metabolic activities. Increases were found in the contribution of the right hippocampus to insular cortex and of the cerebellar lobule IX to superior parietal cortex metabolic activities. This study evidences significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism of mesial prefrontal, thalamic, mesiotemporal, and cerebellar areas, associated with significant modifications in neurometabolic connectivity involving fronto-thalamic, fronto-hippocampal, and fronto-cerebellar networks. These changes in functional brain integration likely represent a metabolic correlate of age-dependent effects on sensory, motor, and high-level cognitive functional networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3017-3030, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

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    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; pagmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain regions with mirror properties: a meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studies.

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    Molenberghs, Pascal; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons in macaque area F5 fire when an animal performs an action, such as a mouth or limb movement, and also when the animal passively observes an identical or similar action performed by another individual. Brain-imaging studies in humans conducted over the last 20 years have repeatedly attempted to reveal analogous brain regions with mirror properties in humans, with broad and often speculative claims about their functional significance across a range of cognitive domains, from language to social cognition. Despite such concerted efforts, the likely neural substrates of these mirror regions have remained controversial, and indeed the very existence of a distinct subcategory of human neurons with mirroring properties has been questioned. Here we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE), to provide a quantitative index of the consistency of patterns of fMRI activity measured in human studies of action observation and action execution. From an initial sample of more than 300 published works, data from 125 papers met our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The analysis revealed 14 separate clusters in which activation has been consistently attributed to brain regions with mirror properties, encompassing 9 different Brodmann areas. These clusters were located in areas purported to show mirroring properties in the macaque, such as the inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus and the adjacent ventral premotor cortex, but surprisingly also in regions such as the primary visual cortex, cerebellum and parts of the limbic system. Our findings suggest a core network of human brain regions that possess mirror properties associated with action observation and execution, with additional areas recruited during tasks that engage non-motor functions, such as auditory, somatosensory and affective components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths

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    Liv de Vries

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species—thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors. Particularly in relation to sensory requirements, volume-differences in neural tissue between closely related species reflect evolutionary investments that correspond to sensory abilities. Likewise, memory-demands imposed by lifestyle have revealed similar adaptations in regions associated with learning. Whether this is also the case for species that differ in their navigational strategy is currently unknown. While the brain regions associated with navigational control in insects have been identified (central complex (CX, lateral complex (LX and anterior optic tubercles (AOTU, it remains unknown in what way evolutionary investments have been made to accommodate particularly demanding navigational strategies. We have thus generated average-shape atlases of navigation-related brain regions of a migratory and a non-migratory noctuid moth and used volumetric analysis to identify differences. We further compared the results to identical data from Monarch butterflies. Whereas we found differences in the size of the nodular unit of the AOTU, the LX and the protocerebral bridge (PB between the two moths, these did not unambiguously reflect migratory behavior across all three species. We conclude that navigational strategy, at least in the case of long-distance migration in lepidopteran insects, is not easily deductible from overall neuropil anatomy. This suggests that the adaptations needed to ensure successful migratory behavior

  8. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

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    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  9. Molecular and Functional Properties of Regional Astrocytes in the Adult Brain.

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    Morel, Lydie; Chiang, Ming Sum R; Higashimori, Haruki; Shoneye, Temitope; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Yelick, Julia; Tai, Albert; Yang, Yongjie

    2017-09-06

    The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult CNS remain largely undefined. By using translational ribosome affinity purification followed by RNA-Seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1 -translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly. This region-specific expression pattern of genes, such as synaptogenic modulator sparc and transcriptional factors ( emx2 , lhx2 , and hopx ), was validated by qRT-PCR and immunostaining in brain sections. Interestingly, cortical or subcortical astrocytes selectively promote neurite growth and synaptic activity of neurons only from the same region in mismatched cocultures, exhibiting region-matched astrocyte to neuron communication. Overall, these results generated new molecular signature of astrocyte types in the adult CNS, providing insights into their origin and functional diversity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We investigated the in vivo molecular and functional heterogeneity of astrocytes inter-regionally from adult brain. Our results showed that the expression pattern of ribosome-associated mRNA profiles in astrocytes closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially posteriorly from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus. In line with this, our functional results further demonstrated region-selective roles of cortical and subcortical astrocytes in regulating cortical or subcortical neuronal synaptogenesis and maturation. These in vivo studies provide a previously uncharacterized and important molecular atlas for exploring region-specific astroglial functions. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378706-12$15.00/0.

  10. Comparing brain graphs in which nodes are regions of interest or independent components: A simulation study.

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    Yu, Qingbao; Du, Yuhui; Chen, Jiayu; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-11-01

    A key challenge in building a brain graph using fMRI data is how to define the nodes. Spatial brain components estimated by independent components analysis (ICA) and regions of interest (ROIs) determined by brain atlas are two popular methods to define nodes in brain graphs. It is difficult to evaluate which method is better in real fMRI data. Here we perform a simulation study and evaluate the accuracies of a few graph metrics in graphs with nodes of ICA components, ROIs, or modified ROIs in four simulation scenarios. Graph measures with ICA nodes are more accurate than graphs with ROI nodes in all cases. Graph measures with modified ROI nodes are modulated by artifacts. The correlations of graph metrics across subjects between graphs with ICA nodes and ground truth are higher than the correlations between graphs with ROI nodes and ground truth in scenarios with large overlapped spatial sources. Moreover, moving the location of ROIs would largely decrease the correlations in all scenarios. Evaluating graphs with different nodes is promising in simulated data rather than real data because different scenarios can be simulated and measures of different graphs can be compared with a known ground truth. Since ROIs defined using brain atlas may not correspond well to real functional boundaries, overall findings of this work suggest that it is more appropriate to define nodes using data-driven ICA than ROI approaches in real fMRI data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enkephalin dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (enkephalinase) activity: selective radioassay, properties, and regional distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorens, C.; Malfroy, B.; Schwartz, J.C.; Gacel, G.; Roques, B.P.; Roy, J.; Morgat, J.L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The compound [ 3 H-Tyr 1 ,D-Ala 2 ,Leu-OH 5 ]enkephalin has been synthesised as a potentially selective substrate for enkephalin dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (enkephalinase) activity in brain. Incubations in the presence of homogenates and particulate fractions from rodent and human brain result in the formation of [ 3 H]Tyr-D-Ala-Gly, which can be conveniently isolated by polystyrene bead column chromatography. The enzyme activity responsible for the hydrolysis of the Gly 3 -Phe 4 amide bond of this substrate displays close resemblance to that hydrolysing the natural enkephalins at the same level. In addition, enkephalinase activity characterised in postmortem human brain is closely similar to that in rodent brain, with regard to optimal pH and apparent affinities of various substrates and inhibitors, including the potent compound thiorphan. Enkephalinase activity is distributed in a highly heterogeneous fashion among regions of human brain, the highest levels being found in globus pallidus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra. This distribution is poorly correlated with that of opiate receptor binding sites but displays some resemblance to that of reported Met 5 -enkephalin levels. (author)

  12. Abnormal Brain Responses to Action Observation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

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    Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Saito, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression profiling was performed. • CPZ

  14. Glucose metabolism in different regions of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.

    1980-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain regions. Determination was made of the regional levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the regional glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the regional blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain regions and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all regions increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.

  15. A Method for Automatic Extracting Intracranial Region in MR Brain Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Keiji; Miura, Shin; Nishida, Makoto; Kageyama, Yoichi; Namura, Ikuro

    It is well known that temporal lobe in MR brain image is in use for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia. It is difficult to use only region of temporal lobe for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia. From the standpoint for supporting the medical specialists, this paper proposes a data processing approach on the automatic extraction of the intracranial region from the MR brain image. The method is able to eliminate the cranium region with the laplacian histogram method and the brainstem with the feature points which are related to the observations given by a medical specialist. In order to examine the usefulness of the proposed approach, the percentage of the temporal lobe in the intracranial region was calculated. As a result, the percentage of temporal lobe in the intracranial region on the process of the grade was in agreement with the visual sense standards of temporal lobe atrophy given by the medical specialist. It became clear that intracranial region extracted by the proposed method was good for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia.

  16. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Efficacy and toxicity of whole brain radiotherapy in patients with multiple cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma

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    Hauswald Henrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To retrospectively access outcome and toxicity of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT in patients with multiple brain metastases (BM from malignant melanoma (MM. Patients and methods Results of 87 patients (median age 58 years; 35 female, 52 male treated by WBRT for BM of MM between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Total dose applied was either 30 Gy in 10 fractions (n = 56 or 40 Gy in 20 fractions (n = 31. All but 9 patients suffered from extra-cerebral metastases. Prior surgical resection of BM was performed in 18 patients, salvage stereotactic radiosurgery in 13 patients. Results Mean follow-up was 8 months (range, 0–57 months, the 6- and 12-months overall-(OS survival rates were 29.2% and 16.5%, respectively. The median OS was 3.5 months. In cerebral follow-up imaging 6 (11 patients showed a complete (partial remission, while 11 (17 patients had stable disease (intra-cerebral tumor progression. In comparison of total dose, the group treated with 40 Gy in 20 fractions achieved a significant longer OS (p = 0.003, median 3.1 vs. 5.6 months. Furthermore, DS-GPA score (p  Conclusion Treatment of BM from MM with WBRT is tolerated well and some remissions of BM could be achieved. An advantage for higher treatment total doses was seen. However, outcome is non-satisfying, and further improvements in treatment of BM from MM are warranted.

  18. Quantifying brain tissue volume in multiple sclerosis with automated lesion segmentation and filling

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    Sergi Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion filling has been successfully applied to reduce the effect of hypo-intense T1-w Multiple Sclerosis (MS lesions on automatic brain tissue segmentation. However, a study of fully automated pipelines incorporating lesion segmentation and lesion filling on tissue volume analysis has not yet been performed. Here, we analyzed the % of error introduced by automating the lesion segmentation and filling processes in the tissue segmentation of 70 clinically isolated syndrome patient images. First of all, images were processed using the LST and SLS toolkits with different pipeline combinations that differed in either automated or manual lesion segmentation, and lesion filling or masking out lesions. Then, images processed following each of the pipelines were segmented into gray matter (GM and white matter (WM using SPM8, and compared with the same images where expert lesion annotations were filled before segmentation. Our results showed that fully automated lesion segmentation and filling pipelines reduced significantly the % of error in GM and WM volume on images of MS patients, and performed similarly to the images where expert lesion annotations were masked before segmentation. In all the pipelines, the amount of misclassified lesion voxels was the main cause in the observed error in GM and WM volume. However, the % of error was significantly lower when automatically estimated lesions were filled and not masked before segmentation. These results are relevant and suggest that LST and SLS toolboxes allow the performance of accurate brain tissue volume measurements without any kind of manual intervention, which can be convenient not only in terms of time and economic costs, but also to avoid the inherent intra/inter variability between manual annotations.

  19. Sera from remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients disrupt the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Tasaki, Ayako; Sano, Yasuteru; Ju, Mihua; Nishihara, Hideaki; Oishi, Mariko; Koga, Michiaki; Kawai, Motoharu; Kanda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Pathological destruction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been thought to be the initial key event in the process of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the present study was to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of BBB by sera from relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients. We evaluated the effects of sera from the patients in the relapse phase of RRMS (RRMS-R), stable phase of RRMS (RRMS-S) and SPMS on the expression of tight junction proteins and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), and on the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Sera from the RRMS-R or SPMS patients decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. In RRMS-R, this effect was restored after adding an MMP inhibitor, and the MMP-2/9 secretion by BMECs was significantly increased after the application of patients' sera. In SPMS, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from patients' sera also decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. The sera and purified IgG from all MS patients increased the VCAM-1 protein expression in BMECs. The up-regulation of autocrine MMP-2/9 by BMECs after exposure to sera from RRMS-R patients or the autoantibodies against BMECs from SPMS patients can compromise the BBB. Both RRMS-S and SPMS sera increased the VCAM-1 expression in the BBB, thus indicating that targeting the VCAM-1 in the BBB could represent a possible therapeutic strategy for even the stable phase of MS and SPMS.

  20. Sera from remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients disrupt the blood-brain barrier.

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    Fumitaka Shimizu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological destruction of blood-brain barrier (BBB has been thought to be the initial key event in the process of developing multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of BBB by sera from relapse-remitting MS (RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS patients. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of sera from the patients in the relapse phase of RRMS (RRMS-R, stable phase of RRMS (RRMS-S and SPMS on the expression of tight junction proteins and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1, and on the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs. RESULTS: Sera from the RRMS-R or SPMS patients decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. In RRMS-R, this effect was restored after adding an MMP inhibitor, and the MMP-2/9 secretion by BMECs was significantly increased after the application of patients' sera. In SPMS, the immunoglobulin G (IgG purified from patients' sera also decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. The sera and purified IgG from all MS patients increased the VCAM-1 protein expression in BMECs. CONCLUSIONS: The up-regulation of autocrine MMP-2/9 by BMECs after exposure to sera from RRMS-R patients or the autoantibodies against BMECs from SPMS patients can compromise the BBB. Both RRMS-S and SPMS sera increased the VCAM-1 expression in the BBB, thus indicating that targeting the VCAM-1 in the BBB could represent a possible therapeutic strategy for even the stable phase of MS and SPMS.

  1. Context, emotion, and the strategic pursuit of goals: Interactions among multiple brain systems controlling motivated behaviour

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    Aaron J Gruber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated behaviour exhibits properties that change with experience and partially dissociate among a number of brain structures. Here, we review evidence from rodent experiments demonstrating that multiple brain systems acquire information in parallel and either cooperate or compete for behavioural control. We propose a conceptual model of systems interaction wherein a ventral emotional memory network involving ventral striatum, amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex triages behavioural responding to stimuli according to their associated affective outcomes. This system engages autonomic and postural responding (avoiding, ignoring, approaching in accordance with associated stimulus valence (negative, neutral, positive, but does not engage particular operant responses. Rather, this emotional system suppresses or invigorates actions that are selected through competition between goal-directed control involving dorsomedial striatum and habitual control involving dorsolateral striatum. The hippocampus provides contextual specificity to the emotional system, and provides an information rich input to the goal-directed system for navigation and discriminations involving ambiguous contexts, complex sensory configurations, or temporal ordering. The rapid acquisition and high capacity for episodic associations in the emotional system may unburden the more complex goal-directed system and reduce interference in the habit system from processing contingencies of neutral stimuli. Interactions among these systems likely involve inhibitory mechanisms and neuromodulation in the basal ganglia to form a dominant response strategy. Innate traits, training methods, and task demands contribute to the nature of these interactions, which can include incidental learning in non-dominant systems. Addition of these features to reinforcement learning models of decision making may better align theoretical predictions with behavioural and neural

  2. Fat-saturated post gadolinium T1 imaging of the brain in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saeed, Osama; Sheikh, Mehraj; Ismail, Mohammed; Athyal, Reji

    2011-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of vital importance in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Imaging sequences better demonstrating enhancing lesions can help in detecting active MS plaques. Purpose To evaluate the role of fat-saturated gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1W) images of the brain in MS and to assess the benefit of performing this additional sequence in the detection of enhancing lesions. Material and Methods In a prospective study over a six-month period, 70 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed MS were enrolled. These constituted 14 male and 56 female patients between the ages of 21 and 44 years. All the patients underwent brain MRIs on a 1.5 Tesla Magnet. Gadolinium-enhanced T1 images with and without fat saturation were compared and results were recorded and analyzed using a conspicuity score and McNemar test. Results There were a total of 157 lesions detected in 70 patients on post-contrast T1W fat-saturated images compared with 139 lesions seen on the post-contrast T1W fast spin-echo (FSE) images. This was because 18 of the lesions (11.5%) were only seen on the fat-saturated images. In addition, 15 lesions were more conspicuous on the fat saturation sequence (9.5%). The total conspicuity score obtained, including all the lesions, was 2.24 +/-0.60 (SD). Using the two-tailed McNemar test for quantitative analysis, the P value obtained was <0.0001. Conclusion T1W fat-saturated gadolinium-enhanced images show better lesion enhancement than T1W images without fat saturation

  3. Fingolimod prevents blood-brain barrier disruption induced by the sera from patients with multiple sclerosis.

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    Hideaki Nishihara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Effect of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS is thought to involve the prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier (BBB. However, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs represent a possible additional target for fingolimod in MS patients by directly repairing the function of BBB, as S1P receptors are also expressed by BMECs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fingolimod on BMECs and clarified whether fingolimod-phosphate restores the BBB function after exposure to MS sera. METHODS: Changes in tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in BMECs were evaluated following incubation in conditioned medium with or without fingolimod/fingolimod-phosphate. In addition, the effects of sera derived from MS patients, including those in the relapse phase of relapse-remitting (RR MS, stable phase of RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS, on the function of BBB in the presence of fingolimod-phosphate were assessed. RESULTS: Incubation with fingolimod-phosphate increased the claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in BMECs, although it did not change the amount of occludin, ICAM-1 or MelCAM proteins. Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate restored the changes in the claudin-5 and VCAM-1 protein/mRNA levels and TEER values in BMECs after exposure to MS sera. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate prevents BBB disruption caused by both RRMS and SPMS sera via the upregulation of claudin-5 and downregulation of VCAM-1 in BMECs, suggesting that fingolimod-phosphate is capable of directly modifying the BBB. BMECs represent a possible therapeutic target for fingolimod in MS patients.

  4. Automatic segmentation and volumetry of multiple sclerosis brain lesions from MR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The location and extent of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are important criteria for diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. Clinical trials have shown that quantitative values, such as lesion volumes, are meaningful in MS prognosis. Manual lesion delineation for the segmentation of lesions is, however, time-consuming and suffers from observer variability. In this paper, we propose MSmetrix, an accurate and reliable automatic method for lesion segmentation based on MRI, independent of scanner or acquisition protocol and without requiring any training data. In MSmetrix, 3D T1-weighted and FLAIR MR images are used in a probabilistic model to detect white matter (WM lesions as an outlier to normal brain while segmenting the brain tissue into grey matter, WM and cerebrospinal fluid. The actual lesion segmentation is performed based on prior knowledge about the location (within WM and the appearance (hyperintense on FLAIR of lesions. The accuracy of MSmetrix is evaluated by comparing its output with expert reference segmentations of 20 MRI datasets of MS patients. Spatial overlap (Dice between the MSmetrix and the expert lesion segmentation is 0.67 ± 0.11. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC equals 0.8 indicating a good volumetric agreement between the MSmetrix and expert labelling. The reproducibility of MSmetrix' lesion volumes is evaluated based on 10 MS patients, scanned twice with a short interval on three different scanners. The agreement between the first and the second scan on each scanner is evaluated through the spatial overlap and absolute lesion volume difference between them. The spatial overlap was 0.69 ± 0.14 and absolute total lesion volume difference between the two scans was 0.54 ± 0.58 ml. Finally, the accuracy and reproducibility of MSmetrix compare favourably with other publicly available MS lesion segmentation algorithms, applied on the same data using default

  5. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that stress may orchestrate the engagement of multiple memory systems in the brain. In particular, stress is thought to favor dorsal striatum-dependent procedural over hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these modulatory effects of stress remain elusive, especially in humans. Here, we targeted the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced modulation of dorsal striatal and hippocampal memory systems in the human brain using a combination of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacologic blockade of the MR. Eighty healthy participants received the MR antagonist spironolactone (300 mg) or a placebo and underwent a stressor or control manipulation before they performed, in the scanner, a classification task that can be supported by the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. Stress after placebo did not affect learning performance but reduced explicit task knowledge and led to a relative increase in the use of more procedural learning strategies. At the neural level, stress promoted striatum-based learning at the expense of hippocampus-based learning. Functional connectivity analyses showed that this shift was associated with altered coupling of the amygdala with the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade before stress prevented the stress-induced shift toward dorsal striatal procedural learning, same as the stress-induced alterations of amygdala connectivity with hippocampus and dorsal striatum, but resulted in significantly impaired performance. Our findings indicate that the stress-induced shift from hippocampal to dorsal striatal memory systems is mediated by the amygdala, required to preserve performance after stress, and dependent on the MR. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  6. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  7. A Divide and Conquer Strategy for Scaling Weather Simulations with Multiple Regions of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Malakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely prediction of weather phenomena, such as hurricanes and flash floods, require high-fidelity compute intensive simulations of multiple finer regions of interest within a coarse simulation domain. Current weather applications execute these nested simulations sequentially using all the available processors, which is sub-optimal due to their sub-linear scalability. In this work, we present a strategy for parallel execution of multiple nested domain simulations based on partitioning the 2-D processor grid into disjoint rectangular regions associated with each domain. We propose a novel combination of performance prediction, processor allocation methods and topology-aware mapping of the regions on torus interconnects. Experiments on IBM Blue Gene systems using WRF show that the proposed strategies result in performance improvement of up to 33% with topology-oblivious mapping and up to additional 7% with topology-aware mapping over the default sequential strategy.

  8. Lesions inflammatory activity quantification in multiple sclerosis using ["1"1C]-(R)-PK11195 PET brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, Phelipi N.; Narciso, Lucas D.L.; Dartora, Caroline M.; Silva, Ana M. Marques da

    2016-01-01

    The criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis include the presence of lesions in brain regions called black holes (BH), characterized by low signal on magnetic resonance imaging T1-weighted. Studies suggest that lesions in MS, if there is an inflammatory process, can be detected in PET imaging with ["1"1C]- (R)-PK11195. The aim of this study is to investigate the uptake of ["1"1C]-(R)-PK11195 in BH in PET images, searching for inflammation activity in lesions and neighborhoods. Semiquantitative methods of SUV and uptake normalization were applied to PET images, in different time intervals, acquired from 8 MS patients and 5 healthy controls. Higher uptake was identified in BH and its edges, when compared with health controls white matter, when the SUV method is applied (p < 0,01, 40 to 60 min). When uptake normalization method is applied, smaller uptake in black holes and its your edges is observed, when compared with white matter apparently healthy (p < 0,01, 0 to 60 min). (author)

  9. Time-dependent regional brain distribution of methadone and naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklezgi, Belin G; Pamreddy, Annapurna; Baijnath, Sooraj; Kruger, Hendrik G; Naicker, Tricia; Gopal, Nirmala D; Govender, Thavendran

    2018-02-14

    Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the localization and distribution of MET and NAL, over a 24-hour period in rodent brain, in order to investigate the differences in their respective regional brain distributions. This would provide a better understanding of the role of each individual drug in the treatment of addiction, especially NAL, whose efficacy is controversial. Tissue distribution was determined by using mass spectrometric imaging (MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. MSI image analysis showed that MET was highly localized in the striatal and hippocampal regions, including the nucleus caudate, putamen and the upper cortex. NAL was distributed with high intensities in the mesocorticolimbic system including areas of the cortex, caudate putamen and ventral pallidum regions. Our results demonstrate that MET and NAL are highly localized in the brain regions with a high density of μ-receptors, the primary sites of heroin binding. These areas are strongly implicated in the development of addiction and are the major pathways that mediate brain stimulation during reward. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-05

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered relationships between rCBF in different brain regions of never-treated schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, O.; Schreckenberger, M.; Cremerius, U.; Dickmann, C.; Schulz, G.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.; Erkwoh, R.; Owega, A.; Sass, H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the relations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of different brain regions in acute schizophrenia and following neuroleptic treatment. Methods: Twenty-two never-treated, acute schizophrenic patients were examined with HMPAO brain SPECT and assessed psychopathologically, and reexamined following neuroleptic treatment (over 96.8 days) and psychopathological remission. rCBF was determined by region/cerebellar count quotients obtained from 98 irregular regions of interest (ROIs), summed up to 11 ROIs on each hemisphere. In acute schizophrenics, interregional rCBF correlations of each ROI to every other ROI were compared to the interregional correlations following neuroleptic treatment and to those of controls. Results: All significant correlations of rCBF ratios of different brain regions were exclusively positive in controls and patients. In controls, all ROIs of one hemisphere except the mesial temporal ROI correlated significantly to its contralateral ROI. Each hemisphere showed significant frontal-temporal correlations, as well as cortical-subcortical and some cortico-limbic. In contrast, in acute schizophrenics nearly every ROI correlated significantly with every other ROI, without a grouping or relation of the rCBF of certain ROIs as in controls. After neuroleptic treatment and clinical improvement, this diffuse pattern of correlations remained. Conclusions: These results indicate differences in the neuronal interplay between regions in schizophrenic and healthy subjects. In nevertreated schizophrenics, diffuse interregional rCBF correlations can be seen as a sign of change and dysfunction of the systems regulating specificity and diversity of the neuronal functions. Neuroleptic therapy and psychopathologic remission showed no normalizing effect on interregional correlations. (orig.) [de

  12. Pain sensitivity is inversely related to regional grey matter density in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Nichole M; Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V; Hadsel, Morten S; Martucci, Katherine T; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Starr, Christopher J; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Pain is a highly personal experience that varies substantially among individuals. In search of an anatomical correlate of pain sensitivity, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationship between grey matter density across the whole brain and interindividual differences in pain sensitivity in 116 healthy volunteers (62 women, 54 men). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and psychophysical data from 10 previous functional MRI studies were used. Age, sex, unpleasantness ratings, scanner sequence, and sensory testing location were added to the model as covariates. Regression analysis of grey matter density across the whole brain and thermal pain intensity ratings at 49°C revealed a significant inverse relationship between pain sensitivity and grey matter density in bilateral regions of the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule. Unilateral regions of the left primary somatosensory cortex also exhibited this inverse relationship. No regions showed a positive relationship to pain sensitivity. These structural variations occurred in areas associated with the default mode network, attentional direction and shifting, as well as somatosensory processing. These findings underscore the potential importance of processes related to default mode thought and attention in shaping individual differences in pain sensitivity and indicate that pain sensitivity can potentially be predicted on the basis of brain structure. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  14. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, R; Miranda, P C; Roth, Y; Zangen, A

    2009-01-01

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/√2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  15. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R.; Miranda, P. C.; Roth, Y.; Zangen, A.

    2009-05-01

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/\\sqrt 2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  16. High permeability cores to optimize the stimulation of deeply located brain regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, R; Miranda, P C [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Roth, Y [Advanced Technology Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Zangen, A [Neurobiology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: rnsalvador@fc.ul.pt

    2009-05-21

    Efficient stimulation of deeply located brain regions with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) poses many challenges, arising from the fact that the induced field decays rapidly and becomes less focal with depth. We propose a new method to improve the efficiency of TMS of deep brain regions that combines high permeability cores, to increase focality and field intensity, with a coil specifically designed to induce a field that decays slowly with increasing depth. The performance of the proposed design was investigated using the finite element method to determine the total electric field induced by this coil/core arrangement on a realistically shaped homogeneous head model. The calculations show that the inclusion of the cores increases the field's magnitude by as much as 25% while also decreasing the field's decay with depth along specific directions. The focality, as measured by the area where the field's norm is greater than 1/{radical}2 of its maximum value, is also improved by as much as 15% with some core arrangements. The coil's inductance is not significantly increased by the cores. These results show that the presence of the cores might make this specially designed coil even more suited for the effective stimulation of deep brain regions.

  17. Financial literacy is associated with medial brain region functional connectivity in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Fleischman, Debra A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Financial literacy refers to the ability to access and utilize financial information in ways that promote better outcomes. In old age, financial literacy has been associated with a wide range of positive characteristics; however, the neural correlates remain unclear. Recent work has suggested greater co-activity between anterior-posterior medial brain regions is associated with better brain functioning. We hypothesized financial literacy would be associated with this pattern. We assessed whole-brain functional connectivity to a posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed region of interest (ROI) in 138 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Results revealed financial literacy was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and three regions: the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the left postcentral gyrus, and the right precuneus. Results also revealed financial literacy was associated negatively with functional connectivity between the PCC and left caudate. Post hoc analyses showed the PCC-vmPFC relationship accounted for the most variance in a regression model adjusted for all four significant functional connectivity relationships, demographic factors, and global cognition. These findings provide information on the neural mechanisms associated with financial literacy in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of cadmium exposure on lipids, lipid peroxidation and metal distribution in rat brain regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, T; Ali, M M; Chandra, S V

    1985-01-01

    Effect of cadmium treatment on brain lipids, lipid peroxidation and distribution of Zn, Cu and Fe in rat brain regions was investigated. Adult male rats were exposed to Cd (100 ppm Cd as cadmium acetate) in drinking water for 30 days. The Cd exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phospholipid content and an increase in the lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The total lipid content was not affected in any of the regions but a significant decrease in cholesterol and cerebroside contents were observed only in the cerebral cortex. A positive correlation between the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the phospholipid content in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum was observed. A maximum accumulation of Cd occurred in the cerebral cortex. The Cu and Fe contents were significantly increased but the Zn levels decreased in the Cd-treated rats in all but the midbrain region. Results suggest that the increased peroxidation decomposition of structural lipids and the altered distribution of the essential trace metals in brain may play a significant role in Cd-induced neurotoxicity. 27 references, 2 tables.

  19. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow in experimental brain tumors studied by double tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Sako, K.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Feindel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Coupling of regional glucose utilization (GLU) and blood flow (CBF) was examined in rats with implanted brain tumors (AA ascites tumor) by quantitative double tracer autoradiography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine. Four to 13 days after implantation, the animals were injected with the two tracers to obtain autoradiograms from the same brain section before and after the decay of YF. The autoradiograms were then analyzed by an image processor to obtain a metabolic coupling index (MCI = GLU/CBF). In the tumor, high GLU and low CBF were uncoupled to give a high MCI which implied anerobic glycolysis. In large tumors, the CBF was even lower. In the peri-tumoral region, GLU was reduced and reduction was lowest around the larger tumors. CBF in the peri-tumoral region was also reduced, but this reduction became less as the distance from the tumor margin increased. The GLU and CBF of white matter was little influenced by the presence of tumors except for some reduction in these values in relation to the larger tumors. The MCI in the tumor was higher than in the cortex of the same as well as the opposite hemisphere. These findings indicate that the metabolism and blood flow of the tumor and surrounding brain are variable and directly related to tumor size.

  20. Anxiety type modulates immediate versus delayed engagement of attention-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; De Leon, Angeline A; Bredemeier, Keith; Heller, Wendy; Engels, Anna S; Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A

    2013-09-01

    Background Habituation of the fear response, critical for the treatment of anxiety, is inconsistently observed during exposure to threatening stimuli. One potential explanation for this inconsistency is differential attentional engagement with negatively valenced stimuli as a function of anxiety type. Methods The present study tested this hypothesis by examining patterns of neural habituation associated with anxious arousal, characterized by panic symptoms and immediate engagement with negatively valenced stimuli, versus anxious apprehension, characterized by engagement in worry to distract from negatively valenced stimuli. Results As predicted, the two anxiety types evidenced distinct patterns of attentional engagement. Anxious arousal was associated with immediate activation in attention-related brain regions that habituated over time, whereas anxious apprehension was associated with delayed activation in attention-related brain regions that occurred only after habituation in a worry-related brain region. Conclusions Results further elucidate mechanisms involved in attention to negatively valenced stimuli and indicate that anxiety is a heterogeneous construct with regard to attention to such stimuli.

  1. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24{+-}4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor.

  2. Relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    Temperament factor of personality has been considered to have correlation with activity in a specific central monoaminergic system. In an attempt to explore neuronal substrate of biogenetic personality traits, we examined the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament factor of personality. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24±4 yr: 10 females and 10 males) were studied with FDG PET. Their temperaments were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which consisted of four temperament factors (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), persistency) and three personality factors. The relationship between regional glucose metabolism and each temperament score was tested using SPM99 (P < 0.005, uncorrected). NS score was negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the frontal areas, insula, and superior temporal gyrus mainly in the right hemisphere. Positive correlation between NS score and glucose metabolism was observed in the left superior temporal gyrus. HA score showed negative correlation with glucose metabolism in the middle and orbitofrontal gyri as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus. RD score was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus and negative correlated in the posterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus. We identified the relationship between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperamental personality trait. Each temperament factor had a relation with functions of specific brain areas. These results help understand biological background of personality and specific feedback circuits associated with each temperament factor

  3. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q; Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API

  4. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases with Single-Isocenter VMAT: Optimizing Treatment Geometry to Reduce Normal Brain Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, K; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Li, H; Chetty, I; Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an optimization algorithm to reduce normal brain dose by optimizing couch and collimator angles for single isocenter multiple targets treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods: Three metastatic brain lesions were retrospectively planned using single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Three matrices were developed to calculate the projection of each lesion on Beam’s Eye View (BEV) by the rotating couch, collimator and gantry respectively. The island blocking problem was addressed by computing the total area of open space between any two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. The couch and collimator angles resulting in the smallest open areas were the optimized angles for each treatment arc. Two treatment plans with and without couch and collimator angle optimization were developed using the same objective functions and to achieve 99% of each target volume receiving full prescription dose of 18Gy. Plan quality was evaluated by calculating each target’s Conformity Index (CI), Gradient Index (GI), and Homogeneity index (HI), and absolute volume of normal brain V8Gy, V10Gy, V12Gy, and V14Gy. Results: Using the new couch/collimator optimization strategy, dose to normal brain tissue was reduced substantially. V8, V10, V12, and V14 decreased by 2.3%, 3.6%, 3.5%, and 6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the conformity index, gradient index, and homogeneity index between two treatment plans with and without the new optimization algorithm. Conclusion: We have developed a solution to the island blocking problem in delivering radiation to multiple brain metastases with shared isocenter. Significant reduction in dose to normal brain was achieved by using optimal couch and collimator angles that minimize total area of open space between any of the two lesions with shared MLC leaf pairs. This technique has been integrated into Eclipse treatment system using scripting API.

  5. Brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex: kinetic properties, regional distribution, and effects of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J C; Cooper, A J

    1986-11-01

    The substrate and cofactor requirements and some kinetic properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC; EC 1.2.4.2, EC 2.3.1.61, and EC 1.6.4.3) in purified rat brain mitochondria were studied. Brain mitochondrial KGDHC showed absolute requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate, CoA and NAD, and only partial requirement for added thiamine pyrophosphate, but no requirement for Mg2+ under the assay conditions employed in this study. The pH optimum was between 7.2 and 7.4, but, at pH values below 7.0 or above 7.8, KGDHC activity decreased markedly. KGDHC activity in various brain regions followed the rank order: cerebral cortex greater than cerebellum greater than or equal to midbrain greater than striatum = hippocampus greater than hypothalamus greater than pons and medulla greater than olfactory bulb. Significant inhibition of brain mitochondrial KGDHC was noted at pathological concentrations of ammonia (0.2-2 mM). However, the purified bovine heart KGDHC and KGDHC activity in isolated rat heart mitochondria were much less sensitive to inhibition. At 5 mM both beta-methylene-D,L-aspartate and D,L-vinylglycine (inhibitors of cerebral glucose oxidation) inhibited the purified heart but not the brain mitochondrial enzyme complex. At approximately 10 microM, calcium slightly stimulated (by 10-15%) the brain mitochondrial KGDHC. At concentrations above 100 microM, calcium (IC50 = 1 mM) inhibited both brain mitochondrial and purified heart KGDHC. The present results suggest that some of the kinetic properties of the rat brain mitochondrial KGDHC differ from those of the purified bovine heart and rat heart mitochondrial enzyme complexes. They also suggest that the inhibition of KGDHC by ammonia and the consequent effect on the citric acid cycle fluxes may be of pathophysiological and/or pathogenetic importance in hyperammonemia and in diseases (e.g., hepatic encephalopathy, inborn errors of urea metabolism, Reye's syndrome) where hyperammonemia is a

  6. "THE RELATION OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND BRAIN ATROPHY IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffarpour

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment may be a common even at the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS. In this case-control study, we tried to find out the probable relationship between homocysteine levels and cerebral atrophy or cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. One hundred fifty six patients who had MS according to McDonald diagnostic criteria were included in this study. Patients’ age, gender, and educational level, MS duration and clinical type, disability, cognitive function state based on minimental state examination (MMSE, presence of hyperhomocysteinemia, and brain atrophy were evaluated. There was no statistically significant relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and cognitive status. Total homocysteine levels had a significant correlation with MMSE score only in those patients with elementary level of education. Also total homocysteine levels and overall cerebral atrophy did not indicate significant relationship according to those independent variables mentioned above except in the patients with EDSS less than 6. When intercaudate ratio > 0.10 was applied as a criterion for cerebral atrophy, we found that hyperhomocysteinemia related significantly to intercaudate ratio > 0.10 in females, aged between 21 and 30 years, MS duration ≤ 5 years, primary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS clinical types, EDSS ≤ 3 and elementary level of education. We suggest applying MMSE only for the first step of cognitive function survey. In the next steps, much more exact test must be used (e.g. MSNQ. Also we can not suggest measuring plasma homocysteine level as criterion for monitoring the cognitive function in patients with MS.

  7. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzucidlo, Justyna K; Roseman, Paige L; Laurienti, Paul J; Dagenbach, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  8. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  9. Regional specificity in deltamethrin induced cytochrome P450 expression in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Sanjay; Johri, Ashu; Dhawan, Alok; Seth, Prahlad K.; Parmar, Devendra

    2006-01-01

    Oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg x 7 or 15 or 21 days) was found to produce a time-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), 1A2 and CYP2B1, 2B2 isoenzymes in rat brain. RT-PCR studies further showed that increase in the mRNA expression of these CYP isoenzymes observed after 21 days of exposure was region specific. Hippocampus exhibited maximum increase in the mRNA expression of CYP1A1, which was followed by pons-medulla, cerebellum and hypothalamus. The mRNA expression of CYP2B1 also exhibited maximum increase in the hypothalamus and hippocampus followed by almost similar increase in midbrain and cerebellum. In contrast, mRNA expression of CYP1A2 and CYP2B2, the constitutive isoenzymes exhibited relatively higher increase in pons-medulla, cerebellum and frontal cortex. Immunoblotting studies carried out with polyclonal antibody raised against rat liver CYP1A1/1A2 or CYP2B1/2B2 isoenzymes also showed increase in immunoreactivity comigrating with CYP1A1/1A2 or 2B1/2B2 in the microsomal fractions isolated from hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of rat treated with deltamethrin. Though the exact relationship of the xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs with the physiological function of the brain is yet to be clearly understood, the increase in the mRNA expression of the CYPs in the brain regions that regulate specific brain functions affected by deltamethrin have further indicated that modulation of these CYPs could be associated with the various endogenous functions of the brain

  10. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I Affects Brain Structure in Prefrontal and Motor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Schwenkreis, Peter; Lenz, Melanie; Nicolas, Volkmar; Maier, Christoph; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls) were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the “non-flipped” data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the “flipped” data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control. PMID:24416397

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome type I affects brain structure in prefrontal and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Pleger

    Full Text Available The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder that mostly occurs after injuries to the upper limb. A number of studies indicated altered brain function in CRPS, whereas possible influences on brain structure remain poorly investigated. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data from CRPS type I patients and applied voxel-by-voxel statistics to compare white and gray matter brain segments of CRPS patients with matched controls. Patients and controls were statistically compared in two different ways: First, we applied a 2-sample ttest to compare whole brain white and gray matter structure between patients and controls. Second, we aimed to assess structural alterations specifically of the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the CRPS affected side. To this end, MRI scans of patients with left-sided CRPS (and matched controls were horizontally flipped before preprocessing and region-of-interest-based group comparison. The unpaired ttest of the "non-flipped" data revealed that CRPS patients presented increased gray matter density in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The same test applied to the "flipped" data showed further increases in gray matter density, not in the S1, but in the M1 contralateral to the CRPS-affected limb which were inversely related to decreased white matter density of the internal capsule within the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. The gray-white matter interaction between motor cortex and internal capsule suggests compensatory mechanisms within the central motor system possibly due to motor dysfunction. Altered gray matter structure in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex may occur in response to emotional processes such as pain-related suffering or elevated analgesic top-down control.

  12. Region-specific reduction in brain volume in young adults with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregant, Tina; Rados, Milan; Vasung, Lana; Derganc, Metka; Evans, Alan C; Neubauer, David; Kostovic, Ivica

    2013-11-01

    A severe form of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) carries a high risk of perinatal death and severe neurological sequelae while in mild HIE only discrete cognitive disorders may occur. To compare total brain volumes and region-specific cortical measurements between young adults with mild-moderate perinatal HIE and a healthy control group of the same age. MR imaging was performed in a cohort of 14 young adults (9 males, 5 females) with a history of mild or moderate perinatal HIE. The control group consisted of healthy participants, matched with HIE group by age and gender. Volumetric analysis was done after the processing of MR images using a fully automated CIVET pipeline. We measured gyrification indexes, total brain volume, volume of grey and white matter, and of cerebrospinal fluid. We also measured volume, thickness and area of the cerebral cortex in the parietal, occipital, frontal, and temporal lobe, and of the isthmus cinguli, parahippocampal and cingulated gyrus, and insula. The HIE patient group showed smaller absolute volumetric data. Statistically significant (p right hemisphere, of cortical areas in the right temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus, of cortical volumes in the right temporal lobe and of cortical thickness in the right isthmus of the cingulate gyrus were found. Comparison between the healthy group and the HIE group of the same gender showed statistically significant changes in the male HIE patients, where a significant reduction was found in whole brain volume; left parietal, bilateral temporal, and right parahippocampal gyrus cortical areas; and bilateral temporal lobe cortical volume. Our analysis of total brain volumes and region-specific corticometric parameters suggests that mild-moderate forms of perinatal HIE lead to reductions in whole brain volumes. In the study reductions were most pronounced in temporal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna K Rzucidlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  14. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  15. Food and drug cues activate similar brain regions: a meta-analysis of functional MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D W; Fellows, L K; Small, D M; Dagher, A

    2012-06-06

    In healthy individuals, food cues can trigger hunger and feeding behavior. Likewise, smoking cues can trigger craving and relapse in smokers. Brain imaging studies report that structures involved in appetitive behaviors and reward, notably the insula, striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex, tend to be activated by both visual food and smoking cues. Here, by carrying out a meta-analysis of human neuro-imaging studies, we investigate the neural network activated by: 1) food versus neutral cues (14 studies, 142 foci) 2) smoking versus neutral cues (15 studies, 176 foci) 3) smoking versus neutral cues when correlated with craving scores (7 studies, 108 foci). PubMed was used to identify cue-reactivity imaging studies that compared brain response to visual food or smoking cues to neutral cues. Fourteen articles were identified for the food meta-analysis and fifteen articles were identified for the smoking meta-analysis. Six articles were identified for the smoking cue correlated with craving analysis. Meta-analyses were carried out using activation likelihood estimation. Food cues were associated with increased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, and striatum. Smoking cues were associated with increased BOLD signal in the same areas, with the exception of the insula. However, the smoking meta-analysis of brain maps correlating cue-reactivity with subjective craving did identify the insula, suggesting that insula activation is only found when craving levels are high. The brain areas identified here are involved in learning, memory and motivation, and their cue-induced activity is an index of the incentive salience of the cues. Using meta-analytic techniques to combine a series of studies, we found that food and smoking cues activate comparable brain networks. There is significant overlap in brain regions responding to conditioned cues associated with natural and drug rewards

  16. Exercise therapy in multiple sclerosis and its effects on function and the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    to clinically relevant improvements in physical function, but should be considered an adjunct to specific task-based training. Exercise has also shown positive effects on the brain, including improvements in brain volume and cognition. In summary, exercise therapy is a safe and potent nonpharmacological...... intervention in MS, with beneficial effects on both functional capacity and the brain....

  17. Intervene: a tool for intersection and visualization of multiple gene or genomic region sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2017-05-31

    A common task for scientists relies on comparing lists of genes or genomic regions derived from high-throughput sequencing experiments. While several tools exist to intersect and visualize sets of genes, similar tools dedicated to the visualization of genomic region sets are currently limited. To address this gap, we have developed the Intervene tool, which provides an easy and automated interface for the effective intersection and visualization of genomic region or list sets, thus facilitating their analysis and interpretation. Intervene contains three modules: venn to generate Venn diagrams of up to six sets, upset to generate UpSet plots of multiple sets, and pairwise to compute and visualize intersections of multiple sets as clustered heat maps. Intervene, and its interactive web ShinyApp companion, generate publication-quality figures for the interpretation of genomic region and list sets. Intervene and its web application companion provide an easy command line and an interactive web interface to compute intersections of multiple genomic and list sets. They have the capacity to plot intersections using easy-to-interpret visual approaches. Intervene is developed and designed to meet the needs of both computer scientists and biologists. The source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/intervene , with the web application available at https://asntech.shinyapps.io/intervene .

  18. Functional Brain Connectivity during Multiple Motor Imagery Tasks in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkinoos Athanasiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal communication of the central and peripheral nervous systems is compromised during spinal cord injury due to neurotrauma of ascending and descending pathways. Changes in brain organization after spinal cord injury have been associated with differences in prognosis. Changes in functional connectivity may also serve as injury biomarkers. Most studies on functional connectivity have focused on chronic complete injury or resting-state condition. In our study, ten right-handed patients with incomplete spinal cord injury and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed multiple visual motor imagery tasks of upper extremities and walking under high-resolution electroencephalography recording. Directed transfer function was used to study connectivity at the cortical source space between sensorimotor nodes. Chronic disruption of reciprocal communication in incomplete injury could result in permanent significant decrease of connectivity in a subset of the sensorimotor network, regardless of positive or negative neurological outcome. Cingulate motor areas consistently contributed the larger outflow (right and received the higher inflow (left among all nodes, across all motor imagery categories, in both groups. Injured subjects had higher outflow from left cingulate than healthy subjects and higher inflow in right cingulate than healthy subjects. Alpha networks were less dense, showing less integration and more segregation than beta networks. Spinal cord injury patients showed signs of increased local processing as adaptive mechanism. This trial is registered with NCT02443558.

  19. Brain alterations in low-frequency fluctuations across multiple bands in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Mònica; Guinea-Izquierdo, Andrés; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Segalàs, Cinto; Subirà, Marta; Real, Eva; Pujol, Jesús; Harrison, Ben J; Haro, Josep Maria; Sato, Joao R; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Cardoner, Narcís; Alonso, Pino; Menchón, José Manuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2017-12-01

    The extent of functional abnormalities in frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still unclear. Although neuroimaging studies, in general, and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI), in particular, have provided relevant information regarding such alterations, rs-fMRI studies have been typically limited to the analysis of between-region functional connectivity alterations at low-frequency signal fluctuations (i.e., <0.08 Hz). Conversely, the local attributes of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal across different frequency bands have been seldom studied, although they may provide valuable information. Here, we evaluated local alterations in low-frequency fluctuations across different oscillation bands in OCD. Sixty-five OCD patients and 50 healthy controls underwent an rs-fMRI assessment. Alterations in the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) were evaluated, voxel-wise, across four different bands (from 0.01 Hz to 0.25 Hz). OCD patients showed decreased fALFF values in medial orbitofrontal regions and increased fALFF values in the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) at frequency bands <0.08 Hz. This pattern was reversed at higher frequencies, where increased fALFF values also appeared in medial temporal lobe structures and medial thalamus. Clinical variables (i.e., symptom-specific severities) were associated with fALFF values across the different frequency bands. Our findings provide novel evidence about the nature and regional distribution of functional alterations in OCD, which should contribute to refine neurobiological models of the disorder. We suggest that the evaluation of the local attributes of BOLD signal across different frequency bands may be a sensitive approach to further characterize brain functional alterations in psychiatric disorders.

  20. Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Multiple-Frequency Bands in Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Bai, Lijun; Kuang, Hongmei; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2016-01-01

    Functional disconnectivity during the resting state has been observed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients during the acute stage. However, it remains largely unknown whether the abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands of the low-frequency oscillations (LFO). Here, we used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) to examine the amplitudes of LFO in different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; and typical: 0.01-0.08 Hz) in patients with acute mTBI. A total of 24 acute mTBI patients and 24 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in this study. In the typical band, acute mTBI patients showed lower standardized ALFF in the right middle frontal gyrus and higher standardized ALFF in the right lingual/fusiform gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus. Further analyses showed that the difference between groups was concentrated in a narrower (slow-4) frequency band. In the slow-5 band, mTBI patients only exhibited higher standardized ALFF in the occipital areas. No significant correlation between the mini-mental state examination score and the standardized ALFF value was found in any brain region in the three frequency bands. Finally, no significant interaction between frequency bands and groups was found in any brain region. We concluded that the abnormality of spontaneous brain activity in acute mTBI patients existed in the frontal lobe as well as in distributed brain regions associated with integrative, sensory, and emotional roles, and the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in different brain regions could be better detected by the slow-4 band. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of local neural psychopathology of acute mTBI. Future studies should take the frequency bands into account when measuring intrinsic brain activity of mTBI patients.

  1. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in multiple-frequency bands in acute mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eZhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional disconnectivity during the resting state has been observed in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI patients during the acute stage. However, it remains largely unknown whether the abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands of the low-frequency oscillations (LFO. Here, we used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF to examine the amplitudes of LFO in different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; and typical: 0.01–0.08 Hz in patients with acute mTBI. A total of 24 acute mTBI patients and 24 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HC participated in this study. In the typical band, acute mTBI patients showed lower standardized ALFF in the right middle frontal gyrus and higher standardized ALFF in the right lingual/fusiform gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus. Further analyses showed that the difference between groups was concentrated in a narrower (slow-4 frequency band. In the slow-5 band, mTBI patients only exhibited higher standardized ALFF in the occipital areas. No significant correlation between the MMSE score and the standardized ALFF value was found in any brain region in the three frequency bands. Finally, no significant interaction between frequency bands and groups was found in any brain region. We concluded that the abnormality of spontaneous brain activity in acute mTBI patients existed in the frontal lobe as well as in distributed brain regions associated with integrative, sensory and emotional roles, and the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in different brain regions could be better detected by the slow-4 band. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of local neural psychopathology of acute mTBI. Future studies should take the frequency bands into account when measuring intrinsic brain activity of mTBI patients.

  2. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  3. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  4. Evaluating the effect of multiple sclerosis lesions on automatic brain structure segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra González-Villà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many automatic brain structure segmentation methods have been proposed. However, these methods are commonly tested with non-lesioned brains and the effect of lesions on their performance has not been evaluated. Here, we analyze the effect of multiple sclerosis (MS lesions on three well-known automatic brain structure segmentation methods, namely, FreeSurfer, FIRST and multi-atlas fused by majority voting, which use learning-based, deformable and atlas-based strategies, respectively. To perform a quantitative analysis, 100 synthetic images of MS patients with a total of 2174 lesions are simulated on two public databases with available brain structure ground truth information (IBSR18 and MICCAI’12. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC differences and the volume differences between the healthy and the simulated images are calculated for the subcortical structures and the brainstem. We observe that the three strategies are affected when lesions are present. However, the effects of the lesions do not follow the same pattern; the lesions either make the segmentation method underperform or surprisingly augment the segmentation accuracy. The obtained results show that FreeSurfer is the method most affected by the presence of lesions, with DSC differences (generated − healthy ranging from −0.11 ± 0.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87, whereas FIRST tends to be the most robust method when lesions are present (−2.40 ± 5.54 to 0.44 ± 0.94. Lesion location is not important for global strategies such as FreeSurfer or majority voting, where structure segmentation is affected wherever the lesions exist. On the other hand, FIRST is more affected when the lesions are overlaid or close to the structure of analysis. The most affected structure by the presence of lesions is the nucleus accumbens (from −1.12 ± 2.53 to 1.32 ± 4.00 for the left hemisphere and from −2.40 ± 5.54 to 9.65 ± 9.87 for the right hemisphere, whereas the

  5. Differential effects of ethanol on regional glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter pathways in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivek; Veeraiah, Pandichelvam; Subramaniam, Vaidyanathan; Patel, Anant Bahadur

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of ethanol on neuronal and astroglial metabolism using (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with infusion of [1,6-(13)C2]/[1-(13)C]glucose or [2-(13)C]acetate, respectively. A three-compartment metabolic model was fitted to the (13)C turnover of GluC3 , GluC4, GABAC 2, GABAC 3, AspC3 , and GlnC4 from [1,6-(13)C2 ]glucose to determine the rates of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and neurotransmitter cycle associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. The ratio of neurotransmitter cycle to TCA cycle fluxes for glutamatergic and GABAegic neurons was obtained from the steady-state [2-(13)C]acetate experiment and used as constraints during the metabolic model fitting. (1)H MRS measurement suggests that depletion of ethanol from cerebral cortex follows zero order kinetics with rate 0.18 ± 0.04 μmol/g/min. Acute exposure of ethanol reduces the level of glutamate and aspartate in cortical region. GlnC4 labeling was found to be unchanged from a 15 min infusion of [2-(13)C]acetate suggesting that acute ethanol exposure does not affect astroglial metabolism in naive mice. Rates of TCA and neurotransmitter cycle associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons were found to be significantly reduced in cortical and subcortical regions. Acute exposure of ethanol perturbs the level of neurometabolites and decreases the excitatory and inhibitory activity differentially across the regions of brain. Depletion of ethanol and its effect on brain functions were measured using (1)H and (1)H-[(13)C]-NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with infusion of (13)C-labeled substrates. Ethanol depletion from brain follows zero order kinetics. Ethanol perturbs level of glutamate, and the excitatory and inhibitory activity in mice brain. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Leptin Receptor Deficiency is Associated With Upregulation of Cannabinoid 1 Receptors in Limbic Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    THANOS, PANAYOTIS K.; RAMALHETE, ROBERTO C.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; PIYIS, YIANNI K.; WANG, GENE-JACK; VOLKOW, NORA D.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin receptor dysfunction results in overeating and obesity. Leptin regulates hypothalamic signaling that underlies the motivation to hyperphagia, but the interaction between leptin and cannabinoid signaling is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1R) in overeating and the effects of food deprivation on CB1R in the brain. One-month-old Zucker rats were divided into unrestricted and restricted (fed 70% of unrestricted rats) diet groups and maintained until adulthood (4 months). Levels of relative binding sites of CB1R (CB1R binding levels) were assessed using [3H] SR141716A in vitro autoradiography. These levels were higher (except cerebellum and hypothalamus) at 4 months than at 1 month of age. One month CB1R binding levels for most brain regions did not differ between Ob and Lean (Le) rats (except in frontal and cingulate cortices in Le and in the hypothalamus in Ob). Four month Ob rats had higher CB1R binding levels than Le in most brain regions and food restriction was associated with higher CB1R levels in all brain regions in Ob, but not in Le rats. CB1R binding levels increased between adolescence and young adulthood which we believe was influenced by leptin and food availability. The high levels of CB1R in Ob rats suggest that leptin's inhibition of food-intake is in part mediated by downregulation of CB1R and that leptin interferes with CB1R upregulation under food-deprivation conditions. These results are consistent with prior findings showing increased levels of endogenous cannabinoids in the Ob rats corroborating the regulation of cannabinoid signaling by leptin. PMID:18563836

  7. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  9. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  10. Multiple cortical brain abscesses due to Listeria monocytogenes in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadia; Kumar, Anil; Kale, Satyajit; Kurkure, Nitin; Nair, Gulsiv; Dinesh, Kavitha

    2018-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular organism which is well recognised for its ability to cause meningeal infections in neonates, immunosuppressed, debilitated and elderly individuals. 1 Other less common central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Listeria spp. include rhomboencephalitis, cerebritis and abscesses in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. The neuroradiological appearance of Listeria brain abscesses is similar to other types and may also mimic primary or metastatic brain tumours. 2 , 3 We report a case of Listeria brain abscesses in a patient who was being treated for atypical parkinsonism. A good clinical outcome was achieved after appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  11. Optimization of Financial Flow Management Based on Estimates of Regional Multiplicative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Aleksandrovich Tatarkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with questions of increasing the management efficiency of the regional financial resources. As the main hypothesis, the idea of the optimization of the management of the regional financial flows based on the multiplicative economic effect is proved. This measure will allow to evaluate more efficiently the impact of the regional socio-economic policy. The article presents a multifactor model of the management of the regional financial flows on the regional level — the matrix of financial flows, based on the principles of the general economic equilibrium theory, the balance method of «input-output» and the methodology of national accounts. The paper introduces a methodology for the integration of the regional consolidated budget balance in a matrix of financial flows. Matrix multipliers of the consolidated budget balance are calculated for some regions of the Russian Federation allowing to model the economic multiplicative effects resulting from impact of different types of exogenous factors on the economic development of the regions, such as to predict the impact of fiscal redistribution on the GRP and income, to assess the impact of foreign investment on economic growth, to explore the effectiveness of the federal tax policy at the regional level. The article shows that the multiplier effect depends on several factors, including the foreign trade relations of the region, its dependence on imports, the share of value added in gross output, as well as the household savings. Various levels of government can use the author’s approach during development of strategies for socio-economic development, in assessing the extent and direction of the influence of exogenous factors on the economy of the territory, as well as in analyzing the investment initiatives from the private sector applying for state financial support for projects. In the conclusion, the ways of improving the management of financial flows on the basis of

  12. Mercury distribution and speciation in different brain regions of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, Sonja K.; Stern, Gary A.; Wang, Feiyue; Lemes, Marcos; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-01-01

    The toxicokinetics of mercury (Hg) in key species of Arctic ecosystem are poorly understood. We sampled five brain regions (frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord) from beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) harvested in 2006, 2008, and 2010 from the eastern Beaufort Sea, Canada, and measured total Hg (HgT) and total selenium (SeT) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer or cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, and the chemical forms using a high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS. At least 14% of the beluga whales had HgT concentrations higher than the levels of observable adverse effect (6.0 mg kg −1 wet weight (ww)) in primates. The concentrations of HgT differed between brain regions; median concentrations (mg kg −1 ww) were 2.34 (0.06 to 22.6, 81) (range, n) in temporal lobe, 1.84 (0.12 to 21.9, 77) in frontal lobe, 1.84 (0.05 to 16.9, 83) in cerebellum, 1.25 (0.02 to 11.1, 77) in spinal cord and 1.32 (0.13 to 15.2, 39) in brain stem. Total Hg concentrations in the cerebellum increased with age (p −1 ww) was positively associated with HgT concentration, and the percent MeHg (4 to 109%) decreased exponentially with increasing HgT concentration in the spinal cord, cerebellum, frontal lobe and temporal lobe. There was a positive association between SeT and HgT in all brain regions (p < 0.05) suggesting that Se may play a role in the detoxification of Hg in the brain. The concentration of HgT in the cerebellum was significantly associated with HgT in other organs. Therefore, HgT concentrations in organs that are frequently sampled in bio-monitoring studies could be used to estimate HgT concentrations in the cerebellum, which is the target organ of MeHg toxicity. - Highlights: • Mercury concentrations were highest in the temporal lobe of beluga whales. • Selenium and mercury concentrations were strongly correlated. • Total mercury concentrations in the cerebellum increased with

  13. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  14. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning. Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects. These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects.

  15. Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vectors for Retrograde Gene Delivery into Target Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kobayashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer through retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a substantial advantage for analyzing roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming complex neural networks. This genetic approach may also be useful in gene therapy trials by enabling delivery of transgenes into a target brain region distant from the injection site of the vectors. Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with various fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different combinations of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G enhances the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in both rodent and nonhuman primate brains. The most recently developed lentiviral vector is a pseudotype with fusion glycoprotein type E (FuG-E, which demonstrates highly efficient retrograde gene transfer in the brain. The FuG-E–pseudotyped vector permits powerful experimental strategies for more precisely investigating the mechanisms underlying various brain functions. It also contributes to the development of new gene therapy approaches for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, by delivering genes required for survival and protection into specific neuronal populations. In this review article, we report the properties of the FuG-E–pseudotyped vector, and we describe the application of the vector to neural circuit analysis and the potential use of the FuG-E vector in gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

  16. The Energy Integration Strategies in the Great Caribbean: Multiple Processes and Regional Leadership in Dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Moncada Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate, through the paradigm of the complex interdependency that the energy integration processes in the Caribbean during the 21st Century have been multiple, given the integrationist traditions and the strategic regional leadership interests displayed by Venezuela, Mexico and the United States. Therefore, gendas proposed to supply the energy demand in the region deepen the existence of hegemonic projects in dispute. In the first part, political, economic and military aspects of the integration processes in the Caribbean are defined. Then, energy agendas of the 90’s with the Hemisphere Integration Strategy are characterized. Finally, the most recent experience of CARICOM on the matter is analyzed and it is concluded that the region is going through a period of recomposition of the regional powers.

  17. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  18. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  19. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  20. Effects of feedborne fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C K; MacDonald, E J; Scheinin, M; Smith, T K

    2008-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys. The possible preventative effect of a poly-meric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Forty-five 1-d-old male turkey poults were fed wheat-, corn-, and soybean meal-based diets up to wk 6, formulated with control grains, contaminated grains, or contaminated grains + 0.2% GMA. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant, and the concentrations were 2.2 and 3.3 mg/kg of feed during starter and grower phases, respectively. Concentrations of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites were measured in discrete regions of the brain including the pons, hypothalamus, and cortex by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Neurotransmitters and metabolites analyzed included norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The concentration of 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT-ratio were significantly decreased in pons after feeding contaminated grains. Dietary supplementation with GMA prevented these effects. In the pons, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.52, P effects on the concentrations of neurotransmitters and metabolites in hypothalamus and cortex. It was concluded that consumption of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely altered the pons serotonergic system of turkeys. Supplementation with GMA partially inhibited these effects.

  1. Multiple Synchronous Central Giant Cell Granulomas of the Maxillofacial Region: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min Seok; Kim, Hak Jin

    2010-01-01

    Multifocal central giant cell granulomas (CGCG) in the maxillofacial region are suggestive of systemic disease such as hyperparathyroidism or an inherited syndrome such as Noonan-like multiple giant cell lesion syndrome. Only 5 cases of multifocal CGCGs in the maxillofacial region without any concomitant systemic disease have currently been reported. We report here on an unusual case of 17-year-old man who presented with multifocal CGCGs of the bilateral posterior mandible and right maxilla and he was without any concomitant systemic disease

  2. Multiple Synchronous Central Giant Cell Granulomas of the Maxillofacial Region: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Min Seok; Kim, Hak Jin [Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Multifocal central giant cell granulomas (CGCG) in the maxillofacial region are suggestive of systemic disease such as hyperparathyroidism or an inherited syndrome such as Noonan-like multiple giant cell lesion syndrome. Only 5 cases of multifocal CGCGs in the maxillofacial region without any concomitant systemic disease have currently been reported. We report here on an unusual case of 17-year-old man who presented with multifocal CGCGs of the bilateral posterior mandible and right maxilla and he was without any concomitant systemic disease

  3. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  4. Regional distribution of TL-201 in the brain and spinal cord after injection into the cerebrospinal fluid: Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.; Rubertone, J.; Vincent, S.; Brady, L.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Radiotracers are typically employed to evaluate the brain ventricular space; however, there are no agents designed to be taken up into specific neuronal regions after injection into the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). The authors report studies in which T1-201 was stereotaxically administered into the lateral or fourth ventricles of Sprague-Dawley rats. Brains were removed (n = 42) 2-6 hours after injection and sectioned for apposition to autoradiographic film. Specific uptake was observed in active neurons of the diencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal gray matter. Astrocytoma cell implants into the caudate nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats induced histologically confirmed brain tumors (n = 5). Significant localization of T1-201 was observed in the tumor 4 hours after injection into the lateral ventricle. These findings suggest that T1-201 may be useful for delineating specific neuronal function via CSF circulation and for imaging actively growing brain tumors

  5. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  6. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  7. A Novel Histogram Region Merging Based Multithreshold Segmentation Algorithm for MR Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multithreshold segmentation algorithm is time-consuming, and the time complexity will increase exponentially with the increase of thresholds. In order to reduce the time complexity, a novel multithreshold segmentation algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, all gray levels are used as thresholds, so the histogram of the original image is divided into 256 small regions, and each region corresponds to one gray level. Then, two adjacent regions are merged in each iteration by a new designed scheme, and a threshold is removed each time. To improve the accuracy of the merger operation, variance and probability are used as energy. No matter how many the thresholds are, the time complexity of the algorithm is stable at O(L. Finally, the experiment is conducted on many MR brain images to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Experiment results show that our method can reduce the running time effectively and obtain segmentation results with high accuracy.

  8. Assessment of regional glucose metabolism in aging brain and dementia with positron-emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.; Ferris, S.; Christman, D.; Fowler, J.; MacGregor, R.; Farkas, T.; Greenberg, J.; Dann, R.; Wolf, A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the alterations in regional glucose metabolism that occur in elderly subjects and those with senile dementia compared to normal young volunteers. Results showed a tendency for the frontal regions to