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Sample records for multiple bioprocess analytes

  1. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  2. Trends in Process Analytical Technology: Present State in Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenzsch, Marco; Bell, Christian; Buziol, Stefan; Kepert, Felix; Wegele, Harald; Hakemeyer, Christian

    2017-08-04

    Process analytical technology (PAT), the regulatory initiative for incorporating quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing, is an area of intense research and interest. If PAT is effectively applied to bioprocesses, this can increase process understanding and control, and mitigate the risk from substandard drug products to both manufacturer and patient. To optimize the benefits of PAT, the entire PAT framework must be considered and each elements of PAT must be carefully selected, including sensor and analytical technology, data analysis techniques, control strategies and algorithms, and process optimization routines. This chapter discusses the current state of PAT in the biopharmaceutical industry, including several case studies demonstrating the degree of maturity of various PAT tools. Graphical Abstract Hierarchy of QbD components.

  3. Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A; Cuellar, Maryann; Uerpmann, Carsten; Lenain, Bruno; Lewis, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of Quality by Design (QbD) principles, regulatory support of QbD, process analytical technology (PAT), and continuous manufacturing are major factors effecting new approaches to pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing. In this review, we highlight new technology developments, data analysis models, and applications of Raman spectroscopy, which have expanded the scope of Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology. Emerging technologies such as transmission and enhanced reflection Raman, and new approaches to using available technologies, expand the scope of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical manufacturing, and now Raman spectroscopy is successfully integrated into real-time release testing, continuous manufacturing, and statistical process control. Since the last major review of Raman as a pharmaceutical PAT in 2010, many new Raman applications in bioprocessing have emerged. Exciting reports of in situ Raman spectroscopy in bioprocesses complement a growing scientific field of biological and biomedical Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy has made a positive impact as a process analytical and control tool for pharmaceutical manufacturing and bioprocessing, with demonstrated scientific and financial benefits throughout a product's lifecycle.

  4. Capacity Planning for Batch and Perfusion Bioprocesses Across Multiple Biopharmaceutical Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Siganporia, Cyrus C; Ghosh, Soumitra; Daszkowski, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    Production planning for biopharmaceutical portfolios becomes more complex when products switch between fed-batch and continuous perfusion culture processes. This article describes the development of a discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize capacity plans for multiple biopharmaceutical products, with either batch or perfusion bioprocesses, across multiple facilities to meet quarterly demands. The model comprised specific features to account for products with fe...

  5. Influence of multiple bioprocess parameters on production of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BWS-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwinder Singh Sooch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the influence of multiple bioprocess parameters for the maximum production of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BWS-5. The culture reached the stationary phase of growth after 36h of incubation when the maximum lipase production was obtained at flask level. The different media components such as carbon sources, nitrogen sources, trace elements and process parameters such as the pH of the medium, temperature and time of incubation, agitation/stationary conditions, etc. were optimized at flask level and at bioreactor level. The maximum enzyme production of 298 IU/mL was obtained with the use of simple medium with pH 6.5 containing glucose (1 %, w/v, peptone (3 %, w/v and KCl (0.05 %, w/v after 30h of incubation at 37°C under agitation (200 rpm conditions with 0.75 vvm of air supply.

  6. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Biziato, Daniela; Hassan, Enas; Marshall, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible to have immediate

  7. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Biziato, Daniela; Hassan, Enas; Marshall, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible to have immediate

  8. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Olivier Baradez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible

  9. Capacity Planning for Batch and Perfusion Bioprocesses Across Multiple Biopharmaceutical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siganporia, Cyrus C; Ghosh, Soumitra; Daszkowski, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    Production planning for biopharmaceutical portfolios becomes more complex when products switch between fed-batch and continuous perfusion culture processes. This article describes the development of a discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize capacity plans for multiple biopharmaceutical products, with either batch or perfusion bioprocesses, across multiple facilities to meet quarterly demands. The model comprised specific features to account for products with fed-batch or perfusion culture processes such as sequence-dependent changeover times, continuous culture constraints, and decoupled upstream and downstream operations that permit independent scheduling of each. Strategic inventory levels were accounted for by applying cost penalties when they were not met. A rolling time horizon methodology was utilized in conjunction with the MILP model and was shown to obtain solutions with greater optimality in less computational time than the full-scale model. The model was applied to an industrial case study to illustrate how the framework aids decisions regarding outsourcing capacity to third party manufacturers or building new facilities. The impact of variations on key parameters such as demand or titres on the optimal production plans and costs was captured. The analysis identified the critical ratio of in-house to contract manufacturing organization (CMO) manufacturing costs that led the optimization results to favor building a future facility over using a CMO. The tool predicted that if titres were higher than expected then the optimal solution would allocate more production to in-house facilities, where manufacturing costs were lower. Utilization graphs indicated when capacity expansion should be considered. © 2013 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:594–606, 2014 PMID:24376262

  10. Capacity planning for batch and perfusion bioprocesses across multiple biopharmaceutical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siganporia, Cyrus C; Ghosh, Soumitra; Daszkowski, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    Production planning for biopharmaceutical portfolios becomes more complex when products switch between fed-batch and continuous perfusion culture processes. This article describes the development of a discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize capacity plans for multiple biopharmaceutical products, with either batch or perfusion bioprocesses, across multiple facilities to meet quarterly demands. The model comprised specific features to account for products with fed-batch or perfusion culture processes such as sequence-dependent changeover times, continuous culture constraints, and decoupled upstream and downstream operations that permit independent scheduling of each. Strategic inventory levels were accounted for by applying cost penalties when they were not met. A rolling time horizon methodology was utilized in conjunction with the MILP model and was shown to obtain solutions with greater optimality in less computational time than the full-scale model. The model was applied to an industrial case study to illustrate how the framework aids decisions regarding outsourcing capacity to third party manufacturers or building new facilities. The impact of variations on key parameters such as demand or titres on the optimal production plans and costs was captured. The analysis identified the critical ratio of in-house to contract manufacturing organization (CMO) manufacturing costs that led the optimization results to favor building a future facility over using a CMO. The tool predicted that if titres were higher than expected then the optimal solution would allocate more production to in-house facilities, where manufacturing costs were lower. Utilization graphs indicated when capacity expansion should be considered. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner's 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as…

  12. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences Through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha PERVEEN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and

  13. [Progress in industrial bioprocess engineering in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yingping; Chen, Hongzhang; Xia, Jianye; Tang, Wenjun; Zhao, Zhimin

    2015-06-01

    The advances of industrial biotechnology highly depend on the development of industrial bioprocess researches. In China, we are facing several challenges because of a huge national industrial fermentation capacity. The industrial bioprocess development experienced several main stages. This work mainly reviews the development of the industrial bioprocess in China during the past 30 or 40 years: including the early stage kinetics model study derived from classical chemical engineering, researching method based on control theory, multiple-parameter analysis techniques of on-line measuring instruments and techniques, and multi-scale analysis theory, and also solid state fermentation techniques and fermenters. In addition, the cutting edge of bioprocess engineering was also addressed.

  14. Multiple reaction monitoring targeted LC-MS analysis of potential cell death marker proteins for increased bioprocess control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simone; Kaisermayer, Christian; Reinhart, David; Ambrose, Monica; Kunert, Renate; Lindeberg, Anna; Bones, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    The monitoring of protein biomarkers for the early prediction of cell stress and death is a valuable tool for process characterization and efficient biomanufacturing control. A representative set of six proteins, namely GPDH, PRDX1, LGALS1, CFL1, TAGLN2 and MDH, which were identified in a previous CHO-K1 cell death model using discovery LC-MS E was translated into a targeted liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS) platform and verified. The universality of the markers was confirmed in a cell growth model for which three Chinese hamster ovary host cell lines (CHO-K1, CHO-S, CHO-DG44) were grown in batch culture in two different types of basal media. LC-MRM-MS was also applied to spent media (n = 39) from four perfusion biomanufacturing series. Stable isotope-labelled peptide analogues and a stable isotope-labelled monoclonal antibody were used for improved protein quantitation and simultaneous monitoring of the workflow reproducibility. Significant increases in protein concentrations were observed for all viability marker proteins upon increased dead cell numbers and allowed for discrimination of spent media with dead cell densities below and above 1 × 10 6  dead cells/mL which highlights the potential of the selected viability marker proteins in bioprocess control. Graphical abstract Overview of the LC-MRM-MS workflow for the determination of proteomic markers in conditioned media from the bioreactor that correlate with CHO cell death.

  15. On-Line Ion Exchange Liquid Chromatography as a Process Analytical Technology for Monoclonal Antibody Characterization in Continuous Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhumit A; Pinto, Nuno D S; Gospodarek, Adrian; Kilgore, Bruce; Goswami, Kudrat; Napoli, William N; Desai, Jayesh; Heo, Jun H; Panzera, Dominick; Pollard, David; Richardson, Daisy; Brower, Mark; Richardson, Douglas D

    2017-11-07

    Combining process analytical technology (PAT) with continuous production provides a powerful tool to observe and control monoclonal antibody (mAb) fermentation and purification processes. This work demonstrates on-line liquid chromatography (on-line LC) as a PAT tool for monitoring a continuous biologics process and forced degradation studies. Specifically, this work focused on ion exchange chromatography (IEX), which is a critical separation technique to detect charge variants. Product-related impurities, including charge variants, that impact function are classified as critical quality attributes (CQAs). First, we confirmed no significant differences were observed in the charge heterogeneity profile of a mAb through both at-line and on-line sampling and that the on-line method has the ability to rapidly detect changes in protein quality over time. The robustness and versatility of the PAT methods were tested by sampling from two purification locations in a continuous mAb process. The PAT IEX methods used with on-line LC were a weak cation exchange (WCX) separation and a newly developed shorter strong cation exchange (SCX) assay. Both methods provided similar results with the distribution of percent acidic, main, and basic species remaining unchanged over a 2 week period. Second, a forced degradation study showed an increase in acidic species and a decrease in basic species when sampled on-line over 7 days. These applications further strengthen the use of on-line LC to monitor CQAs of a mAb continuously with various PAT IEX analytical methods. Implementation of on-line IEX will enable faster decision making during process development and could potentially be applied to control in biomanufacturing.

  16. On-line bioprocess monitoring - an academic discipline or an industrial tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Schulze, Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    Bioprocess monitoring capabilities are gaining increasing Importance bath in physiological studies and in bioprocess development, The present article focuses on on-line analytical systems since these represent the backbone of most bioprocess monitoring systems, both in academia and in industry. W...

  17. Analytical properties of multiple production amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1984-05-01

    Local analytical properties of amplitudes 2..-->..3 and 2..-->..4 are studied. The amplitudes are shown to be analytical functions of total and partial energies at fixed momentum transfers in the neighbourhood of any physical point on the energy shell 14 (for the 2..-->..3 case) and 242 (for the 2..-->..4 case) boundary values are expressed through the amplitudes of real processes.

  18. Control of Bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of bioprocess control is to ensure that the plant operates as designed. This chapter presents the fundamental principles for control of biochemical processes. Through examples, the selection of manipulated and controlled variables in the classical reactor configurations is discussed, so...... are control objectives and the challenges in obtaining good control of the bioreactor. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the bioreactor control problems and to highlight some general traits that distinguish operation of bioprocesses from operation of processes in the conventional chemical process...... industries. It also provides a number of typical control loops for different objectives. A brief introduction to the general principles of process control, the PID control algorithm is discussed, and the design and effect of tuning are shown in an example. Finally, a discussion of novel, model-free control...

  19. On-line soft sensing in upstream bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randek, Judit; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2018-02-01

    This review provides an overview and a critical discussion of novel possibilities of applying soft sensors for on-line monitoring and control of industrial bioprocesses. Focus is on bio-product formation in the upstream process but also the integration with other parts of the process is addressed. The term soft sensor is used for the combination of analytical hardware data (from sensors, analytical devices, instruments and actuators) with mathematical models that create new real-time information about the process. In particular, the review assesses these possibilities from an industrial perspective, including sensor performance, information value and production economy. The capabilities of existing analytical on-line techniques are scrutinized in view of their usefulness in soft sensor setups and in relation to typical needs in bioprocessing in general. The review concludes with specific recommendations for further development of soft sensors for the monitoring and control of upstream bioprocessing.

  20. Disposable bioprocessing: the future has arrived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Govind; Moreira, Antonio; Brorson, Kurt

    2009-02-01

    Increasing cost pressures are driving the rapid adoption of disposables in bioprocessing. While well ensconced in lab-scale operations, the lower operating/ validation costs at larger scale and relative ease of use are leading to these systems entering all stages and operations of a typical biopharmaceutical manufacturing process. Here, we focus on progress made in the incorporation of disposable equipment with sensor technology in bioprocessing throughout the development cycle. We note that sensor patch technology is mostly being adapted to disposable cell culture devices, but future adaptation to downstream steps is conceivable. Lastly, regulatory requirements are also briefly assessed in the context of disposables and the Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives.

  1. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  2. Bioprocessing research for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Gaden, E.L. Jr.; Humphrey, A.E.; Carta, G.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    The new biotechnology that is emerging could have a major impact on many of the industries important to our country, especially those associated with energy production and conservation. Advances in bioprocessing systems will provide important alternatives for the future utilization of various energy resources and for the control of environmental hazards that can result from energy generation. Although research in the fundamental biological sciences has helped set the scene for a ''new biotechnology,'' the major impediment to rapid commercialization for energy applications is the lack of a firm understanding of the necessary engineering concepts. Engineering research is now the essential ''bridge'' that will allow the development of a wide range of energy-related bioprocessing systems. A workshop entitled ''Bioprocessing Research for Energy Applications'' was held to address this technological area, to define the engineering research needs, and to identify those opportunities which would encourage rapid implementation of advanced bioprocessing concepts.

  3. Nanobiocatalyst advancements and bioprocessing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Mailin; Zhang, Hu; Jin, Bo

    2015-01-06

    The nanobiocatalyst (NBC) is an emerging innovation that synergistically integrates advanced nanotechnology with biotechnology and promises exciting advantages for improving enzyme activity, stability, capability and engineering performances in bioprocessing applications. NBCs are fabricated by immobilizing enzymes with functional nanomaterials as enzyme carriers or containers. In this paper, we review the recent developments of novel nanocarriers/nanocontainers with advanced hierarchical porous structures for retaining enzymes, such as nanofibres (NFs), mesoporous nanocarriers and nanocages. Strategies for immobilizing enzymes onto nanocarriers made from polymers, silicas, carbons and metals by physical adsorption, covalent binding, cross-linking or specific ligand spacers are discussed. The resulting NBCs are critically evaluated in terms of their bioprocessing performances. Excellent performances are demonstrated through enhanced NBC catalytic activity and stability due to conformational changes upon immobilization and localized nanoenvironments, and NBC reutilization by assembling magnetic nanoparticles into NBCs to defray the high operational costs associated with enzyme production and nanocarrier synthesis. We also highlight several challenges associated with the NBC-driven bioprocess applications, including the maturation of large-scale nanocarrier synthesis, design and development of bioreactors to accommodate NBCs, and long-term operations of NBCs. We suggest these challenges are to be addressed through joint collaboration of chemists, engineers and material scientists. Finally, we have demonstrated the great potential of NBCs in manufacturing bioprocesses in the near future through successful laboratory trials of NBCs in carbohydrate hydrolysis, biofuel production and biotransformation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspects of modelling and control of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiachang

    1996-12-31

    The modelling and control of bioprocesses are the main subjects in this thesis. Different modelling approaches are proposed for different purposes in various bioprocesses. A conventional global model was constructed for a very complex mammalian cell culture process. A new concept of functional state and a multiple model (local models) approach were used for modelling the fed-batch baker`s yeast process for monitoring and control purposes. Finally, a combination of conventional electrical and biological models was used to simulate and to control a microbial fuel cell process. In the thesis, a yeast growth process was taken as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of the functional state concept and local models. The functional states were first defined according to the yeast metabolism. The process was then described by a set of simple local models. In different functional states, different local models were used. On the other hand, the on-line estimation of functional state and biomass of the process was discussed for process control purpose. As a consequence, both the functional state concept and the multiple model approach were applied for fuzzy logic control of yeast growth process. A fuzzy factor was calculated on the basis of a knowledge-based expert system and fuzzy logic rules. The factor was used to correct an ideal substrate feed rate. In the last part of the thesis, microbial fuel cell processes were studied. A microbial fuel cell is a device for direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by using micro-organisms as catalysts. A combined model including conventional electrical and biological models was constructed for the process based on the biological and electrochemical phenomena

  5. Aspects of modelling and control of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiachang

    1995-12-31

    The modelling and control of bioprocesses are the main subjects in this thesis. Different modelling approaches are proposed for different purposes in various bioprocesses. A conventional global model was constructed for a very complex mammalian cell culture process. A new concept of functional state and a multiple model (local models) approach were used for modelling the fed-batch baker`s yeast process for monitoring and control purposes. Finally, a combination of conventional electrical and biological models was used to simulate and to control a microbial fuel cell process. In the thesis, a yeast growth process was taken as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of the functional state concept and local models. The functional states were first defined according to the yeast metabolism. The process was then described by a set of simple local models. In different functional states, different local models were used. On the other hand, the on-line estimation of functional state and biomass of the process was discussed for process control purpose. As a consequence, both the functional state concept and the multiple model approach were applied for fuzzy logic control of yeast growth process. A fuzzy factor was calculated on the basis of a knowledge-based expert system and fuzzy logic rules. The factor was used to correct an ideal substrate feed rate. In the last part of the thesis, microbial fuel cell processes were studied. A microbial fuel cell is a device for direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by using micro-organisms as catalysts. A combined model including conventional electrical and biological models was constructed for the process based on the biological and electrochemical phenomena

  6. Comparative analytics of infusion pump data across multiple hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Ann Christine; Malloy, William X; Arthur, Karen J; Gaston, Cindy; Young, James; Fernando, Sudheera; Fernando, Ruchith

    2015-02-15

    A Web-based analytics system for conducting inhouse evaluations and cross-facility comparisons of alert data generated by smart infusion pumps is described. The Infusion Pump Informatics (IPI) project, a collaborative effort led by research scientists at Purdue University, was launched in 2009 to provide advanced analytics and tools for workflow analyses to assist hospitals in determining the significance of smart-pump alerts and reducing nuisance alerts. The IPI system allows facility-specific analyses of alert patterns and trends, as well as cross-facility comparisons of alert data uploaded by more than 55 participating institutions using different types of smart pumps. Tools accessible through the IPI portal include (1) charts displaying aggregated or breakout data on the top drugs associated with alerts, numbers of alerts per device or care area, and override-to-alert ratios, (2) investigative reports that can be used to characterize and analyze pump-programming errors in a variety of ways (e.g., by drug, by infusion type, by time of day), and (3) "drill-down" workflow analytics enabling users to evaluate alert patterns—both internally and in relation to patterns at other hospitals—in a quick and efficient stepwise fashion. The formation of the IPI analytics system to support a community of hospitals has been successful in providing sophisticated tools for member facilities to review, investigate, and efficiently analyze smart-pump alert data, not only within a member facility but also across other member facilities, to further enhance smart pump drug library design. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a Continuous Bioprocessing Approach to Stromal Cell Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Martina; Gouveia, Ricardo; Abidin, Fadhilah Zainal; Figueiredo, Francisco; Connon, Che J

    2017-11-29

    To this day, the concept of continuous bioprocessing has been applied mostly to the manufacture of molecular biologics such as proteins, growth factors, and secondary metabolites with biopharmaceutical uses. The present work now sets to explore the potential application of continuous bioprocess methods to source large numbers of human adherent cells with potential therapeutic value. To this purpose, we developed a smart multifunctional surface coating capable of controlling the attachment, proliferation, and subsequent self-detachment of human corneal stromal cells. This system allowed the maintenance of cell cultures under steady-state growth conditions, where self-detaching cells were continuously replenished by the proliferation of those remaining attached. This facilitated a closed, continuous bioprocessing platform with recovery of approximately 1% of the total adherent cells per hour, a yield rate that was maintained for 1 month. Moreover, both attached and self-detached cells were shown to retain their original phenotype. Together, these results represent the proof-of-concept for a new high-throughput, high-standard, and low-cost biomanufacturing strategy with multiple potentials and important downstream applications.

  8. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Guiding bioprocess design by microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Jan; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Industrial bioprocess development is driven by profitability and eco-efficiency. It profits from an early stage definition of process and biocatalyst design objectives. Microbial bioprocess environments can be considered as synthetic technical microbial ecosystems. Natural systems follow Darwinian evolution principles aiming at survival and reproduction. Technical systems objectives are eco-efficiency, productivity, and profitable production. Deciphering technical microbial ecology reveals differences and similarities of natural and technical systems objectives, which are discussed in this review in view of biocatalyst and process design and engineering strategies. Strategies for handling opposing objectives of natural and technical systems and for exploiting and engineering natural properties of microorganisms for technical systems are reviewed based on examples. This illustrates the relevance of considering microbial ecology for bioprocess design and the potential for exploitation by synthetic biology strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Miniature Bioprocess Array: A Platform for Quantitative Physiology and Bioprocess Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keasling, Jay

    2002-01-01

    .... The miniature bioprocess array is based on an array of 150-microliters wells, each one of which incorporates MEMS for the closed-loop control of cell culture parameters such as temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen...

  11. On the nonlinear dynamics of trolling-mode AFM: Analytical solution using multiple time scales method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-06-01

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has resolved many imaging problems by a considerable reduction of the liquid-resonator interaction forces in liquid environments. The present study develops a nonlinear model of the meniscus force exerted to the nanoneedle of TR-AFM and presents an analytical solution to the distributed-parameter model of TR-AFM resonator utilizing multiple time scales (MTS) method. Based on the developed analytical solution, the frequency-response curves of the resonator operation in air and liquid (for different penetration length of the nanoneedle) are obtained. The closed-form analytical solution and the frequency-response curves are validated by the comparison with both the finite element solution of the main partial differential equations and the experimental observations. The effect of excitation angle of the resonator on horizontal oscillation of the probe tip and the effect of different parameters on the frequency-response of the system are investigated.

  12. Aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL; Liu, Juewen [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-11-15

    The present invention provides aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneously determining the presence and optionally the concentration of multiple analytes in a sample. Methods of utilizing the system and kits that include the sensor components are also provided. The system includes a first reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a first analyte; a second reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a second analyte; a third polynucleotide; a fourth polynucleotide; a first particle, coupled to the third polynucleotide; a second particle, coupled to the fourth polynucleotide; and at least one quencher, for quenching emissions of the first and second quantum dots, coupled to the first and second reactive polynucleotides. The first particle includes a quantum dot having a first emission wavelength. The second particle includes a second quantum dot having a second emission wavelength different from the first emission wavelength. The third polynucleotide and the fourth polynucleotide are different.

  13. Multiple Solutions of Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Order: A New Analytic Iterative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abu Arqub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new kind of analytical method, the so-called residual power series, to predict and represent the multiplicity of solutions to nonlinear boundary value problems of fractional order. The present method is capable of calculating all branches of solutions simultaneously, even if these multiple solutions are very close and thus rather difficult to distinguish even by numerical techniques. To verify the computational efficiency of the designed proposed technique, two nonlinear models are performed, one of them arises in mixed convection flows and the other one arises in heat transfer, which both admit multiple solutions. The results reveal that the method is very effective, straightforward, and powerful for formulating these multiple solutions.

  14. Analytical multiple scattering correction to the Mie theory: Application to the analysis of the lidar signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesia, C.; Schwendimann, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of the multiple scattering to the lidar signal is dependent on the optical depth tau. Therefore, the radar analysis, based on the assumption that the multiple scattering can be neglected is limited to cases characterized by low values of the optical depth (tau less than or equal to 0.1) and hence it exclude scattering from most clouds. Moreover, all inversion methods relating lidar signal to number densities and particle size must be modified since the multiple scattering affects the direct analysis. The essential requests of a realistic model for lidar measurements which include the multiple scattering and which can be applied to practical situations follow. (1) Requested are not only a correction term or a rough approximation describing results of a certain experiment, but a general theory of multiple scattering tying together the relevant physical parameter we seek to measure. (2) An analytical generalization of the lidar equation which can be applied in the case of a realistic aerosol is requested. A pure analytical formulation is important in order to avoid the convergency and stability problems which, in the case of numerical approach, are due to the large number of events that have to be taken into account in the presence of large depth and/or a strong experimental noise.

  15. XCluSim: a visual analytics tool for interactively comparing multiple clustering results of bioinformatics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Though cluster analysis has become a routine analytic task for bioinformatics research, it is still arduous for researchers to assess the quality of a clustering result. To select the best clustering method and its parameters for a dataset, researchers have to run multiple clustering algorithms and compare them. However, such a comparison task with multiple clustering results is cognitively demanding and laborious. Results In this paper, we present XCluSim, a visual analytics tool that enables users to interactively compare multiple clustering results based on the Visual Information Seeking Mantra. We build a taxonomy for categorizing existing techniques of clustering results visualization in terms of the Gestalt principles of grouping. Using the taxonomy, we choose the most appropriate interactive visualizations for presenting individual clustering results from different types of clustering algorithms. The efficacy of XCluSim is shown through case studies with a bioinformatician. Conclusions Compared to other relevant tools, XCluSim enables users to compare multiple clustering results in a more scalable manner. Moreover, XCluSim supports diverse clustering algorithms and dedicated visualizations and interactions for different types of clustering results, allowing more effective exploration of details on demand. Through case studies with a bioinformatics researcher, we received positive feedback on the functionalities of XCluSim, including its ability to help identify stably clustered items across multiple clustering results. PMID:26328893

  16. Analytic Methods for Evaluating Patterns of Multiple Congenital Anomalies in Birth Defect Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Evans, Jane A; Lupo, Philip J

    2018-01-15

    It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs. This article reviews the literature with regard to analytic methods that have been used to evaluate patterns of MCAs, in particular those using birth defect registry data. A popular method for MCA assessment involves a comparison of the observed to expected ratio for a given combination of MCAs, or one of several modified versions of this comparison. Other methods include use of numerical taxonomy or other clustering techniques, multiple regression analysis, and log-linear analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, as well as specific applications, were outlined. Despite the availability of multiple analytic approaches, relatively few MCA combinations have been assessed. The availability of large birth defects registries and computing resources that allow for automated, big data strategies for prioritizing MCA patterns may provide for new avenues for better understanding co-occurrence of birth defects. Thus, the selection of an analytic approach may depend on several considerations. Birth Defects Research 110:5-11, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analytical characterization of high-level mixed wastes using multiple sample preparation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.G.; Baldwin, D.L.; Urie, M.W.; McKinley, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, is actively involved in performing analytical characterization of high-level mixed waste from Hanford's single shell and double shell tank characterization programs. A full suite of analyses is typically performed on homogenized tank core samples. These analytical techniques include inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, total organic carbon methods and radiochemistry methods, as well as many others, all requiring some type of remote sample-preparation treatment to solubilize the tank sludge material for analysis. Most of these analytical methods typically use a single sample-preparation treatment, inherently providing elemental information only. To better understand and interpret tank chemistry and assist in identifying chemical compounds, selected analytical methods are performed using multiple sample-preparation treatments. The sample preparation treatments used at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for this work with high-level mixed waste include caustic fusion, acid digestion, and water leach. The type of information available by comparing results from different sample-prep treatments includes evidence for the presence of refractory compounds, acid-soluble compounds, or water-soluble compounds. Problems unique to the analysis of Hanford tank wastes are discussed. Selected results from the Hanford single shell ferrocyanide tank, 241-C-109, are presented, and the resulting conclusions are discussed

  18. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  19. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Mark R; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Cha, Jae Min; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C L; Ma, Chi Yip Joan; Polak, Julia M; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2009-03-06

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications.

  20. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Finney, R. [Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  1. Electromagnetic imaging of multiple-scattering small objects: non-iterative analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X; Zhong, Y

    2008-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method and the least squares method are applied to solve the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem of determining the locations and polarization tensors of a collection of small objects embedded in a known background medium. Based on the analysis of induced electric and magnetic dipoles, the proposed MUSIC method is able to deal with some special scenarios, due to the shapes and materials of objects, to which the standard MUSIC doesn't apply. After the locations of objects are obtained, the nonlinear inverse problem of determining the polarization tensors of objects accounting for multiple scattering between objects is solved by a non-iterative analytical approach based on the least squares method

  2. On Thermally Interacting Multiple Boreholes with Variable Heating Strength: Comparison between Analytical and Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature response in the soil surrounding multiple boreholes is evaluated analytically and numerically. The assumption of constant heat flux along the borehole wall is examined by coupling the problem to the heat transfer problem inside the borehole and presenting a model with variable heat flux along the borehole length. In the analytical approach, a line source of heat with a finite length is used to model the conduction of heat in the soil surrounding the boreholes. In the numerical method, a finite volume method in a three dimensional meshed domain is used. In order to determine the heat flux boundary condition, the analytical quasi-three-dimensional solution to the heat transfer problem of the U-tube configuration inside the borehole is used. This solution takes into account the variation in heating strength along the borehole length due to the temperature variation of the fluid running in the U-tube. Thus, critical depths at which thermal interaction occurs can be determined. Finally, in order to examine the validity of the numerical method, a comparison is made with the results of line source method.

  3. Automated measurement and monitoring of bioprocesses: key elements of the M(3)C strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-routine monitoring items established in the bioprocess industry as well as some important state-of-the-art methods are briefly described and the potential pitfalls discussed. Among those are physical and chemical variables such as temperature, pressure, weight, volume, mass and volumetric flow rates, pH, redox potential, gas partial pressures in the liquid and molar fractions in the gas phase, infrared spectral analysis of the liquid phase, and calorimetry over an entire reactor. Classical as well as new optical versions are addressed. Biomass and bio-activity monitoring (as opposed to "measurement") via turbidity, permittivity, in situ microscopy, and fluorescence are critically analyzed. Some new(er) instrumental analytical tools, interfaced to bioprocesses, are explained. Among those are chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry, flow and sequential injection analyses, field flow fractionation, capillary electrophoresis, and flow cytometry. This chapter surveys the principles of monitoring rather than compiling instruments.

  4. Sense and sensitivity in bioprocessing-detecting cellular metabolites with biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda; Polizzi, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    Biosensors use biological elements to detect or quantify an analyte of interest. In bioprocessing, biosensors are employed to monitor key metabolites. There are two main types: fully biological systems or biological recognition coupled with physical/chemical detection. New developments in chemical biosensors include multiplexed detection using microfluidics. Synthetic biology can be used to engineer new biological biosensors with improved characteristics. Although there have been few biosensors developed for bioprocessing thus far, emerging trends can be applied in the future. A range of new platform technologies will enable rapid engineering of new biosensors based on transcriptional activation, riboswitches, and Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. However, translation to industry remains a challenge and more research into the robustness biosensors at scale is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  6. Bioprocessing of ores: Application to space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Karl R.

    1992-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in the oxidation and leaching of various ores (especially those of copper, iron, and uranium) is well known. This role is increasingly being applied by the mining, metallurgy, and sewage industries in the bioconcentration of metal ions from natural receiving waters and from waste waters. It is concluded that bioprocessing using bacteria in closed reactors may be a variable option for the recovery of metals from the lunar regolith. Obviously, considerable research must be done to define the process, specify the appropriate bacteria, determine the necessary conditions and limitations, and evaluate the overall feasibility.

  7. Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, J. William

    1999-01-01

    Gluon jets are identified in e + e - hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP

  8. Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, J. William

    1999-03-01

    Gluon jets are identified in e{sup +}e{sup -} hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP.

  9. Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, J.W. [California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1999-03-01

    Gluon jets are identified in e{sup +}e{sup -} hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP. (orig.) 6 refs.

  10. Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and tests of QCD analytic predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    OPAL Collaboration; Ackerstaff, K.; et al.

    Gluon jets are identified in e+e^- hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The charged particle multiplicity distribution of the gluon jets is presented, and is analyzed for its mean, dispersion, skew, and curtosis values, and for its factorial and cumulant moments. The results are compared to the analogous results found for a sample of light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. We observe differences between the mean, skew and curtosis values of gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant moment results are compared to the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the data compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets.

  11. Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Gluon jets are identified in e + e - hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP. (orig.)

  12. Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, J. William

    1999-03-01

    Gluon jets are identified in e +e - hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon hets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP.

  13. Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and tests of QCD analytic predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    Gluon jets are identified in e+e- hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The charged particle multiplicity distribution of the gluon jets is presented, and is analyzed for its mean, dispersion, skew, and curtosis values, and for its factorial and cumulant moments. The results are compared to the analogous results found for a sample of light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. We observe differences between the mean, skew and curtosis values of gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant moment results are compared to the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observe...

  14. Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction: an analytical EAP reconstruction using multiple shell acquisitions in diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinbor, Ameer Pasha; Chung, Moo K; Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the ensemble average propagator (EAP) directly from q-space DWI signals is an open problem in diffusion MRI. Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is one common technique to compute the EAP directly from the diffusion signal, but it is burdened by the large sampling required. Recently, several analytical EAP reconstruction schemes for multiple q-shell acquisitions have been proposed. One, in particular, is Diffusion Propagator Imaging (DPI) which is based on the Laplace's equation estimation of diffusion signal for each shell acquisition. Viewed intuitively in terms of the heat equation, the DPI solution is obtained when the heat distribution between temperatuere measurements at each shell is at steady state. We propose a generalized extension of DPI, Bessel Fourier Orientation Reconstruction (BFOR), whose solution is based on heat equation estimation of the diffusion signal for each shell acquisition. That is, the heat distribution between shell measurements is no longer at steady state. In addition to being analytical, the BFOR solution also includes an intrinsic exponential smootheing term. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by showing results on both synthetic and real MR datasets.

  15. Modeling and simulation of the bioprocess with recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žerajić Stanko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioprocess models with recirculation present an integration of the model of continuous bioreaction system and the model of separation system. The reaction bioprocess is integrated with separation the biomass, formed product, no consumed substrate or inhibitory substance. In this paper the simulation model of recirculation bioprocess was developed, which may be applied for increasing the biomass productivity and product biosynthesis increasing the conversion of a substrate-to-product, mixing efficiency and secondary C02 separation. The goal of the work is optimal bioprocess configuration, which is determined by simulation optimization. The optimal hemostat state was used as referent. Step-by-step simulation method is necessary because the initial bioprocess state is changing with recirculation in each step. The simulation experiment confirms that at the recirculation ratio a. = 0.275 and the concentration factor C = 4 the maximum glucose conversion to ethanol and at a dilution rate ten times larger.

  16. A factor analytic investigation of the Mercy Evaluation of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Zachary C; Wright, John D; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Gfeller, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-23

    Neurocognitive deficits commonly are an accompanying feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A brief, yet comprehensive neuropsychological battery is desirable for assessing the extent of these deficits. Therefore, the present study examined the validity of the Mercy Evaluation of Multiple Sclerosis (MEMS) for use with the MS population. Archival data from individuals diagnosed with MS (N = 378) by independent neurologists was examined. Cognitive domains assessed included processing speed and attention, learning, and memory, visuospatial, language, and executive functioning. A mean battery index was calculated to provide a general indicator of cognitive impairment within the current sample. Overall performance across participants was found to be in the lower limits of the average range. Results of factor analytic statistical procedures yielded a four-factor solution, accounting for 67% of total variance within the MEMS. Four neurocognitive measures exhibited the highest sensitivity in detecting cognitive impairment, constituting a psychometrically established brief cognitive screening battery, which accounted for 83% of total variance within the mean battery index score. Overall, the results of the current study suggest appropriate construct validity of the MEMS for use with individuals with MS, as well as provide support for previously established cognitive batteries.

  17. Bioprocessing of sewage sludge for safe recycling on agricultural land - BIOWASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Christensen, Nina; Batstone, Damien John; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Lichtfouse, Eric; Elbisser, Brigitte; Rogers, Kayne; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Dernaix, Laurence; Caria; Giovanni; Metzger, Laure; Borghi, Veronica; Montcada, Eloi

    2003-07-01

    Disposal and handling of sewage sludge are increasing problems in Europe due to the increasing quantities of the sewage sludge produced. A large amount of the sewage sludge contains small fractions of toxic chemicals, which results in problems with safe use of the sewage sludge on agricultural land. From an ecological and economical point of view, it would be essential to establish methodologies, which could allow sewage sludge to be reused as fertilizers on agricultural land. Energy efficient biotreatment processes of organic waste are, therefore, of crucial importance. BIOWASTE will offer an integrated study of this area. The typical composition of sewage sludge will be characterized with regard to key contaminating compounds. The following compounds will be in focus: Emulsifying agents such as nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from incomplete combustion processes and phthalates, which are used as additives in plastics and surfactants such as linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS). Analytical techniques suitable for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the chemical species involved in the processes under investigation will be determined. Bacteria that are able to degrade selected contaminating compounds under anaerobic and aerobic conditions will be isolated, characterized and bioaugmented for decontamination of sewage sludge through bioprocessing. Aerobic, anaerobic and combination of aerobic/anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge will be applied. A mathematical model will be developed to describe the biodegradation processes of the contaminating compounds after establishing the kinetic parameters for degradation of contaminating compounds. The bioprocessed sewage sludge will be used in eco- and plant- toxicology tests to evaluate the impact of the xenobiotics on the environment. Methodologies will be developed and applied to assess the cleanliness of the bioprocessing as a safe method for waste

  18. Bimolecular Master Equations for a Single and Multiple Potential Wells with Analytic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2018-04-12

    The analytic solutions, that is, populations, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular master equations, separately, for a single and multiple potential wells and reaction channels, where K is the component of the total angular momentum J along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination products at a given energy E. The analytic approach provides the functional dependence of the population of molecules on its K-active or K-adiabatic dissociation, association rate constants and the intermolecular energy transfer, where the approach may complement the usual numerical approaches for reactions of interest. Our previous work, Part I, considered the solutions for a single potential well, whereby an assumption utilized there is presently obviated in the derivation of the exact solutions and farther discussed. At the high-pressure limit, the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular master equations may each reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high-pressure limit expressions) for bimolecular recombination rate constant, for a single potential well, and augmented by isomerization terms when multiple potential wells are present. In the low-pressure limit, the expression for population above the dissociation limit, associated with a single potential well, becomes equivalent to the usual presumed detailed balance between the association and dissociation rate constants, where the multiple well case is also considered. When the collision frequency of energy transfer, Z LJ , between the chemical intermediate and bath gas is sufficiently less than the dissociation rate constant k d ( E' J' K') for postcollision ( E' J' K), then the solution for population, g( EJK) + , above the critical energy further simplifies such that depending on Z LJ , the dissociation and association rate constant k r ( EJK), as g( EJK) + = k r ( EJK)A·BC/[ Z LJ + k d ( EJK)], where A and BC are the reactants, for

  19. Analytical calculations of multiple scattering for high energy photons and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    Radiography of large dense objects often require the use of highly penetrating radiation. For example, a couple of centimeters of steel attenuates 50 keV x-rays by a factor of approximately 10 -14 whereas this same amount of steel would attenuate a 500 keV photon beam by only a factor of about 0.25. However, this increase in penetrating power comes with a price. In the case of x-radiation there are two bills to pay: (1) For projection radiography, this increase in penetration directly causes a corresponding decrease in resolution. (2) This increase in penetration occurs in a region where the interaction of radiation and matter is changing from absorption to scattering. In the above example the fraction of scattering goes from about 0.1 at 50 keV to over 0.99 at 500 keV. These scattered photons can significantly degrade contrast. In order to overcome some of these difficulties, radiography using scattered photons has been studied by myself and numerous other authors. In all the above cases, calculation of the intensity of scattered radiation is of primary importance. In cases where scattering is probable, multiple scattering can also be probable. Calculations of multiple scattering are generally very difficult and usually require the use of extremely sophisticated Monte Carlo simulations. It is not unusual for these calculations to require several hours of CPU time on some of the worlds largest and fastest supercomputers. In this paper I will present an alternative approach. I will present an analytical solution to the equations of double scattering, and show how this solution can extended to the case of higher order scattering. Finally, I will give numerical examples of these solutions and compare them to solutions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations

  20. Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Chemometric Modeling for Bioprocess Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. Faassen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables.

  1. Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Chemometric Modeling for Bioprocess Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faassen, Saskia M.; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    On-line sensors for the detection of crucial process parameters are desirable for the monitoring, control and automation of processes in the biotechnology, food and pharma industry. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a highly developed and non-invasive technique that enables the on-line measurements of substrate and product concentrations or the identification of characteristic process states. During a cultivation process significant changes occur in the fluorescence spectra. By means of chemometric modeling, prediction models can be calculated and applied for process supervision and control to provide increased quality and the productivity of bioprocesses. A range of applications for different microorganisms and analytes has been proposed during the last years. This contribution provides an overview of different analysis methods for the measured fluorescence spectra and the model-building chemometric methods used for various microbial cultivations. Most of these processes are observed using the BioView® Sensor, thanks to its robustness and insensitivity to adverse process conditions. Beyond that, the PLS-method is the most frequently used chemometric method for the calculation of process models and prediction of process variables. PMID:25942644

  2. Bioprocessing of concentrated mixed hazardous industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Silver, G.; Attalla, A.; Prisc, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or the detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. This work describes the unique capabilities of an isolated strain of Pseudomonas for metabolizing methylated aromatic compounds. This strain of Pseudomonas putida Idaho is unique in that it can tolerate and grow under a layer of neat p-xylene. A bioprocess has been developed to degrade LLW and mixed wastes containing methylated aromatic compounds, i.e., pseudocumene, toluene and p-xylene. The process is now in the demonstration phase at a DOE facility and has been running for one year. Feed concentrations of 21200 ppm of the toxic organic substrate have been fed to the bioreactor. This report describes the results obtained thus far

  3. On the multiple zeros of a real analytic function with applications to the averaging theory of differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isaac A.; Llibre, Jaume; Maza, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    In this work we consider real analytic functions , where , Ω is a bounded open subset of , is an interval containing the origin, are parameters, and ε is a small parameter. We study the branching of the zero-set of at multiple points when the parameter ε varies. We apply the obtained results to improve the classical averaging theory for computing T-periodic solutions of λ-families of analytic T-periodic ordinary differential equations defined on , using the displacement functions defined by these equations. We call the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of in powers of ε the averaged functions. The main contribution consists in analyzing the role that have the multiple zeros of the first non-zero averaged function. The outcome is that these multiple zeros can be of two different classes depending on whether the zeros belong or not to the analytic set defined by the real variety associated to the ideal generated by the averaged functions in the Noetheriang ring of all the real analytic functions at . We bound the maximum number of branches of isolated zeros that can bifurcate from each multiple zero z 0. Sometimes these bounds depend on the cardinalities of minimal bases of the former ideal. Several examples illustrate our results and they are compared with the classical theory, branching theory and also under the light of singularity theory of smooth maps. The examples range from polynomial vector fields to Abel differential equations and perturbed linear centers.

  4. Virtual parameter-estimation experiments in Bioprocess-Engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessink, O.D.T.; Beeftink, H.H.; Hartog, R.J.M.; Tramper, J.

    2006-01-01

    Cell growth kinetics and reactor concepts constitute essential knowledge for Bioprocess-Engineering students. Traditional learning of these concepts is supported by lectures, tutorials, and practicals: ICT offers opportunities for improvement. A virtual-experiment environment was developed that

  5. A Monte Carlo evaluation of analytical multiple scattering corrections for unpolarised neutron scattering and polarisation analysis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.; Cywinski, R.

    1985-03-01

    Some of the approximations commonly used for the analytical estimation of multiple scattering corrections to thermal neutron elastic scattering data from cylindrical and plane slab samples have been tested using a Monte Carlo program. It is shown that the approximations are accurate for a wide range of sample geometries and scattering cross-sections. Neutron polarisation analysis provides the most stringent test of multiple scattering calculations as multiply scattered neutrons may be redistributed not only geometrically but also between the spin flip and non spin flip scattering channels. A very simple analytical technique for correcting for multiple scattering in neutron polarisation analysis has been tested using the Monte Carlo program and has been shown to work remarkably well in most circumstances. (author)

  6. Intelligent control of mixed-culture bioprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.; Larsen, E.D.; Miller, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    A hierarchical control system is being developed and applied to a mixed culture bioprocess in a continuous stirred tank reactor. A bioreactor, with its inherent complexity and non-linear behavior was an interesting, yet, difficult application for control theory. The bottom level of the hierarchy was implemented as a number of integrated set point controls and data acquisition modules. Within the second level was a diagnostic system that used expert knowledge to determine the operational status of the sensors, actuators, and control modules. A diagnostic program was successfully implemented for the detection of stirrer malfunctions, and to monitor liquid delivery rates and recalibrate the pumps when deviations from desired flow rates occurred. The highest control level was a supervisory shell that was developed using expert knowledge and the history of the reactor operation to determine the set points required to meet a set of production criteria. At this stage the supervisory shell analyzed the data to determine the state of the system. In future implementations, this shell will determine the set points required to optimize a cost function using expert knowledge and adaptive learning techniques

  7. Intelligent control of mixed-culture bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, D.L.; Larsen, E.D.; Miller, K.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A hierarchical control system is being developed and applied to a mixed culture bioprocess in a continuous stirred tank reactor. A bioreactor, with its inherent complexity and non-linear behavior was an interesting, yet, difficult application for control theory. The bottom level of the hierarchy was implemented as a number of integrated set point controls and data acquisition modules. Within the second level was a diagnostic system that used expert knowledge to determine the operational status of the sensors, actuators, and control modules. A diagnostic program was successfully implemented for the detection of stirrer malfunctions, and to monitor liquid delivery rates and recalibrate the pumps when deviations from desired flow rates occurred. The highest control level was a supervisory shell that was developed using expert knowledge and the history of the reactor operation to determine the set points required to meet a set of production criteria. At this stage the supervisory shell analyzed the data to determine the state of the system. In future implementations, this shell will determine the set points required to optimize a cost function using expert knowledge and adaptive learning techniques.

  8. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Steven Clifford, E-mail: sdewey001@gmail.com [United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Environmental Health Division, Health Physics Branch, Radiation Analysis Laboratories, 2350 Gillingham Drive, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235 (United States); Whetstone, Zachary David, E-mail: zacwhets@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, Kimberlee Jane, E-mail: kearfott@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe the source. Currently, the choice of analytical expressions is based upon prior experimental core sampling results at similar locations, any known site history, or radionuclide transport models. This paper presents a method, employing multiple in situ measurements at a single site, for determining the analytical form that best represents the true depth distribution present. The measurements can be made using a variety of geometries, each of which has a different sensitivity variation with source spatial distribution. Using non-linear least squares numerical optimization methods, the results can be fit to a collection of analytical models and the parameters of each model determined. The analytical expression that results in the fit with the lowest residual is selected as the most accurate representation. A cursory examination is made of the effects of measurement errors on the method. - Highlights: > A new method for determining radionuclide distribution as a function of depth is presented. > Multiple measurements are used, with enough measurements to determine the unknowns in analytical functions that might describe the distribution. > The measurements must be as independent as possible, which is achieved through special collimation of the detector. > Although the effects of measurements errors may be significant on the results, an improvement over other methods is anticipated.

  9. Scale breaking parton fragmentation functions, analytical parametrizations and comparison with charged multiplicities in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlt, H.

    1980-01-01

    Scale breaking quark and gluon fragmentation functions obtained by solving numerically Altarelli-Parisi type equations are presented. Analytical parametrizations are given for the fragmentation of u and d quarks into pions. The calculated Q 2 dependent fragmentation functions are compared with experimental data. With these scale breaking fragmentation functions the average charged multiplicity is calculated in e + e - annihilation, which rises with energy more than logarithmically and is in good agreement with experiment. (author)

  10. Multiple scattering of MeV ions: Comparison between the analytical theory and Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.; Arstila, K.; Nordlund, K.; Edelmann, E.; Keinonen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Angular and energy distributions due to multiple small angle scattering were calculated with different models, namely from the analytical Szilagyi theory, the Monte-Carlo code MCERD in binary collision approximation and the molecular dynamics code MDRANGE, for 2 MeV 4 He in Au at backscattering geometry and for 20 MeV 127 I recoil analysis of carbon. The widths and detailed shapes of the distributions are compared, and reasons for deviations between the different models are discussed

  11. Establishing new microbial cell factories for sustainable bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Liu, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    . The application of biological catalysts which can convert a variety of substrates to an array of desirable products has been demonstrated in both ancient bioprocesses and modern industrial biotechnology. In recent times, focus has been on a limited number of “model” organisms which have been extensively exploited...... of products, it may be interesting to look to less domesticated strains and towards more non-conventional hosts in the development of new bioprocesses. This approach demands thorough physiological characterization as well as establishment of tools for genetic engineering if new cell factories......The demands of modern society are increasing pressure on natural resources while creating the need for a wider range of products. There is an interest in developing bioprocesses to meet these demands, with conversion of a variety of waste materials providing the basis for a sustainable society...

  12. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  13. Ensuring comparability of data generated by multiple analytical laboratories for environmental decision making at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.; Campbell, B.A.; Danahy, R.J.; Dugan, T.A.; Tomlinson, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility located 17 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1952 until 1989, the Fernald site provided high-purity uranium metal products to support US defense programs. In 1989 the mission of Fernald changed from one of uranium production to one of environmental restoration. At Fernald, multiple functional programs require analytical data. Inorganic and organic data for these programs are currently generated by seven laboratories, while radiochemical data are being obtained from six laboratories. Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) programs have been established to help ensure comparability of data generated by multiple laboratories at different times. The quality assurance program for organic and inorganic measurements specifies which analytical methodologies and sample preparation procedures are to be used based on analyte class, sample matrix, and data quality requirements. In contrast, performance specifications have been established for radiochemical analyses. A blind performance evaluation program for all laboratories, both on-site and subcontracted commercial laboratories, provides continuous feedback on data quality. The necessity for subcontractor laboratories to participate in the performance evaluation program is a contractual requirement. Similarly, subcontract laboratories are contractually required to generate data which meet radiochemical performance specifications. The Fernald on-site laboratory must also fulfill these requirements

  14. Developing semi-analytical solution for multiple-zone transient storage model with spatially non-uniform storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Baoqing; Si, Yinbing; Wang, Jia

    2017-12-01

    Transient storages may vary along the stream due to stream hydraulic conditions and the characteristics of storage. Analytical solutions of transient storage models in literature didn't cover the spatially non-uniform storage. A novel integral transform strategy is presented that simultaneously performs integral transforms to the concentrations in the stream and in storage zones by using the single set of eigenfunctions derived from the advection-diffusion equation of the stream. The semi-analytical solution of the multiple-zone transient storage model with the spatially non-uniform storage is obtained by applying the generalized integral transform technique to all partial differential equations in the multiple-zone transient storage model. The derived semi-analytical solution is validated against the field data in literature. Good agreement between the computed data and the field data is obtained. Some illustrative examples are formulated to demonstrate the applications of the present solution. It is shown that solute transport can be greatly affected by the variation of mass exchange coefficient and the ratio of cross-sectional areas. When the ratio of cross-sectional areas is big or the mass exchange coefficient is small, more reaches are recommended to calibrate the parameter.

  15. A review of simple multiple criteria decision making analytic procedures which are implementable on spreadsheet packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J. Stewart

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of modern multi-criteria decision making aids for the discrete choice problem, are reviewed, with particular emphasis on those which can be implemented on standard commercial spreadsheet packages. Three broad classes of procedures are discussed, namely the analytic hierarchy process, reference point methods, and outranking methods. The broad principles are summarised in a consistent framework, and on a spreadsheet. LOTUS spreadsheets implementing these are available from the author.

  16. Development of precise analytical methods for strontium and lanthanide isotopic ratios using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    We have developed precise analytical methods for strontium and lanthanide isotopic ratios using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) for experimental and environmental studies of their behavior. In order to obtain precise isotopic data using MC-ICP-MS, the mass discrimination effect was corrected by an exponential law correction method. The resulting isotopic data demonstrated that highly precise isotopic analyses (better than 0.1 per mille as 2SD) could be achieved. We also adopted a de-solvating nebulizer system to improve the sensitivity. This system could minimize the water load into the plasma and provided about five times larger intensity of analyte than a conventional nebulizer system did. (author)

  17. Analytical Modeling of Natural Convection in a Tall Rectangular Enclosure with Multiple Disconnected Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Bae

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, laminar natural circulation and heat transfer in a tall rectangular enclosure with disconnected vertical partitions inside were investigated. Analytical expressions were developed to predict the circulation flow rate and the average Nusselt number in a partially partitioned enclosure with isothermal side walls at different temperatures and insulated top and bottom walls. The proposed formulas are then validated against numerical results for modified Rayleigh numbers of up to 106. The impacts of the governing parameters are also examined along with a discussion of the heat transfer regimes.

  18. Analytical solutions of nonlocal Poisson dielectric models with multiple point charges inside a dielectric sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dexuan; Volkmer, Hans W.; Ying, Jinyong

    2016-04-01

    The nonlocal dielectric approach has led to new models and solvers for predicting electrostatics of proteins (or other biomolecules), but how to validate and compare them remains a challenge. To promote such a study, in this paper, two typical nonlocal dielectric models are revisited. Their analytical solutions are then found in the expressions of simple series for a dielectric sphere containing any number of point charges. As a special case, the analytical solution of the corresponding Poisson dielectric model is also derived in simple series, which significantly improves the well known Kirkwood's double series expansion. Furthermore, a convolution of one nonlocal dielectric solution with a commonly used nonlocal kernel function is obtained, along with the reaction parts of these local and nonlocal solutions. To turn these new series solutions into a valuable research tool, they are programed as a free fortran software package, which can input point charge data directly from a protein data bank file. Consequently, different validation tests can be quickly done on different proteins. Finally, a test example for a protein with 488 atomic charges is reported to demonstrate the differences between the local and nonlocal models as well as the importance of using the reaction parts to develop local and nonlocal dielectric solvers.

  19. Potentials and limitations of miniaturized calorimeters for bioprocess monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskow, Thomas; Schubert, Torsten; Wolf, Antje; Buchholz, Friederike; Regestein, Lars; Buechs, Jochen; Mertens, Florian; Harms, Hauke; Lerchner, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    In theory, heat production rates are very well suited for analysing and controlling bioprocesses on different scales from a few nanolitres up to many cubic metres. Any bioconversion is accompanied by a production (exothermic) or consumption (endothermic) of heat. The heat is tightly connected with the stoichiometry of the bioprocess via the law of Hess, and its rate is connected to the kinetics of the process. Heat signals provide real-time information of bioprocesses. The combination of heat measurements with respirometry is theoretically suited for the quantification of the coupling between catabolic and anabolic reactions. Heat measurements have also practical advantages. Unlike most other biochemical sensors, thermal transducers can be mounted in a protected way that prevents fouling, thereby minimizing response drifts. Finally, calorimetry works in optically opaque solutions and does not require labelling or reactants. It is surprising to see that despite all these advantages, calorimetry has rarely been applied to monitor and control bioprocesses with intact cells in the laboratory, industrial bioreactors or ecosystems. This review article analyses the reasons for this omission, discusses the additional information calorimetry can provide in comparison with respirometry and presents miniaturization as a potential way to overcome some inherent weaknesses of conventional calorimetry. It will be discussed for which sample types and scientific question miniaturized calorimeter can be advantageously applied. A few examples from different fields of microbiological and biotechnological research will illustrate the potentials and limitations of chip calorimetry. Finally, the future of chip calorimetry is addressed in an outlook.

  20. Design of digital learning material for bioprocess-engineering-education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der H.

    2007-01-01

    With the advance of computers and the internet, new types of learning material can be developed: web-based digital learning material. Because many complex learning objectives in the food- and bioprocess technology domain are difficult to achieve in a traditional learning environment, a project was

  1. Accurate Analytical Multiple-Access Performance of Time-Hopping Biorthogonal PPM IR-UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVEDEK, T.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the characteristic function (CF method is used to derive the symbol error rate (SER expression for time-hopping impulse radio ultra-wideband (TH-IR-UWB systems with a biorthogonal pulse position modulation (BPPM scheme in the presence of a multi-user interference (MUI. The derived expression is validated with the Monte-Carlo simulation and compared with orthogonal PPM. Moreover, the analytical results are compared with the Gaussian approximation (GA of MUI which is shown to be inaccurate for a medium and large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. It is also shown that the BPPM scheme outperforms the PPM scheme for all SNR. At the end, the influence of different system parameters on the BPPM performance is analyzed.

  2. Advanced qualification of pharmaceutical excipient suppliers by multiple analytics and multivariate analysis combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, A; Müller, H; Menezes, J C; Herdling, T

    2015-11-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients have different functions within a drug formulation, consequently they can influence the manufacturability and/or performance of medicinal products. Therefore, critical to quality attributes should be kept constant. Sometimes it may be necessary to qualify a second supplier, but its product will not be completely equal to the first supplier product. To minimize risks of not detecting small non-similarities between suppliers and to detect lot-to-lot variability for each supplier, multivariate data analysis (MVA) can be used as a more powerful alternative to classical quality control that uses one-parameter-at-a-time monitoring. Such approach is capable of supporting the requirements of a new guideline by the European Parliament and Council (2015/C-95/02) demanding appropriate quality control strategies for excipients based on their criticality and supplier risks in ensuring quality, safety and function. This study compares calcium hydrogen phosphate from two suppliers. It can be assumed that both suppliers use different manufacturing processes. Therefore, possible chemical and physical differences were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy, laser diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction. Afterwards MVA was used to extract relevant information from each analytical technique. Both CaHPO4 could be discriminated by their supplier. The gained knowledge allowed to specify an enhanced strategy for second supplier qualification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Modified GC-MS Analytical Procedure for Separation and Detection of Multiple Classes of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gang Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified GC-MS analytical procedure based on trimethylsilyl-dithioacetal (TMSD derivatization has been established for a simultaneous determination of thirteen carbohydrates. Different from previous approaches, the current GC-MS method was featured by a powerful practicability for simultaneous detection of aldoses, uronic acids, ketoses, and amino sugars; simplifying GC-MS chromatograms and producing a single peak for each derivatized sugar, as well as high resolution, sensitivity, and repeatability. An additional liquid-liquid extraction from derivatization mixtures was performed not only to increase the detection sensitivity of amino sugars but also to decrease the by-products of derivatization. Contrarily, three amino sugars were detected at a very low intensity or not detected at all. The effect of time on monosaccharide- mercaptalated reaction was systematically investigated. The effect of trimethylsilylation on the formation of TMSD was also optimized. The established GC-MS based on TMSD derivatization was suitable for complex carbohydrate analysis and has been successfully applied for the detection of free carbohydrates in water extracts of Anemarrhena asphodeloides roots and determination of monosaccharides in Glossy ganoderma polysaccharides.

  4. Downstream bioprocess characterisation within microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Marco; Krühne, Ulrich; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    developed which has, to some extent, hindered their implementation as early process development tools. Microfluidic devices are particularly attractive for using fewer resources, for having the possibility of parallelisation and for requiring fewer mechanical manipulations. The expectation...... is that these devices will facilitate the rapid definition of critical process parameters, and thus ultimately reduce production costs. We have developed several microfluidic mDUOs and combined them with advanced and novel analytical approaches, resulting in devices that can potentially be employed for both analytical...... for the liquid–liquid extraction of pharmaceuticals, for the purification and concentration of drug delivery vehicles, and for the flocculation of yeast cells in microfluidic devices. For the latter, we will present for the first time the capability to study flocculation-growth independent from the floc breakage...

  5. Experimental and analytical studies on multiple tuned mass dampers for seismic protection of porcelain electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen; Dai, Junwu; Zhou, Huimeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Ning, Xiaoqing

    2017-10-01

    Porcelain electrical equipment (PEE), such as current transformers, is critical to power supply systems, but its seismic performance during past earthquakes has not been satisfactory. This paper studies the seismic performance of two typical types of PEE and proposes a damping method for PEE based on multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD). An MTMD damping device involving three mass units, named a triple tuned mass damper (TTMD), is designed and manufactured. Through shake table tests and finite element analysis, the dynamic characteristics of the PEE are studied and the effectiveness of the MTMD damping method is verified. The adverse influence of MTMD redundant mass to damping efficiency is studied and relevant equations are derived. MTMD robustness is verified through adjusting TTMD control frequencies. The damping effectiveness of TTMD, when the peak ground acceleration far exceeds the design value, is studied. Both shake table tests and finite element analysis indicate that MTMD is effective and robust in attenuating PEE seismic responses. TTMD remains effective when the PGA far exceeds the design value and when control deviations are considered.

  6. The Relational Impact of Multiple Sclerosis: An Integrative Review of the Literature Using a Cognitive Analytic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell Jones, Joanna; Walsh, Sue; Isaac, Claire

    2017-12-01

    This integrative literature review uses cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) theory to examine the impact of a chronic illness, multiple sclerosis (MS), on relationships and mental health. Electronic searches were conducted in six medical and social science databases. Thirty-eight articles met inclusion criteria, and also satisfied quality criteria. Articles revealed that MS-related demands change care needs and alter relationships. Using a CAT framework, the MS literature was analysed, and five key patterns of relating to oneself and to others were identified. A diagrammatic formulation is proposed that interconnects these patterns with wellbeing and suggests potential "exits" to improve mental health, for example, assisting families to minimise overprotection. Application of CAT analysis to the literature clarifies relational processes that may affect mental health among individuals with MS, which hopefully will inform how services assist in reducing unhelpful patterns and improve coping. Further investigation of the identified patterns is needed.

  7. Effect of exercise interventions on perceived fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis: synthesis of meta-analytic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Van der Linden, Marietta L; Mercer, Tom H

    2017-06-01

    Although exercise training has been advocated as a nonpharmacological treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) related fatigue, no consensus exists regarding its effectiveness. To address this, we collated meta-analytic reviews that explored the effectiveness of exercise training for the treatment of MS-related fatigue. We searched five online databases for relevant reviews, published since 2005, and identified 172 records. Five reviews were retained for systematic extraction of information and evidence quality analysis. Although our review synthesis indicated that exercise training interventions have a moderate effect on fatigue reduction in people with MS, no clear insight was obtained regarding the relative effectiveness of specific types or modes of exercise intervention. Moreover, Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation revealed that the overall quality of evidence emanating from these five reviews was 'very low'.

  8. Meta-analytic framework for sparse K-means to identify disease subtypes in multiple transcriptomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhiguang; Ding, Ying; Liu, Silvia; Oesterreich, Steffi; Tseng, George

    Disease phenotyping by omics data has become a popular approach that potentially can lead to better personalized treatment. Identifying disease subtypes via unsupervised machine learning is the first step towards this goal. In this paper, we extend a sparse K -means method towards a meta-analytic framework to identify novel disease subtypes when expression profiles of multiple cohorts are available. The lasso regularization and meta-analysis identify a unique set of gene features for subtype characterization. An additional pattern matching reward function guarantees consistent subtype signatures across studies. The method was evaluated by simulations and leukemia and breast cancer data sets. The identified disease subtypes from meta-analysis were characterized with improved accuracy and stability compared to single study analysis. The breast cancer model was applied to an independent METABRIC dataset and generated improved survival difference between subtypes. These results provide a basis for diagnosis and development of targeted treatments for disease subgroups.

  9. Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of spheres: Analytical comparison between coupled phase model and multiple scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Sound propagation in dilute suspensions of small spheres is studied using two models: a hydrodynamic model based on the coupled phase equations and an acoustic model based on the ECAH (ECAH: Epstein-Carhart-Allegra-Hawley) multiple scattering theory. The aim is to compare both models through the study of three fundamental kinds of particles: rigid particles, elastic spheres, and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic model is based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation generalized to elastic spheres and viscous droplets. The hydrodynamic forces for elastic spheres are introduced by analogy with those of droplets. The ECAH theory is also modified in order to take into account the velocity of rigid particles. Analytical calculations performed for long wavelength, low dilution, and weak absorption in the ambient fluid show that both models are strictly equivalent for the three kinds of particles studied. The analytical calculations show that dilatational and translational mechanisms are modeled in the same way by both models. The effective parameters of dilute suspensions are also calculated.

  10. High throughput LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple vitamin D analytes in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Adams, John S; Stewart, Paul M; Hewison, Martin; Keevil, Brian G

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that vitamin D-deficiency is linked to increased risk of common human health problems. To define vitamin D 'status' most routine analytical methods quantify one particular vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). However, vitamin D is characterized by complex metabolic pathways, and simultaneous measurement of multiple vitamin D metabolites may provide a more accurate interpretation of vitamin D status. To address this we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyse multiple vitamin D analytes, with particular emphasis on the separation of epimer metabolites. A supportive liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) and LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 10 vitamin D metabolites as well as separation of an interfering 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4) isobar (precursor of bile acid), and validated by analysis of human serum samples. In a cohort of 116 healthy subjects, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25OHD3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) were quantifiable using 220μL of serum, with 25OHD3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 showing significant seasonal variations. This high-throughput LC-MS/MS method provides a novel strategy for assessing the impact of vitamin D on human health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Soft sensors in bioprocessing: A status report and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luttmann, Reiner; Bracewell, Daniel G.; Cornelissen, Gesine

    2012-01-01

    The following report with recommendations is the result of an expert panel meeting on soft sensor applications in bioprocess engineering that was organized by the Measurement, Monitoring, Modelling and Control (M3C) Working Group of the European Federation of Biotechnology - Section of Biochemical...... Engineering Science (ESBES). The aim of the panel was to provide an update on the present status of the subject and to identify critical needs and issues for the furthering of the successful development of soft sensor methods in bioprocess engineering research and for industrial applications, in particular...... with focus on biopharmaceutical applications. It concludes with a set of recommendations, which highlight current prospects for the extended use of soft sensors and those areas requiring development....

  12. Application of Hydrodynamic Cavitation for Food and Bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R.

    Hydrodynamic cavitation can be simply generated by the alterations in the flow field in high speed/high pressure devices and also by passage of the liquid through a constriction such as orifice plate, venturi, or throttling valve. Hydrodynamic cavitation results in the formation of local hot spots, release of highly reactive free radicals, and enhanced mass transfer rates due to turbulence generated as a result of liquid circulation currents. These conditions can be suitably applied for intensification of different bioprocessing applications in an energy-efficient manner as compared to conventionally used ultrasound-based reactors. The current chapter aims at highlighting different aspects related to hydrodynamic cavitation, including the theoretical aspects for optimization of operating parameters, reactor designs, and overview of applications relevant to food and bioprocessing. Some case studies highlighting the comparison of hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation reactors will also be discussed.

  13. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias de Cazes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds.

  14. Bioprocess intensification for the effective production of chemical products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    The further implementation of new bioprocesses, using biocatalysts in various formats, for the synthesis of chemicals is highly dependent upon effective process intensification. The need for process intensification reflects the fact that the conditions under which a biocatalyst carries out...... a reaction in nature are far from those which are optimal for industrial processes. In this paper the rationale for intensification will be discussed, as well as the four complementary approaches used today to achieve bioprocess intensification. Two of these four approaches are based on alteration...... of the biocatalyst (either by protein engineering or metabolic engineering), resulting in an extra degree of freedom in the process design. To date, biocatalyst engineering has been developed independently from the conventional process engineering methodology to intensification. Although the integration of these two...

  15. Bioprocesses: Modelling needs for process evaluation and sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Gonzaléz, Concepcion; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    development such that they can also be used to evaluate processes against sustainability metrics, as well as economics as an integral part of assessments. Finally, property models will also be required based on compounds not currently present in existing databases. It is clear that many new opportunities......The next generation of process engineers will face a new set of challenges, with the need to devise new bioprocesses, with high selectivity for pharmaceutical manufacture, and for lower value chemicals manufacture based on renewable feedstocks. In this paper the current and predicted future roles...... of process system engineering and life cycle inventory and assessment in the design, development and improvement of sustainable bioprocesses are explored. The existing process systems engineering software tools will prove essential to assist this work. However, the existing tools will also require further...

  16. Efficient and reproducible mammalian cell bioprocesses without probes and controllers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Stéphanie; Oberbek, Agata; Reclari, Martino; Dreyer, Matthieu; Hacker, David L; Baldi, Lucia; Farhat, Mohamed; Wurm, Florian M

    2011-07-01

    Bioprocesses for recombinant protein production with mammalian cells are typically controlled for several physicochemical parameters including the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) of the culture medium. Here we studied whether these controls are necessary for efficient and reproducible bioprocesses in an orbitally shaken bioreactor (OSR). Mixing, gas transfer, and volumetric power consumption (P(V)) were determined in both a 5-L OSR and a 3-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR). The two cultivation systems had a similar mixing intensity, but the STR had a lower volumetric mass transfer coefficient of oxygen (k(L)a) and a higher P(V) than the OSR. Recombinant CHO cell lines expressing either tumor necrosis factor receptor as an Fc fusion protein (TNFR:Fc) or an anti-RhesusD monoclonal antibody were cultivated in the two systems. The 5-L OSR was operated in an incubator shaker with 5% CO(2) in the gas environment but without pH and DO control whereas the STR was operated with or without pH and DO control. Higher cell densities and recombinant protein titers were obtained in the OSR as compared to both the controlled and the non-controlled STRs. To test the reproducibility of a bioprocess in a non-controlled OSR, the two CHO cell lines were each cultivated in parallel in six 5-L OSRs. Similar cell densities, cell viabilities, and recombinant protein titers along with similar pH and DO profiles were achieved in each group of replicates. Our study demonstrated that bioprocesses can be performed in OSRs without pH or DO control in a highly reproducible manner, at least at the scale of operation studied here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of robust magnetic carriers for bioprocess applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Willian, E-mail: willkopp@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Silva, Felipe A., E-mail: eq.felipe.silva@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Lima, Lionete N., E-mail: lionetenunes@yahoo.com.br [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Masunaga, Sueli H., E-mail: sueli.masunaga@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Montana State University-MSU, 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Tardioli, Paulo W., E-mail: pwtardioli@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Giordano, Roberto C., E-mail: roberto@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M., E-mail: faraujo@df.ufscar.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Silica magnetic microparticles were synthesized for applications in bioprocesses. • The process to produce magnetic microparticles is inexpensive and easily scalable. • Microparticles with very high saturation magnetization were obtained. • The structure of the silica magnetic microparticles could be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic carriers are an effective option to withdraw selected target molecules from complex mixtures or to immobilize enzymes. This paper describes the synthesis of robust silica magnetic microparticles (SMMps), particularly designed for applications in bioprocesses. SMMps were synthesized in a micro-emulsion, using sodium silicate as the silica source and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as the magnetic core. Thermally resistant particles, with high and accessible surface area, narrow particle size distribution, high saturation magnetization, and with superparamagnetic properties were obtained. Several reaction conditions were tested, yielding materials with saturation magnetization between 45 and 63 emu g{sup −1}, particle size between 2 and 200 μm and average diameter between 11.2 and 15.9 μm, surface area between 49 and 103 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and pore diameter between 2 and 60 nm. The performance of SMMps in a bioprocess was evaluated by the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on to octyl modified SMMp, the biocatalyst obtained was used in the production of butyl butyrate with good results.

  18. Design and analysis of heat recovery system in bioprocess plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar; Rašković, Predrag; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat integration of a bioprocess plant is studied. • Bioprocess plant produces yeast and ethyl-alcohol. • The design of a heat recovery system is performed by batch pinch analysis. • Direct and indirect heat integration approaches are used in process design. • The heat recovery system without a heat storage opportunity is more profitable. - Abstract: The paper deals with the heat integration of a bioprocess plant which produces yeast and ethyl-alcohol. The referent plant is considered to be a multiproduct batch plant which operates in a semi-continuous mode. The design of a heat recovery system is performed by batch pinch analysis and by the use of the Time slice model. The results obtained by direct and indirect heat integration approaches are presented in the form of cost-optimal heat exchanger networks and evaluated by different thermodynamic and economic indicators. They signify that the heat recovery system without a heat storage opportunity can be considered to be a more profitable solution for the energy efficiency increase in a plant

  19. A systematic review of factors associated with accidental falls in people with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Costanza; Prosperini, Luca; Jonsdottir, Johanna; Cattaneo, Davide

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether there are demographic, clinical, and instrumental variables useful to detect fall status of patients with multiple sclerosis. PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Eligible studies were identified by two independent investigators. Only studies having a clear distinction between fallers and non-fallers were included and meta-analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and standard mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and pooled using fixed effect models. Among 115 screened articles, 15 fulfilled criteria for meta-analyses, with a total of 2425 patients included. Proportion of fallers may vary from 30% to 63% in a time frame from 1 to 12 months. No significant publication bias was found, even though 12/15 studies relied on retrospective reports of falls, thus introducing recall biases. Risk factors for falls varied across studies, owing to heterogeneity of populations included and clinical instruments used. The meta-analytic approach found that, compared with non-fallers, fallers had longer disease duration (SMD = 0.14, p = 0.02), progressive course of disease (OR = 2.02, p < 0.0001), assistive device for walking (OR = 3.16, p < 0.0001), greater overall disability level (SMD = 0.74, p < 0.0001), slower walking speed (SMD = 0.45, p = 0.0005), and worse performances in balance tests (Berg Balance Scale: SMD = -0.48, p = 0.002; Timed up-and-go test, SMD = 0.31, p = 0.04), and force-platform measures (postural sway) with eyes opened (SMD = 0.71, p = 0.006) and closed (SMD = 0.83, p = 0.01), respectively. Elucidations regarding risk factors for accidental falls in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMs) are provided here, with worse disability score, progressive course, use of walking aid, and poorer performances in static and dynamic balance tests strongly associated with fall status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Quality by control: Towards model predictive control of mammalian cell culture bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommeregger, Wolfgang; Sissolak, Bernhard; Kandra, Kulwant; von Stosch, Moritz; Mayer, Martin; Striedner, Gerald

    2017-07-01

    The industrial production of complex biopharmaceuticals using recombinant mammalian cell lines is still mainly built on a quality by testing approach, which is represented by fixed process conditions and extensive testing of the end-product. In 2004 the FDA launched the process analytical technology initiative, aiming to guide the industry towards advanced process monitoring and better understanding of how critical process parameters affect the critical quality attributes. Implementation of process analytical technology into the bio-production process enables moving from the quality by testing to a more flexible quality by design approach. The application of advanced sensor systems in combination with mathematical modelling techniques offers enhanced process understanding, allows on-line prediction of critical quality attributes and subsequently real-time product quality control. In this review opportunities and unsolved issues on the road to a successful quality by design and dynamic control implementation are discussed. A major focus is directed on the preconditions for the application of model predictive control for mammalian cell culture bioprocesses. Design of experiments providing information about the process dynamics upon parameter change, dynamic process models, on-line process state predictions and powerful software environments seem to be a prerequisite for quality by control realization. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Micro-electromembrane extraction using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions - Towards selective extractions of analytes based on their acid-base strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Seip, K. F.; Gjelstad, A.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 943, NOV (2016), s. 64-73 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : multiple phase extraction * electromembrane extraction * plasma Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  2. Micro-electromembrane extraction using multiple free liquid membranes and acceptor solutions - Towards selective extractions of analytes based on their acid-base strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Seip, K. F.; Gjelstad, A.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 943, NOV (2016), s. 64-73 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : multiple phase extraction * electromembrane extraction * plasma Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  3. Prognostic risk estimates of patients with multiple sclerosis and their physicians: comparison to an online analytical risk counseling tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Heesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prognostic counseling in multiple sclerosis (MS is difficult because of the high variability of disease progression. Simultaneously, patients and physicians are increasingly confronted with making treatment decisions at an early stage, which requires taking individual prognoses into account to strike a good balance between benefits and harms of treatments. It is therefore important to understand how patients and physicians estimate prognostic risk, and whether and how these estimates can be improved. An online analytical processing (OLAP tool based on pooled data from placebo cohorts of clinical trials offers short-term prognostic estimates that can be used for individual risk counseling. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify if personalized prognostic information as presented by the OLAP tool is considered useful and meaningful by patients. Furthermore, we used the OLAP tool to evaluate patients' and physicians' risk estimates. Within this evaluation process we assessed short-time prognostic risk estimates of patients with MS (final n = 110 and their physicians (n = 6 and compared them with the estimates of OLAP. RESULTS: Patients rated the OLAP tool as understandable and acceptable, but to be only of moderate interest. It turned out that patients, physicians, and the OLAP tool ranked patients similarly regarding their risk of disease progression. Both patients' and physicians' estimates correlated most strongly with those disease covariates that the OLAP tool's estimates also correlated with most strongly. Exposure to the OLAP tool did not change patients' risk estimates. CONCLUSION: While the OLAP tool was rated understandable and acceptable, it was only of modest interest and did not change patients' prognostic estimates. The results suggest, however, that patients had some idea regarding their prognosis and which factors were most important in this regard. Future work with OLAP should assess long-term prognostic

  4. Prognostic risk estimates of patients with multiple sclerosis and their physicians: comparison to an online analytical risk counseling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Christoph; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Franziska; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Kasper, Jürgen; Köpke, Sascha; Lederer, Christian; Neuhaus, Anneke; Daumer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Prognostic counseling in multiple sclerosis (MS) is difficult because of the high variability of disease progression. Simultaneously, patients and physicians are increasingly confronted with making treatment decisions at an early stage, which requires taking individual prognoses into account to strike a good balance between benefits and harms of treatments. It is therefore important to understand how patients and physicians estimate prognostic risk, and whether and how these estimates can be improved. An online analytical processing (OLAP) tool based on pooled data from placebo cohorts of clinical trials offers short-term prognostic estimates that can be used for individual risk counseling. The aim of this study was to clarify if personalized prognostic information as presented by the OLAP tool is considered useful and meaningful by patients. Furthermore, we used the OLAP tool to evaluate patients' and physicians' risk estimates. Within this evaluation process we assessed short-time prognostic risk estimates of patients with MS (final n = 110) and their physicians (n = 6) and compared them with the estimates of OLAP. Patients rated the OLAP tool as understandable and acceptable, but to be only of moderate interest. It turned out that patients, physicians, and the OLAP tool ranked patients similarly regarding their risk of disease progression. Both patients' and physicians' estimates correlated most strongly with those disease covariates that the OLAP tool's estimates also correlated with most strongly. Exposure to the OLAP tool did not change patients' risk estimates. While the OLAP tool was rated understandable and acceptable, it was only of modest interest and did not change patients' prognostic estimates. The results suggest, however, that patients had some idea regarding their prognosis and which factors were most important in this regard. Future work with OLAP should assess long-term prognostic estimates and clarify its usefulness for patients and physicians

  5. Therapeutic antibodies: market considerations, disease targets and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvin, John G; Couston, Ruairidh G; van der Walle, Christopher F

    2013-01-02

    Antibodies are well established in mainstream clinical practice and present an exciting area for collaborative research and development in industry and academia alike. In this review, we will provide an overview of the current market and an outlook to 2015, focussing on whole antibody molecules while acknowledging the next generation scaffolds containing variable fragments. The market will be discussed in the context of disease targets, particularly in the areas of oncology and immune disorders which generate the greatest revenue by a wide margin. Emerging targets include central nervous system disorders which will also stimulate new delivery strategies. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a better understanding of bioprocessing is required in order to optimize the steps involved in the preparation of a protein prior to formulation. The latter is outside the scope of this review and nor is it our intention to discuss protein delivery and pharmacokinetics. The challenges that lie ahead include the discovery of new disease targets and the development of robust bioprocessing operations. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple analytical approaches reveal distinct gene-environment interactions in smokers and non smokers in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshan Ihsan

    Full Text Available Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR, classification and regression tree (CART and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.69;95%CI = 1.11-2.59,p = 0.01, whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR = 0.40;95%CI = 0.25-0.65,p<0.001 and OR = 0.51;95%CI = 0.33-0.78,p = 0.002 respectively. In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg or AA (His/His and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR = 3.73;95%CI = 1.33-10.55,p = 0.006, whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR = 2.93;95%CI = 1.15-7.51,p = 0.01. MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His with testing balance accuracy (TBA of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with

  7. Development of a new bioprocess scheme using frozen seed train intermediates to initiate CHO cell culture manufacturing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Gargi; Hamilton, Robert W; Stapp, Thomas R; Zheng, Lisa; Meier, Angela; Petty, Krista; Leung, Stephenie; Chary, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    Agility to schedule and execute cell culture manufacturing campaigns quickly in a multi-product facility will play a key role in meeting the growing demand for therapeutic proteins. In an effort to shorten campaign timelines, maximize plant flexibility and resource utilization, we investigated the initiation of cell culture manufacturing campaigns using CHO cells cryopreserved in large volume bags in place of the seed train process flows that are conventionally used in cell culture manufacturing. This approach, termed FASTEC (Frozen Accelerated Seed Train for Execution of a Campaign), involves cultivating cells to high density in a perfusion bioreactor, and cryopreserving cells in multiple disposable bags. Each run for a manufacturing campaign would then come from a thaw of one or more of these cryopreserved bags. This article reviews the development and optimization of individual steps of the FASTEC bioprocess scheme: scaling up cells to greater than 70 × 10(6) cells/mL and freezing in bags with an optimized controlled rate freezing protocol and using a customized rack configuration. Flow cytometry analysis was also employed to understand the recovery of CHO cells following cryopreservation. Extensive development data were gathered to ensure that the quantity and quality of the drug manufactured using the FASTEC bioprocess scheme was acceptable compared to the conventional seed train process flow. The result of offering comparable manufacturing options offers flexibility to the cell culture manufacturing network. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genung, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies already face profound challenges in finding strategies that manage budgets and priorities while bringing their sites and facilities into compliance with current statues and regulations and with agency policies and orders. While it is often agreed that current technology can be used to address most waste management and environmental restoration needs, it is also argued by many that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise

  9. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genung, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The projected requirements for waste management and environmental restoration activities within the United States will probably cost tens of billions of dollars annually during the next two decades. Expenditures of this magnitude clearly have the potential to affect the international competitiveness of many US industries and the continued operation of many federal facilities. It is argued that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise. 11 refs

  10. Upgrading protein products using bioprocessing on agricultural crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    to sustainability leads to a demand for plant protein products made from locally grown crops. Novel bioprocessing methods have been developed to generate protein products which are nutritious, readily available and do not generate hazardous waste. The processing focus has therefore been on developing protein......Due to increasing world population, higher average income, and changes in food preferences, there is a growing demand for proteins, especially novel plant-based protein sources, that can substitute animal proteins and supplement currently used soya proteins. Increased customer awareness......-enriched products with minimized content of antinutritional compounds. For every crop it is a challenge to obtain protein fractions with sufficient added value to make processing economically feasible. In this work we present the characterization of protein products developed in pilot scale using the novel...

  11. Developing a mesophilic co-culture for direct conversion of cellulose to butanol in consolidated bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Cao, Guangli; Zheng, Ju; Fu, Defeng; Song, Jinzhu; Zhang, Junzheng; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of butanol production from cellulosic biomass is a promising strategy for cost saving compared to other processes featuring dedicated cellulase production. CBP requires microbial strains capable of hydrolyzing biomass with enzymes produced on its own with high rate and high conversion and simultaneously produce a desired product at high yield. However, current reported butanol-producing candidates are unable to utilize cellulose as a sole carbon source and energy source. Consequently, developing a co-culture system using different microorganisms by taking advantage of their specific metabolic capacities to produce butanol directly from cellulose in consolidated bioprocess is of great interest. This study was mainly undertaken to find complementary organisms to the butanol producer that allow simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to butanol in their co-culture under mesophilic condition. Accordingly, a highly efficient and stable consortium N3 on cellulose degradation was first developed by multiple subcultures. Subsequently, the functional microorganisms with 16S rRNA sequences identical to the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile were isolated from consortium N3. The isolate Clostridium celevecrescens N3-2 exhibited higher cellulose-degrading capability was thus chosen as the partner strain for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. Meanwhile, the established stable consortium N3 was also investigated to produce butanol by co-culturing with C. acetobutylicum ATCC824. Butanol was produced from cellulose when C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 was co-cultured with either consortium N3 or C. celevecrescens N3-2. Co-culturing C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 with the stable consortium N3 resulted in a relatively higher butanol concentration, 3.73 g/L, and higher production yield, 0.145 g/g of glucose equivalent. The newly isolated microbial consortium N3 and strain C. celevecrescens N3

  12. Multiple analyte adduct formation in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Advantages and limitations in the analysis of biologically-related samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadosz, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Multiple analyte adduct formation was examined and discussed in the context of reproducible signal detection in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry applied in the analysis of biologically-related samples. Appropriate infusion solutions were prepared in H 2 O/methanol (3/97, v/v) with 1 mM sodium acetate and 10 mM acetic acid. An API 4000 QTrap tandem mass spectrometer was used for experiments performed in the negative scan mode (-Q1 MS) and the negative enhanced product ion mode (-EPI). γ‑Hydroxybutyrate and its deuterated form were used as model compounds to highlight both the complexity of adduct formation in popular mobile phases used and the effective signal compensation by the application of isotope-labelled analytes as internal standards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative feature extraction from the Chinese hamster ovary bioprocess bibliome using a novel meta-analysis workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golabgir, Aydin; Gutierrez, Jahir M.; Hefzi, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    compilation covers all published CHO cell studies from 1995 to 2015, and each study is classified by the types of phenotypic and bioprocess data contained therein. Using data from selected studies, we also present a quantitative meta-analysis of bioprocess characteristics across diverse culture conditions...... practices can limit research re-use in this field, we show that the statistical analysis of diverse legacy bioprocess data can provide insight into bioprocessing capabilities of CHO cell lines used in industry. The CHO bibliome can be accessed at http://lewislab.ucsd.edu/cho-bibliome/....

  14. Improved ethanol production at high temperature by consolidated bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered with artificial zinc finger protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Yu, Xinshui; Kondo, Akihiko; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production. Comparative transcriptomics analysis suggested that the AZFP in the mutant exerted beneficial effect by modulating the expression of multiple functional genes. These results provide a feasible strategy for efficient ethanol production from JAS and other cellulosic biomass through CBP based-fermentation at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioprocessing automation in cell therapy manufacturing: Outcomes of special interest group automation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Oliver; Robinson, Sarah; Bure, Kim; Brindley, David A; Mccall, David

    2018-04-01

    Phacilitate held a Special Interest Group workshop event in Edinburgh, UK, in May 2017. The event brought together leading stakeholders in the cell therapy bioprocessing field to identify present and future challenges and propose potential solutions to automation in cell therapy bioprocessing. Here, we review and summarize discussions from the event. Deep biological understanding of a product, its mechanism of action and indication pathogenesis underpin many factors relating to bioprocessing and automation. To fully exploit the opportunities of bioprocess automation, therapeutics developers must closely consider whether an automation strategy is applicable, how to design an 'automatable' bioprocess and how to implement process modifications with minimal disruption. Major decisions around bioprocess automation strategy should involve all relevant stakeholders; communication between technical and business strategy decision-makers is of particular importance. Developers should leverage automation to implement in-process testing, in turn applicable to process optimization, quality assurance (QA)/ quality control (QC), batch failure control, adaptive manufacturing and regulatory demands, but a lack of precedent and technical opportunities can complicate such efforts. Sparse standardization across product characterization, hardware components and software platforms is perceived to complicate efforts to implement automation. The use of advanced algorithmic approaches such as machine learning may have application to bioprocess and supply chain optimization. Automation can substantially de-risk the wider supply chain, including tracking and traceability, cryopreservation and thawing and logistics. The regulatory implications of automation are currently unclear because few hardware options exist and novel solutions require case-by-case validation, but automation can present attractive regulatory incentives. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy

  16. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios A; Sypsas, Vasilios; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Michelis, Andreas; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Kordulis, Christos; Lycourghiotis, Alexis; Banat, Ibrahim M; Nigam, Poonam; Marchant, Roger; Giannouli, Myrsini; Yianoulis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC) justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation). The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator). Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  17. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user’s inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. PMID:24088579

  18. Selection of bioprocess simulation software for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, T; Roper, K; Yegneswaran, P K; Marten, M R

    2001-02-20

    Two commercially available, process-simulation software packages (Aspen Batch Plus v1.2, Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Intelligen SuperPro v3.0, INTELLIGEN, INC., Scotch Plains, Ner Jersey) are evaluated for use in modeling industrial, biotechnology processes. Software is quantitatively evaluated by Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis (Kepner and Tregoe, 1981). This evaluation shows that Aspen Batch Plus v1.2 (ABP) and Intelligen SuperPro v3.0 (ISP) can successfully perform specific simulation tasks but do not provide a complete model of all phenomena occurring within a biotechnology process. Software is best suited to provide a format for process management, using material and energy balances to answer scheduling questions, explore equipment change-outs, and calculate cost data. The ability of simulation software to accurately predict unit operation scale-up and optimize bioprocesses is limited. To realistically evaluate the software, a vaccine manufacturing process under development at Merck & Company is simulated. Case studies from the vaccine process are presented as examples of how ABP and ISP can be used to shed light on real-world processing issues. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Contributions of depth filter components to protein adsorption in bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Ohnmar; Singh, Nripen; Traylor, Steven J; Xu, Xuankuo; Ghose, Sanchayita; Li, Zheng J; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2018-04-16

    Depth filtration is widely used in downstream bioprocessing to remove particulate contaminants via depth straining and is therefore applied to harvest clarification and other processing steps. However, depth filtration also removes proteins via adsorption, which can contribute variously to impurity clearance and to reduction in product yield. The adsorption may occur on the different components of the depth filter, that is, filter aid, binder, and cellulose filter. We measured adsorption of several model proteins and therapeutic proteins onto filter aids, cellulose, and commercial depth filters at pH 5-8 and ionic strengths filter component in the adsorption of proteins with different net charges, using confocal microscopy. Our findings show that a complete depth filter's maximum adsorptive capacity for proteins can be estimated by its protein monolayer coverage values, which are of order mg/m 2 , depending on the protein size. Furthermore, the extent of adsorption of different proteins appears to depend on the nature of the resin binder and its extent of coating over the depth filter surface, particularly in masking the cation-exchanger-like capacity of the siliceous filter aids. In addition to guiding improved depth filter selection, the findings can be leveraged in inspiring a more intentional selection of components and design of depth filter construction for particular impurity removal targets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Zhou, Yuhong

    2014-08-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user's inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Advances in Consolidated Bioprocessing Using Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacter saccharolyticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, Lee R. [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Guss, Adam M. [ORNL; Himmel, Mike [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Beri, Dhananjay [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Herring, Christopher [Mascoma Corporation; Holwerda, Evert [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Murphy, Sean J. [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Olson, Daniel G. [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Paye, Julie [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Rydzak, Thomas [ORNL; Shao, Xiongjun [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Tian, Liang [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering; Worthen, Robert [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances are addressed pertaining to consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of plant cell walls to ethanol using two thermophilic, saccharolytic bacteria: the cellulose-fermenting Clostridium thermocellum and the hemicellulose- fermenting ermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum. On the basis of the largest comparative dataset assembled to date, it appears that C. thermocellum is substantially more effective at solubilizing unpretreated plant cell walls than industry-standard fungal cellulase, and that this is particularly the case for more recalcitrant feedstocks. e distinctive central metabolism of C. thermocellum appears to involve more extensive energy coupling (e.g., on the order of 5 ATP per glucosyl moiety) than most fermentative anaerobes. Ethanol yields and titers realized by engineered strains of T. saccharolyticum meet standards for industrial feasibility and provide an important proof of concept as well as a model that may be emulated in other organisms. Progress has also been made with C. thermocellum, although not yet to this extent. e current state of strain development is summarized and outstanding challenges for commercial application are discussed. We speculate that CBP organism development is more promising starting with naturally occurring cellulolytic microbes as compared to starting with noncellulolytic hosts.

  2. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A Koutinas

    Full Text Available Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation. The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator. Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  3. An analytical/numerical correlation study of the multiple concentric cylinder model for the thermoplastic response of metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Salzar, Robert S.; Williams, Todd O.

    1993-01-01

    The utility of a recently developed analytical micromechanics model for the response of metal matrix composites under thermal loading is illustrated by comparison with the results generated using the finite-element approach. The model is based on the concentric cylinder assemblage consisting of an arbitrary number of elastic or elastoplastic sublayers with isotropic or orthotropic, temperature-dependent properties. The elastoplastic boundary-value problem of an arbitrarily layered concentric cylinder is solved using the local/global stiffness matrix formulation (originally developed for elastic layered media) and Mendelson's iterative technique of successive elastic solutions. These features of the model facilitate efficient investigation of the effects of various microstructural details, such as functionally graded architectures of interfacial layers, on the evolution of residual stresses during cool down. The available closed-form expressions for the field variables can readily be incorporated into an optimization algorithm in order to efficiently identify optimal configurations of graded interfaces for given applications. Comparison of residual stress distributions after cool down generated using finite-element analysis and the present micromechanics model for four composite systems with substantially different temperature-dependent elastic, plastic, and thermal properties illustrates the efficacy of the developed analytical scheme.

  4. Solution-based analysis of multiple analytes by a sensor array: toward the development of an electronic tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Steven M.; Lavigne, John J.; Yoo, J. S.; Wright, John; Rodriguez, Marc; Goodey, Adrian; McDoniel, Bridget; McDevitt, John T.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Shear, Jason B.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Neikirk, Dean P.

    1998-12-01

    A micromachined sensor array has been developed for the rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in aqueous media. The sensor functions in a manner analogous to that of the mammalian tongue, using an array composed of individually immobilized polystyrene-polyethylene glycol composite microspheres selectively arranged in micromachined etch cavities localized o n silicon wafers. Sensing occurs via colorimetric or fluorometric changes to indicator molecules that are covalently bound to amine termination sites on the polymeric microspheres. The hybrid micromachined structure has been interfaced directly to a charged-coupled-device that is used for the simultaneous acquisition of the optical data from the individually addressable `taste bud' elements. With the miniature sensor array, acquisition of data streams composed of red, green, and blue color patterns distinctive for the analytes in the solution are rapidly acquired. The unique combination of carefully chosen reporter molecules with water permeable microspheres allows for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of analytes. The fabrication of the sensor structures and the initial colorimetric and fluorescent responses for pH, Ca+2, Ce+3, and sugar are reported. Interface to microfluidic components should also be possible, producing a complete sampling/sensing system.

  5. Capillary gel electrophoresis-coupled aptamer enzymatic cleavage protection strategy for the simultaneous detection of multiple small analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Sandrine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Fiore, Emmanuelle; Ravelet, Corinne; Guieu, Valérie; Peyrin, Eric

    2014-05-06

    This novel, multi small-analyte sensing strategy is the result of combining the target-induced aptamer enzymatic protection approach with the CGE-LIF (capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence) technique. The implemented assay principle is based on an analysis of the phosphodiesterase I (PDE I)-mediated size variation of a fluorescein-labeled aptamer (FApt), the enzyme catalyzing the removal of nucleotides from DNA in the 3' to 5' direction. In the absence of the target, the unfolded aptamer was enzymatically cleaved into short DNA fragments. Upon target binding, the DNA substrate was partially protected against enzymatic hydrolysis. The amount of bound aptamer remaining after the exonuclease reaction was proportional to the concentration of the target. The CGE technique, which was used to determine the separation of FApt species from DNA digested products, permitted the quantification of adenosine (A), ochratoxin A (O), and tyrosinamide (T) under the same optimized enzymatic conditions. This assay strategy was subsequently applied to the simultaneous detection of A, O, and T in a single capillary under buffered conditions using corresponding FApt probes of different lengths (23, 36, and 49 nucleotides, respectively). Additionally, the detection of these three small molecules was successfully achieved in a complex medium (diluted, heat-treated human serum) showing a good recovery. It is worth noting that the multiplexed analysis was accomplished for targets with different charge states by using aptamers possessing various structural features. This sensing platform constitutes a rationalized and reliable approach with an expanded potential for a high-throughput determination of small analytes in a single capillary.

  6. Incorporating unnatural amino acids to engineer biocatalysts for industrial bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Yuvaraj; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Hyeon Yoo, Tae; Lee, Chong-Soon; Yun, Hyungdon

    2015-12-01

    The bioprocess engineering with biocatalysts broadly spans its development and actual application of enzymes in an industrial context. Recently, both the use of bioprocess engineering and the development and employment of enzyme engineering techniques have been increasing rapidly. Importantly, engineering techniques that incorporate unnatural amino acids (UAAs) in vivo has begun to produce enzymes with greater stability and altered catalytic properties. Despite the growth of this technique, its potential value in bioprocess applications remains to be fully exploited. In this review, we explore the methodologies involved in UAA incorporation as well as ways to synthesize these UAAs. In addition, we summarize recent efforts to increase the yield of UAA engineered proteins in Escherichia coli and also the application of this tool in enzyme engineering. Furthermore, this protein engineering tool based on the incorporation of UAA can be used to develop immobilized enzymes that are ideal for bioprocess applications. Considering the potential of this tool and by exploiting these engineered enzymes, we expect the field of bioprocess engineering to open up new opportunities for biocatalysis in the near future. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analytical approach for modeling and performance analysis of microring resonators as optical filters with multiple output bus waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Suchita; Mandal, Sanjoy

    2017-06-01

    A quadruple micro-optical ring resonator (QMORR) with multiple output bus waveguides is mathematically modeled and analyzed by making use of the delay-line signal processing approach in Z-domain and Mason's gain formula. The performances of QMORR with two output bus waveguides with vertical coupling are analyzed. This proposed structure is capable of providing wider free spectral response from both the output buses with appreciable cross talk. Thus, this configuration could provide increased capacity to insert a large number of communication channels. The simulated frequency response characteristic and its dispersion and group delay characteristics are graphically presented using the MATLAB environment.

  8. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  9. White paper on continuous bioprocessing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin B; Cooney, Charles L

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in realizing the benefits of continuous processing in biologics manufacturing, which is reflected by the significant number of industrial and academic researchers who are actively involved in the development of continuous bioprocessing systems. These efforts are further encouraged by guidance expressed in recent US FDA conference presentations. The advantages of continuous manufacturing include sustained operation with consistent product quality, reduced equipment size, high-volumetric productivity, streamlined process flow, low-process cycle times, and reduced capital and operating cost. This technology, however, poses challenges, which need to be addressed before routine implementation is considered. This paper, which is based on the available literature and input from a large number of reviewers, is intended to provide a consensus of the opportunities, technical needs, and strategic directions for continuous bioprocessing. The discussion is supported by several examples illustrating various architectures of continuous bioprocessing systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. The nature of verbal memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: a list-learning and meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Jose M; Mitchell, Sandra M; Corboy, John R; Filley, Christopher M

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have impaired acquisition rather than a retrieval deficit. Verbal memory impairment in MS was examined in 53 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 31 healthy controls (HC), and in a meta-analysis of studies that examined memory functioning in MS with list-learning tasks. The MS group demonstrated significantly lower acquisition and delayed recall performance than the HC group, and the meta-analysis revealed that the largest effect sizes were obtained for acquisition measures relative to delayed recall and recognition. Our data argue against a retrieval deficit as the sole explanation for verbal memory impairment in MS, and make a consistent case for the position that deficient acquisition contributes to the memory dysfunction of MS patients. Deficient acquisition may result from demyelination in relevant white matter tracts that reduces encoding efficiency as a result of impaired speed of information processing.

  11. Systematic Development of Miniaturized (Bio)Processes using Process Systems Engineering (PSE) Methods and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Larsson, Hilde; Heintz, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this work is on process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools, and especially on how such PSE methods and tools can be used to accelerate and support systematic bioprocess development at a miniature scale. After a short presentation of the PSE methods and the bioprocess...... development drivers, three case studies are presented. In the first example it is demonstrated how experimental investigations of the bi-enzymatic production of lactobionic acid can be modeled with help of a new mechanistic mathematical model. The reaction was performed at lab scale and the prediction quality...

  12. Theoretical analysis of multiple quantum-well, slow-light devices under applied external fields using a fully analytical model in fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohandani, R; Kaatuzian, H [Photonics Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, AmirKabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-31

    We report a theoretical study of optical properties of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum-well (MQW), slow-light devices based on excitonic population oscillations under applied external magnetic and electric fields using an analytical model for complex dielectric constant of Wannier excitons in fractional dimension. The results are shown for quantum wells (QWs) of different width. The significant characteristics of the exciton in QWs such as exciton energy and exciton oscillator strength (EOS) can be varied by application of external magnetic and electric fields. It is found that a higher bandwidth and an appropriate slow-down factor (SDF) can be achieved by changing the QW width during the fabrication process and by applying magnetic and electric fields during device functioning, respectively. It is shown that a SDF of 10{sup 5} is obtained at best. (slowing of light)

  13. Improved hybridization of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) algorithm with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiwani, B. E.; Zarlis, M.; Efendi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the improvement of hybridization algorithm of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS) in selecting the best bank chief inspector based on several qualitative and quantitative criteria with various priorities. To improve the performance of the above research, FAHP algorithm hybridization with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW) algorithm was adopted, which applied FAHP algorithm to the weighting process and SAW for the ranking process to determine the promotion of employee at a government institution. The result of improvement of the average value of Efficiency Rate (ER) is 85.24%, which means that this research has succeeded in improving the previous research that is equal to 77.82%. Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Fuzzy AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, FMADM-SAW.

  14. Process relevant screening of cellulolytic organisms for consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Elena; Schlembach, Ivan; Regestein, Lars; Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Büchs, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Although the biocatalytic conversion of cellulosic biomass could replace fossil oil for the production of various compounds, it is often not economically viable due to the high costs of cellulolytic enzymes. One possibility to reduce costs is consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), integrating cellulase production, hydrolysis of cellulose, and the fermentation of the released sugars to the desired product into one process step. To establish such a process, the most suitable cellulase-producing organism has to be identified. Thereby, it is crucial to evaluate the candidates under target process conditions. In this work, the chosen model process was the conversion of cellulose to the platform chemical itaconic acid by a mixed culture of a cellulolytic fungus with Aspergillus terreus as itaconic acid producer. Various cellulase producers were analyzed by the introduced freeze assay that measures the initial carbon release rate, quantifying initial cellulase activity under target process conditions. Promising candidates were then characterized online by monitoring their respiration activity metabolizing cellulose to assess the growth and enzyme production dynamics. The screening of five different cellulase producers with the freeze assay identified Trichoderma   reesei and Penicillium   verruculosum as most promising. The measurement of the respiration activity revealed a retarded induction of cellulase production for P.   verruculosum but a similar cellulase production rate afterwards, compared to T.   reesei . The freeze assay measurement depicted that P.   verruculosum reaches the highest initial carbon release rate among all investigated cellulase producers. After a modification of the cultivation procedure, these results were confirmed by the respiration activity measurement. To compare both methods, a correlation between the measured respiration activity and the initial carbon release rate of the freeze assay was introduced. The analysis revealed that the

  15. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed

  16. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  17. Oxygen transport enhancement by functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (FMP) in bioprocesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataide, Filipe Andre Prata

    The enhancement of fluid properties, namely thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity for a wide range of applications, through the use of nanosized particles' suspensions has been gathering increasing interest in the scientific community. In previous studies, Olle et al. (2006) showed an enhancement in oxygen absorption to aqueous solutions of up to 6-fold through the use of functionalized nanosized magnetic particles with oleic acid coating. Krishnamurthy et al. (2006) showed a remarkable 26-fold enhancement in dye diffusion in water. These two publications are landmarks in mass transfer enhancement in chemical systems through the use of nanoparticles. The central goal of this Ph.D. thesis was to develop functionalized magnetic nanoparticles to enhance oxygen transport in bioprocesses. The experimental protocol for magnetic nanoparticles synthesis and purification adopted in this thesis is a modification of that reported by Olle et al. (2006). This is facilitated by employing twice the quantity of ammonia, added at a slower rate, and by filtering the final nanoparticle solution in a cross-flow filtration modulus against 55 volumes of distilled water. This modification in the protocol resulted in improved magnetic nanoparticles with measurably higher mass transfer enhancement. Magnetic nanoparticles with oleic acid and Hitenol-BC coating were screened for oxygen transfer enhancement, since these particles are relatively inexpensive and easy to synthesize. A glass 0.5-liter reactor was custom manufactured specifically for oxygen transport studies in magnetic nanoparticles suspensions. The reactor geometry, baffles and Rushton impeller are of standard dimensions. Mass transfer tests were conducted through the use of the sulphite oxidation method, applying iodometric back-titration. A 3-factor central composite circumscribed design (CCD) was adopted for design of experiments in order to generate sufficiently informative data to model the effect of magnetic

  18. Metabolite profiling of CHO cells: Molecular reflections of bioprocessing effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellick, C.A.; Croxford, A.S.; Maqsood, A.R.; Stephens, G.M.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Goodacre, R.; Dickson, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst development of medium and feeds has provided major advances in recombinant protein production in CHO cells, the fundamental understanding is limited. We have applied metabolite profiling with established robust (GC-MS) analytics to define the molecular loci by which two yield-enhancing feeds

  19. A framework for model-based optimization of bioprocesses under uncertainty: Identifying critical parameters and operating variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the development and application of a systematic model-based framework for bioprocess optimization, evaluated on a cellulosic ethanol production case study. The implementation of the framework involves the use of dynamic simulations, sophisticated uncertainty analysis (Monte...

  20. Conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F.; Hardin, James W.; Nichols, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Validation-study data are used to illustrate that conclusions about children’s reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews (ie, time) depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported and reference information—conventional, which disregards accuracy of reported items and amounts, or reporting-error-sensitive, which classifies reported items as matches (eaten) or intrusions (not eaten), and amounts as corresponding or overreported. Subjects and design Children were observed eating school meals on one day (n = 12), or two (n = 13) or three (n = 79) nonconsecutive days separated by ≥25 days, and interviewed in the morning after each observation day about intake the previous day. Reference (observed) and reported information were transformed to energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat), and compared. Main outcome measures For energy and each macronutrient: report rates (reported/reference), correspondence rates (genuine accuracy measures), inflation ratios (error measures). Statistical analyses Mixed-model analyses. Results Using the conventional approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, report rates did not vary systematically over interviews (Ps > .61). Using the reporting-error-sensitive approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, correspondence rates increased over interviews (Ps macronutrients improved over time, but the conventional approach masked improvements and overestimated accuracy. Applications The reporting-error-sensitive approach is recommended when analyzing data from validation studies of dietary reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients. PMID:17383265

  1. Conclusions about children's reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported information to reference information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Smith, Albert F; Hardin, James W; Nichols, Michele D

    2007-04-01

    Validation study data are used to illustrate that conclusions about children's reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients over multiple interviews (ie, time) depend on the analytic approach for comparing reported and reference information-conventional, which disregards accuracy of reported items and amounts, or reporting-error-sensitive, which classifies reported items as matches (eaten) or intrusions (not eaten), and amounts as corresponding or overreported. Children were observed eating school meals on 1 day (n=12), or 2 (n=13) or 3 (n=79) nonconsecutive days separated by >or=25 days, and interviewed in the morning after each observation day about intake the previous day. Reference (observed) and reported information were transformed to energy and macronutrients (ie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat), and compared. For energy and each macronutrient: report rates (reported/reference), correspondence rates (genuine accuracy measures), and inflation ratios (error measures). Mixed-model analyses. Using the conventional approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, report rates did not vary systematically over interviews (all four P values >0.61). Using the reporting-error-sensitive approach for analyzing energy and macronutrients, correspondence rates increased over interviews (all four P values macronutrients improved over time, but the conventional approach masked improvements and overestimated accuracy. The reporting-error-sensitive approach is recommended when analyzing data from validation studies of dietary reporting accuracy for energy and macronutrients.

  2. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  3. Mannheimia haemolytica growth and leukotoxin production for vaccine manufacturing — A bioprocess review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Oppermann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin (LKT is a known cause of bovine respiratory disease (BRD which results in severe economic losses in the cattle industry (up to USD 1 billion per year in the USA. Vaccines based on LKT offer the most promising measure to contain BRD outbreaks and are already commercially available. However, insufficient LKT yields, predominantly reflecting a lack of knowledge about the LKT expression process, remain a significant engineering problem and further bioprocess optimization is required to increase process efficiency. Most previous investigations have focused on LKT activity and cell growth, but neither of these parameters defines reliable criteria for the improvement of LKT yields. In this article, we review the most important process conditions and operational parameters (temperature, pH, substrate concentration, dissolved oxygen level, medium composition and the presence of metabolites from a bioprocess engineering perspective, in order to maximize LKT yields.

  4. Application of agent-based system for bioprocess description and process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Kipling, Katie; Glassey, Jarka; Willis, Mark; Montague, Gary; Zhou, Yuhong; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2010-01-01

    Modeling plays an important role in bioprocess development for design and scale-up. Predictive models can also be used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing to assist decision-making either to maintain process consistency or to identify optimal operating conditions. To predict the whole bioprocess performance, the strong interactions present in a processing sequence must be adequately modeled. Traditionally, bioprocess modeling considers process units separately, which makes it difficult to capture the interactions between units. In this work, a systematic framework is developed to analyze the bioprocesses based on a whole process understanding and considering the interactions between process operations. An agent-based approach is adopted to provide a flexible infrastructure for the necessary integration of process models. This enables the prediction of overall process behavior, which can then be applied during process development or once manufacturing has commenced, in both cases leading to the capacity for fast evaluation of process improvement options. The multi-agent system comprises a process knowledge base, process models, and a group of functional agents. In this system, agent components co-operate with each other in performing their tasks. These include the description of the whole process behavior, evaluating process operating conditions, monitoring of the operating processes, predicting critical process performance, and providing guidance to decision-making when coping with process deviations. During process development, the system can be used to evaluate the design space for process operation. During manufacture, the system can be applied to identify abnormal process operation events and then to provide suggestions as to how best to cope with the deviations. In all cases, the function of the system is to ensure an efficient manufacturing process. The implementation of the agent-based approach is illustrated via selected application scenarios, which

  5. Production-process optimization algorithm: Application to fed-batch bioprocess

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pčolka, M.; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 354, č. 18 (2017), s. 8529-8551 ISSN 0016-0032 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04682S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Optimal control * Bioprocess * Optimization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Automation and control systems Impact factor: 3.139, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfranklin.2017.10.012

  6. ADAPTIVE HIGH GAIN OBSERVER EXTENSION AND ITS APPLICATION TO BIOPROCESS MONITORING

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čelikovský, Sergej; Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2018), s. 155-174 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive observers * nonlinear systems * bioprocess Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2016 http://doi.org/10.14736/kyb-2018-1-0155

  7. Development of a high-throughput microscale cell disruption platform for Pichia pastoris in rapid bioprocess design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bláha, Benjamin A F; Morris, Stephen A; Ogonah, Olotu W; Maucourant, Sophie; Crescente, Vincenzo; Rosenberg, William; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit K

    2018-01-01

    The time and cost benefits of miniaturized fermentation platforms can only be gained by employing complementary techniques facilitating high-throughput at small sample volumes. Microbial cell disruption is a major bottleneck in experimental throughput and is often restricted to large processing volumes. Moreover, for rigid yeast species, such as Pichia pastoris, no effective high-throughput disruption methods exist. The development of an automated, miniaturized, high-throughput, noncontact, scalable platform based on adaptive focused acoustics (AFA) to disrupt P. pastoris and recover intracellular heterologous protein is described. Augmented modes of AFA were established by investigating vessel designs and a novel enzymatic pretreatment step. Three different modes of AFA were studied and compared to the performance high-pressure homogenization. For each of these modes of cell disruption, response models were developed to account for five different performance criteria. Using multiple responses not only demonstrated that different operating parameters are required for different response optima, with highest product purity requiring suboptimal values for other criteria, but also allowed for AFA-based methods to mimic large-scale homogenization processes. These results demonstrate that AFA-mediated cell disruption can be used for a wide range of applications including buffer development, strain selection, fermentation process development, and whole bioprocess integration. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:130-140, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Sourcing and bioprocessing of brown seaweed for maximizing glucose release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin

    maximum levels of glucose. The first requirement was to develop a robust methodology, including acid hydrolysis and analytical composition analysis, to quantitatively estimate the carbohydrate composition of the brown seaweeds. The monosaccharide composition of four different samples of brown seaweeds...... with lower enzyme loading. Simple application of only the cellulase preparation enabled the release of only half of the present glucose after 8 h. Analysis after the enzymatic treatment indicated a potential extraction of proteins from the solid residue and the sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan solubilized...

  9. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  10. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  11. New perspectives for the petroleum industry. Bioprocesses for the selective removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel biocatalytic conversion is a process that removes, through selective enzyme-catalyzed reactions, sulphur, nitrogen and metals. The mild operating conditions, the specificity of reactions and the quality of coproducts (particularly the organo sulphur compounds, a source for the petrochemical industry) are just a few of the attractive aspects of this new technology which could open a new world of possibilities in the technology and in the environmental impact of fuels. The paper shows the state-of-the-art of the research and applications of bioprocesses to the petroleum field [it

  12. Design-for-Six-Sigma To Develop a Bioprocess Knowledge Management Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Beth; Maheshwari, Gargi; Ranheim, Todd; Altaras, Nedim; Stankevicz, Michael; Harmon, Lori; Rios, Sandra; D'anjou, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the high costs associated with biopharmaceutical development, considerable pressure has developed for the biopharmaceutical industry to increase productivity by becoming more lean and flexible. The ability to reuse knowledge was identified as one key advantage to streamline productivity, efficiently use resources, and ultimately perform better than the competition. A knowledge management (KM) strategy was assembled for bioprocess-related information using the technique of Design-for-Six-Sigma (DFSS). This strategy supported quality-by-design and process validation efforts for pipeline as well as licensed products. The DFSS technique was selected because it was both streamlined and efficient. These characteristics permitted development of a KM strategy with minimized team leader and team member resources. DFSS also placed a high emphasis on the voice of the customer, information considered crucial to the selection of solutions most appropriate for the current knowledge-based challenges of the organization. The KM strategy developed was comprised of nine workstreams, constructed from related solution buckets which in turn were assembled from the individual solution tasks that were identified. Each workstream's detailed design was evaluated against published and established best practices, as well as the KM strategy project charter and design inputs. Gaps and risks were identified and mitigated as necessary to improve the robustness of the proposed strategy. Aggregated resources (specifically expense/capital funds and staff) and timing were estimated to obtain vital management sponsorship for implementation. Where possible, existing governance and divisional/corporate information technology efforts were leveraged to minimize the additional bioprocess resources required for implementation. Finally, leading and lagging indicator metrics were selected to track the success of pilots and eventual implementation. A knowledge management framework was assembled for

  13. Effect of Bioprocessing on the In Vitro Colonic Microbial Metabolism of Phenolic Acids from Rye Bran Fortified Breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati

    2017-01-01

    in an in vitro colon model, the metabolites were analyzed using two different methods applying mass spectrometry. While phenolic acids were released more extensively from the bioprocessed bran bread and ferulic acid had consistently higher concentrations in the bread type during fermentation, there were only......Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation...

  14. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  15. Consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production from rice straw with undefined mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binling Ai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L•d. In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41% and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  16. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. ► Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. ► Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. ► Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. ► Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  17. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodic, Sinisa N.; Vucurovic, Damjan G.; Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  18. Bioprocessing strategies for the large-scale production of human mesenchymal stem cells: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchalingam, Krishna M; Jung, Sunghoon; Rosenberg, Lawrence; Behie, Leo A

    2015-11-23

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), also called mesenchymal stromal cells, have been of great interest in regenerative medicine applications because of not only their differentiation potential but also their ability to secrete bioactive factors that can modulate the immune system and promote tissue repair. This potential has initiated many early-phase clinical studies for the treatment of various diseases, disorders, and injuries by using either hMSCs themselves or their secreted products. Currently, hMSCs for clinical use are generated through conventional static adherent cultures in the presence of fetal bovine serum or human-sourced supplements. However, these methods suffer from variable culture conditions (i.e., ill-defined medium components and heterogeneous culture environment) and thus are not ideal procedures to meet the expected future demand of quality-assured hMSCs for human therapeutic use. Optimizing a bioprocess to generate hMSCs or their secreted products (or both) promises to improve the efficacy as well as safety of this stem cell therapy. In this review, current media and methods for hMSC culture are outlined and bioprocess development strategies discussed.

  19. BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENTS FOR CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Aspergillus oryzae CULTIVATED UNDER SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. P. B. Pirota

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioprocess development studies concerning the production of cellulases are of crucial importance due to the significant impact of these enzymes on the economics of biomass conversion into fuels and chemicals. This work evaluates the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF operational conditions on cellulase production by a novel strain of Aspergillus oryzae using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The use of SSF cultivation under controlled conditions substantially improved cellulase production. Highest production of FPase (0.40 IU g-1, endoglucanase (123.64 IU g-1, and β-glucosidase (18.32 IU g-1 was achieved at 28 °C, using an initial substrate moisture content of 70%, with an inlet air humidity of 80% and an airflow rate of 20 mL min-1. Further studies of kinetic profiles and respirometric analyses were performed. The results showed that these data could be very useful for bioprocess development of cellulase production and scale-up.

  20. Development of bioprocess for high density cultivation yield of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R. Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans is a spore forming lactic acid bacterium. Spore forming bacteria, have been extensively studied and commercialized as probiotics. Probiotics are produced by fermentation technology. There is a limitation to biomass produced by conventional modes of fermentation. With the great demand generated by range of probiotic products, biomass is becoming very valuable for several pharmaceutical, dairy and probiotic companies. Thus, there is a need to develop high cell density cultivation processes for enhanced biomass accumulation. The bioprocess development was carried out in 6.6 L bench top lab scale fermentor. Four different cultivation strategies were employed to develop a bioprocess for higher growth and sporulation efficiencies of probiotic B. coagulans. Batch fermentation of B. coagulans yielded 18 g L-1 biomass (as against 8.0 g L-1 productivity in shake flask with 60% spore efficiency. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out for glucose, which yielded 25 g L-1 of biomass. C/N ratio was very crucial in achieving higher spore titres. Maximum biomass yield recorded was 30 g L-1, corresponding to 3.8 × 1011 cells mL-1 with 81% of cells in sporulated stage. The yield represents increment of 85 times the productivity and 158 times the spore titres relative to the highest reported values for high density cultivation of B. coagulans.

  1. Advances in consolidated bioprocessing systems for bioethanol and butanol production from biomass: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both cellulytic and ethanologenic microorganisms, and genetic engineering of cellulytic microorganisms to be alcohol-producing or alcohol producing microorganisms to be cellulytic. Moreover, high-throughput techniques, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, next generation sequencing and synthetic biology developed to explore novel microorganisms and powerful enzymes with high activity, thermostability and pH stability are also discussed. Currently, the CBP technology is in its infant stage, and ideal microorganisms and/or conditions at industrial scale are yet to be introduced. So, it is essential to bring into attention all barriers faced and take advantage of all the experiences gained to achieve a high-yield and low-cost CBP process.

  2. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  3. Implementation and use of cloud-based electronic lab notebook in a bioprocess engineering teaching laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin M; Hattaway, Holly Z; Felse, P Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Electronic lab notebooks (ELNs) are better equipped than paper lab notebooks (PLNs) to handle present-day life science and engineering experiments that generate large data sets and require high levels of data integrity. But limited training and a lack of workforce with ELN knowledge have restricted the use of ELN in academic and industry research laboratories which still rely on cumbersome PLNs for recordkeeping. We used LabArchives, a cloud-based ELN in our bioprocess engineering lab course to train students in electronic record keeping, good documentation practices (GDPs), and data integrity. Implementation of ELN in the bioprocess engineering lab course, an analysis of user experiences, and our development actions to improve ELN training are presented here. ELN improved pedagogy and learning outcomes of the lab course through stream lined workflow, quick data recording and archiving, and enhanced data sharing and collaboration. It also enabled superior data integrity, simplified information exchange, and allowed real-time and remote monitoring of experiments. Several attributes related to positive user experiences of ELN improved between the two subsequent years in which ELN was offered. Student responses also indicate that ELN is better than PLN for compliance. We demonstrated that ELN can be successfully implemented in a lab course with significant benefits to pedagogy, GDP training, and data integrity. The methods and processes presented here for ELN implementation can be adapted to many types of laboratory experiments.

  4. The use of selective adsorbents in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyte preconcentration and microreactions: a powerful three-dimensional tool for multiple chemical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N A; Stubbs, R J

    2001-10-01

    Much attention has recently been directed to the development and application of online sample preconcentration and microreactions in capillary electrophoresis using selective adsorbents based on chemical or biological specificity. The basic principle involves two interacting chemical or biological systems with high selectivity and affinity for each other. These molecular interactions in nature usually involve noncovalent and reversible chemical processes. Properly bound to a solid support, an "affinity ligand" can selectively adsorb a "target analyte" found in a simple or complex mixture at a wide range of concentrations. As a result, the isolated analyte is enriched and highly purified. When this affinity technique, allowing noncovalent chemical interactions and biochemical reactions to occur, is coupled on-line to high-resolution capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, a powerful tool of chemical and biological information is created. This paper describes the concept of biological recognition and affinity interaction on-line with high-resolution separation, the fabrication of an "analyte concentrator-microreactor", optimization conditions of adsorption and desorption, the coupling to mass spectrometry, and various applications of clinical and pharmaceutical interest.

  5. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-05

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  7. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature indicated that most of the R&D work was devoted predominantly to studies at an empirical level. A rational approach to molecular plant cell bioprocessing based on the fundamental understanding of metabolic pathways and their regulations is urgently required to stimulate further advances; however, the strategies and technical framework are still being developed. It is the aim of this review to take a step forward in framing workable strategies and technologies for molecular plant cell-based bioprocessing. Using anthocyanin biosynthesis as a case study, an integrated postgenomic approach has been proposed. This combines the functional analysis of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of a particular metabolite from profiling of gene expression and protein expression to metabolic profiling. A global correlation not only can thus be established at the three molecular levels, but also places emphasis on the interactions between primary metabolism and secondary metabolism; between competing and/or complimentary pathways; and between biosynthetic and post-biosynthetic events.

  8. Turmeric bioprocessed with mycelia from the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom lentinus edodes (agaricomycetes) protects mice against salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  9. Selection of controlled variables in bioprocesses. Application to a SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde Perez, Borja; Sin, Gürkan

    Selecting the right controlled variables in a bioprocess is challenging since the objectives of the process (yields, product or substrate concentration) are difficult to relate with a given actuator. We apply here process control tools that can be used to assist in the selection of controlled var...... variables to the case of the SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal....

  10. Technical Aspects of Use of Ultrasound for Intensification of Enzymatic Bio-Processing: New Path to "Green Chemistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of enzymatic processing in the food, textile, and bio-fuel applications is becoming increasingly popular, primarily because of rapid introduction of a new variety of highly efficient enzymes. In general, an enzymatic bio-processing generates less toxic and readily biodegradable wastewater efflue...

  11. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  12. Hybrid elementary flux analysis/nonparametric modeling: application for bioprocess control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paula M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progress in the "-omic" sciences has allowed a deeper knowledge on many biological systems with industrial interest. This knowledge is still rarely used for advanced bioprocess monitoring and control at the bioreactor level. In this work, a bioprocess control method is presented, which is designed on the basis of the metabolic network of the organism under consideration. The bioprocess dynamics are formulated using hybrid rigorous/data driven systems and its inherent structure is defined by the metabolism elementary modes. Results The metabolic network of the system under study is decomposed into elementary modes (EMs, which are the simplest paths able to operate coherently in steady-state. A reduced reaction mechanism in the form of simplified reactions connecting substrates with end-products is obtained. A dynamical hybrid system integrating material balance equations, EMs reactions stoichiometry and kinetics was formulated. EMs kinetics were defined as the product of two terms: a mechanistic/empirical known term and an unknown term that must be identified from data, in a process optimisation perspective. This approach allows the quantification of fluxes carried by individual elementary modes which is of great help to identify dominant pathways as a function of environmental conditions. The methodology was employed to analyse experimental data of recombinant Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21A cultures producing a recombinant fusion glycoprotein. The identified EMs kinetics demonstrated typical glucose and glutamine metabolic responses during cell growth and IgG1-IL2 synthesis. Finally, an online optimisation study was conducted in which the optimal feeding strategies of glucose and glutamine were calculated after re-estimation of model parameters at each sampling time. An improvement in the final product concentration was obtained as a result of this online optimisation. Conclusion The main contribution of this work is a

  13. Dynamics of complex interconnected systems: Networks and bioprocesses[A NATO study seminary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, Line K

    2005-07-01

    Rapid detection of chemical and biological agents and weapons, and rapid diagnosis of their effects on people will require molecular recognition as well as signal discrimination, i.e. avoiding false positives and negatives, and signal transduction. It will be important to have reagentless, cheap, easily manufactured sensors that can be field deployed in large numbers. While this problem is urgent it is not yet solved. This ASI brought together researchers with various interests and background including theoretical physicists, soft condensed matter experimentalists, biological physicists, and molecular biologists to identify and discuss areas where synergism between modem physics and biology may be most fruitfully applied to the study of bioprocesses for molecular recognition and of networks for converting molecular reactions into usable signals and appropriate responses. (Author)

  14. A fast and systematic procedure to develop dynamic models of bioprocesses: application to microalgae cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mailier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a procedure for inferring black-box, yet biologically interpretable, dynamic models of bioprocesses based on sets of measurements of a few external components (biomass, substrates, and products of interest. The procedure has three main steps: (a the determination of the number of macroscopic biological reactions linking the measured components; (b the estimation of a first reaction scheme, which has interesting mathematical properties, but might lack a biological interpretation; and (c the "projection" (or transformation of this reaction scheme onto a biologically-consistent scheme. The advantage of the method is that it allows the fast prototyping of models for the culture of microorganisms that are not well documented. The good performance of the third step of the method is demonstrated by application to an example of microalgal culture.

  15. Production of a generic microbial feedstock for lignocellulose biorefineries through sequential bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Wei; Webb, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials, mostly from agricultural and forestry residues, provide a potential renewable resource for sustainable biorefineries. Reducing sugars can be produced only after a pre-treatment stage, which normally involves chemicals but can be biological. In this case, two steps are usually necessary: solid-state cultivation of fungi for deconstruction, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulolytic enzymes. In this research, the utilisation of solid-state bioprocessing using the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum was implemented as a simultaneous microbial pretreatment and in-situ enzyme production method for fungal autolysis and further enzyme hydrolysis of fermented solids. Suspending the fermented solids in water at 50°C led to the highest hydrolysis yields of 226mg/g reducing sugar and 7.7mg/g free amino nitrogen (FAN). The resultant feedstock was shown to be suitable for the production of various products including ethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consolidated bioprocessing for production of polyhydroxyalkanotes from red algae Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Shailesh S; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Kim, Beom Soo

    2018-04-01

    Noncompetitive carbon sources such as algae are unconventional and promising raw material for sustainable biofuel production. The capability of one marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 to degrade red seaweed Gelidium amansii for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was evaluated in this study. S. degradans can readily attach to algae, degrade algal carbohydrates, and utilize that material as main carbon source. Minimal media containing 8g/L G. amansii were used for the growth of S. degradans. The PHA content obtained was 17-27% of dry cell weight by pure culture of S. degradans and co-culture of S. degradans and Bacillus cereus, a contaminant found with S. degradans cultures. The PHA type was found to be poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by gas chromatography and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. This work demonstrates PHA production through consolidated bioprocessing of insoluble, untreated red algae by bacterial pure culture and co-culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskovic, P.; Anastasovski, A.; Markovska, Lj.; Mesko, V.

    2010-01-01

    The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six phases, and the primary tool used for the design of heat recovery network was Pinch Analysis. Performance of preliminary design are obtained by targeting procedure, for three process stream sets, and evaluated by the economic criteria. The results of process integration study are presented in the form of heat exchanger networks which fulfilled the utilization of waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.

  19. Investigation of the “true” extraction recovery of analytes from multiple types of tissues and its impact on tissue bioanalysis using two model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Long, E-mail: long.yuan@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ma, Li [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Dillon, Lisa [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Fancher, R. Marcus; Sun, Huadong [Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zhu, Mingshe [Biotransformation, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois [Discovery Toxicology, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Aubry, Anne-Françoise [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ji, Qin C., E-mail: qin.ji@bms.com [Bioanalytical Sciences, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-16

    LC-MS/MS has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of tissue samples. However, one key remaining issue is that the extraction recovery of analyte from spiked tissue calibration standard and quality control samples (QCs) may not accurately represent the “true” recovery of analyte from incurred tissue samples. This may affect the accuracy of LC-MS/MS tissue bioanalysis. Here, we investigated whether the recovery determined using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS can accurately represent the “true” recovery from incurred tissue samples using two model compounds: BMS-986104, a S1P{sub 1} receptor modulator drug candidate, and its phosphate metabolite, BMS-986104-P. We first developed a novel acid and surfactant assisted protein precipitation method for the extraction of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P from rat tissues, and determined their recoveries using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS. We then used radioactive incurred samples from rats dosed with {sup 3}H-labeled BMS-986104 to determine the absolute total radioactivity recovery in six different tissues. The recoveries determined using tissue QCs and incurred samples matched with each other very well. The results demonstrated that, in this assay, tissue QCs accurately represented the incurred tissue samples to determine the “true” recovery, and LC-MS/MS assay was accurate for tissue bioanalysis. Another aspect we investigated is how the tissue QCs should be prepared to better represent the incurred tissue samples. We compared two different QC preparation methods (analyte spiked in tissue homogenates or in intact tissues) and demonstrated that the two methods had no significant difference when a good sample preparation was in place. The developed assay showed excellent accuracy and precision, and was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P in tissues in a rat toxicology study. - Highlights: • Investigated the “true” recovery in six different tissues using incurred

  20. Investigation of the “true” extraction recovery of analytes from multiple types of tissues and its impact on tissue bioanalysis using two model compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Long; Ma, Li; Dillon, Lisa; Fancher, R. Marcus; Sun, Huadong; Zhu, Mingshe; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Ji, Qin C.

    2016-01-01

    LC-MS/MS has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of tissue samples. However, one key remaining issue is that the extraction recovery of analyte from spiked tissue calibration standard and quality control samples (QCs) may not accurately represent the “true” recovery of analyte from incurred tissue samples. This may affect the accuracy of LC-MS/MS tissue bioanalysis. Here, we investigated whether the recovery determined using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS can accurately represent the “true” recovery from incurred tissue samples using two model compounds: BMS-986104, a S1P 1 receptor modulator drug candidate, and its phosphate metabolite, BMS-986104-P. We first developed a novel acid and surfactant assisted protein precipitation method for the extraction of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P from rat tissues, and determined their recoveries using tissue QCs by LC-MS/MS. We then used radioactive incurred samples from rats dosed with 3 H-labeled BMS-986104 to determine the absolute total radioactivity recovery in six different tissues. The recoveries determined using tissue QCs and incurred samples matched with each other very well. The results demonstrated that, in this assay, tissue QCs accurately represented the incurred tissue samples to determine the “true” recovery, and LC-MS/MS assay was accurate for tissue bioanalysis. Another aspect we investigated is how the tissue QCs should be prepared to better represent the incurred tissue samples. We compared two different QC preparation methods (analyte spiked in tissue homogenates or in intact tissues) and demonstrated that the two methods had no significant difference when a good sample preparation was in place. The developed assay showed excellent accuracy and precision, and was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of BMS-986104 and BMS-986104-P in tissues in a rat toxicology study. - Highlights: • Investigated the “true” recovery in six different tissues using incurred tissue

  1. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete‐event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision‐making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E‐factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium‐sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed‐batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision‐making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854–866, 2017

  2. Integrated continuous bioprocessing: Economic, operational, and environmental feasibility for clinical and commercial antibody manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Coffman, Jon; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systems approach to evaluating the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing for monoclonal antibody (mAb) manufacture across a product's lifecycle from preclinical to commercial manufacture. The economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of alternative continuous manufacturing strategies were evaluated holistically using a prototype UCL decisional tool that integrated process economics, discrete-event simulation, environmental impact analysis, operational risk analysis, and multiattribute decision-making. The case study focused on comparing whole bioprocesses that used either batch, continuous or a hybrid combination of batch and continuous technologies for cell culture, capture chromatography, and polishing chromatography steps. The cost of goods per gram (COG/g), E-factor, and operational risk scores of each strategy were established across a matrix of scenarios with differing combinations of clinical development phase and company portfolio size. The tool outputs predict that the optimal strategy for early phase production and small/medium-sized companies is the integrated continuous strategy (alternating tangential flow filtration (ATF) perfusion, continuous capture, continuous polishing). However, the top ranking strategy changes for commercial production and companies with large portfolios to the hybrid strategy with fed-batch culture, continuous capture and batch polishing from a COG/g perspective. The multiattribute decision-making analysis highlighted that if the operational feasibility was considered more important than the economic benefits, the hybrid strategy would be preferred for all company scales. Further considerations outside the scope of this work include the process development costs required to adopt continuous processing. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:854-866, 2017. © 2017 The

  3. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  4. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  5. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  6. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; Aura, Anna-Marja; Selinheimo, Emilia; Mattila, Ismo; Poutanen, Kaisa; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Robert; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly bioaccessible from the cereal matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bioprocessing of the bran in whole wheat bread on the bioavailability of phenolic acids, the postprandial plasma antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread) or bioprocessed bran (bioprocessed bread) in a cross-over design. Urine and blood samples were collected for 24 h to analyze the phenolic acids and metabolites. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was measured in plasma. Cytokines were measured in blood after ex vivo stimulation with LPS. The bioavailabilities of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid from the bioprocessed bread were 2- to 3-fold those from the control bread. Phenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were the main colonic metabolites of the nonbioaccessible phenols. The ratios of pro-:antiinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in LPS-stimulated blood after the consumption of the bioprocessed bread. In conclusion, bioprocessing can remarkably increase the bioavailability of phenolic acids and their circulating metabolites, compounds which have immunomodulatory effects ex vivo.

  7. An Analytical Method for Deriving Reservoir Operation Curves to Maximize Social Benefits from Multiple Uses of Water in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. M.; Jaeger, W. K.; Jones, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    uncertainty and risk daily, and 3) require complex computer programming. The proposed research addresses these critiques by pursuing a novel approach - the development of an analytical method to demonstrate how reservoir management could adapt to anticipated changes in water supply and demand, which incorporates some of the complexity of the hydrologic system, includes stochasticity, and can be readily implemented. Employing a normative economic framework of social welfare maximization, the research will 1) estimate the social benefits associated with reservoir uses, 2) analytically derive conditions for maximizing the benefits of reservoir operation, and 3) estimate the resulting optimal operating rules under future trajectories of climate, land cover, and population. The findings of this analysis will be used to address the following research questions: 1) How do the derived optimal operating rules compare to the existing rule curves? 2) How does the shape of the derived rule curves change under different scenarios of global change? 3) What is the change in net social benefits resulting from the use of these derived rule curves as compared to existing rule curves? 4) To the extent possible, what are the distributional and social justice implications of the derived changes in the rule curves?

  8. Comparative analysis of solid-state bioprocessing and enzymatic treatment of finger millet for mobilization of bound phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Singh, Anshu; Bhattacharya, Patrali; Yuvraj, Jude; Banerjee, Rintu

    2013-11-01

    The present work investigates the probable bioprocessing technique to mobilize the bound phenolics naturally found in finger millet cell wall for enriching it with dietary antioxidants. Comparative study was performed between the exogenous enzymatic treatment and solid-state fermentation of grain (SSF) with a food grade organism Rhizopus oryzae. SSF results indicated that at the 6th day of incubation, total phenolic content (18.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/gds) and antioxidant property (DPPH radical scavenging activity of 39.03 %, metal chelating ability of 54 % and better reducing power) of finger millet were drastically enhanced when fermented with GRAS filamentous fungi. During the enzymatic bioprocessing, most of the phenolics released during the hydrolysis, leached out into the liquid portion rather than retaining them within the millet grain, resulting in overall loss of dietary antioxidant. The present study establishes the most effective strategy to enrich the finger millet with phenolic antioxidants.

  9. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Nivaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton–Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand's theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analyt...

  10. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  11. Teaching bioprocess engineering to undergraduates: Multidisciplinary hands-on training in a one-week practical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Marius; Zwick, Michaela; Beuker, Janina; Willenbacher, Judit; Baumann, Sandra; Oswald, Florian; Neumann, Anke; Siemann-Herzberg, Martin; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Bioprocess engineering is a highly interdisciplinary field of study which is strongly benefited by practical courses where students can actively experience the interconnection between biology, engineering, and physical sciences. This work describes a lab course developed for 2nd year undergraduate students of bioprocess engineering and related disciplines, where students are challenged with a real-life bioprocess-engineering application, the production of recombinant protein in a fed-batch process. The lab course was designed to introduce students to the subject of operating and supervising an experiment in a bioreactor, along with the analysis of collected data and a final critical evaluation of the experiment. To provide visual feedback of the experimental outcome, the organism used during class was Escherichia coli which carried a plasmid to recombinantly produce enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) upon induction. This can easily be visualized in both the bioreactor and samples by using ultraviolet light. The lab course is performed with bioreactors of the simplest design, and is therefore highly flexible, robust and easy to reproduce. As part of this work the implementation and framework, the results, the evaluation and assessment of student learning combined with opinion surveys are presented, which provides a basis for instructors intending to implement a similar lab course at their respective institution. © 2015 by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. A one-step bioprocess for production of high-content fructo-oligosaccharides from inulin by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Li, Fu-Li; Wang, Shi-An

    2016-10-20

    Commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are predominantly produced from sucrose by transfructosylation process that presents a maximum theoretical yield below 0.60gFOSgSucrose(-1). To obtain high-content FOS, costly purification is generally employed. Additionally, high-content FOS can be produced from inulin by using endo-inulinases. However, commercial endo-inulinases have not been extensively used in scale-up production of FOS. In the present study, a one-step bioprocess that integrated endo-inulinase production, FOS fermentation, and non-FOS sugars removal into one reactor was proposed to produce high-content FOS from inulin. The bioprocess was implemented by a recombinant yeast strain JZHΔS-TSC, in which a heterologous endo-inulinase gene was expressed and the inherent invertase gene SUC2 was disrupted. FOS fermentation at 40°C from 200g/L chicory inulin presented the maximun titer, yield, and productivity of 180.2±0.8g/L, 0.9gFOSgInulin(-1), and 7.51±0.03g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrated that the one-step bioprocess was simple and highly efficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Turmeric Bioprocessed with Mycelia from the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Protects Mice Against Salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of an extract from bioprocessed Lentinus edodes mycelial liquid culture supplemented with turmeric (bioprocessed Curcuma longa extract [BPCLE]) against murine salmonellosis. The BPLCE extract from the bioprocessed mycelia of the Salmonella Typhimurium into murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, elimination of intracellular bacteria, and elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Dietary administration of BPCLE activated leukocytes from the mice infected with Salmonella through the intraperitoneal route. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cytokines produced by splenocytes from infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology showed that dietary administration of BPCLE protected against necrosis of the liver resulting from a sublethal dose of Salmonella. In addition, the treatment (1) extended the lifespan of lethally infected mice, (2) suppressed the invasion of Salmonella into human Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, (3) increased excretion of the bacterium in the feces, (4) suppressed the translocation of the Salmonella to internal organs, and (5) increased total immunoglobulin A in both serum and intestinal fluids. BPCLE protected the mice against salmonellosis via cooperative effects that include the upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction, prevention of translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelial cells, and increased immunoglobulin A production in serum and intestinal fluids.

  14. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  16. Development and application of an excitation ratiometric optical pH sensor for bioprocess monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2008-01-01

    The development of a fluorescent excitation ratiometric pH sensor (AHQ-PEG) using a novel allylhydroxyquinolinium (AHQ) derivative copolymerized with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG) is described. The AHQ-PEG sensor film is shown to be suitable for real-time, noninvasive, continuous, online pH monitoring of bioprocesses. Optical ratiometric measurements are generally more reliable, robust, inexpensive, and insensitive to experimental errors such as fluctuations in the source intensity and fluorophore photobleaching. The sensor AHQ-PEG in deionized water was shown to exhibit two excitation maxima at 375 and 425 nm with a single emission peak at 520 nm. Excitation spectra of AHQ-PEG show a decrease in emission at the 360 nm excitation and an increase at the 420 nm excitation with increasing pH. Accordingly, the ratio of emission at 420:360 nm excitation showed a maximum change between pH 5 and 8 with an apparent pK(a) of 6.40. The low pK(a) value is suitable for monitoring the fermentation of most industrially important microorganisms. Additionally, the AHQ-PEG sensor was shown to have minimal sensitivity to ionic strength and temperature. Because AHQ is covalently attached to PEG, the film shows no probe leaching and is sterilizable by steam and alcohol. It shows rapid (approximately 2 min) and reversible response to pH over many cycles without any photobleaching. Subsequently, the AHQ-PEG sensor film was tested for its suitability in monitoring the pH of S. cereviseae (yeast) fermentation. The observed pH using AHQ-PEG film is in agreement with a conventional glass pH electrode. However, unlike the glass electrode, the present sensor is easily adaptable to noninvasive monitoring of sterilized, closed bioprocess environments without the awkward wire connections that electrodes require. In addition, the AHQ-PEG sensor is easily miniaturized to fit in microwell plates and microbioreactors for high-throughput cell culture applications.

  17. High-precision improved-analytic-exponentiation results for multiple-photon effects in low-angle Bhabha scattering at the SLAC Linear Collider and the CERN e+e- collider LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ward, B.F.L.; Was, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Starting from an earlier benchmark analytical calculation of the luminosity process e + e-→e + e-+(γ) at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) and the CERN e + e- collider LEP, we use the methods of Yennie, Frautschi, and Suura to develop an analytical improved naive exponentiated formula for this process. The formula is compared to our multiple-photon Monte Carlo event generator BHLUMI (1.13) for the same process. We find agreement on the overall cross-section normalization between the exponentiated formula and BHLUMI below the 0.2% level. In this way, we obtain an important cross-check on the normalization of our higher-order results in BHLUMI and we arrive at formulas which represent the LEP/SLC luminosity process in the below 1% Z 0 physics tests of the SU(2) L xU(1) theory in complete analogy with the famous high-precision Z 0 line-shape formulas for the e + e-→μ + μ - process discussed by Berends et al., for example

  18. Cost-effectiveness of embryo transfer strategies: a decision analytic model using long-term costs and consequences of singletons and multiples born as a consequence of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, M M J; van Asselt, A D I; Evers, J L H; van der Hoeven, M A H B M; Dumoulin, J C M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bonsel, G J; Dykgraaf, R H M; van Goudoever, J B; Koopman-Esseboom, C; Nelen, W L D M; Steiner, K; Tamminga, P; Tonch, N; Torrance, H L; Dirksen, C D

    2016-11-01

    What is the cost-effectiveness of elective single embryo transfer (eSET) versus double embryo transfer (DET) strategies from a societal perspective, when applying a time horizon of 1, 5 and 18 years? From a short-term perspective (1 year) it is cost-effective to replace DET with single embryo transfer; however when intermediate- (5 years) and long-term (18 years) costs and consequences are incorporated, DET becomes the most cost-effective strategy, given a ceiling ratio of €20 000 per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. According to previous cost-effectiveness research into embryo transfer strategies, DET is considered cost-effective if society is willing to pay around €20 000 for an extra live birth. However, interpretation of those studies is complicated, as those studies fail to incorporate long-term costs and outcomes and used live birth as a measure of effectiveness instead of QALYs. With this outcome, both multiple and singletons were valued as one live birth, whereas costs of all children of a multiple were incorporated. A Markov model (cycle length: 1 year; time horizon: 1, 5 and 18 years) was developed comparing a maximum of: (i) three cycles of eSET in all patients; (ii) four cycles of eSET in all patients; (iii) five cycles of eSET in all patients; (iv) three cycles of standard treatment policy (STP), i.e. eSET in women costs were estimated for all comparators. Input parameters were derived from a retrospective cohort study, in which hospital resource data were collected (n=580) and a parental questionnaire was sent out (431 respondents). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (5000 iterations) was performed. With a time horizon of 18 years, DETx3 is most effective (0.54 live births, 10.2 LYs and 9.8 QALYs) and expensive (€37 871) per couple starting IVF. Three cycles of eSET are least effective (0.43 live births, 7.1 LYs and 6.8 QALYs) and expensive (€25 563). We assumed that society is willing to pay €20 000 per QALY gained. With a time

  19. Micro-Electromechanical Affinity Sensor for the Monitoring of Glucose in Bioprocess Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Theuer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An affinity-viscometry-based micro-sensor probe for continuous glucose monitoring was investigated with respect to its suitability for bioprocesses. The sensor operates with glucose and dextran competing as binding partner for concanavalin A, while the viscosity of the assay scales with glucose concentration. Changes in viscosity are determined with a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS in the measurement cavity of the sensor probe. The study aimed to elucidate the interactions between the assay and a typical phosphate buffered bacterial cultivation medium. It turned out that contact with the medium resulted in a significant long-lasting drift of the assay’s viscosity at zero glucose concentration. Adding glucose to the medium lowers the drift by a factor of eight. The cglc values measured off-line with the glucose sensor for monitoring of a bacterial cultivation were similar to the measurements with an enzymatic assay with a difference of less than ±0.15 g·L−1. We propose that lectin agglomeration, the electro-viscous effect, and constitutional changes of concanavalin A due to exchanges of the incorporated metal ions may account for the observed viscosity increase. The study has demonstrated the potential of the MEMS sensor to determine sensitive viscosity changes within very small sample volumes, which could be of interest for various biotechnological applications.

  20. A two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from rice straw bioethanol residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Chao-Wei; Chung, Man-Chien

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. BIOPROCESS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING: TRANSFERRING TRADITIONAL PROCESS ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES TO INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koutinas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control and optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  2. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous production of lipases and biosurfactants by submerged and solid-state bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Luciane Maria; Rizzardi, Juliana; Pinto, Marta Heidtmann; Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2010-11-01

    Lipases and biosurfactants are compounds produced by microorganisms generally involved in the metabolization of oil substrates. However, the relationship between the production of lipases and biosurfactants has not been established yet. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between production of lipases and biosurfactants by submerged (SmgB) and solid-state bioprocess (SSB) using Aspergillus spp., which were isolated from a soil contaminated by diesel oil. SSB had the highest production of lipases, with lipolytic activities of 25.22U, while SmgB had 4.52U. The production of biosurfactants was not observed in the SSB. In the SmgB, correlation coefficients of 91% and 87% were obtained between lipolytic activity and oil in water and water in oil emulsifying activities, respectively. A correlation of 84% was obtained between lipolytic activity and reduction of surface tension in the culture medium. The surface tension decreased from 50 to 28mNm(-1) indicating that biosurfactants were produced in the culture medium. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced Bioethanol Production from Potato Peel Waste Via Consolidated Bioprocessing with Statistically Optimized Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Tahmina; Miah, Abdul Bathen; Mahmud, Siraje Arif; Mahin, Abdullah-Al-

    2018-04-12

    In this study, an extensive screening was undertaken to isolate some amylolytic microorganisms capable of producing bioethanol from starchy biomass through Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP). A total of 28 amylolytic microorganisms were isolated, from which 5 isolates were selected based on high α-amylase and glucoamylase activities and identified as Candida wangnamkhiaoensis, Hyphopichia pseudoburtonii (2 isolates), Wickerhamia sp., and Streptomyces drozdowiczii based on 26S rDNA and 16S rDNA sequencing. Wickerhamia sp. showed the highest ethanol production (30.4 g/L) with fermentation yield of 0.3 g ethanol/g starch. Then, a low cost starchy waste, potato peel waste (PPW) was used as a carbon source to produce ethanol by Wickerhamia sp. Finally, in order to obtain maximum ethanol production from PPW, a fermentation medium was statistically designed. The effect of various medium ingredients was evaluated initially by Plackett-Burman design (PBD), where malt extracts, tryptone, and KH 2 PO 4 showed significantly positive effect (p value < 0.05). Using Response Surface Modeling (RSM), 40 g/L (dry basis) PPW and 25 g/L malt extract were found optimum and yielded 21.7 g/L ethanol. This study strongly suggests Wickerhamia sp. as a promising candidate for bioethanol production from starchy biomass, in particular, PPW through CBP.

  5. Microbial ecology of fermentative hydrogen producing bioprocesses: useful insights for driving the ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Lea; Marone, Antonella; Tapia-Venegas, Estela; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Ruiz-Filippi, Gonzalo; Trably, Eric

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important biotechnological challenges is to develop environment friendly technologies to produce new sources of energy. Microbial production of biohydrogen through dark fermentation, by conversion of residual biomass, is an attractive solution for short-term development of bioH2 producing processes. Efficient biohydrogen production relies on complex mixed communities working in tight interaction. Species composition and functional traits are of crucial importance to maintain the ecosystem service. The analysis of microbial community revealed a wide phylogenetic diversity that contributes in different-and still mostly unclear-ways to hydrogen production. Bridging this gap of knowledge between microbial ecology features and ecosystem functionality is essential to optimize the bioprocess and develop strategies toward a maximization of the efficiency and stability of substrate conversion. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most up-to-date biodata available and discuss the main microbial community features of biohydrogen engineered ecosystems, with a special emphasis on the crucial role of interactions and the relationships between species composition and ecosystem service. The elucidation of intricate relationships between community structure and ecosystem function would make possible to drive ecosystems toward an improved functionality on the basis of microbial ecology principles. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Bioprocess systems engineering: transferring traditional process engineering principles to industrial biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Koutinas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the regulatory network and the interactions that occur in the intracellular environment of microorganisms highlight the importance in developing tractable mechanistic models of cellular functions and systematic approaches for modelling biological systems. To this end, the existing process systems engineering approaches can serve as a vehicle for understanding, integrating and designing biological systems and processes. Here, we review the application of a holistic approach for the development of mathematical models of biological systems, from the initial conception of the model to its final application in model-based control & optimisation. We also discuss the use of mechanistic models that account for gene regulation, in an attempt to advance the empirical expressions traditionally used to describe micro-organism growth kinetics, and we highlight current and future challenges in mathematical biology. The modelling research framework discussed herein could prove beneficial for the design of optimal bioprocesses, employing rational and feasible approaches towards the efficient production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

  7. Invitro Study on the Fluid From Banana Stem Bioprocess as Direct Fed Microbial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaqin, B. K.; Tanuwiria, U. H.; Hernawan, E.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the liquid produced by the bioprocess of banana stem as a Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) in order to enhance local sheep productivity invitro. Studying was the use of DFM in two invitro feeds. The object observed in this research was fermentability and digestibility value. The method was experimental with the experimental design, i.e. factorial experimental design with two factors. The first factor was DFM, the levels of which were 0, 0,2, 0,4 and 0,6%, while the second factor was two feed types (complete feed and Pennisetum purpureum only) with the treatment of threefold repetition. This research showed that fermentability and digestibility value were influenced by the DFM in the invitro complete feed. The research result analyzed using MANOVA with further testing using Duncan Test. The conclusion of the research result were shows the interaction DFM in the complete feed improve fermentability and digestibility values and DFM 0,6% shows the highest value.

  8. Development of microorganisms for cellulose-biofuel consolidated bioprocessings: metabolic engineers’ tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mazzoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose waste biomass is the most abundant and attractive substrate for "biorefinery strategies" that are aimed to produce high-value products (e.g. solvents, fuels, building blocks by economically and environmentally sustainable fermentation processes. However, cellulose is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation and its conversion by biotechnological strategies currently requires economically inefficient multistep industrial processes. The need for dedicated cellulase production continues to be a major constraint to cost-effective processing of cellulosic biomass.Research efforts have been aimed at developing recombinant microorganisms with suitable characteristics for single step biomass fermentation (consolidated bioprocessing, CBP. Two paradigms have been applied for such, so far unsuccessful, attempts: a “native cellulolytic strategies”, aimed at conferring high-value product properties to natural cellulolytic microorganisms; b “recombinant cellulolytic strategies”, aimed to confer cellulolytic ability to microorganisms exhibiting high product yields and titers.By starting from the description of natural enzyme systems for plant biomass degradation and natural metabolic pathways for some of the most valuable product (i.e. butanol, ethanol, and hydrogen biosynthesis, this review describes state-of-the-art bottlenecks and solutions for the development of recombinant microbial strains for cellulosic biofuel CBP by metabolic engineering. Complexed cellulases (i.e. cellulosomes benefit from stronger proximity effects and show enhanced synergy on insoluble substrates (i.e. crystalline cellulose with respect to free enzymes. For this reason, special attention was held on strategies involving cellulosome/designer cellulosome-bearing recombinant microorganisms.

  9. Bioprocess iterative batch-to-batch optimization based on hybrid parametric/nonparametric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana P; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Oliveira, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for iterative batch-to-batch dynamic optimization of bioprocesses. The relationship between process performance and control inputs is established by means of hybrid grey-box models combining parametric and nonparametric structures. The bioreactor dynamics are defined by material balance equations, whereas the cell population subsystem is represented by an adjustable mixture of nonparametric and parametric models. Thus optimizations are possible without detailed mechanistic knowledge concerning the biological system. A clustering technique is used to supervise the reliability of the nonparametric subsystem during the optimization. Whenever the nonparametric outputs are unreliable, the objective function is penalized. The technique was evaluated with three simulation case studies. The overall results suggest that the convergence to the optimal process performance may be achieved after a small number of batches. The model unreliability risk constraint along with sampling scheduling are crucial to minimize the experimental effort required to attain a given process performance. In general terms, it may be concluded that the proposed method broadens the application of the hybrid parametric/nonparametric modeling technique to "newer" processes with higher potential for optimization.

  10. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur eRagauskas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available First isolated in 1926, Clostridium thermocellum has recently received increased attention as a high utility candidate for use in consolidated bioprocessing applications. These applications, which seek to process lignocellulosic biomass directly into useful products such as ethanol, are gaining traction as economically feasible routes towards the production of fuel and other high value chemical compounds as the shortcomings of fossil fuels become evident. This review evaluates C. thermocellum’s role in this transitory process by highlighting recent discoveries relating to its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic responses to varying biomass sources, with a special emphasis placed on providing an overview of its unique, multivariate enzyme cellulosome complex and the role that this structure performs during biomass degradation. Both naturally evolved and genetically engineered strains are examined in light of their unique attributes and responses to various biomass treatment conditions, and the genetic tools that have been employed for their creation are presented. Several future routes for potential industrial usage are presented, and it is concluded that, although there have been many advances to significantly improve C. thermocellum’s amenability to industrial use, several hurdles still remain to be overcome as this unique organism enjoys increased attention within the scientific community.

  11. Treatment of supermarket vegetable wastes to be used as alternative substrates in bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ana Isabel; Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Fruits and vegetables have the highest wastage rates at retail and consumer levels. These wastes have promising potential for being used as substrates in bioprocesses. However, an effective hydrolysis of carbohydrates that form these residues has to be developed before the biotransformation. In this work, vegetable wastes from supermarket (tomatoes, green peppers and potatoes) have been separately treated by acid, thermal and enzymatic hydrolysis processes in order to maximise the concentration of fermentable sugars in the final broth. For all substrates, thermal and enzymatic processes have shown to be the most effective. A new combined hydrolysis procedure including these both treatments was also assayed and the enzymatic step was successfully modelled. With this combined hydrolysis, the percentage of reducing sugars extracted was increased, in comparison with the amount extracted from non-hydrolysed samples, approximately by 30% in the case of tomato and green peeper wastes. For potato wastes this percentage increased from values lower than 1% to 77%. In addition, very low values of fermentation inhibitors were found in the final broth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  13. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  14. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  15. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  16. Continuous volatile fatty acid production from lignocellulosic biomass by a novel rumen-mimetic bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agematu, Hitosi; Takahashi, Takehiko; Hamano, Yoshio

    2017-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source of biofuels and biochemicals, being abundant in various plant sources. However, processing this type of biomass requires hydrolysis of cellulose. The proposed rumen-mimetic bioprocess consists of dry-pulverization of lignocellulosic biomass and pH-controlled continuous cultivation of ruminal bacteria using ammonium as a nitrogen source. In this study, ruminal bacteria were continuously cultivated for over 60 days and used to digest microcrystalline cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The ruminal bacteria grew well in the chemically defined medium. The amounts of VFAs produced from 20 g of cellulose, rice straw, and Japanese cedar were 183 ± 29.7, 69.6 ± 12.2, and 21.8 ± 12.9 mmol, respectively. Each digestion completed within 24 h. The carbon yield was 60.6% when 180 mmol of VFAs was produced from 20 g of cellulose. During the cultivation, the bacteria were observed to form flocs that enfolded the feed particles. These flocs likely contain all of the bacterial species necessary to convert lignocellulosic biomass to VFAs and microbial protein symbiotically. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments revealed that the bacterial community was relatively stable after 1 week in cultivation, though it was different from the original community structure. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the DGGE bands indicates that the microbial community includes a cellulolytic bacterium, a bacterium acting synergistically with cellulolytic bacteria, and a propionate-producing bacterium, as well as other anaerobic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Allogeneic cell therapy bioprocess economics and optimization: single-use cell expansion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaria, Ana S; Hassan, Sally; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Rowley, Jon; Warren, Kim; Vanek, Philip; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    For allogeneic cell therapies to reach their therapeutic potential, challenges related to achieving scalable and robust manufacturing processes will need to be addressed. A particular challenge is producing lot-sizes capable of meeting commercial demands of up to 10(9) cells/dose for large patient numbers due to the current limitations of expansion technologies. This article describes the application of a decisional tool to identify the most cost-effective expansion technologies for different scales of production as well as current gaps in the technology capabilities for allogeneic cell therapy manufacture. The tool integrates bioprocess economics with optimization to assess the economic competitiveness of planar and microcarrier-based cell expansion technologies. Visualization methods were used to identify the production scales where planar technologies will cease to be cost-effective and where microcarrier-based bioreactors become the only option. The tool outputs also predict that for the industry to be sustainable for high demand scenarios, significant increases will likely be needed in the performance capabilities of microcarrier-based systems. These data are presented using a technology S-curve as well as windows of operation to identify the combination of cell productivities and scale of single-use bioreactors required to meet future lot sizes. The modeling insights can be used to identify where future R&D investment should be focused to improve the performance of the most promising technologies so that they become a robust and scalable option that enables the cell therapy industry reach commercially relevant lot sizes. The tool outputs can facilitate decision-making very early on in development and be used to predict, and better manage, the risk of process changes needed as products proceed through the development pathway. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  19. Origins of Cell-to-Cell Bioprocessing Diversity and Implications of the Extracellular Environment Revealed at the Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, A E; Silverman, A M; Stephanopoulos, G

    2015-12-14

    Bioprocess limitations imposed by microbial cell-to-cell phenotypic diversity remain poorly understood. To address this, we investigated the origins of such culture diversity during lipid production and assessed the impact of the fermentation microenvironment. We measured the single-cell lipid production dynamics in a time-invariant microfluidic environment and discovered that production is not monotonic, but rather sporadic with time. To characterize this, we introduce bioprocessing noise and identify its epigenetic origins. We linked such intracellular production fluctuations with cell-to-cell productivity diversity in culture. This unmasked the phenotypic diversity amplification by the culture microenvironment, a critical parameter in strain engineering as well as metabolic disease treatment.

  20. Induction of fungal laccase production under solid state bioprocessing of new agroindustrial waste and its application on dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2017-06-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes are generally produced in huge amounts worldwide. Peach waste of these obtained from fruit juice industry was utilized as the substrate for laccase production by Pleurotus eryngii under solid state bioprocessing (SSB). Its chemical composition was determined and this bioprocess was carried out under stationary conditions at 28 °C. The effects of different compounds; copper, iron, Tween 80, ammonium nitrate and manganese, and their variable concentrations on laccase production were investigated in detail. The optimum production of laccase (43,761.33 ± 3845 U L -1 ) was achieved on the day of 20 by employing peach waste of 5.0 g and 70 µM Cu 2+ , 18 µM Fe 2+ , 0.025% (v/v) Tween 80, 4.0 g L -1 ammonium nitrate, 750 µM Mn 2+ as the inducers. The dye decolorization also researched to determine the degrading capability of laccase produced from peach culture under the above-mentioned conditions. Within this scope of the study, methyl orange, tartrazine, reactive red 2 and reactive black dyes were treated with this enzyme. The highest decolorization was performed with methyl orange as 43 ± 2.8% after 5 min of treatment when compared to other dyes. Up to now, this is the first report on the induction of laccase production by P. eryngii under SSB using peach waste as the substrate.

  1. Studies on generalized kinetic model and Pareto optimization of a product-driven self-cycling bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaibiao; Kasperski, Andrzej; Tian, Yuan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is the optimization of a product-driven self-cycling bioprocess and presentation of a way to determine the best possible decision variables out of a set of alternatives based on the designed model. Initially, a product-driven generalized kinetic model, which allows a flexible choice of the most appropriate kinetics is designed and analysed. The optimization problem is given as the bi-objective one, where maximization of biomass productivity and minimization of unproductive loss of substrate are the objective functions. Then, the Pareto fronts are calculated for exemplary kinetics. It is found that in the designed bioprocess, a decrease of emptying/refilling fraction and an increase of substrate feeding concentration cause an increase of the biomass productivity. An increase of emptying/refilling fraction and a decrease of substrate feeding concentration cause a decrease of unproductive loss of substrate. The preferred solutions are calculated using the minimum distance from an ideal solution method, while giving proposals of their modifications derived from a decision maker's reactions to the generated solutions.

  2. HEK293 cell culture media study towards bioprocess optimization: Animal derived component free and animal derived component containing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liste-Calleja, Leticia; Lecina, Martí; Cairó, Jordi Joan

    2014-04-01

    The increasing demand for biopharmaceuticals produced in mammalian cells has lead industries to enhance bioprocess volumetric productivity through different strategies. Among those strategies, cell culture media development is of major interest. In the present work, several commercially available culture media for Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293) were evaluated in terms of maximal specific growth rate and maximal viable cell concentration supported. The main objective was to provide different cell culture platforms which are suitable for a wide range of applications depending on the type and the final use of the product obtained. Performing simple media supplementations with and without animal derived components, an enhancement of cell concentration from 2 × 10(6) cell/mL to 17 × 10(6) cell/mL was achieved in batch mode operation. Additionally, the media were evaluated for adenovirus production as a specific application case of HEK293 cells. None of the supplements interfered significantly with the adenovirus infection although some differences were encountered in viral productivity. To the best of our knowledge, the high cell density achieved in the work presented has never been reported before in HEK293 batch cell cultures and thus, our results are greatly promising to further study cell culture strategies in bioreactor towards bioprocess optimization. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mesoderm Lineage 3D Tissue Constructs Are Produced at Large-Scale in a 3D Stem Cell Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Min; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Yurim; Bang, Oh Young; Bae, Hojae

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have presented different approaches to direct pluripotent stem cell differentiation such as applying defined sets of exogenous biochemical signals and genetic/epigenetic modifications. Although differentiation to target lineages can be successfully regulated, such conventional methods are often complicated, laborious, and not cost-effective to be employed to the large-scale production of 3D stem cell-based tissue constructs. A 3D-culture platform that could realize the large-scale production of mesoderm lineage tissue constructs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is developed. ESCs are cultured using our previously established 3D-bioprocess platform which is amenable to mass-production of 3D ESC-based tissue constructs. Hepatocarcinoma cell line conditioned medium is introduced to the large-scale 3D culture to provide a specific biomolecular microenvironment to mimic in vivo mesoderm formation process. After 5 days of spontaneous differentiation period, the resulting 3D tissue constructs are composed of multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells verified by gene and molecular expression profiles. Subsequently the optimal time points to trigger terminal differentiation towards cardiomyogenesis or osteogenesis from the mesodermal tissue constructs is found. A simple and affordable 3D ESC-bioprocess that can reach the scalable production of mesoderm origin tissues with significantly improved correspondent tissue properties is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Competing on analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated.

  5. The Solubility of Cr-Organic Produced by Hydrolysis, Bioprocess and Bioremediation and its Effect on Fermented Rate, Digestibility and Rumen Microbe Population (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UH Tanuwiria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the production of organic chromium from the leather tanning waste and its effect on in vitro rumen fermentation activities. The research was divided into two phases. The first phase was production of organic chromium by alkali hydrolysis, S cereviceae bioprocess, and duckweed bioremediation that perceived solubility in neutral and acid solution. The second phase was the supplementation of organic-Cr in ration seen from in-vitro fermented rate, digestibility and microbe rumen population. Research was conducted experimentally using 4x4 factorial patterns, on the basis of Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications in each experimental unit. The first factor was the type of organic-Cr and the second factor was the supplement in ration at four levels, 1, 2, 3 and 4 ppm. The results of this research indicated that organic chromium can be synthesized by alkali hydrolysis, S cereviseae bioprocess and the activity of duckweed bioremediation. Among the three of processes referred, the highest level of Cr was obtained from S cereviseae bioprocess that was originated from leather-tanning waste. The levels of organic-Cr that was resulted from alkali hydrolysis, bioprocess from Cl3Cr.6H2O, bioprocess from Cr leather-tanning waste, and from duckweed bioremediation were 354, 1011, 3833 and 310 mg/kg, respectively. Organic-Cr characteristic of each product has relatively similar in ferment ability, dry matter and organic matter digestibility and rumen ecosystem. There is an indication that dry matter and organic matter digestibility and rumen microbe population in ration that was added with organic Cr from alkali hydrolysis was higher than other supplements. (Animal Production 12(3: 175-183 (2010Key Words: organic-Cr, rumen fermentation activities, rumen microbe population

  6. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Garima

    Fossil fuels have been the major source for liquid transportation fuels for ages. However, decline in oil reserves and environmental concerns have raised a lot of interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. One promising alternative is the conversion of plant biomass into ethanol. The primary biomass feed stocks currently being used for the ethanol industry have been food based biomass (corn and sugar cane). However, interest has recently shifted to replace these traditional feed-stocks with more abundant, non-food based cellulosic biomass such as agriculture wastes (corn stover) or crops (switch grass). The use of cellulosic biomass as feed stock for the production of ethanol via bio-chemical routes presents many technical challenges not faced with the use of corn or sugar-cane as feed-stock. Recently, a new process called consolidated Bio-processing (CBP) has been proposed. This process combines simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulose with fermentation of the resulting sugars into a single process step mediated by a single microorganism or microbial consortium. Although there is no natural microorganism that possesses all properties of lignocellulose utilization and ethanol production desired for CBP, some bacteria and fungi exhibit some of the essential traits. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most attractive host organism for the usage of this strategy due to its high ethanol productivity at close to theoretical yields (0.51g ethanol/g glucose consumed), high osmo- and ethanol- tolerance, natural robustness in industrial processes, and ease of genetic manipulation. Introduction of the cellulosome, found naturally in microorganisms, has shown new directions to deal with recalcitrant biomass. In this case enzymes work in synergy in order to hydrolyze biomass more effectively than in case of free enzymes. A microbial consortium has been successfully developed, which ensures the functional assembly of minicellulosome on the yeast surface

  7. Simplex-based optimization of numerical and categorical inputs in early bioprocess development: Case studies in HT chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Spyridon; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Velayudhan, Ajoy

    2017-08-01

    Bioprocess development studies often involve the investigation of numerical and categorical inputs via the adoption of Design of Experiments (DoE) techniques. An attractive alternative is the deployment of a grid compatible Simplex variant which has been shown to yield optima rapidly and consistently. In this work, the method is combined with dummy variables and it is deployed in three case studies wherein spaces are comprised of both categorical and numerical inputs, a situation intractable by traditional Simplex methods. The first study employs in silico data and lays out the dummy variable methodology. The latter two employ experimental data from chromatography based studies performed with the filter-plate and miniature column High Throughput (HT) techniques. The solute of interest in the former case study was a monoclonal antibody whereas the latter dealt with the separation of a binary system of model proteins. The implemented approach prevented the stranding of the Simplex method at local optima, due to the arbitrary handling of the categorical inputs, and allowed for the concurrent optimization of numerical and categorical, multilevel and/or dichotomous, inputs. The deployment of the Simplex method, combined with dummy variables, was therefore entirely successful in identifying and characterizing global optima in all three case studies. The Simplex-based method was further shown to be of equivalent efficiency to a DoE-based approach, represented here by D-Optimal designs. Such an approach failed, however, to both capture trends and identify optima, and led to poor operating conditions. It is suggested that the Simplex-variant is suited to development activities involving numerical and categorical inputs in early bioprocess development. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavičius, Rimantas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Refractive index sensor based on DLC holographic sub-wavelength period grating. ► Spectroscopic analysis of polarized white light reflected from the grating. ► Control of critical wavelength shift and reflectivity changes. ► Testing of model liquid analyte materials. ► Evaluation of interaction between B. subtilis cells and lysozyme. - Abstract: In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiO x doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 °C, 50 °C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than Δn = 10 −4 .

  9. Let's Talk... Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Talk about analytics seems to be everywhere. Everyone is talking about analytics. Yet even with all the talk, many in higher education have questions about--and objections to--using analytics in colleges and universities. In this article, the author explores the use of analytics in, and all around, higher education. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  11. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  12. Contributions to Analytic Number Theory | Lucht | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on some recent contributions to the theory of multiplicative arithmetic semigroups, which have been initiated by John Knopfmacher's work on analytic number theory. They concern weighted inversion theorems of the. Wiener type, mean-value theorems for multiplicative functions, and, Ramanujan

  13. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulevicius, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Seperys, Rimas; Andrulevicius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meskinis, Sarunas; Tamulevicius, Sigitas [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavicius, Rimantas [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnologies of Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos St. 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refractive index sensor based on DLC holographic sub-wavelength period grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic analysis of polarized white light reflected from the grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Control of critical wavelength shift and reflectivity changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Testing of model liquid analyte materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of interaction between B. subtilis cells and lysozyme. - Abstract: In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiO{sub x} doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 Degree-Sign C, 50 Degree-Sign C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than {Delta}n = 10{sup -4}.

  14. Analytical protocol to study the food safety of (multiple-)recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) crates: Influence of recycling on the migration and formation of degradation products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Orbons, H.G.M.; Rijk, R.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical protocol was set up and successfully applied to study the food safety of recycled HDPE and PP crates. A worst-case scenario was applied that focused not only on overall migration and specific migration of accepted starting materials but also on migratable degradation products of

  15. An industrial perspective on bioreactor scale-down: what we can learn from combined large-scale bioprocess and model fluid studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorman, Henk

    2011-08-01

    For industrial bioreactor design, operation, control and optimization, the scale-down approach is often advocated to efficiently generate data on a small scale, and effectively apply suggested improvements to the industrial scale. In all cases it is important to ensure that the scale-down conditions are representative of the real large-scale bioprocess. Progress is hampered by limited detailed and local information from large-scale bioprocesses. Complementary to real fermentation studies, physical aspects of model fluids such as air-water in large bioreactors provide useful information with limited effort and cost. Still, in industrial practice, investments of time, capital and resources often prohibit systematic work, although, in the end, savings obtained in this way are trivial compared to the expenses that result from real process disturbances, batch failures, and non-flyers with loss of business opportunity. Here we try to highlight what can be learned from real large-scale bioprocess in combination with model fluid studies, and to provide suitable computation tools to overcome data restrictions. Focus is on a specific well-documented case for a 30-m(3) bioreactor. Areas for further research from an industrial perspective are also indicated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavičius, Rimantas

    2012-09-01

    In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiOx doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 °C, 50 °C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than Δn = 10-4.

  17. Are Higher Education Institutions Prepared for Learning Analytics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions and involved stakeholders can derive multiple benefits from learning analytics by using different data analytics strategies to produce summative, real-time, and predictive insights and recommendations. However, are institutions and academic as well as administrative staff prepared for learning analytics? A learning…

  18. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Sun, Juan; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2012-09-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 °C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L(-1)) at 40 °C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L(-1), which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 °C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP.

  19. Bio-processing of Agro-industrial Wastes for Production of Food-grade Enzymes: Progress and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S Panesar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the era of global industrialization, enzymes are being used extensively in the various sectors including food processing. Owing to the high price of enzymes, various initiatives have been undertaken by the R&D sector for the development of new processes or improvement in the existing processes for production of cost effective enzymes. With the advancement in the field of biotechnology, different bioprocesses are being used for utilization of different agro-industrial residues for the production of various enzymes. This review focuses on different types of agro-industrial wastes and their utilization in the production of enzymes. The present scenario as well as the future scope of utilization of enzymes in the food industry has also been discussed.Results and Conclusion: The regulations from the various governmental as well as environmental agencies for the demand of cleaner environment have led to the advancement in various technologies for utilization of the wastes for the production of value-added products such as enzymes. Among the different types of fermentation, maximum work has been carried under solid state conditions by batch fermentation. The research has indicated the significant potential of agro-industrial wastes for production of food-grade enzymes in order to improve the economics of the process.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  20. Bioprocessing papaya processing waste for potential aquaculture feed supplement--economic and nutrient analysis with shrimp feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H Y; Yang, P Y; Dominy, W G; Lee, C S

    2010-10-01

    Papaya processing waste (PPW), a major fruit processing waste in the Hawaii islands, served as substrate for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) growth. The fermented PPW products containing nutrients of 45% crude protein and various fat, fiber, lignin, cellulose, and minerals were advantages to nutrients of yeast alone. Three experimental diets controlled at 35% protein formulation containing different levels of inclusion of PPW products and a commercial control diet were fed to shrimps for 8 weeks. The 50% inclusion of PPW diets were comparable to commercial feed in weight, growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rate. Such bioprocess treatment system would be economically feasible with the control of annual cost and increase of the amount of PPW treated. The selling price of PPW products and annual operation and maintenance cost were the most influential factors to additional profits. This study presented a promising alternative for environmental-friendly treatment of organic wastes as well as the sustainability of local agriculture and aquaculture industries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  2. Analyticity without Differentiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  3. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytics have been used in organizations for a variety of reasons for quite some time; ranging from the simple (generating and understanding business analytics...process. understanding business analytics 3 How well these two components are orchestrated will determine the level of success an organization has in

  4. NC CATCH: Advancing Public Health Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Fisher, John W; Eichelberger, Christopher; Bridger, Colleen; Angelon-Gaetz, Kim; Nelson, Debi

    2010-01-01

    The North Carolina Comprehensive Assessment for Tracking Community Health (NC CATCH) is a Web-based analytical system deployed to local public health units and their community partners. The system has the following characteristics: flexible, powerful online analytic processing (OLAP) interface; multiple sources of multidimensional, event-level data fully conformed to common definitions in a data warehouse structure; enabled utilization of available decision support software tools; analytic capabilities distributed and optimized locally with centralized technical infrastructure; two levels of access differentiated by the user (anonymous versus registered) and by the analytical flexibility (Community Profile versus Design Phase); and, an emphasis on user training and feedback. The ability of local public health units to engage in outcomes-based performance measurement will be influenced by continuing access to event-level data, developments in evidence-based practice for improving population health, and the application of information technology-based analytic tools and methods.

  5. Rapid monitoring of glycerol in fermentation growth media: Facilitating crude glycerol bioprocess development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Sergi; Pérez, Xavier; Planas, Antoni; Turon, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the need for crude glycerol valorisation from the biodiesel industry has generated many studies for practical and economic applications. Amongst them, fermentations based on glycerol media for the production of high value metabolites are prominent applications. This has generated a need to develop analytical techniques which allow fast and simple glycerol monitoring during fermentation. The methodology should be fast and inexpensive to be adopted in research, as well as in industrial applications. In this study three different methods were analysed and compared: two common methodologies based on liquid chromatography and enzymatic kits, and the new method based on a DotBlot assay coupled with image analysis. The new methodology is faster and cheaper than the other conventional methods, with comparable performance. Good linearity, precision and accuracy were achieved in the lower range (10 or 15 g/L to depletion), the most common range of glycerol concentrations to monitor fermentations in terms of growth kinetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Computing the zeros of analytic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kravanja, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Computing all the zeros of an analytic function and their respective multiplicities, locating clusters of zeros and analytic fuctions, computing zeros and poles of meromorphic functions, and solving systems of analytic equations are problems in computational complex analysis that lead to a rich blend of mathematics and numerical analysis. This book treats these four problems in a unified way. It contains not only theoretical results (based on formal orthogonal polynomials or rational interpolation) but also numerical analysis and algorithmic aspects, implementation heuristics, and polished software (the package ZEAL) that is available via the CPC Program Library. Graduate studets and researchers in numerical mathematics will find this book very readable.

  7. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department's goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision

  8. Integrating Cellular and Bioprocess Engineering in the Non-Conventional Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for Biodiesel Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major biofuels to replace fossil fuel, biodiesel has now attracted more and more attention due to its advantages in higher energy density and overall less greenhouse gas generation. Biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters is produced by chemically or enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of lipids from microbial cells, microalgae, oil crops, or animal fats. Currently, plant oils or waste cooking oils/fats remain the major source for biodiesel production via enzymatic route, but the production capacity is limited either by the uncertain supplement of plant oils or by the low or inconsistent quality of waste oils/fats. In the past decades, significant progresses have been made on synthesis of microalgae oils directly from CO2via a photosynthesis process, but the production cost from any current technologies is still too high to be commercialized due to microalgae’s slow growth rate on CO2, inefficiency in photo-bioreactors, lack of efficient contamination control methods, and high cost in downstream recovery. At the same time, many oleaginous microorganisms have been studied to produce lipids via the fatty acid synthesis pathway under aerobic fermentation conditions, among them one of the most studied is the non-conventional yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, which is able to produce fatty acids at very high titer, rate, and yield from various economical substrates. This review summarizes the recent research progresses in both cellular and bioprocess engineering in Y. lipolytica to produce lipids at a low cost that may lead to commercial-scale biodiesel production. Specific technologies include the strain engineering for using various substrates, metabolic engineering in high-yield lipid synthesis, cell morphology study for efficient substrate uptake and product formation, free fatty acid formation and secretion for improved downstream recovery, and fermentation engineering for higher productivities and less operating cost. To further

  9. Consolidated bioprocessing strategy for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Kluyveromyces marxianus under high gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Chang, B L; Ren, J G; Liu, J P; Bai, F W; Li, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    Developing an innovative process for ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under very high gravity (VHG) conditions. A consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strategy that integrated inulinase production, saccharification of inulin contained in Jerusalem artichoke tubers and ethanol production from sugars released from inulin by the enzyme was developed with the inulinase-producing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus Y179 and fed-batch operation. The impact of inoculum age, aeration, the supplementation of pectinase and nutrients on the ethanol fermentation performance of the CBP system was studied. Although inulinase activities increased with the extension of the seed incubation time, its contribution to ethanol production was negligible because vigorously growing yeast cells harvested earlier carried out ethanol fermentation more efficiently. Thus, the overnight incubation that has been practised in ethanol production from starch-based feedstocks is recommended. Aeration facilitated the fermentation process, but compromised ethanol yield because of the negative Crabtree effect of the species, and increases the risk of contamination under industrial conditions. Therefore, nonaeration conditions are preferred for the CBP system. Pectinase supplementation reduced viscosity of the fermentation broth and improved ethanol production performance, particularly under high gravity conditions, but the enzyme cost should be carefully balanced. Medium optimization was performed, and ethanol concentration as high as 94·2 g l(-1) was achieved when 0·15 g l(-1) K(2) HPO(4) was supplemented, which presents a significant progress in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. A CBP system using K. marxianus is suitable for efficient ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under VHG conditions. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are an alternative to grain-based feedstocks for ethanol production. The high ethanol concentration achieved using K. marxianus with the

  10. A Bioprocessed Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia Cultures with Turmeric Protects Chicks from a Lethal Challenge of Salmonella Gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dalmuri; Lee, Hyung Tae; Lee, June Bong; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, Sang Jong; Yoon, Jang Won

    2017-02-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes mushroom mycelia cultures supplemented with black rice bran can protect mice against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and reduce the mortality from Salmonella Typhimurium infection through upregulated T-helper 1 immunity. Here, we report that a BPP from L. edodes mushroom mycelia liquid cultures supplemented with turmeric (referred to as BPP-turmeric) alters chicken macrophage responses against avian-adapted Salmonella Gallinarum and protects chicks against a lethal challenge from Salmonella Gallinarum. In vitro analyses revealed that the water extract of BPP-turmeric (i) changed the protein expression or secretion profile of Salmonella Gallinarum, although it was not bactericidal, (ii) reduced the phagocytic activity of the chicken-derived macrophage cell line HD-11 when infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, and (iii) significantly activated the transcription expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in response to various Salmonella infections, whereas it repressed that of IL-4, IL-6, interferon-β, and interferon-γ. We also found that BPP-turmeric (0.1 g/kg of feed) as a feed additive provided significant protection to 1-day-old chicks infected with a lethal dose of Salmonella Gallinarum. Collectively, these results imply that BPP-turmeric contains biologically active component(s) that protect chicks against Salmonella Gallinarum infection, possibly by regulating macrophage immune responses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of BPP-turmeric as a livestock feed additive for the preharvest control of fowl typhoid or foodborne salmonellosis.

  11. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  12. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-03

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  13. Scale-up bioprocess development for production of the antibiotic valinomycin in Escherichia coli based on consistent fed-batch cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jaitzig, Jennifer; Lu, Ping; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Neubauer, Peter

    2015-06-12

    Heterologous production of natural products in Escherichia coli has emerged as an attractive strategy to obtain molecules of interest. Although technically feasible most of them are still constrained to laboratory scale production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reasonable scale-up strategies for bioprocesses aiming at the overproduction of targeted natural products under industrial scale conditions. To this end, we used the production of the antibiotic valinomycin in E. coli as a model system for scalable bioprocess development based on consistent fed-batch cultivations. In this work, the glucose limited fed-batch strategy based on pure mineral salt medium was used throughout all scales for valinomycin production. The optimal glucose feed rate was initially detected by the use of a biocatalytically controlled glucose release (EnBase® technology) in parallel cultivations in 24-well plates with continuous monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen. These results were confirmed in shake flasks, where the accumulation of valinomycin was highest when the specific growth rate decreased below 0.1 h(-1). This correlation was also observed for high cell density fed-batch cultivations in a lab-scale bioreactor. The bioreactor fermentation produced valinomycin with titers of more than 2 mg L(-1) based on the feeding of a concentrated glucose solution. Valinomycin production was not affected by oscillating conditions (i.e. glucose and oxygen) in a scale-down two-compartment reactor, which could mimic similar situations in industrial bioreactors, suggesting that the process is very robust and a scaling of the process to a larger industrial scale appears a realistic scenario. Valinomycin production was scaled up from mL volumes to 10 L with consistent use of the fed-batch technology. This work presents a robust and reliable approach for scalable bioprocess development and represents an example for the consistent development of a process for a heterologously expressed natural

  14. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  15. Toward intensifying design of experiments in upstream bioprocess development: An industrial Escherichia coli feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stosch, Moritz; Hamelink, Jan-Martijn; Oliveira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    In this study, step variations in temperature, pH, and carbon substrate feeding rate were performed within five high cell density Escherichia coli fermentations to assess whether intraexperiment step changes, can principally be used to exploit the process operation space in a design of experiment manner. A dynamic process modeling approach was adopted to determine parameter interactions. A bioreactor model was integrated with an artificial neural network that describes biomass and product formation rates as function of varied fed-batch fermentation conditions for heterologous protein production. A model reliability measure was introduced to assess in which process region the model can be expected to predict process states accurately. It was found that the model could accurately predict process states of multiple fermentations performed at fixed conditions within the determined validity domain. The results suggest that intraexperimental variations of process conditions could be used to reduce the number of experiments by a factor, which in limit would be equivalent to the number of intraexperimental variations per experiment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1343-1352, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. The Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Strain NJ4, a Bacterium Capable of Producing Butanol from Inulin Through Consolidated Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yujia; Lu, Jiasheng; Chen, Tianpeng; Yan, Wei; Dong, Weiliang; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wenming; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min; Xin, Fengxue

    2018-05-23

    A novel butanogenic Clostridium sp. NJ4 was successfully isolated and characterized, which could directly produce relatively high titer of butanol from inulin through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). The assembled draft genome of strain NJ4 is 4.09 Mp, containing 3891 encoded protein sequences with G+C content of 30.73%. Among these annotated genes, a levanase, a hypothetical inulinase, and two bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases (AdhE) were found to play key roles in the achievement of ABE production from inulin through CBP.

  17. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  18. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  19. Analytic Moufang-transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, Eh.N.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is aimed to be an introduction to the concept of an analytic birepresentation of an analytic Moufang loop. To describe the deviation of (S,T) from associativity, the associators (S,T) are defined and certain constraints for them, called the minimality conditions of (S,T) are established

  20. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  1. Learning analytics dashboard applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Klerkx, J.; Govaerts, S.; Santos, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces learning analytics dashboards that visualize learning traces for learners and teachers. We present a conceptual framework that helps to analyze learning analytics applications for these kinds of users. We then present our own work in this area and compare with 15 related

  2. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  3. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  4. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  5. Biochemical characterization of thermophilic lignocellulose degrading enzymes and their potential for biomass bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambare, Vasudeo; Zambare, Archana; Christopher, Lew P. [Center for Bioprocessing Research & Development, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City 57701, SD (United States); Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanath [Center for Bioprocessing Research & Development, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, SD (United States)

    2011-07-01

    A thermophilic microbial consortium (TMC) producing hydrolytic (cellulolytic and xylanolytic) enzymes was isolated from yard waste compost following enrichment with carboxymethyl cellulose and birchwood xylan. When grown on 5% lignocellulosic substrates (corn stover and prairie cord grass) at 60C, the thermophilic consortium produced more xylanase (up to 489 U/l on corn stover) than cellulase activity (up to 367 U/l on prairie cord grass). Except for the carboxymethyl cellulose-enriched consortium, thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment of these substrates had a positive effect on both activities with up to 13% and 21% increase in the xylanase and cellulase production, respectively. The optimum temperatures of the crude cellulase and xylanase were 60C and 70C with half-lives of 15 h and 18 h, respectively, suggesting higher thermostability for the TMC xylanase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the crude enzyme exhibited protein bands of 25-77 kDa with multiple enzyme activities containing 3 cellulases and 3 xylanases. The substrate specificity declined in the following descending order: avicel>birchwood xylan>microcrystalline cellulose>filter paper>pine wood saw dust>carboxymethyl cellulose. The crude enzyme was 77% more active on insoluble than soluble cellulose. The Km and Vmax values were 36.49 mg/ml and 2.98 U/mg protein on avicel (cellulase), and 22.25 mg/ml and 2.09 U/mg protein, on birchwood xylan (xylanase). A total of 50 TMC isolates were screened for cellulase and xylanase secretion on agar plates. All single isolates showed significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the thermophilic consortia. This is indicative of the strong synergistic interactions that exist within the thermophilic microbial consortium and enhance its hydrolytic capabilities. It was further demonstrated that the thermostable enzyme-generated lignocellulosic hydrolyzates can be fermented to bioethanol by a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli

  6. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  7. Learning analytics approach of EMMA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammets, Kairit; Brouns, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The EMMA project provides a MOOC platform to aggregate and delivers massive open online courses (MOOC) in multiple languages from a variety of European universities. Learning analytics play an important role in MOOCs to support the individual needs of the learner.

  8. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  9. From lab to market: An integrated bioprocess design approach for new-to-nature biosurfactants produced by Starmerella bombicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Lisa; Roelants, Sophie L K W; Baccile, Niki; Uyttersprot, Katrijn; Taelman, Marie Claire; Everaert, Bernd; Mincke, Stein; Ledegen, Sam; Debrouwer, Sam; Scholtens, Kristel; Stevens, Christian; Soetaert, Wim

    2018-05-01

    Glycolipid microbial biosurfactants, such as sophorolipids (SLs), generate high industrial interest as 100% biobased alternatives for traditional surfactants. A well-known success story is the efficient SL producer Starmerella bombicola, which reaches titers well above 200 g/L. Recent engineering attempts have enabled the production of completely new types of molecules by S. bombicola, e.g. the bolaform SLs. Scale-up of bolaform SL production was performed at 150 L scale. The purified product was evaluated in detergent applications, as classic SLs are mostly applied in eco-friendly detergents. In this paper, we show that they can be used as green and non-irritant surfactants in for example (automatic) dishwashing applications. However, due to the presence of an ester function in the biosurfactant molecule a limited chemical stability at higher pH values (>6.5) was noticed, (therefore called 'non-symmetrical' (nsBola)) which, is a major drawback that will most likely inhibit market introduction. An integrated bioprocess design (IBPD) strategy was thus applied to resolve this issue. The strategy was to replace the fed fatty acids with fatty alcohols, to generate so-called "symmetrical bolaform (sBola) sophorosides (SSs)," containing two instead of one glycosidic bond. Next to a change in feeding strategy, the blocking of the fatty alcohols from metabolizing/oxidizing through the suggested ω-oxidation pathway was necessary. For the latter, two putative fatty alcohol oxidase genes (fao1 and fao2) were identified in the S. bombicola genome and deleted in the bolaform SL producing strain (ΔatΔsble). Shake flask experiments for these new strains (ΔatΔsbleΔfao1 and ΔatΔsbleΔfao2) were performed to evaluate if the fed fatty alcohols were directly implemented into the SL biosynthesis pathway. Indeed, sBola sophorosides (SSs) production up to 20 g/L was observed for the ΔatΔsbleΔfao1 strain. Unexpectedly, the ΔatΔsbleΔfao2 strain only produced minor

  10. Cellulosic ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing by a novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from a Himalayan hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Mathur, Anshu S; Tuli, Deepak K; Gupta, Ravi P; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium as a suitable host for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) has been proposed as an economically suited platform for the production of second-generation biofuels. To recognize the overall objective of CBP, fermentation using co-culture of different cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting thermophilic anaerobic bacteria has been widely studied as an approach to achieving improved ethanol production. We assessed monoculture and co-culture fermentation of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacterium for ethanol production from real substrates under controlled conditions. In this study, Clostridium sp. DBT-IOC-C19, a cellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, was isolated from the cellulolytic enrichment cultures obtained from a Himalayan hot spring. Strain DBT-IOC-C19 exhibited a broad substrate spectrum and presented single-step conversion of various cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates to ethanol, acetate, and lactate with ethanol being the major fermentation product. Additionally, the effect of varying cellulose concentrations on the fermentation performance of the strain was studied, indicating a maximum cellulose utilization ability of 10 g L -1 cellulose. Avicel degradation kinetics of the strain DBT-IOC-C19 displayed 94.6% degradation at 5 g L -1 and 82.74% degradation at 10 g L -1 avicel concentration within 96 h of fermentation. In a comparative study with Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313, the ethanol and total product concentrations were higher by the newly isolated strain on pretreated rice straw at an equivalent substrate loading. Three different co-culture combinations were used on various substrates that presented two-fold yield improvement than the monoculture during batch fermentation. This study demonstrated the direct fermentation ability of the novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria on various cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates into ethanol without the aid of any exogenous enzymes

  11. Development and modelling of a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process with CO2-enriched air from an upstream bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Patricia; Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Boutet, Étienne; Lida, Félix; Comeau, Yves

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this project was to develop a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process by acidification with CO 2 -enriched air coming from a bioprocess. Sub-objectives were to evaluate the neutralization capacity of different configurations of neutralization units in lab-scale conditions and to propose a design model of steel slag effluent neutralization. Two lab-scale column neutralization units fed with two different types of influent were operated at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Tested variables were mode of flow (saturated or percolating), type of media (none, gravel, Bionest and AnoxKaldnes K3), type of air (ambient or CO 2 -enriched) and airflow rate. One neutralization field test (saturated and no media, 2000-5000 ppm CO 2 , sequential feeding, hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h) was conducted for 7 days. Lab-scale and field-scale tests resulted in effluent pH of 7.5-9.5 when the aeration rate was sufficiently high. A model was implemented in the PHREEQC software and was based on the carbonate system, CO 2 transfer and calcite precipitation; and was calibrated on ambient air lab tests. The model was validated with CO 2 -enriched air lab and field tests, providing satisfactory validation results over a wide range of CO 2 concentrations. The flow mode had a major impact on CO 2 transfer and hydraulic efficiency, while the type of media had little influence. The flow mode also had a major impact on the calcite surface concentration in the reactor: it was constant in saturated mode and was increasing in percolating mode. Predictions could be made for different steel slag effluent pH and different operation conditions (hydraulic retention time, CO 2 concentration, media and mode of flow). The pH of the steel slag filter effluent and the CO 2 concentration of the enriched air were factors that influenced most the effluent pH of the neutralization process. An increased concentration in CO 2 in the enriched air reduced calcite precipitation

  12. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  13. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  14. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  15. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  16. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  17. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  18. Semi-analytic techniques for calculating bubble wall profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akula, Sujeet; Balazs, Csaba; White, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    We present semi-analytic techniques for finding bubble wall profiles during first order phase transitions with multiple scalar fields. Our method involves reducing the problem to an equation with a single field, finding an approximate analytic solution and perturbing around it. The perturbations can be written in a semi-analytic form. We assert that our technique lacks convergence problems and demonstrate the speed of convergence on an example potential. (orig.)

  19. SRL online Analytical Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R ampersand D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R ampersand D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control ampersand Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications

  20. Analytical Pyrolysis-Chromatography: Something Old, Something New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Nathan W.; Blanchet, Conor J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long history of use across multiple disciplines, analytical pyrolysis is rarely taught in undergraduate curricula. We briefly review some interesting applications and discuss the three types of analytical pyrolyzers available commercially. We also describe a low-cost alternative that can be used to teach the basic principles of…

  1. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  2. Analytic manifolds in uniform algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, T.V.

    1988-12-01

    Here we extend Bear-Hile's result concerning the version of famous Bishop's theorem for one-dimensional analytic structures in two directions: for n-dimensional complex analytic manifolds, n>1, and for generalized analytic manifolds. 14 refs

  3. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  4. service line analytics in the new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-08-01

    To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability.

  5. Information theory in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eckschlager, Karel; Danzer, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    Contents: The aim of analytical chemistry - Basic concepts of information theory - Identification of components - Qualitative analysis - Quantitative analysis - Multicomponent analysis - Optimum analytical...

  6. Process Analytical Technology for Advanced Process Control in Biologics Manufacturing with the Aid of Macroscopic Kinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornecki, Martin; Strube, Jochen

    2018-03-16

    Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP); however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA), aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess. Especially, spectroscopic methods such as Raman or near-infrared spectroscopy enable one to meet these analytical requirements, preferably in-situ. In combination with chemometric techniques like partial least square (PLS) or principal component analysis (PCA), it is possible to generate soft sensors, which estimate process variables based on process and measurement models for the enhanced control of bioprocesses. Macroscopic kinetic models can be used to simulate cell metabolism. These models are able to enhance the process understanding by predicting the dynamic of cells during cultivation. In this article, in-situ turbidity (transmission, 880 nm) and ex-situ Raman spectroscopy (785 nm) measurements are combined with an offline macroscopic Monod kinetic model in order to predict substrate concentrations. Experimental data of Chinese hamster ovary cultivations in bioreactors show a sufficiently linear correlation (R² ≥ 0.97) between turbidity and total cell concentration. PLS regression of Raman spectra generates a prediction model, which was validated via offline viable cell concentration measurement (RMSE ≤ 13.82, R² ≥ 0.92). Based on these measurements, the macroscopic Monod model can be used to determine different process attributes, e.g., glucose concentration. In consequence, it is possible to approximately calculate (R² ≥ 0.96) glucose concentration based on online cell

  7. Process Analytical Technology for Advanced Process Control in Biologics Manufacturing with the Aid of Macroscopic Kinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kornecki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Productivity improvements of mammalian cell culture in the production of recombinant proteins have been made by optimizing cell lines, media, and process operation. This led to enhanced titers and process robustness without increasing the cost of the upstream processing (USP; however, a downstream bottleneck remains. In terms of process control improvement, the process analytical technology (PAT initiative, initiated by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA, aims to measure, analyze, monitor, and ultimately control all important attributes of a bioprocess. Especially, spectroscopic methods such as Raman or near-infrared spectroscopy enable one to meet these analytical requirements, preferably in-situ. In combination with chemometric techniques like partial least square (PLS or principal component analysis (PCA, it is possible to generate soft sensors, which estimate process variables based on process and measurement models for the enhanced control of bioprocesses. Macroscopic kinetic models can be used to simulate cell metabolism. These models are able to enhance the process understanding by predicting the dynamic of cells during cultivation. In this article, in-situ turbidity (transmission, 880 nm and ex-situ Raman spectroscopy (785 nm measurements are combined with an offline macroscopic Monod kinetic model in order to predict substrate concentrations. Experimental data of Chinese hamster ovary cultivations in bioreactors show a sufficiently linear correlation (R2 ≥ 0.97 between turbidity and total cell concentration. PLS regression of Raman spectra generates a prediction model, which was validated via offline viable cell concentration measurement (RMSE ≤ 13.82, R2 ≥ 0.92. Based on these measurements, the macroscopic Monod model can be used to determine different process attributes, e.g., glucose concentration. In consequence, it is possible to approximately calculate (R2 ≥ 0.96 glucose concentration based on online cell

  8. Competing on talent analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  9. Advanced business analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Lev, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The book describes advanced business analytics and shows how to apply them to many different professional areas of engineering and management. Each chapter of the book is contributed by a different author and covers a different area of business analytics. The book connects the analytic principles with business practice and provides an interface between the main disciplines of engineering/technology and the organizational, administrative and planning abilities of management. It also refers to other disciplines such as economy, finance, marketing, behavioral economics and risk analysis. This book is of special interest to engineers, economists and researchers who are developing new advances in engineering management but also to practitioners working on this subject.

  10. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  11. An analytic thomism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Pérez Chamorro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 50 years the philosophers of the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition (E. Anscombre, P. Geach, A. Kenny, P. Foot have tried to follow the Thomas Aquinas School which they use as a source to surpass the Cartesian Epistemology and to develop the virtue ethics. Recently, J. Haldane has inaugurated a program of “analytical thomism” which main result until the present has been his “theory of identity mind/world”. Nevertheless, none of Thomás’ admirers has still found the means of assimilating his metaphysics of being.

  12. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  13. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    welfare. In conjunction with the meeting of the steering committee in Tallinn, Estonia, in April, Mihkel Kaljurand and Mihkel Koel of Tallinn University of Technology organised a successful symposium attended by 51 participants. The symposium illustrated the scientific work of the steering committee...... directed to various topics of analytical chemistry. Although affected by the global financial crisis, the Euroanalysis Conference will be held on 6 to 10 September in Innsbruck, Austria. For next year, the programme for the analytical section of the 3rd European Chemistry Congress is in preparation...

  14. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  15. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  16. 20050411 NATO Advanced Study Institute on Dynamics of Complex Interconnected Biosensor Systems: Networks and Bioprocesses Geilo, Norway 11 - 21 Apr 2005 2005 geilo20050411 NO 20050421

    CERN Document Server

    Skjeltorp, Arne T

    2006-01-01

    The book reviews the synergism between various fields of research that are confronted with networks, such as genetic and metabolic networks, social networks, the Internet and ecological systems. In many cases, the interacting networks manifest so-called emergent properties that are not possessed by any of the individual components. This means that the detailed knowledge of the components is insufficient to describe the whole system. Recent work has indicated that networks in nature have so-called scale-free characteristics, and the associated dynamic network modelling shows unexpected results such as an amazing robustness against accidental failures. Modelling the signal transduction networks in bioprocesses as in living cells is a challenging interdisciplinary research area. It is now realized that the many features of molecular interaction networks within a cell are shared to a large degree by the other complex systems mentioned above, such as the Internet, computer chips and society. Thus knowledge gained ...

  17. A novel ionic liquid-tolerant Fusarium oxysporum BN secreting ionic liquid-stable cellulase: consolidated bioprocessing of pretreated lignocellulose containing residual ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxing; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Lei; Xia, Jun; Wu, Zhen; Xu, Ning; Dai, Benlin; Wu, Bin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, microbial communities from chemicals polluted microhabitats were cultured with the addition of imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) to enrich for IL-tolerant microbes. A strain of Fusarium oxysporum BN producing cellulase from these enrichments was capable of growing in 10% (w/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphinate, much higher than the normal IL concentrations in the lignocellulose regenerated from ILs. Cellulase secreted by the strain showed high resistance to ILs based on phosphate and sulfate radicals, evidencing of a high conformational stability in relevant media. Gratifyingly, F. oxysporum BN can directly convert IL-pretreated rice straw to bioethanol via consolidated bioprocessing (I-CBP). At optimum fermentation condition, a maximum ethanol yield of 0.125 g ethanol g(-1) of rice straw was finally obtained, corresponding to 64.2% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consolidated bioprocessing of microalgal biomass to carboxylates by a mixed culture of cow rumen bacteria using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Liu, Jie; Frear, Craig; Holtzapple, Mark; Chen, Shulin

    2016-12-01

    This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains. The variability of the bacterial community increased with longer HRT (R 2 =0.85). In the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentor, the most common phyla were Firmicutes (58.3%), Bacteroidetes (27.4%), and Proteobacteria (11.9%). The dominant bacterial classes were Clostridia (29.8%), Bacteroidia (27.4%), Tissierella (26.2%), and Betaproteobacteria (8.9%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Data analytics in the ATLAS Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Ilija; The ATLAS collaboration; Bryant, Lincoln

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Data analytics effort is focused on creating systems which provide the ATLAS ADC with new capabilities for understanding distributed systems and overall operational performance. These capabilities include: warehousing information from multiple systems (the production and distributed analysis system - PanDA, the distributed data management system - Rucio, the file transfer system, various monitoring services etc. ); providing a platform to execute arbitrary data mining and machine learning algorithms over aggregated data; satisfy a variety of use cases for different user roles; host new third party analytics services on a scalable compute platform. We describe the implemented system where: data sources are existing RDBMS (Oracle) and Flume collectors; a Hadoop cluster is used to store the data; native Hadoop and Apache Pig scripts are used for data aggregation; and R for in-depth analytics. Part of the data is indexed in ElasticSearch so both simpler investigations and complex dashboards can be made ...

  20. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  2. Analytical system availability techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.J.H.; Verbeek, P.H.J.; Thomson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical techniques are presented to assess the probability distributions and related statistical parameters of loss of production from equipment networks subject to random failures and repairs. The techniques are based on a theoretical model for system availability, which was further developed

  3. Explanatory analytics in OLAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, E.A.M.; Daniëls, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a method to integrate explanatory business analytics in OLAP information systems. This method supports the discovery of exceptional values in OLAP data and the explanation of such values by giving their underlying causes. OLAP applications offer a support tool for

  4. Analytical procedures. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1985-01-01

    In analytical procedures (Boole procedures) there is certain to be a close relationship between the safety assessment and reliability assessment of technical facilities. The paper gives an overview of the organization of models, fault trees, the probabilistic evaluation of systems, evaluation with minimum steps or minimum paths regarding statistically dependent components and of systems liable to suffer different kinds of outages. (orig.) [de

  5. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  6. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  7. Of the Analytical Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cloth will be woven all of one colour; but there will be a damask pattern upon it ... mathematical view of the Analytical Engine, and illustrate by example some of its .... be to v~rify the number of the card given it by subtracting its number from 2 3 ...

  8. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  9. Social Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the design and implementation of effective "Social Learning Analytics (SLA)" present significant challenges and opportunities for both research and enterprise, in three important respects. The first is that the learning landscape is extraordinarily turbulent at present, in no small part due to technological drivers.…

  10. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  11. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  12. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  13. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  14. Multispectral analytical image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, T.C.

    2000-04-01

    With new and advanced analytical imaging methods emerging, the limits of physical analysis capabilities and furthermore of data acquisition quantities are constantly pushed, claiming high demands to the field of scientific data processing and visualisation. Physical analysis methods like Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) or Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and others are capable of delivering high-resolution multispectral two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data; usually this multispectral data is available in form of n separate image files with each showing one element or other singular aspect of the sample. There is high need for digital image processing methods enabling the analytical scientist, confronted with such amounts of data routinely, to get rapid insight into the composition of the sample examined, to filter the relevant data and to integrate the information of numerous separate multispectral images to get the complete picture. Sophisticated image processing methods like classification and fusion provide possible solution approaches to this challenge. Classification is a treatment by multivariate statistical means in order to extract analytical information. Image fusion on the other hand denotes a process where images obtained from various sensors or at different moments of time are combined together to provide a more complete picture of a scene or object under investigation. Both techniques are important for the task of information extraction and integration and often one technique depends on the other. Therefore overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the possibilities of both techniques regarding the task of analytical image processing and to find solutions for the integration and condensation of multispectral analytical image data in order to facilitate the interpretation of the enormous amounts of data routinely acquired by modern physical analysis instruments. (author)

  15. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...... for approximate Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes. A comparison with averages obtained by Monte-Carlo sampling shows that our method achieves good accuracy....

  16. Writing analytic element programs in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A

    2009-01-01

    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  17. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  18. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  19. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects throu...

  20. The multiplication operators on some analytic function spaces of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Given f ∈ E1(Bn) we still denote by f (ξ) (ξ ∈ Sn) its admissible limit at the boundary which exists a.e. A ... BMOA is a Banach space under the following norm: || f ||2 ..... The same inequalities hold when ga is replaced by fa by the same observations. ... The case of the Bloch space and the weighted Bloch space. As in the ...

  1. Experimental and Analytical Investigations on Multiple Liquid Impact Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiruvengadam, A

    1969-01-01

    .... High speed motion pictures as well as conventional movie films with stroboscopic illumination were taken to show the phenomenon of liquid jet impact with the test material in a qualitative manner...

  2. Multiplication: From Thales to Lie1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addition. To describe the geometric constructions of addition, as ..... general, we could apply the implicit function theorem of calculus to solve locally the defining ... and whose multiplication and inverse are analytic maps, is called a Lie group.

  3. Multiple Site Damage in Flat Panel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrage, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This report aimed to experimentally verify analytical models that predict the residual strength of representative aircraft structures, such as wide panels, that are subjected to Multiple Site Damage (MSD...

  4. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de; Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  5. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  6. Analytical chemists and dinosaurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The role of the analytical chemist in the development of the extraterrestrial impact theory for mass extinctions at the terminal Cretaceous Period is reviewed. High iridium concentrations in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays have been linked to a terrestrial impact from an iridium-rich asteroid or large meteorite som 65 million years ago. Other evidence in favour of the occurrence of such an impact has been provided by the detection of shocked quartz grains originating from impact and of amorphous carbon particles similar to soot, derived presumably from wordwide wildfires at the terminal Cretaceous. Further evidence provided by the analytical chemist involves the determination of isotopic ratios such as 144 Nd/ 143 Nd, 187 Os/ 186 Os, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. Countervailing arguments put forward by the gradualist school (mainly palaeontological) as opposed to the catastrophists (mainly chemists and geochemists) are also presented and discussed

  7. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  8. Hermeneutical and analytical jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main strands of development in jurisprudence in the last few decades from the standpoint of the metatheoretical differentiation between analytical and hermeneutical perspective in the study of law. The author claims that recent jurisprudent accounts can rarely be positioned within the traditional dichotomy natural law theories - legal positivism, and that this dichotomy is not able to account for the differences between contemporary conceptions of law. As an alternative the difference between the analytical and hermeneutical traditions in philosophy are explained, as they have crucially influenced posthartian strands in Anglo-American philosophy and postkelsenian strands in continental philosophy of law. Finally, the influence of hermeneutical philosophy and legal theory is examined in regards of the development of a hermeneutical theory of law and the development of legal hermeneutics.

  9. Analytical chemists and dinosaurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, R R

    1987-05-01

    The role of the analytical chemist in the development of the extraterrestrial impact theory for mass extinctions at the terminal Cretaceous Period is reviewed. High iridium concentrations in Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clays have been linked to a terrestrial impact from an iridium-rich asteroid or large meteorite som 65 million years ago. Other evidence in favour of the occurrence of such an impact has been provided by the detection of shocked quartz grains originating from impact and of amorphous carbon particles similar to soot, derived presumably from wordwide wildfires at the terminal Cretaceous. Further evidence provided by the analytical chemist involves the determination of isotopic ratios such as /sup 144/Nd//sup 143/Nd, /sup 187/Os//sup 186/Os, and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr. Countervailing arguments put forward by the gradualist school (mainly palaeontological) as opposed to the catastrophists (mainly chemists and geochemists) are also presented and discussed.

  10. Analytical chemistry of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, H.; Marty, P.

    2001-01-01

    Different characterization methods specifically applied to the actinides are presented in this review such as ICP/OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry), ICP/MS (inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry), TIMS (thermal ionization-mass spectrometry) and GD/OES (flow discharge optical emission). Molecular absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis are also available to complete the excellent range of analytical tools at our disposal. (authors)

  11. Communication Theoretic Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Lun; Zheng, Lizhong; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of the Internet and social networks invokes the generation of big data, which is proving to be useful in a number of applications. To deal with explosively growing amounts of data, data analytics has emerged as a critical technology related to computing, signal processing, and information networking. In this paper, a formalism is considered in which data is modeled as a generalized social network and communication theory and information theory are thereby extended to data analy...

  12. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  13. Analytic chemistry of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical, colorimetric, gravimetric, spectroscopic, and radiochemical methods for the determination of molybdenum are summarized in this book. Some laboratory procedures are described in detail while literature citations are given for others. The reader is also referred to older comprehensive reviews of the analytical chemistry of molybdenum. Contents, abridged: Gravimetric methods. Titrimetric methods. Colorimetric methods. X-ray fluorescence. Voltammetry. Catalytic methods. Molybdenum in non-ferrous alloys. Molydbenum compounds

  14. Introduction to analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamalath, KAILW

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTICAL MECHANICS is an attempt to introduce the modern treatment of classical mechanics so that transition to many fields in physics can be made with the least difficulty. This book deal with the formulation of Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian dynamics, conservation laws relating to symmetries, Hamiltonian dynamics Hamilton's principle, Poisson brackets, canonical transformations which are invaluable in formulating the quantum mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation which provides the transition to wave mechanics.

  15. Analytical and physical electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Girault, Hubert H

    2004-01-01

    The study of electrochemistry is pertinent to a wide variety of fields, including bioenergetics, environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. In addition, electrochemistry plays a fundamental role in specific applications as diverse as the conversion and storage of energy and the sequencing of DNA.Intended both as a basic course for undergraduate students and as a reference work for graduates and researchers, Analytical and Physical Electrochemistry covers two fundamental aspects of electrochemistry: electrochemistry in solution and interfacial electrochemistry. By bringing these two subj

  16. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  17. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    “modernities” over the last 10 years, this paper wishes to address the analytical usefulness of this conceptual development. What is it about these concepts that make them useful as we try to capture the World today? Rather than providing any substantial definitions as to what those modernities are about (or...... what they are not about), anthropologists have used ethnographies to demonstrate how modernities are lived and constructed differently in different cultural contexts. To a very large extent, anthropologists intend these multiple modernities to refer to the interplay between local and global...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  18. Business analytics a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to businesses on how to use analytics to help drive from ideas to execution. Analytics used in this way provides "full lifecycle support" for business and helps during all stages of management decision-making and execution.The framework presented in the book enables the effective interplay of business, analytics, and information technology (business intelligence) both to leverage analytics for competitive advantage and to embed the use of business analytics into the business culture. It lays out an approach for analytics, describes the processes used, and provides gu

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  20. Mars Analytical Microimager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  1. MERRA Analytic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D. Q.; McInerney, M. A.; Tamkin, G. S.; Thompson, J. H.; Gill, R.; Grieg, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is a cyberinfrastructure resource for developing and evaluating a new generation of climate data analysis capabilities. MERRA/AS supports OBS4MIP activities by reducing the time spent in the preparation of Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data used in data-model intercomparison. It also provides a testbed for experimental development of high-performance analytics. MERRA/AS is a cloud-based service built around the Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS) technology that is currently used by the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to deliver Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) data to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Crucial to its effectiveness, MERRA/AS's servers will use a workflow-generated realizable object capability to perform analyses over the MERRA data using the MapReduce approach to parallel storage-based computation. The results produced by these operations will be stored by the vCDS, which will also be able to host code sets for those who wish to explore the use of MapReduce for more advanced analytics. While the work described here will focus on the MERRA collection, these technologies can be used to publish other reanalysis, observational, and ancillary OBS4MIP data to ESGF and, importantly, offer an architectural approach to climate data services that can be generalized to applications and customers beyond the traditional climate research community. In this presentation, we describe our approach, experiences, lessons learned,and plans for the future.; (A) MERRA/AS software stack. (B) Example MERRA/AS interfaces.

  2. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  3. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  4. Analysis and analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batuecas Rodriguez, T [Department of Chemistry and Isotopes, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-01-01

    The technology associated with the use of organic coolants in nuclear reactors depends to a large extent on the determination and control of their physical and chemical properties, and particularly on the viability, speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy (depending on the intended usage) of the methods employed in detection and analytical determination. This has led to the study and development of numerous techniques, some specially designed for the extreme conditions involved in working with the types of product in question and others adapted from existing techniques. In the specific case of polyphenyl and hydropolyphenyl mixtures, which have been the principal subjects of study to date and offer greatest promise, the analytical problems are broadly as follows: Composition of initial product or virgin coolant composition of macro components and amounts of organic and inorganic impurities; Coolant during and after operation. Determination of gases and organic compounds produced by pyrolysis and radiolysis (degradation and polymerization products); Control of systems for purifying and regenerating the coolant after use. Dissolved pressurization gases; Detection of intermediate products during decomposition; these are generally very unstable (free radicals); Degree of fouling and film formation. Tests to determine potential formation of films; Corrosion of structural elements and canning materials; Health and safety. Toxicity, inflammability and impurities that can be activated. Although some of the above problems are closely interrelated and entail similar techniques, they vary as to degree of difficulty. Another question is the difficulty of distinguishing clearly between techniques for determining physical and physico-chemical properties, on one hand, and analytical techniques on the other. Any classification is therefore somewhat arbitrary (for example, in the case of dosimetry and techniques for determining mean molecular weights or electrical conductivity

  5. Analytical chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Jo; Paeng, Seong Gwan; Jang, Cheol Hyeon

    1992-08-01

    This book deals with analytical chemistry experiment with eight chapters. It explains general matters that require attention on experiment, handling of medicine with keep and class, the method for handling and glass devices, general control during experiment on heating, cooling, filtering, distillation and extraction and evaporation and dry, glass craft on purpose of the craft, how to cut glass tube and how to bend glass tube, volumetric analysis on neutralization titration and precipitation titration, gravimetric analysis on solubility product, filter and washing and microorganism experiment with necessary tool, sterilization disinfection incubation and appendixes.

  6. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  7. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  8. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Shumate, S.E.; Genung, R.K.; Bahner, C.T.; Lee, N.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  9. Biosensors: Future Analytical Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors offer considerable promises for attaining the analytic information in a faster, simpler and cheaper manner compared to conventional assays. Biosensing approach is rapidly advancing and applications ranging from metabolite, biological/ chemical warfare agent, food pathogens and adulterant detection to genetic screening and programmed drug delivery have been demonstrated. Innovative efforts, coupling micromachining and nanofabrication may lead to even more powerful devices that would accelerate the realization of large-scale and routine screening. With gradual increase in commercialization a wide range of new biosensors are thus expected to reach the market in the coming years.

  10. Framework for pedagogical learning analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Heilala, Ville

    2018-01-01

    Learning analytics is an emergent technological practice and a multidisciplinary scientific discipline, which goal is to facilitate effective learning and knowledge of learning. In this design science research, I combine knowledge discovery process, a concept of pedagogical knowledge, ethics of learning analytics and microservice architecture. The result is a framework for pedagogical learning analytics. The framework is applied and evaluated in the context of agency analytics. The framework ...

  11. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This information will be

  12. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  13. Learning Analytics: Readiness and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm

    2013-01-01

    This position paper introduces the relatively new field of learning analytics, first by considering the relevant meanings of both "learning" and "analytics," and then by looking at two main levels at which learning analytics can be or has been implemented in educational organizations. Although integrated turnkey systems or…

  14. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  15. The analytic renormalization group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k∈Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk=2πk/β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct “Analytic Renormalization Group” linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|<μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0, together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|≥μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  16. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  17. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  18. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  19. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  20. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  1. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  2. Analytic Summability Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    The theory of summability of divergent series is a major branch of mathematical analysis that has found important applications in engineering and science. It addresses methods of assigning natural values to divergent sums, whose prototypical examples include the Abel summation method, the Cesaro means, and the Borel summability method. As will be established in subsequent chapters, the theory of summability of divergent series is intimately connected to the theory of fractional finite sums. In this chapter, we introduce a generalized definition of series as well as a new summability method for computing the value of series according to such a definition. We show that the proposed summability method is both regular and linear, and that it arises quite naturally in the study of local polynomial approximations of analytic functions. The materials presented in this chapter will be foundational to all subsequent chapters.

  3. Analytic Summability Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    The theory of summability of divergent series is a major branch of mathematical analysis that has found important applications in engineering and science. It addresses methods of assigning natural values to divergent sums, whose prototypical examples include the Abel summation method, the Cesaro means, and the Borel summability method. As will be established in subsequent chapters, the theory of summability of divergent series is intimately connected to the theory of fractional finite sums. In this chapter, we introduce a generalized definition of series as well as a new summability method for computing the value of series according to such a definition. We show that the proposed summability method is both regular and linear, and that it arises quite naturally in the study of local polynomial approximations of analytic functions. The materials presented in this chapter will be foundational to all subsequent chapters.

  4. Generalized analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, William T

    2002-01-01

    The theory of generalized analytic continuation studies continuations of meromorphic functions in situations where traditional theory says there is a natural boundary. This broader theory touches on a remarkable array of topics in classical analysis, as described in the book. This book addresses the following questions: (1) When can we say, in some reasonable way, that component functions of a meromorphic function on a disconnected domain, are "continuations" of each other? (2) What role do such "continuations" play in certain aspects of approximation theory and operator theory? The authors use the strong analogy with the summability of divergent series to motivate the subject. In this vein, for instance, theorems can be described as being "Abelian" or "Tauberian". The introductory overview carefully explains the history and context of the theory. The authors begin with a review of the works of Poincaré, Borel, Wolff, Walsh, and Gončar, on continuation properties of "Borel series" and other meromorphic func...

  5. Analytical applications of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaser, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides an up to date overview of recent developments in analytical spectroscopy, with a particular emphasis on the common themes of chromatography - spectroscopy combinations, Fourier transform methods, and data handling techniques, which have played an increasingly important part in the development of all spectroscopic techniques. The book contains papers originally presented at a conference entitled 'Spectroscopy Across The Spectrum' held jointly with the first 'International Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference' at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, in July 1987, which have been edited and rearranged with some additional material. Each section includes reviews of key areas of current research as well as short reports of new developments. The fields covered are: Near Infrared Spectroscopy; Infrared Spectroscopy; Mass Spectroscopy; NMR Spectroscopy; Atomic and UV/Visible Spectroscopy; Chemometrics and Data Analysis. (author)

  6. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  7. Improved steamflood analytical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, S.; Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Predicting the performance of steam flooding can help in the proper execution of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. The Jones model is often used for analytical steam flooding performance prediction, but it does not accurately predict oil production peaks. In this study, an improved steam flood model was developed by modifying 2 of the 3 components of the capture factor in the Jones model. The modifications were based on simulation results from a Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) comparative project case model. The production performance of a 5-spot steamflood pattern unit was simulated and compared with results obtained from the Jones model. Three reservoir types were simulated through the use of 3-D Cartesian black oil models. In order to correlate the simulation and the Jones analytical model results for the start and height of the production peak, the dimensionless steam zone size was modified to account for a decrease in oil viscosity during steam flooding and its dependence on the steam injection rate. In addition, the dimensionless volume of displaced oil produced was modified from its square-root format to an exponential form. The modified model improved results for production performance by up to 20 years of simulated steam flooding, compared to the Jones model. Results agreed with simulation results for 13 different cases, including 3 different sets of reservoir and fluid properties. Reservoir engineers will benefit from the improved accuracy of the model. Oil displacement calculations were based on methods proposed in earlier research, in which the oil displacement rate is a function of cumulative oil steam ratio. The cumulative oil steam ratio is a function of overall thermal efficiency. Capture factor component formulae were presented, as well as charts of oil production rates and cumulative oil-steam ratios for various reservoirs. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 29 figs.

  8. Multiple photon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.J.; Feldman, B.J.

    1979-02-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of the interaction of intense near-resonant monochromatic radiation with an N-level anharmonic oscillator. In particular, the phenomenon of multiple photon resonance, the process by which an N-level system resonantly absorbs two or more photons simultaneously, is investigated. Starting from the Schroedinger equation, diagrammatic techniques are developed that allow the resonant process to be analyzed quantitatively, in analogy with well-known two-level coherent phenomena. In addition, multiple photon Stark shifts of the resonances, shifts absent in two-level theory, are obtained from the diagrams. Insights into the nature of multiple photon resonances are gained by comparing the quantum mechanical system with classical coupled pendulums whose equations of motion possess identical eigenvalues and eigenvectors. In certain limiting cases, including that of the resonantly excited N-level harmonic oscillator and that of the equally spaced N-level system with equal matrix elements, analytic results are derived. The influence of population relaxation and phase-disrupting collisions on the multiple photon process are also analyzed, the latter by extension of the diagrammatic technique to the density matrix equations of motion. 11 figures

  9. Crowdsensed Mobile Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, Ella

    2018-01-01

    Mobile devices, especially smartphones, are nowadays an essential part of everyday life. They are used worldwide and across all the demographic groups - they can be utilized for multiple functionalities, including but not limited to communications, game playing, social interactions, maps and navigation, leisure, work, and education. With a large on-device sensor base, mobile devices provide a rich source of data. Understanding how these devices are used help us also to increase the knowledge ...

  10. On-line monitoring of Aspergillus niger GH1 growth in a bioprocess for the production of ellagic acid and ellagitannase by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zárate, Pedro; Wong-Paz, Jorge E; Rodríguez-Duran, Luis V; Buenrostro-Figueroa, Juan; Michel, Mariela; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the monitoring of CO 2 production by Aspergillus niger GH1 in a bioprocess for the production of ellagitannase (EAH) and ellagic acid by solid state fermentation. Pomegranate ellagitannins, mainly punicalagin, were used as carbon source and EAH inducer. A second condition, using ellagitannins and maltose as growth promoting carbon source, was tested. The ellagic acid production was quantified and the EAH activity was assayed. The accumulated metabolites were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Higher CO 2 production (7.79mg/grams of dry material) was reached in media supplemented with maltose. Short-time lag phase (7.79h) and exponential phase (10.42h) were obtained using only ellagitannins, despite its lower CO 2 production (3.79mg/grams of dry material). Without the use of maltose lower ellagic acid (11.85mg/L/h) and EAH (21.80U/L/h) productivities were reached. The use of maltose enhances the productivity of EA (33.18mg/L/h) and EAH (33.70U/L/h). Besides of punicalin and ellagic acid, two unknown compounds with mass weight of 702 and 290g/mol (ions 701 and 289m/z in negative mode, respectively) were identified and characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of simultaneous heat and mass transfer phenomena for water vapour condensation on a solid surface in an abiotic environment--application to bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Akhilesh; Kondjoyan, Alain; Fontaine, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-01

    The phenomenon of heat and mass transfer by condensation of water vapour from humid air involves several key concepts in aerobic bioreactors. The high performance of bioreactors results from optimised interactions between biological processes and multiphase heat and mass transfer. Indeed in various processes such as submerged fermenters and solid-state fermenters, gas/liquid transfer need to be well controlled, as it is involved at the microorganism interface and for the control of the global process. For the theoretical prediction of such phenomena, mathematical models require heat and mass transfer coefficients. To date, very few data have been validated concerning mass transfer coefficients from humid air inflows relevant to those bioprocesses. Our study focussed on the condensation process of water vapour and developed an experimental set-up and protocol to study the velocity profiles and the mass flux on a small size horizontal flat plate in controlled environmental conditions. A closed circuit wind tunnel facility was used to control the temperature, hygrometry and hydrodynamics of the flow. The temperature of the active surface was controlled and kept isothermal below the dew point to induce condensation, by the use of thermoelectricity. The experiments were performed at ambient temperature for a relative humidity between 35-65% and for a velocity of 1.0 ms⁻¹. The obtained data are analysed and compared to available theoretical calculations on condensation mass flux.

  12. An integrated bio-process for production of functional biomolecules utilizing raw and by-products from dairy and sugarcane industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2018-04-21

    The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L -1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L -1 sucrose and lactose each. The trisaccharide was hydrolysed into the prebiotic disaccharide, kojibiose, by employing recombinant β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The enzyme β-galactosidase achieved about 90% conversion of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose into kojibiose. The D-fructose generated by catalytic reactions of dextransucrase was targeted for catalytic transformation into rare sugar, D-allulose (or D-psicose), by treating the samples with Smt3-D-psicose 3-epimerase. The catalytic reactions resulted in the conversion of ~ 25% D-fructose to D-allulose. These bioactive compounds are known to exert a plethora of benefits to human health, and therefore, are preferred ingredients for making functional foods.

  13. Comparison of solid-state and submerged-state fermentation for the bioprocessing of switchgrass to ethanol and acetate by Clostridium phytofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhiney; Morlok, Charles K; Henson, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of sustainable energy crops using microbiological fermentation to biofuels and bioproducts typically uses submerged-state processes. Alternatively, solid-state fermentation processes have several advantages when compared to the typical submerged-state processes. This study compares the use of solid-state versus submerged-state fermentation using the mesophilic anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans in the conversion of switchgrass to the end products of ethanol, acetate, and hydrogen. A shift in the ratio of metabolic products towards more acetate and hydrogen production than ethanol production was observed when C. phytofermentans was grown under solid-state conditions as compared to submerged-state conditions. Results indicated that the end product concentrations (in millimolar) obtained using solid-state fermentation were higher than using submerged-state fermentation. In contrast, the total fermentation products (in weight of product per weight of carbohydrates consumed) and switchgrass conversion were higher for submerged-state fermentation. The conversion of xylan was greater than glucan conversion under both fermentation conditions. An initial pH of 7 and moisture content of 80 % resulted in maximum end products formation. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the presence of biofilm formed by C. phytofermentans growing on switchgrass under submerged-state fermentation whereas bacterial cells attached to surface and no apparent biofilm was observed when grown under solid-state fermentation. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting consolidated bioprocessing of a lignocellulosic substrate by a mesophilic anaerobic bacterium under solid-state fermentation conditions.

  14. Bioprocess design guided by in situ substrate supply and product removal: process intensification for synthesis of (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Mädje, Katharina; Nidetzky, Bernd; Kratzer, Regina

    2012-03-01

    We report herein on bioprocess development guided by the hydrophobicities of substrate and product. Bioreductions of o-chloroacetophenone are severely limited by instability of the catalyst in the presence of aromatic substrate and (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol. In situ substrate supply and product removal was used to protect the utilized Escherichia coli whole cell catalyst based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase during the reaction. Further engineering at the levels of the catalyst and the reaction media was matched to low substrate concentrations in the aqueous phase. Productivities obtained in aqueous batch reductions were 21-fold improved by addition of 20% (v/v) hexane, NAD(+), expression engineering, cell permeabilization and pH optimization. Reduction of 300 mM substrate was accomplished in 97% yield and use of the co-solvent hexane in subsequent extraction steps led to 88% recovery. Product loss due to high catalyst loading was minimized by using the same extractant in bioreduction and product isolation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The industrial applicability of purified cellulase complex indigenously produced by Trichoderma viride through solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial and municipal paper wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irshad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous strain of Trichoderma viride produced high titers of cellulase complex in solid-state bio-processing of agro-industrial orange peel waste, which was used as the growth-supporting substrate. When the conditions of the SSF medium containing 15 g orange peel (50% w/w moisture inoculated with 5 mL of inoculum were optimal, the maximum productions of endoglucanase (655 ± 5.5 U/mL, exoglucanase (412 ± 4.3 U/mL, and β-glucosidase (515 ± 3.7 U/mL were recorded after 4 days of incubation at pH 5 and 35 °C. The enzyme with maximum activity (endoglucanase was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex G-100 column gel filtration chromatographic technique. Endoglucanase was 5.5-fold purified with specific activity of 498 U/mg in comparison to the crude enzyme. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 58 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The shelf life profile revealed that the enzyme could be stored at room temperature (30 °C for up to 45 days without losing much of its activity.

  16. Rapid Analysis of Carbohydrates in Bioprocess Samples: An Evaluation of the CarboPac SA10 for HPAE-PAD Analysis by Interlaboratory Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcik, R. S.; Hyman, D. A.; Basumallich, L.; Scarlata, C. J.; Rohrer, J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    A technique for carbohydrate analysis for bioprocess samples has been developed, providing reduced analysis time compared to current practice in the biofuels R&D community. The Thermofisher CarboPac SA10 anion-exchange column enables isocratic separation of monosaccharides, sucrose and cellobiose in approximately 7 minutes. Additionally, use of a low-volume (0.2 mL) injection valve in combination with a high-volume detection cell minimizes the extent of sample dilution required to bring sugar concentrations into the linear range of the pulsed amperometric detector (PAD). Three laboratories, representing academia, industry, and government, participated in an interlaboratory study which analyzed twenty-one opportunistic samples representing biomass pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation samples. The technique's robustness, linearity, and interlaboratory reproducibility were evaluated and showed excellent-to-acceptable characteristics. Additionally, quantitation by the CarboPac SA10/PAD was compared with the current practice method utilizing a HPX-87P/RID. While these two methods showed good agreement a statistical comparison found significant quantitation difference between them, highlighting the difference between selective and universal detection modes.

  17. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The Earth Data Analytic Services (EDAS) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. P.; Duffy, D.

    2017-12-01

    Faced with unprecedented growth in earth data volume and demand, NASA has developed the Earth Data Analytic Services (EDAS) framework, a high performance big data analytics framework built on Apache Spark. This framework enables scientists to execute data processing workflows combining common analysis operations close to the massive data stores at NASA. The data is accessed in standard (NetCDF, HDF, etc.) formats in a POSIX file system and processed using vetted earth data analysis tools (ESMF, CDAT, NCO, etc.). EDAS utilizes a dynamic caching architecture, a custom distributed array framework, and a streaming parallel in-memory workflow for efficiently processing huge datasets within limited memory spaces with interactive response times. EDAS services are accessed via a WPS API being developed in collaboration with the ESGF Compute Working Team to support server-side analytics for ESGF. The API can be accessed using direct web service calls, a Python script, a Unix-like shell client, or a JavaScript-based web application. New analytic operations can be developed in Python, Java, or Scala (with support for other languages planned). Client packages in Python, Java/Scala, or JavaScript contain everything needed to build and submit EDAS requests. The EDAS architecture brings together the tools, data storage, and high-performance computing required for timely analysis of large-scale data sets, where the data resides, to ultimately produce societal benefits. It is is currently deployed at NASA in support of the Collaborative REAnalysis Technical Environment (CREATE) project, which centralizes numerous global reanalysis datasets onto a single advanced data analytics platform. This service enables decision makers to compare multiple reanalysis datasets and investigate trends, variability, and anomalies in earth system dynamics around the globe.

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  20. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  1. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections

  2. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  3. Analytical procedures. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1985-01-01

    The semi-analytical procedures are summarized under the heading 'first or second-order reliability method'. The asymptotic aggravation of the theory was repeatedly hinted at. In supporting structures the probability of outage of components always is also a function of the condition of all other components. It depends moreover on the stress affecting mostly all components. This fact causes a marked reduction of the effect of redundant component arrangements in the system. It moreover requires very special formulations. Although theoretically interesting and practically important developments will leave their mark on the further progress of the theory, the statements obtained by those approaches will continue to depend on how closely the chosen physical relationships and stoachstic models can come to the scatter quantities. Sensitivity studies show that these are partly aspects of substantially higher importance with a view to decision criteria than the refinement of the (probabilistic) method. Questions of relevance and reliability of data and their adequate treatment in reliability analyses seem to rank higher in order of sequence than exaggerated demands on methodics. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Analytics for managers with Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Analytics is one of a number of terms which are used to describe a data-driven more scientific approach to management. Ability in analytics is an essential management skill: knowledge of data and analytics helps the manager to analyze decision situations, prevent problem situations from arising, identify new opportunities, and often enables many millions of dollars to be added to the bottom line for the organization.The objective of this book is to introduce analytics from the perspective of the general manager of a corporation. Rather than examine the details or attempt an encyclopaedic revie

  5. Analytical methodology for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to briefly describe the analytical methodologies available and also highlight some of the challenges, expectations from nuclear material accounting and control (NUMAC) point of view

  6. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  9. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  10. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  11. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  12. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  13. Analytical Computation of Information Rate for MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information rate for discrete signaling constellations is significant. However, the computational complexity makes information rate rather difficult to analyze for arbitrary fading multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels. An analytical method is proposed to compute information rate, which is characterized by considerable accuracy, reasonable complexity, and concise representation. These features will improve accuracy for performance analysis with criterion of information rate.

  14. Semi-Analytical Benchmarks for MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechanuk, Pavel Aleksandrovi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    Code verification is an extremely important process that involves proving or disproving the validity of code algorithms by comparing them against analytical results of the underlying physics or mathematical theory on which the code is based. Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP6 must undergo verification and testing upon every release to ensure that the codes are properly simulating nature. Specifically, MCNP6 has multiple sets of problems with known analytic solutions that are used for code verification. Monte Carlo codes primarily specify either current boundary sources or a volumetric fixed source, either of which can be very complicated functions of space, energy, direction and time. Thus, most of the challenges with modeling analytic benchmark problems in Monte Carlo codes come from identifying the correct source definition to properly simulate the correct boundary conditions. The problems included in this suite all deal with mono-energetic neutron transport without energy loss, in a homogeneous material. The variables that differ between the problems are source type (isotropic/beam), medium dimensionality (infinite/semi-infinite), etc.

  15. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  16. Curriculum Innovation for Marketing Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; McCabe, Catherine; Smith, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    College graduates need better preparation for and experience in data analytics for higher-quality problem solving. Using the curriculum innovation framework of Borin, Metcalf, and Tietje (2007) and case study research methods, we offer rich insights about one higher education institution's work to address the marketing analytics skills gap.…

  17. The machine in multimedia analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahálka, J.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of the machine in multimedia analytics, a discipline that combines visual analytics with multimedia analysis algorithms in order to unlock the potential of multimedia collections as sources of knowledge in scientific and applied domains. Specifically, the central

  18. Learning Analytics: Challenges and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna; Watson, Cate; Thompson, Terrie Lynn; Drew, Valerie; Doyle, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Learning analytic implementations are increasingly being included in learning management systems in higher education. We lay out some concerns with the way learning analytics--both data and algorithms--are often presented within an unproblematized Big Data discourse. We describe some potential problems with the often implicit assumptions about…

  19. Formative assessment and learning analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, D.T.; Heck, A.; Cuypers, H.; van der Kooij, H.; van de Vrie, E.; Suthers, D.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Ochoa, X.

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics seeks to enhance the learning process through systematic measurements of learning related data, and informing learners and teachers of the results of these measurements, so as to support the control of the learning process. Learning analytics has various sources of information,

  20. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  1. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  2. Parallel steady state studies on a milliliter scale accelerate fed-batch bioprocess design for recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmideder, Andreas; Cremer, Johannes H; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2016-11-01

    In general, fed-batch processes are applied for recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli (E. coli). However, state of the art methods for identifying suitable reaction conditions suffer from severe drawbacks, i.e. direct transfer of process information from parallel batch studies is often defective and sequential fed-batch studies are time-consuming and cost-intensive. In this study, continuously operated stirred-tank reactors on a milliliter scale were applied to identify suitable reaction conditions for fed-batch processes. Isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction strategies were varied in parallel-operated stirred-tank bioreactors to study the effects on the continuous production of the recombinant protein photoactivatable mCherry (PAmCherry) with E. coli. Best-performing induction strategies were transferred from the continuous processes on a milliliter scale to liter scale fed-batch processes. Inducing recombinant protein expression by dynamically increasing the IPTG concentration to 100 µM led to an increase in the product concentration of 21% (8.4 g L -1 ) compared to an implemented high-performance production process with the most frequently applied induction strategy by a single addition of 1000 µM IPGT. Thus, identifying feasible reaction conditions for fed-batch processes in parallel continuous studies on a milliliter scale was shown to be a powerful, novel method to accelerate bioprocess design in a cost-reducing manner. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1426-1435, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  4. Bitwise dimensional co-clustering for analytical workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Baumann (Stephan); P.A. Boncz (Peter); K.-U. Sattler

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractAnalytical workloads in data warehouses often include heavy joins where queries involve multiple fact tables in addition to the typical star-patterns, dimensional grouping and selections. In this paper we propose a new processing and storage framework called Bitwise Dimensional

  5. Bitwise dimensional co-clustering for analytical workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Stephan; Boncz, Peter; Sattler, Kai Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Analytical workloads in data warehouses often include heavy joins where queries involve multiple fact tables in addition to the typical star-patterns, dimensional grouping and selections. In this paper we propose a new processing and storage framework called bitwise dimensional co-clustering (BDCC)

  6. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  7. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  8. An analytical solution for improved HIFU SAR estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, C R; Vyas, U; Christensen, D A; Roemer, R B; Payne, A

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of the specific absorption rates (SARs) present during high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) experiments and treatments provides a solid physical basis for scientific comparison of results among HIFU studies and is necessary to validate and improve SAR predictive software, which will improve patient treatment planning, control and evaluation. This study develops and tests an analytical solution that significantly improves the accuracy of SAR values obtained from HIFU temperature data. SAR estimates are obtained by fitting the analytical temperature solution for a one-dimensional radial Gaussian heating pattern to the temperature versus time data following a step in applied power and evaluating the initial slope of the analytical solution. The analytical method is evaluated in multiple parametric simulations for which it consistently (except at high perfusions) yields maximum errors of less than 10% at the center of the focal zone compared with errors up to 90% and 55% for the commonly used linear method and an exponential method, respectively. For high perfusion, an extension of the analytical method estimates SAR with less than 10% error. The analytical method is validated experimentally by showing that the temperature elevations predicted using the analytical method's SAR values determined for the entire 3D focal region agree well with the experimental temperature elevations in a HIFU-heated tissue-mimicking phantom. (paper)

  9. Analytical spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry Symposia Series, Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains papers covering several fields in analytical chemistry including lasers, mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma, activation analysis and emission spectroscopy. Separate abstracting and indexing was done for 64 papers in this book

  10. Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Halb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Teaching Analytics is conceived as a subfield of learning analytics that focuses on the design, development, evaluation, and education of visual analytics methods and tools for teachers in primary, secondary, and tertiary educational settings. The Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics...... (IWTA) 2013 seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners in the fields of education, learning sciences, learning analytics, and visual analytics to investigate the design, development, use, evaluation, and impact of visual analytical methods and tools for teachers’ dynamic diagnostic decision...

  11. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  12. Visual Analytics for Heterogeneous Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Yu, L.; Zhu, F.; Rilee, M. L.; Kuo, K. S.; Jiang, H.; Yu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience data obtained from diverse sources have been routinely leveraged by scientists to study various phenomena. The principal data sources include observations and model simulation outputs. These data are characterized by spatiotemporal heterogeneity originated from different instrument design specifications and/or computational model requirements used in data generation processes. Such inherent heterogeneity poses several challenges in exploring and analyzing geoscience data. First, scientists often wish to identify features or patterns co-located among multiple data sources to derive and validate certain hypotheses. Heterogeneous data make it a tedious task to search such features in dissimilar datasets. Second, features of geoscience data are typically multivariate. It is challenging to tackle the high dimensionality of geoscience data and explore the relations among multiple variables in a scalable fashion. Third, there is a lack of transparency in traditional automated approaches, such as feature detection or clustering, in that scientists cannot intuitively interact with their analysis processes and interpret results. To address these issues, we present a new scalable approach that can assist scientists in analyzing voluminous and diverse geoscience data. We expose a high-level query interface that allows users to easily express their customized queries to search features of interest across multiple heterogeneous datasets. For identified features, we develop a visualization interface that enables interactive exploration and analytics in a linked-view manner. Specific visualization techniques such as scatter plots to parallel coordinates are employed in each view to allow users to explore various aspects of features. Different views are linked and refreshed according to user interactions in any individual view. In such a manner, a user can interactively and iteratively gain understanding into the data through a variety of visual analytics operations. We

  13. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  14. An Analytical Cost Estimation Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayachandran, Toke

    1999-01-01

    Analytical procedures that can be used to do a sensitivity analysis of a cost estimate, and to perform tradeoffs to identify input values that can reduce the total cost of a project, are described in the report...

  15. Labour market driven learning analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, V.; Mol, S.T.; Kismihók, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  16. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  17. An Overview of Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilvinskis, John; Willis, James, III; Borden, Victor M. H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide administrators and faculty with an understanding of learning analytics and its relationship to existing roles and functions so better institutional decisions can be made about investments and activities related to these technologies.

  18. Analytic functionals on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Morimoto, Mitsuo

    1998-01-01

    This book treats spherical harmonic expansion of real analytic functions and hyperfunctions on the sphere. Because a one-dimensional sphere is a circle, the simplest example of the theory is that of Fourier series of periodic functions. The author first introduces a system of complex neighborhoods of the sphere by means of the Lie norm. He then studies holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the complex sphere. In the one-dimensional case, this corresponds to the study of holomorphic functions and analytic functionals on the annular set in the complex plane, relying on the Laurent series expansion. In this volume, it is shown that the same idea still works in a higher-dimensional sphere. The Fourier-Borel transformation of analytic functionals on the sphere is also examined; the eigenfunction of the Laplacian can be studied in this way.

  19. Developing a learning analytics tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Christian; Belle, Gianna; Clemmensen, Anita Lykke

    This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities.......This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities....

  20. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  1. Analytical evaluation of actinide sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, A.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of the sensitivities of actinides to various parameters such as cross sections, decay constants, flux and time is presented. The formulae are applied to isotopes of the Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium series. The agreement between analytically obtained and computer evaluated sensitivities being always good, it is throught that the formulation includes all the important parameters entering in the evaluation of sensitivities. A study of the published data is made

  2. Analytic Potentials for Realistic Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Taylor, Aimee E.; Swanson, Kenneth R.

    2002-01-01

    Finite difference algorithms are widely used to numerically solve Laplace's equation for electrode structures that are not amendable to analytic treatment. This includes essentially all real situations. However, in many cases, it is desirable to have the solution in an analytic form. A common practice is to 'fit' the numerical solution either by least squares or cubic spline approach. Neither of these approaches is really accurate, nor do they produce unique results. These limitations are avoided by our approach.

  3. Analytic Theology as Systematic Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp Oliver D.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that analytic theology is not really systematic theology; it is something else entirely. However, specifying what this “something else” amounts to has proven a little more difficult. In this article I argue that analytic theology may be a species of systematic theology. I show that there is no agreed view on the nature of systematic theology amongst several leading practitioners of systematic theology by comparing the work of John Webster, Brian Gerrish, and Gordon Kaufman. I...

  4. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Grossman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  5. Fast analytical scatter estimation using graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Harry; Lippuner, Jonas; Rickey, Daniel W; Li, Yue; Elbakri, Idris

    2015-01-01

    To develop a fast patient-specific analytical estimator of first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in cone-beam computed tomography, implemented using graphics processing units. The authors developed an analytical estimator for first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in a cone-beam computed tomography geometry. The estimator was coded using NVIDIA's CUDA environment for execution on an NVIDIA graphics processing unit. Performance of the analytical estimator was validated by comparison with high-count Monte Carlo simulations for two different numerical phantoms. Monoenergetic analytical simulations were compared with monoenergetic and polyenergetic Monte Carlo simulations. Analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates were compared both qualitatively, from visual inspection of images and profiles, and quantitatively, using a scaled root-mean-square difference metric. Reconstruction of simulated cone-beam projection data of an anthropomorphic breast phantom illustrated the potential of this method as a component of a scatter correction algorithm. The monoenergetic analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates showed very good agreement. The monoenergetic analytical estimates showed good agreement for Compton single scatter and reasonable agreement for Rayleigh single scatter when compared with polyenergetic Monte Carlo estimates. For a voxelized phantom with dimensions 128 × 128 × 128 voxels and a detector with 256 × 256 pixels, the analytical estimator required 669 seconds for a single projection, using a single NVIDIA 9800 GX2 video card. Accounting for first order scatter in cone-beam image reconstruction improves the contrast to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. The analytical scatter estimator, implemented using graphics processing units, provides rapid and accurate estimates of single scatter and with further acceleration and a method to account for multiple scatter may be useful for practical scatter correction schemes.

  6. Development of a Low Cost Bioprocess for Endotoxin Production by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis Intended for Biological Control of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ricardo Soccol

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the vector of Dengue disease, responsible for 20,000 deaths/year worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis - Bti releases selective and effective toxins (crystal proteins against A. aegypti larvae. We present a low cost bioprocess for toxin production, accomplished by a selected Brazilian strain Bti (BR-LPB01 and employment of low cost substrates. Soybean meal and sugarcane molasses lead to high toxic effectiveness after 2L bioreactor fermentation (LD50=26ng/mL, near to the reference strain IPS82 (LD50=17.3 ng/mL. The pH ranged between 5.8 and 7.0 during the exponential growth period and between 7.0 and 8.4 during the stationary phase, with low activity. Thus, control of foam and pH 7.0 were started and proved to be crucial for high activity. It was verified that the fermentation could be discontinued after 20 hours, when the highest activity was present.A dengue é transmitida pelo Aedes aegypti, doença responsável por 20.000 mortes/ano no mundo. Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis libera toxinas seletivas e eficazes (proteínas cristal contra larvas de A. aegypti. Propõe-se um bioprocesso de baixo custo para a produção da toxina, pelo emprego de uma cepa brasileira selecionada de Bti (BR-LPB01 e de substratos de baixo custo. Farelo de soja e melaço de cana levaram a eficácia tóxica alta após fermentação em biorreator 2L (DL50=26ng/mL, valor próximo a estirpe de referência IPS82 (DL50=17,3 ng/mL. O pH variou entre 5,8 e 7,0 durante o período de crescimento exponencial e entre 7,0 e 8,4 durante a fase estacionária, com baixa atividade larvicida. Assim, controles de espuma e de pH 7,0 foram iniciados e demonstraram serem cruciais para alta atividade. Verificou-se que a fermentação deve ser interrompida após vinte horas, quando se obtém a maior atividade.

  7. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( dogs fed 24 and 48% SP compared with the control. Conversely, branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower ( dogs fed 8 to 48% SP compared with the control. These data suggest that SP is a suitable replacement for PBPM in dog diets up to a 24% inclusion level.

  8. Detection of sensor failures in nuclear plants using analytic redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    A method for on-line, nonperturbative detection and identification of sensor failures in nuclear power plants was studied to determine its feasibility. This method is called analytic redundancy, or functional redundancy. Sensor failure has traditionally been detected by comparing multiple signals from redundant sensors, such as in two-out-of-three logic. In analytic redundancy, with the help of an assumed model of the physical system, the signals from a set of sensors are processed to reproduce the signals from all system sensors

  9. Future analytical provision - Relocation of Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, B.

    2015-01-01

    Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services provide an essential view on the environmental, safety, process and high hazard risk reduction performances by analysis of samples. It is the largest and most complex analytical services laboratory in Europe, with 150 laboratories (55 operational) and 350 staff (including 180 analysts). Sellafield Ltd Analytical Services Main Laboratory is in need of replacement. This is due to the age of the facility and changes to work streams. This relocation is an opportunity to -) design and commission bespoke MA (Medium-Active) cells, -) modify HA (High-Active) cell design to facilitate an in-cell laboratory, -) develop non-destructive techniques, -) open light building for better worker morale. The option chosen was to move the activities to the NNL Central laboratory (NNLCL) that is based at Sellafield and is the UK's flagship nuclear research and development facility. This poster gives a time schedule

  10. Linear systems and multiplicity of ideals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dung Trang

    2008-06-01

    Using a geometric interpretation of the multiplicity, we give a geometric way to calculate the multiplicity. We consider the particular case of a non-singular complex surface and give an example with a geometric proof of a result. Most of this note is written in the language of complex analytic spaces, but the results can be stated and proved in the case of schemes of finite type over an infinite field with equi-characteristic local rings

  11. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  12. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    generalization. Theoretically, the argumentation in the article is based on practice theory. The main part of the article describes three different examples of ways of generalizing on the basis of the same qualitative data material. There is a particular focus on describing the methodological strategies......In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  13. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  14. Analytic solutions of hydrodynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggeshall, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    Many similarity solutions have been found for the equations of one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics. These special combinations of variables allow the partial differential equations to be reduced to ordinary differential equations, which must then be solved to determine the physical solutions. Usually, these reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. In some cases it is possible to solve these reduced equations analytically to obtain explicit solutions. In this work a collection of analytic solutions of the 1-D hydrodynamics equations is presented. These can be used for a variety of purposes, including (i) numerical benchmark problems, (ii) as a basis for analytic models, and (iii) to provide insight into more complicated solutions

  15. Analytic continuation in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Irinel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss some attempts to improve standard perturbative expansion in QCD by using the analytic continuation in the momentum and the Borel complex planes. We first analyse the momentum-plane analyticity properties of the Borel-summed Green functions in perturbative QCD and the connection between the Landau singularities and the infrared renormalons. By using the analytic continuation in the Borel complex plane, we propose a new perturbative series replacing the standard expansion in powers of the normalized coupling constant a. The new expansion functions have branch point and essential singularities at the origin of the complex a-plane and divergent Taylor expansions in powers of a. On the other hand the modified expansion of the QCD correlators is convergent under rather conservative conditions. (author)

  16. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    . These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry......It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European......, forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose...

  17. Semi-analytical MBS Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Poulsen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-factor valuation model for fixed-rate callable mortgage backed securities (MBS). The model yields semi-analytic solutions for the value of MBS in the sense that the MBS value is found by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Instead of modelling the cond......This paper presents a multi-factor valuation model for fixed-rate callable mortgage backed securities (MBS). The model yields semi-analytic solutions for the value of MBS in the sense that the MBS value is found by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Instead of modelling...... interest rate model. However, if the pool size is specified in a way that makes the expectations solvable using transform methods, semi-analytic pricing formulas are achieved. The affine and quadratic pricing frameworks are combined to get flexible and sophisticated prepayment functions. We show...

  18. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background : Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods : Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results : The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ' common g round ' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusion s : Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ' common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  19. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  20. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  1. Analytic observables in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1980-05-01

    The analytical dependence of quantum mechanical observables on their variables is discussed by using the assumption that the corresponding probability amplitudes are analytic functions. The properties of the cross section in the energy plane for spinless particles as well as the properties of the most general polarization observables in the cosdelta plane are considered in detail. In particular, the strength of the transfer pole for polarization observables is given. The practical possibilities to extract the different orbital momentum components of nuclei by extrapolation techniques are briefly outlined. (author)

  2. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolovsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics

  3. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolovsky, M

    2003-09-15

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics.

  4. Enabling Analytics on Sensitive Medical Data with Secure Multi-Party Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Meilof; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Horváth, Anna Zsófia; Spindler, Gerald; Boersma, Eric; van der Spek, Peter; van der Galiën, Onno; Gutteling, Job; Kraaij, Wessel; Veugen, Thijs

    2018-01-01

    While there is a clear need to apply data analytics in the healthcare sector, this is often difficult because it requires combining sensitive data from multiple data sources. In this paper, we show how the cryptographic technique of secure multi-party computation can enable such data analytics by performing analytics without the need to share the underlying data. We discuss the issue of compliance to European privacy legislation; report on three pilots bringing these techniques closer to practice; and discuss the main challenges ahead to make fully privacy-preserving data analytics in the medical sector commonplace.

  5. Analyzing the Heterogeneous Hierarchy of Cultural Heritage Materials: Analytical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentelman, Karen

    2017-06-12

    Objects of cultural heritage significance are created using a wide variety of materials, or mixtures of materials, and often exhibit heterogeneity on multiple length scales. The effective study of these complex constructions thus requires the use of a suite of complementary analytical technologies. Moreover, because of the importance and irreplaceability of most cultural heritage objects, researchers favor analytical techniques that can be employed noninvasively, i.e., without having to remove any material for analysis. As such, analytical imaging has emerged as an important approach for the study of cultural heritage. Imaging technologies commonly employed, from the macroscale through the micro- to nanoscale, are discussed with respect to how the information obtained helps us understand artists' materials and methods, the cultures in which the objects were created, how the objects may have changed over time, and importantly, how we may develop strategies for their preservation.

  6. Hyphenated analytical techniques for materials characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gordon; Kailas, Lekshmi

    2017-09-01

    This topical review will provide a survey of the current state of the art in ‘hyphenated’ techniques for characterisation of bulk materials, surface, and interfaces, whereby two or more analytical methods investigating different properties are applied simultaneously to the same sample to better characterise the sample than can be achieved by conducting separate analyses in series using different instruments. It is intended for final year undergraduates and recent graduates, who may have some background knowledge of standard analytical techniques, but are not familiar with ‘hyphenated’ techniques or hybrid instrumentation. The review will begin by defining ‘complementary’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘hyphenated’ techniques, as there is not a broad consensus among analytical scientists as to what each term means. The motivating factors driving increased development of hyphenated analytical methods will also be discussed. This introduction will conclude with a brief discussion of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in electron microscopy as two examples, in the context that combining complementary techniques for chemical analysis were among the earliest examples of hyphenated characterisation methods. The emphasis of the main review will be on techniques which are sufficiently well-established that the instrumentation is commercially available, to examine physical properties including physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal, in addition to variations in composition, rather than methods solely to identify and quantify chemical species. Therefore, the proposed topical review will address three broad categories of techniques that the reader may expect to encounter in a well-equipped materials characterisation laboratory: microscopy based techniques, scanning probe-based techniques, and thermal analysis based techniques. Examples drawn from recent literature, and a concluding case study, will be used to explain the

  7. Hyphenated analytical techniques for materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Gordon; Kailas, Lekshmi

    2017-01-01

    This topical review will provide a survey of the current state of the art in ‘hyphenated’ techniques for characterisation of bulk materials, surface, and interfaces, whereby two or more analytical methods investigating different properties are applied simultaneously to the same sample to better characterise the sample than can be achieved by conducting separate analyses in series using different instruments. It is intended for final year undergraduates and recent graduates, who may have some background knowledge of standard analytical techniques, but are not familiar with ‘hyphenated’ techniques or hybrid instrumentation. The review will begin by defining ‘complementary’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘hyphenated’ techniques, as there is not a broad consensus among analytical scientists as to what each term means. The motivating factors driving increased development of hyphenated analytical methods will also be discussed. This introduction will conclude with a brief discussion of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in electron microscopy as two examples, in the context that combining complementary techniques for chemical analysis were among the earliest examples of hyphenated characterisation methods. The emphasis of the main review will be on techniques which are sufficiently well-established that the instrumentation is commercially available, to examine physical properties including physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal, in addition to variations in composition, rather than methods solely to identify and quantify chemical species. Therefore, the proposed topical review will address three broad categories of techniques that the reader may expect to encounter in a well-equipped materials characterisation laboratory: microscopy based techniques, scanning probe-based techniques, and thermal analysis based techniques. Examples drawn from recent literature, and a concluding case study, will be used to explain the

  8. At-line process analytical technology (PAT) for more efficient scale up of biopharmaceutical microfiltration unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Douglas S; Kerchner, Kristi R; Gant, Sean S; Pedersen, Joseph W; Hamburger, James B; Ortigosa, Allison D; Potgieter, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    Tangential flow microfiltration (MF) is a cost-effective and robust bioprocess separation technique, but successful full scale implementation is hindered by the empirical, trial-and-error nature of scale-up. We present an integrated approach leveraging at-line process analytical technology (PAT) and mass balance based modeling to de-risk MF scale-up. Chromatography-based PAT was employed to improve the consistency of an MF step that had been a bottleneck in the process used to manufacture a therapeutic protein. A 10-min reverse phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) assay was developed to provide at-line monitoring of protein concentration. The method was successfully validated and method performance was comparable to previously validated methods. The PAT tool revealed areas of divergence from a mass balance-based model, highlighting specific opportunities for process improvement. Adjustment of appropriate process controls led to improved operability and significantly increased yield, providing a successful example of PAT deployment in the downstream purification of a therapeutic protein. The general approach presented here should be broadly applicable to reduce risk during scale-up of filtration processes and should be suitable for feed-forward and feed-back process control. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Bioprocessing: Prospects for space electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    The basic principles of electrophoresis are reviewed in light of its past contributions to biology and medicine. The near-zero gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft may present some unique advantages for a variety of processes, by abolishing the major source of convection in fluids. As the ground-based development of electrophoresis was heavily influenced by the need to circumvent the effects of gravity, this process should be a prime candidate for space operation. Nevertheless, while a space facility for electrophoresis may overcome the limitations imposed by gravity, it will not necessarily overcome all problems inherent in electrophoresis. These are, mainly, electroosmosis and the dissipation of the heat generated by the electric field. The NASA program has already led to excellent coatings to prevent electroosmosis, while the need for heat dissipation will continue to impose limits on the actual size of equipment. It is also not excluded that, once the dominant force of gravity is eliminated, disturbances in fluid stability may originate from weaker forces, such as surface tension.

  10. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…

  11. Analytical purpose electron backscattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin, L.; Padron, I.; Laria, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications

  12. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  13. Editorial: Datasets for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietze, Stefan; George, Siemens; Davide, Taibi; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    The European LinkedUp and LACE (Learning Analytics Community Exchange) project have been responsible for setting up a series of data challenges at the LAK conferences 2013 and 2014 around the LAK dataset. The LAK datasets consists of a rich collection of full text publications in the domain of

  14. Causality and analyticity in optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussenzveig, H.M.

    In order to provide an overall picture of the broad range of optical phenomena that are directly linked with the concepts of causality and analyticity, the following topics are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent developments: 1) Derivation of dispersion relations for the optical constants of general linear media from causality. Application to the theory of natural optical activity. 2) Derivation of sum rules for the optical constants from causality and from the short-time response function (asymptotic high-frequency behavior). Average spectral behavior of optical media. Applications. 3) Role of spectral conditions. Analytic properties of coherence functions in quantum optics. Reconstruction theorem.4) Phase retrieval problems. 5) Inverse scattering problems. 6) Solution of nonlinear evolution equations in optics by inverse scattering methods. Application to self-induced transparency. Causality in nonlinear wave propagation. 7) Analytic continuation in frequency and angular momentum. Complex singularities. Resonances and natural-mode expansions. Regge poles. 8) Wigner's causal inequality. Time delay. Spatial displacements in total reflection. 9) Analyticity in diffraction theory. Complex angular momentum theory of Mie scattering. Diffraction as a barrier tunnelling effect. Complex trajectories in optics. (Author) [pt

  15. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an enormous development in chemical analysis. The rapid progress of nuclear energy, of solid-state physics and of other fields of modern industry has extended the concept of purity to limits previously unthought of, and to reach the new dimensions of these extreme demands, entirely new techniques have been invented and applied and old ones have been refined. Recognizing these facts, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Panel on Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials to discuss the general problems facing the analytical chemist engaged in nuclear energy development, particularly in newly developing centre and countries, to analyse the represent situation and to advise as to the directions in which research and development appear to be most necessary. The Panel also discussed the analytical programme of the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf, where the Agency has already started a programme of international comparison of analytical methods which may lead to the establishment of international standards for many materials of interest. Refs and tabs

  16. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, B.H.; Bergveld, Piet; Bousse, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in

  17. Analytical Evaluation of the Performance of Proportional Fair Scheduling in OFDMA-Based Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analytical evaluation of the performance of proportional fair (PF scheduling in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA wireless systems. OFDMA represents a promising multiple access scheme for transmission over wireless channels, as it combines the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM modulation and subcarrier allocation. On the other hand, the PF scheduling is an efficient resource allocation scheme with good fairness characteristics. Consequently, OFDMA with PF scheduling represents an attractive solution to deliver high data rate services to multiple users simultaneously with a high degree of fairness. We investigate a two-dimensional (time slot and frequency subcarrier PF scheduling algorithm for OFDMA systems and evaluate its performance analytically and by simulations. We derive approximate closed-form expressions for the average throughput, throughput fairness index, and packet delay. Computer simulations are used for verification. The analytical results agree well with the results from simulations, which show the good accuracy of the analytical expressions.

  18. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  19. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-11-15

    events, we utilized multidimensional OLAP data cubes. The data cube structure supports interactive analysis of summary data across multiple dimensions, such as location, time, and protocol. Cube technology also allows the analyst to drill-down into the underlying data set, when events of interest are identified and detailed analysis is required. Unfortunately, when creating these cubes, we ran into significant performance issues with our initial architecture, caused by a combination of the data volume and attribute characteristics. Overcoming, these issues required us to develop a novel, data intensive computing infrastructure. In particular, we ended up combining a Netezza Twin Fin data warehouse appliance, a solid state Fusion IO ioDrive, and the Tableau Desktop business intelligence analytic software. Using this architecture, we were able to analyze a month's worth of flow records comprising 4.9B records, totaling approximately 600GB of data. This paper describes our architecture, the challenges that we encountered, and the work that remains to deploy a fully generalized cyber analytical infrastructure.

  20. Analytical theory of Doppler reflectometry in slab plasma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusakov, E.Z.; Surkov, A.V. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Doppler reflectometry is considered in slab plasma model in the frameworks of analytical theory. The diagnostics locality is analyzed for both regimes: linear and nonlinear in turbulence amplitude. The toroidal antenna focusing of probing beam to the cut-off is proposed and discussed as a method to increase diagnostics spatial resolution. It is shown that even in the case of nonlinear regime of multiple scattering, the diagnostics can be used for an estimation (with certain accuracy) of plasma poloidal rotation profile. (authors)

  1. SPANDOM - source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Cho, Nam Zin

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new discrete ordinates nodal method for the two-dimensional transport equation. We solve the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in polynomials. The method is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with the TWOHEX code. The results indicate that the present method accurately predicts not only multiplication factor but also flux distribution

  2. FEASIBILITY OF INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS ANALYTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Varga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in data processing for decision support show that business users need business analytics, i.e. analytical applications which incorporate a variety of business oriented data analysis techniques and task-specific knowledge. The paper discusses the feasibility of investment in two models of implementing business analytics: custom development and packed analytical applications. The consequences of both models are shown on two models of business analytics implementation in Croatia.

  3. A characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, E.; Grossmann, A.; Paul, T.

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H o -bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic

  4. Characterization of dilation-analytic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, E; Grossmann, A; Paul, T

    1986-01-01

    Dilation analytic vectors and operators are characterized in a new representation of quantum mechanical states through functions analytic on the upper half-plane. In this space H/sub o/-bounded operators are integral operators and criteria for dilation analyticity are given in terms of analytic continuation outside of the half-plane for functions and for kernels. A sufficient condition is given for an integral operator in momentum space to be dilation-analytic.

  5. A big data geospatial analytics platform - Physical Analytics Integrated Repository and Services (PAIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, H.; Jimenez Marianno, F.; Klein, L.; Albrecht, C.; Freitag, M.; Hinds, N.; Lu, S.

    2015-12-01

    A big data geospatial analytics platform:Physical Analytics Information Repository and Services (PAIRS)Fernando Marianno, Levente Klein, Siyuan Lu, Conrad Albrecht, Marcus Freitag, Nigel Hinds, Hendrik HamannIBM TJ Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598A major challenge in leveraging big geospatial data sets is the ability to quickly integrate multiple data sources into physical and statistical models and be run these models in real time. A geospatial data platform called Physical Analytics Information and Services (PAIRS) is developed on top of open source hardware and software stack to manage Terabyte of data. A new data interpolation and re gridding is implemented where any geospatial data layers can be associated with a set of global grid where the grid resolutions is doubling for consecutive layers. Each pixel on the PAIRS grid have an index that is a combination of locations and time stamp. The indexing allow quick access to data sets that are part of a global data layers and allowing to retrieve only the data of interest. PAIRS takes advantages of parallel processing framework (Hadoop) in a cloud environment to digest, curate, and analyze the data sets while being very robust and stable. The data is stored on a distributed no-SQL database (Hbase) across multiple server, data upload and retrieval is parallelized where the original analytics task is broken up is smaller areas/volume, analyzed independently, and then reassembled for the original geographical area. The differentiating aspect of PAIRS is the ability to accelerate model development across large geographical regions and spatial resolution ranging from 0.1 m up to hundreds of kilometer. System performance is benchmarked on real time automated data ingestion and retrieval of Modis and Landsat data layers. The data layers are curated for sensor error, verified for correctness, and analyzed statistically to detect local anomalies. Multi-layer query enable PAIRS to filter different data

  6. Library improvement through data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Lesley S J

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how to act on and make sense of data in libraries. Using a range of techniques, tools and methodologies it explains how data can be used to help inform decision making at every level. Sound data analytics is the foundation for making an evidence-based case for libraries, in addition to guiding myriad organizational decisions, from optimizing operations for efficiency to responding to community needs. Designed to be useful for beginners as well as those with a background in data, this book introduces the basics of a six point framework that can be applied to a variety of library settings for effective system based, data-driven management. Library Improvement Through Data Analytics includes: - the basics of statistical concepts - recommended data sources for various library functions and processes, and guidance for using census, university, or - - government data in analysis - techniques for cleaning data - matching data to appropriate data analysis methods - how to make descriptive statistics m...

  7. Visual Analytics for MOOC Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huamin; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of massive open online courses (MOOCs), tens of millions of learners can now enroll in more than 1,000 courses via MOOC platforms such as Coursera and edX. As a result, a huge amount of data has been collected. Compared with traditional education records, the data from MOOCs has much finer granularity and also contains new pieces of information. It is the first time in history that such comprehensive data related to learning behavior has become available for analysis. What roles can visual analytics play in this MOOC movement? The authors survey the current practice and argue that MOOCs provide an opportunity for visualization researchers and that visual analytics systems for MOOCs can benefit a range of end users such as course instructors, education researchers, students, university administrators, and MOOC providers.

  8. The Spectrum of Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kortemeyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available "Learning Analytics" became a buzzword during the hype surrounding the advent of "big data" MOOCs, however, the concept has been around for over two decades. When the first online courses became available it was used as a tool to increase student success in particular courses, frequently combined with the hope of conducting educational research. In recent years, the same term started to be used on the institutional level to increase retention and decrease time-to-degree. These two applications, within particular courses on the one hand and at the institutional level on the other, are at the two extremes of the spectrum of Learning Analytics – and they frequently appear to be worlds apart. The survey describes affordances, theories and approaches in these two categories.

  9. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2014-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....

  10. Analytical control in metallurgical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coedo, A.G.; Dorado, M.T.; Padilla, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates the role of analysis in enabling metallurgical industry to meet quality demands. For example, for the steel industry the demands by the automotive, aerospace, power generation, tinplate packaging industries and issue of environment near steel plants. Although chemical analysis technology continues to advance, achieving improved speed, precision and accuracy at lower levels of detection, the competitiveness of manufacturing industry continues to drive property demands at least at the same rate. Narrower specification ranges, lower levels of residual elements and economic pressures prescribe faster process routes, all of which lead to increased demands on the analytical function. These damands are illustrated by examples from several market sectors in which customer issues are considered together with ther analytical implications. (Author) 5 refs

  11. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    , techniques for spatial analysis had their share in these developments. However, the methods for analyzing and visualizing spatial and spatio-temporal patterns in player behavior being used by the game industry are not as diverse as the range of techniques utilized in game research, leaving room...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field......The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation...

  12. Video Analytics for Business Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Porikli, Fatih; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-01-01

    Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV) cameras have been increasingly deployed pervasively in public spaces including retail centres and shopping malls. Intelligent video analytics aims to automatically analyze content of massive amount of public space video data and has been one of the most active areas of computer vision research in the last two decades. Current focus of video analytics research has been largely on detecting alarm events and abnormal behaviours for public safety and security applications. However, increasingly CCTV installations have also been exploited for gathering and analyzing business intelligence information, in order to enhance marketing and operational efficiency. For example, in retail environments, surveillance cameras can be utilised to collect statistical information about shopping behaviour and preference for marketing (e.g., how many people entered a shop; how many females/males or which age groups of people showed interests to a particular product; how long did they stay in the sho...

  13. Optical trapping for analytical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-02-01

    We describe the exciting advances of using optical trapping in the field of analytical biotechnology. This technique has opened up opportunities to manipulate biological particles at the single cell or even at subcellular levels which has allowed an insight into the physical and chemical mechanisms of many biological processes. The ability of this technique to manipulate microparticles and measure pico-Newton forces has found several applications such as understanding the dynamics of biological macromolecules, cell-cell interactions and the micro-rheology of both cells and fluids. Furthermore we may probe and analyse the biological world when combining trapping with analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A primer of analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the basic elements of Analytical Mechanics, starting from the physical motivations that favor it with respect to the Newtonian Mechanics in Cartesian coordinates. Rather than presenting Analytical Mechanics mainly as a formal development of Newtonian Mechanics, it highlights its effectiveness due to the following five important achievements: 1) the most economical description of time evolution in terms of the minimal set of coordinates, so that there are no constraint forces in their evolution equations; 2) the form invariance of the evolution equations, which automatically solves the problem of fictitious forces; 3) only one scalar function encodes the formulation of the dynamics, rather than the full set of vectors which describe the forces in Cartesian Newtonian Mechanics; 4) in the Hamiltonian formulation, the corresponding evolution equations are of first order in time and are fully governed by the Hamiltonian function (usually corresponding to the energy); 5) the emergence of the Hami...

  15. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  16. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references

  17. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The second panel on the Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials was organized for two purposes: first, to advise the Seibersdorf Laboratory of the Agency on its future programme, and second, to review the results of the Second International Comparison of routine analysis of trace impurities in uranium and also the action taken as a result of the recommendations of the first panel in 1962. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. SAF line analytical chemistry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, E.W.; Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    An analytical chemistry system dedicated to supporting the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is discussed. Several analyses are required prior to the fuel pellets being loaded into cladding tubes to assure certification requirements will be met. These analyses, which will take less than 15 minutes, are described. The automated sample transport system which will be used to move pellets from the fabriction line to the chemistry area is also described

  19. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  20. Analytical chemistry: Principles and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Although this text seems to have been intended for use in a one-semester course in undergraduate analytical chemistry, it includes the range of topics usually encountered in a two-semester introductory course in chemical analysis. The material is arranged logically for use in a two-semester course: the first 12 chapters contain the subjects most often covered in the first term, and the next 10 chapters pertain to the second (instrumental) term. Overall breadth and level of treatment are standards for an undergraduate text of this sort, and the only major omission is that of kinetic methods (which is a common omission in analytical texts). In the first 12 chapters coverage of the basic material is quite good. The emphasis on the underlying principles of the techniques rather than on specifics and design of instrumentation is welcomed. This text may be more useful for the instrumental portion of an analytical chemistry course than for the solution chemistry segment. The instrumental analysis portion is appropriate for an introductory textbook

  1. Learning Analytics: opportunities for schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fulantelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La valutazione delle esperienze di apprendimento che avvengono in ambienti in cui le interazioni sono mediate dalle tecnologie è una sfida ardua che deve essere affrontata con approcci adeguati. Le tecniche di Learning Analytics si sono sviluppate recentemente con l’obiettivo di fornire gli strumenti necessari per ottimizzare le esperienze di apprendimento. Queste tecniche supportano i docenti nel prendere tempestivamente quelle decisioni che rendono il processo didattico più efficace, permettendo di intervenire sull’intero processo o sui singoli studenti in modo personalizzato. Sebbene le tecniche di Learning Analytics si siano sviluppate principalmente nei contesti di alta formazione online, questo articolo mette in evidenza come l’impiego di tali tecniche può portare benefici anche nei contesti scolastici. Di fatto, in questi contesti, le tecnologie sono sempre più utilizzate per supportare le esperienze di apprendimento formali e informali, come quelle basate su dispositivi mobili, serious game e social network, e i dati generati sono sempre più numerosi, richiedendo nuovi approcci di analisi che traggono vantaggio dall’impiego delle tecniche di Learning Analytics.

  2. Jet multiplicity distributions: medium dependence in MLLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Nestor; Pajares, Carlos; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    We study the medium dependence of the multiplicity distributions in the modified leading logarithmic approximation. We focus in the enhancement in the number of branchings as the partons travel trough a dense medium created in a heavy-ion collision. We study the effect of a higher number of splittings in some jet observables by introducing the medium as a constant (f med ) in the splitting functions. Having as our ansatz for the quark and gluon jets mean multiplicities left angle n G right angle =e γy and left angle n Q right angle =r -1 e γy , we study in an analytic approach the dependence with the medium (f med ) of the anomalous dimension (γ), the multiplicity ratio (r), and so the mean multiplicities. We also obtain the higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution, what allows us to study its dispersion. (orig.)

  3. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  4. Seamless Digital Environment – Data Analytics Use Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Multiple research efforts in the U.S Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program studies the need and design of an underlying architecture to support the increased amount and use of data in the nuclear power plant. More specifically the three LWRS research efforts; Digital Architecture for an Automated Plant, Automated Work Packages, Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers, and the Online Monitoring efforts all have identified the need for a digital architecture and more importantly the need for a Seamless Digital Environment (SDE). A SDE provides a mean to access multiple applications, gather the data points needed, conduct the analysis requested, and present the result to the user with minimal or no effort by the user. During the 2016 annual Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) group meeting the nuclear utilities identified the need for research focused on data analytics. The effort was to develop and evaluate use cases for data mining and analytics for employing information from plant sensors and database for use in developing improved business analytics. The goal of the study is to research potential approaches to building an analytics solution for equipment reliability, on a small scale, focusing on either a single piece of equipment or a single system. The analytics solution will likely consist of a data integration layer, predictive and machine learning layer and the user interface layer that will display the output of the analysis in a straight forward, easy to consume manner. This report describes the use case study initiated by NITSL and conducted in a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory, Arizona Public Service – Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, and NextAxiom Inc.

  5. Using Linked Data in Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Herder, Eelco

    2013-01-01

    d'Aquin, M., Dietze, S., Drachsler, H., & Herder, E. (2013, April). Using Linked Data in Learning Analytics. Tutorial given at LAK 2013, the Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Leuven, Belgium.

  6. Analytical quality, performance indices and laboratory service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik

    1999-01-01

    analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...

  7. Some analytical aspects of the Moessbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical applications of Moessbauer spectrometry are reviewed. Various methods of analysis (qualitative, semiquantitative and quantitative) using the Moessbauer effect are dealt with. Sensitivity and accuracy of Moessbauer spectrometry in analytical applications are discussed. (Z.S.)

  8. Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., & Drachsler, H. (2013, 5 July). Group Concept Mapping on Learning Analytics. Presentation given at Learning Analytics Summer School Institute (LASI) to kickoff the national GCM study on LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  9. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glassey, Jarka; Gernaey, Krist; Clemens, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT), the regulatory initiative for building in quality to pharmaceutical manufacturing, has a great potential for improving biopharmaceutical production. The recommended analytical tools for building in quality, multivariate data analysis, mechanistic modeling, novel...

  10. The Yoccoz Combinatorial Analytic Invariant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Roesch, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop a combinatorial analytic encoding of the Mandelbrot set M. The encoding is implicit in Yoccoz' proof of local connectivity of M at any Yoccoz parameter, i.e. any at most finitely renormalizable parameter for which all periodic orbits are repelling. Using this encoding we ...... to reprove that the dyadic veins of M are arcs and that more generally any two Yoccoz parameters are joined by a unique ruled (in the sense of Douady-Hubbard) arc in M....

  11. Search Analytics for Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Any organization that has a searchable web site or intranet is sitting on top of hugely valuable and usually under-exploited data: logs that capture what users are searching for, how often each query was searched, and how many results each query retrieved. Search queries are gold: they are real data that show us exactly what users are searching for in their own words. This book shows you how to use search analytics to carry on a conversation with your customers: listen to and understand their needs, and improve your content, navigation and search performance to meet those needs.

  12. Google BigQuery analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Tigani, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit

  13. Programming system for analytic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    After having outlined the characteristics of computing centres which do not comply with engineering tasks, notably the time required by all different tasks to be performed when developing a software (assembly, compilation, link edition, loading, run), and identified constraints specific to engineering, the author identifies the characteristics a programming system should have to suit engineering tasks. He discussed existing conversational systems and their programming language, and their main drawbacks. Then, he presents a system which aims at facilitating programming and addressing problems of analytic geometry and trigonometry

  14. Jet substructure with analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [University of Manchester, Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Fregoso, Alessandro; Powling, Alexander [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    We consider the mass distribution of QCD jets after the application of jet-substructure methods, specifically the mass-drop tagger, pruning, trimming and their variants. In contrast to most current studies employing Monte Carlo methods, we carry out analytical calculations at the next-to-leading order level, which are sufficient to extract the dominant logarithmic behaviour for each technique, and compare our findings to exact fixed-order results. Our results should ultimately lead to a better understanding of these jet-substructure methods which in turn will influence the development of future substructure tools for LHC phenomenology. (orig.)

  15. Analytical application of derivative spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA M. STEFANOVIC

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Basic characteristics of derivative spectrophotometry 2.1. Increase of spectra resolution 2.2. Elimination of the influence of baseline shift and matrix interferences 2.3. Enhancement of the detectability of minor spectral features 2.4. Precise determination of the positions of absorption maxima 2.5. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR 2.6. Quantitative analysis 3. Analytical applications 3.1. Inorganic analysis 3.2. Organic and pharmaceutical analysis 3.3. Analysis of food and water 3.4. Application of derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of equilibrium constants

  16. Analytical estimates of structural behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2012-01-01

    Explicitly reintroducing the idea of modeling to the analysis of structures, Analytical Estimates of Structural Behavior presents an integrated approach to modeling and estimating the behavior of structures. With the increasing reliance on computer-based approaches in structural analysis, it is becoming even more important for structural engineers to recognize that they are dealing with models of structures, not with the actual structures. As tempting as it is to run innumerable simulations, closed-form estimates can be effectively used to guide and check numerical results, and to confirm phys

  17. Analytical application of thiosulfatobismuthates(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobylecka, J.; Cyganski, A.

    1980-01-01

    The analytical application of caesium-sodium thiosulfatobismuthate(3) is presented. Gravimetric, compleximetric and thermal methods of caesium determination have been developed. The gravimetric method is based on precipitation of caesium as Cs 2 Na[Bi(S 2 O 3 ) 3 ], filtration and desiccation of precipitate at about 100 0 C. In compleximetric procedure the precipitate was dissolved in nitric acid and bismuth was titrated by EDTA solution. In thermal method the precipitate was heated up to 320 0 C while the released sulphur dioxide was absorbed by sodium terachloromercurate and formed acid was determined alkalimetrically. The described rapid methods have a satisfactory precision and accuracy. (author)

  18. Decision analytic methods in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzenko, V.; French, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, RODOS seeks to provide decision support at all levels ranging from the largely descriptive to providing a detailed evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of various countermeasure strategies and ranking them according to the societal preferences as perceived by the decision makers. To achieve this, it must draw upon several decision analytic methods and bring them together in a coherent manner so that the guidance offered to decision makers is consistent from one stage of an accident to the next. The methods used draw upon multi-attribute value and utility theories

  19. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics.......Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  20. Predictive analytics can support the ACO model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Predictive analytics can be used to rapidly spot hard-to-identify opportunities to better manage care--a key tool in accountable care. When considering analytics models, healthcare providers should: Make value-based care a priority and act on information from analytics models. Create a road map that includes achievable steps, rather than major endeavors. Set long-term expectations and recognize that the effectiveness of an analytics program takes time, unlike revenue cycle initiatives that may show a quick return.