WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple binary indicators

  1. Joint analysis of time-to-event and multiple binary indicators of latent classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Multiple categorical variables are commonly used in medical and epidemiological research to measure specific aspects of human health and functioning. To analyze such data, models have been developed considering these categorical variables as imperfect indicators of an individual's "true" status o...

  2. Cosmological distance indicators by coalescing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; De Martino, Ivan; Formisano, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational waves detected from well-localized inspiraling binaries would allow to determine, directly and independently, both binary luminosity and redshift. In this case, such systems could behave as "standard candles" providing an excellent probe of cosmic distances up to z < 0.1 and thus complementing other indicators of cosmological distance ladder.

  3. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  4. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  5. Evolution of Binary Stars in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jongsuk; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L W; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters has implications for all the aspects of the study of these stellar systems. In this paper, by means of N-body simulations, we study the evolution of binary stars in multiple-population clusters and explore the implications of the initial differences in the spatial distribution of different stellar populations for the evolution and survival of their binary stars. Our simulations show that initial differences between the spatial distribution of first-generation (FG) and second-generation (SG) stars can leave a fingerprint in the current properties of the binary population. SG binaries are disrupted more efficiently than those of the FG population resulting in a global SG binary fraction smaller than that of the FG. As for surviving binaries, dynamical evolution produces a difference between the SG and the FG binary binding energy distribution with the SG population characterized by a larger fraction of high binding energy (more bound) binaries. ...

  6. Binaries in Globular Clusters Multiple Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucatello, Sara; Sollima, Antonio; Gratton, Raffaele; D'Orazi, Valentina; Vesperini, Enrico; Carretta, Eugenio; Bragaglia, Angela

    2015-08-01

    In spite of considerable theoretical and obsservational effort, the series of events that leads to the formation of Globular Clusters and their multiple populations is still unclear.One of the key matters is where the so-called second generation of stars form and its distribution at the time of its birth with respect to the first generation. Some of the latest modeling has suggested that second generation should form in a compact subsystem concentrated in the inner regions of the primordial, first generation cluster. In this scenario, loss of a large fraction of the cluster mass is expected, mostly comprised of first generation stars. This would account for the mass budget issue (one of the main problems in the self-enrichment scenario) and would imply a considerable contribution of the clusters to the formation of the Galactic Halo.Testing this prediction is hence of great importance, but not so immediate. Long-term, dynamical evolution of multiple-population clusters could blur considerably the signature of the initial different concentrations, leaving at present time some memory in the very central part (Vesperini et al. 2013), which, because of its high density, is generally not accessible to the multi-object high resolution spectrographs that yield the spectra that allow the chemical composition measurements necessary to tag the different populations.An alternative approach to test the prediction of the initial segregation of the second generations is that of determining their binary fractions. In fact, until the two populations are completely mixed, second generation stars will evolve in a denser environment where disruption will occur more rapidly, leading to a smaller binary incidence in such population (Vesperini et al 2011).I will present the results of our long-term radial velocity monitoring of 10 Galactic Globular clusters, discuss the derived binary fractions in the two populations and address the implications of our findings on our understanding of

  7. Gravitational Microlensing of Binary and Binary and Multiple Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    Recent observations of the effect of microlensing of stars of large Magellanic Clouds by dark bodies of Galactic Halo have led to the discovery of new population in our galaxy - dark bodies with amsses ~ 0.1 M(sun). As a consequence, astronomers have gained a unique possibility of using gravitational microlensing as an effective extraterestrial telescope with extremely high angular resolution. Application of this to binary stars is discussed. of particular interest is to apply microlensing to search for planetary stars . Planets and stars move about the center of gravity of the system , so the appaarent motion of a star in nonuniform and the light curve is asymetrical and colour dependent. This allows to determin basic parameters of binary system

  8. Parameter Estimation for Improving Association Indicators in Binary Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bashiri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is estimation of Binary logistic regression parameters for maximizing the log-likelihood function with improved association indicators. In this paper the parameter estimation steps have been explained and then measures of association have been introduced and their calculations have been analyzed. Moreover a new related indicators based on membership degree level have been expressed. Indeed association measures demonstrate the number of success responses occurred in front of failure in certain number of Bernoulli independent experiments. In parameter estimation, existing indicators values is not sensitive to the parameter values, whereas the proposed indicators are sensitive to the estimated parameters during the iterative procedure. Therefore, proposing a new association indicator of binary logistic regression with more sensitivity to the estimated parameters in maximizing the log- likelihood in iterative procedure is innovation of this study.

  9. Multiples among detached eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Ratajczak, M; Jordán, A; Espinoza, N; Brahm, R; Kambe, E; Ukita, N

    2015-01-01

    For more than three years now we have been conducting a spectroscopic survey of detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs) from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) database. Thousands of high-resolution spectra of over 300 systems were secured, and used for radial velocity measurements and spectral analysis. In our sample we found a zoo of multiple systems, such as spectroscopic triples and quadruples, visual binaries with eclipsing components, and circumbinary low-mass companions, including sub-stellar-mass candidates

  10. Multiplicative Zagreb indices of cacti

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaohui; Wei, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Let $\\prod(G)$ be Multiplicative Zagreb index of a graph G. A connected graph is a cactus graph if and only if any two of its cycles have at most one vertex in common, which has been the interest of researchers in the filed of material chemistry and graph theory. In this paper, we use a new tool to the obtain upper and lower bounds of $\\prod(G)$ for all cactus graphs and characterize the corresponding extremal graphs.

  11. Phase retrieval for superposed signals from multiple binary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Herman, Gabor T.; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the binary superposed phase retrieval problem that aims at reconstructing multiple 0/1-valued functions with nonoverlapping bounded supports from moduli of superpositions of several displaced copies of their individual Fourier transforms. We discuss an application in coherent diffrac...... diffraction imaging of crystalline objects, propose two algorithms, and evaluate their performance by means of simulations. © 2010 Optical Society of America...

  12. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    about relative importance of any dimension nor about complementarity/substitutability relationships between dimensions. The method is based on the concept of multidimensional first order dominance. We introduce a rapid and reliable algorithm for empirically determining whether one population dominates...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  13. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar;

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  14. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  15. Efficient Hybrid Method for Binary Floating Point Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Praveenkumar Reddy,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high speed binary floating point multiplier based on Hybrid Method. To improve speed multiplication of mantissa is done using Hybrid method replacing existing multipliers like Carry Save Multiplier, Dadda Multiplier and Modified Booth Multiplier. Hybrid method is a combination of Dadda Multiplier and Modified Radix-8 Booth Multiplier. The design achieves high speed with maximum frequency of 555 MHz compared to existing floating point multipliers. The multiplier implemented in Verilog HDL and analyzed in Quartus II 10.0 version. Hybrid Multiplier is compared with existing multipliers.

  16. OVERSAMPLED CHAOTIC BINARY SEQUENCES FOR MULTIPLE ACCESS COMMUNICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongtao; Wang Huiyun; Ding Runtao

    2002-01-01

    Noise interference and multiple access interference are the main impairment to the performance of DS/CDMA communication system. This letter presents that OverSampled Chaotic Map (OSCM) binary sequences are secure as spreading sequences, and based on the optimal quantizing method, the BER performance of the system has been derived in detail, the internal relationships among the number of users, the power of noise and the length of code chips are revealed in mathematical formulae. The performance of the system can be improved by employing these formulae. Numerical results conform the efficiency of discussion in this letter.

  17. Rorschach indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labott, S M; Leavitt, F; Braun, B G; Sachs, R G

    1992-08-01

    The increase in reported cases of Multiple Personality Disorder underscores a great need to differentiate clearly this from other psychiatric disorders and from simulation of Multiple Personality Disorder. Two sets of Rorschach signs have been advanced as clinical markers by their developers, namely Barach and also Wagner, Allison, and Wagner. As the Wagner signs are prevalent in much of the research on Rorschach responses in Multiple Personality Disorder, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate these signs using Wagner's administration and the resulting Rorschach protocols of 16 Multiple Personality Disorder patients and 16 psychiatric controls. Analysis indicated that this system was deficient in correctly classifying these 32 protocols. A new marker, the Splitting Response, emerged, however, which was more useful. This response, in combination with at least one Dissociative response, produced an accuracy rate of 94%. These new criteria may be useful aids in the detection of Multiple Personality Disorder from Rorschach protocols. Replication is urged.

  18. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  19. Fitting formulae for the effects of binary interactions on lick indices and colors of stellar populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Mu Li; Zhan-Wen Han

    2009-01-01

    More than about 50% of stars are in binaries, but most stellar population studies take single star stellar population (ssSSP) models, which do not take binary interactions into account. In fact, the integrated peculiarities of ssSSPs are different from those of stellar populations with binary interactions (bsSSPs). Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effects of binary interactions on the Lick indices and colors of populations in detail.We show some formulae for calculating the difference between the Lick indices and colors of bsSSPs, and those of ssSSPs. Twenty-five Lick indices and 12 colors are studied in this work. The results can be conveniently used for calculating the effects of binary interactions on stellar population studies and for adding the effects of binary interactions into present ssSSP models. The electronic data and fortran procedures in the paper can be obtained on request from the authors.

  20. Phase retrieval from multiple binary masks generated speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hai; Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2016-04-01

    We present a reference-less and time-multiplexing phase retrieval method by making use of the digital micromirror device (DMD). In this method, the DMD functions not only as a flexible binary mask which modulates the optical field, but also as a sampling mask for measuring corresponding phases, which makes the whole setup simple and robust. The DMD reflection forms a sparse intensity mask in the pupil which produces speckle pattern after propagation. With the recorded intensity on the camera and the binary pattern on the DMD, the phase in all the `on' pixels can be reconstructed at once by solving inverse problems with iterative methods, for instance using Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm. Then the phase of the whole pupil can be reconstructed from a series of binary patterns and speckle patterns. Numerical experiments show the feasibility of this phase retrieval method and the importance of sparse binary masks in the improving of convergence speed.

  1. Fountain Codes with Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta

    2010-01-01

    We study fountain codes transmitted over the binary-input symmetric-output channel. For channels with small capacity, receivers needs to collects many channel outputs to recover information bits. Since a collected channel output yields a check node in the decoding Tanner graph, the channel with small capacity leads to large decoding complexity. In this paper, we introduce a novel fountain coding scheme with non-binary LDPC codes. The decoding complexity of the proposed fountain code does not depend on the channel. Numerical experiments show that the proposed codes exhibit better performance than conventional fountain codes, especially for small number of information bits.

  2. Probability Quantization for Multiplication-Free Binary Arithmetic Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K. -M.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to improve on Witten's binary arithmetic coding procedure of tracking a high value and a low value. The new method approximates the probability of the less probable symbol, which improves the worst-case coding efficiency.

  3. Indications of a Large Fraction of Spectroscopic Binaries Among Nuclei of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, O; Harmer, D; Fleming, A J; Marco, Orsola De; Bond, Howard E.; Harmer, Dianne; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Previous work indicates that about 10% of planetary-nebula nuclei (PNNi) are photometrically variable short-period binaries with periods of hours to a few days. These systems have most likely descended from common-envelope (CE) interactions in initially much wider binaries. Population-synthesis studies suggest that these very close pairs could be the short-period tail of a much larger post-CE binary population with periods of up to a few months. We have initiated a radial-velocity (RV) survey of PNNi with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and Hydra spectrograph, which is aimed at discovering these intermediate-period binaries. We present initial results showing that 10 out of 11 well-observed PNNi have variable RVs, suggesting that a significant binary population may be present. However, further observations are required because we have as yet been unable to fit our sparse measurements with definite orbital periods, and because some of the RV variability might be due to variations in the stellar winds of some of our P...

  4. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age....... In the first paper of this series, we demonstrated how measurements of multiple eclipsing binaries in the old open cluster NGC6791 sets tighter constraints on the properties of stellar models than has previously been possible, thereby potentially improving both the accuracy and precision of the cluster age...... then perform an extensive comparison of the CMDs and eclipsing binary measurements to Victoria and DSEP isochrones to estimate cluster parameters. We also reanalyse a spectrum of the star 2-17 to improve [Fe/H] constraints. We find a best estimate of the age of ~8.3 Gyr while demonstrating that remaining age...

  5. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age....... In the first paper of this series, we demonstrated how measurements of multiple eclipsing binaries in the old open cluster NGC6791 sets tighter constraints on the properties of stellar models than has previously been possible, thereby potentially improving both the accuracy and precision of the cluster age...... then perform an extensive comparison of the CMDs and eclipsing binary measurements to Victoria and DSEP isochrones to estimate cluster parameters. We also reanalyse a spectrum of the star 2-17 to improve [Fe/H] constraints. We find a best estimate of the age of ~8.3 Gyr while demonstrating that remaining age...

  6. Multiplicity distributions in the binary fragmenting with inhibition at the transition line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-03-01

    Properties of the fragment multiplicity distribution obtained in the sequential binary fragmentation process at the transition line are investigated. It is shown that the multifragment cumulant correlation functions have the hierarchical, linked-pair structure. Several distinct classes of multiplicity domains are clearly identified, and the asymptotic appearance of the Koba - Nielsen - Olesen scaling is discussed. (author). 36 refs.

  7. Double stars with wide separations in the AGK3 - II. The wide binaries and the multiple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Halbwachs, Jean-Louis; Udry, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    A large observation programme was carried out to measure the radial velocities of the components of a selection of common proper motion (CPM) stars, in order to select the physical binaries. Eighty wide binaries (WBs) were detected, and 39 optical pairs were identified. Adding CPM stars with separations close enough to be almost certain they are physical, a "bias-controlled" sample of 116 wide binaries was obtained, and used to derive the distribution of separations from 100 to 30,000 au. The distribution obtained doesn't match the log-constant distribution, but is in agreement with the log-normal distribution. The spectroscopic binaries detected among the WB components were used to derive statistical informations about the multiple systems. The close binaries in WBs seem to be similar to those detected in other field stars. As for the WBs, they seem to obey the log-normal distribution of periods. The number of quadruple systems is in agreement with the "no correlation" hypothesis; this indicates that an envi...

  8. Multiple-Orbit Simulations of Binary Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, InSaeng; Haywood, J Reese; Lan, N Q

    2016-01-01

    We study the general relativistic hydrodynamic evolution of neutron stars in binary orbits and analyze the equation of state dependence of the orbits as the stars approach the inner most last stable circular orbit. We show that by employing a conformally flat condition on the metric, one can stably numerically evolve ~100 quasi-circular orbits and could straightforwardly extend the calculation to the ~10,000 orbits needed to follow stars through the LIGO frequency band. We apply this code to orbiting neutron stars in the quasi-circular orbit approximation to both demonstrate the stability of this approach and explore the equation of state dependence of the orbital properties. We employ variety of available realistic neutron star equations of state as well as a Gamma=2 polytrope. We confirm that both the orbital and emergent gravity wave frequency evolve more slowly for a softer equation of state as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  9. Orbital period changes and the higher-order multiplicity fraction amongst SuperWASP eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E; Payne, S G; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2015-01-01

    Orbital period changes of binary stars may be caused by the presence of a third massive body in the system. Here we have searched the archive of the Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) project for evidence of period variations in 13927 eclipsing binary candidates. Sinusoidal period changes, strongly suggestive of third bodies, were detected in 2% of cases; however, linear period changes were observed in a further 22% of systems. We argue on distributional grounds that the majority of these apparently linear changes are likely to reflect longer-term sinusoidal period variations caused by third bodies, and thus estimate a higher-order multiplicity fraction of 24% for SuperWASP binaries, in good agreement with other recent figures for the fraction of triple systems amongst binary stars in general.

  10. Binary interactions as a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Dengkai; Li, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    Observations revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the abundance anomalous stars observed in GCs are the merged stars and the accretor stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation and are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have different surface abundances, effective temperatures and luminosities from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. The stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational evidences of multiple stellar populations, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in HR diagram. Thi...

  11. Wind mass transfer in S-type symbiotic binaries II. Indication of wind focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Shagatova, Natalia; Carikova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Context. The wind mass transfer from a giant to its white dwarf companion in symbiotic binaries is not well understood. For example, the efficiency of wind mass transfer of the canonical Bondi-Hoyle accretion mechanism is too low to power the typical luminosities of the accretors. However, recent observations and modelling indicate a considerably more efficient mass transfer in symbiotic binaries. Aims. We determine the velocity profile of the wind from the giant at the near-orbital-plane region of eclipsing S-type symbiotic binaries EG And and SY Mus, and derive the corresponding spherical equivalent of the mass-loss rate. With this approach, we indicate the high mass transfer ratio. Methods. We achieved this aim by modelling the observed column densities taking into account ionization of the wind of the giant, whose velocity profile is derived using the inversion of Abel's integral operator for the hydrogen column density function. Results. Our analysis revealed the spherical equivalent of the mass-loss rat...

  12. Double stars with wide separations in the AGK3 - II. The wide binaries and the multiple systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbwachs, J.-L.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.

    2017-02-01

    A large observation programme was carried out to measure the radial velocities of the components of a selection of common proper motion (CPM) stars to select the physical binaries. 80 wide binaries (WBs) were detected, and 39 optical pairs were identified. By adding CPM stars with separations close enough to be almost certain that they are physical, a bias-controlled sample of 116 WBs was obtained, and used to derive the distribution of separations from 100 to 30 000 au. The distribution obtained does not match the log-constant distribution, but agrees with the log-normal distribution. The spectroscopic binaries detected among the WB components were used to derive statistical information about the multiple systems. The close binaries in WBs seem to be like those detected in other field stars. As for the WBs, they seem to obey the log-normal distribution of periods. The number of quadruple systems agrees with the no correlation hypothesis; this indicates that an environment conducive to the formation of WBs does not favour the formation of subsystems with periods shorter than 10 yr.

  13. Conflict resolution protocols for random multiple-access channels with binary feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T.; Mehravari, N.

    The problem of conflict resolution in a random multiple-access, time-slotted, packet-switched channel with binary feedback is considered. Conflict resolution algorithms (CRA) for two different types of binary feedback which informs the users only about whether or not there was a collision in the previous slot achieves a throughput of 0.442. The CRA proposed for the case in which the feedback informs the users about whether or not the previous slot was empty achieves a throughput of 0.279.

  14. Binary-tree encryption strategy for optical multiple-image encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiawang; Tan, Guanzheng

    2016-07-10

    In traditional optical multiple-image encryption schemes, different images typically have almost the same encryption or decryption process. Provided that an attacker manages to correctly decrypt some image, the conventional attacks upon other images are much easier to be made. In this paper, a binary-tree encryption strategy for multiple images is proposed to resist the attacks in this case. The encryption schemes produced by this strategy can not only increase the security of multiple-image encryption, but also realize an authority management with high security among the users sharing a cipher image. For a simulation test, we devise a basic binary-tree encryption scheme, whose encryption nodes are based on an asymmetric double random phase encoding in the gyrator domain. The favorable simulation results about the tested scheme can testify to the feasibility of the strategy.

  15. Observational Investigations on Contact Binaries in Multiple-star Systems and Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    2013-01-01

    The W UMa-type contact binaries are strongly interacting systems whose components both fill their critical Roche lobes and share a convective common envelope. The models of contact binaries are bottlenecked due to too many uncertain parameters. In the 1960s and 1970s, the common convective envelope model was accepted after several fierce controversies. And then, the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) model, the discontinuity model, and the angular momentum loss (AML) model appeared. However, in the past forty years, there lacked remarkable advance. The coexistence of many unknown parameters blocks the theoretical development of contact binaries. A study on the contact binaries in multiple star systems and star clusters, which could provide lots of information for their formation and evolution, may be a potential growing point for understanding these objects. More and more evidence shows that many of contact binaries are located in multiple star systems and star clusters. In this thesis, we observed and analyzed contact binaries in the forementioned systems. The observational and theoretical studies for contact binary are also summarized briefly. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Three contact binaries V1128 Tau, GZ And, VW Boo which possess visual companions show periodic oscillations. The period ranges from 16.7 years to 46.5 years. These oscillations probably come from the orbital movement of a close third body. (2) Four contact binaries GSC 02393-00680, V396 Mon, FU Dra, SS Ari which do not have visual companions also present periodic oscillations. Whether they are real members of multiple star systems needs further investigations. These oscillations probably result from the orbital movement of a close M-type companion. (3) The periods of three contact binaries EQ Cep, ER Cep and V371 Cep in the old open cluster NGC 188 show a long-term increase. There is a cyclic period oscillation in ER Cep, with a period of 5.4 years. We find that the total mass of

  16. A comparison of multiple imputation methods for incomplete longitudinal binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Misumi, Toshihiro; Maruo, Kazushi

    2017-09-08

    Longitudinal binary data are commonly encountered in clinical trials. Multiple imputation is an approach for getting a valid estimation of treatment effects under an assumption of missing at random mechanism. Although there are a variety of multiple imputation methods for the longitudinal binary data, a limited number of researches have reported on relative performances of the methods. Moreover, when focusing on the treatment effect throughout a period that has often been used in clinical evaluations of specific disease areas, no definite investigations comparing the methods have been available. We conducted an extensive simulation study to examine comparative performances of six multiple imputation methods available in the SAS MI procedure for longitudinal binary data, where two endpoints of responder rates at a specified time point and throughout a period were assessed. The simulation study suggested that results from nave approaches of a single imputation with non-responders and a complete case analysis could be very sensitive against missing data. The multiple imputation methods using a monotone method and a full conditional specification with a logistic regression imputation model were recommended for obtaining unbiased and robust estimations of the treatment effect. The methods were illustrated with data from a mental health research.

  17. LUT REVEALS AN ALGOL-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY WITH THREE ADDITIONAL STELLAR COMPANIONS IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Hu, J.-Y., E-mail: zhuly@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson–Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O–C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i′ ∼ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M{sub ⊙}. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  18. Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.

    2011-10-01

    Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.

  19. Light curve solutions for bright detached eclipsing binaries in SMC: absolute dimensions and distance indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Graczyk, D

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a careful and detailed light curve analysis of bright detached eclipsing binaries (DEB) in the Small Magellanic Cloud, discovered by OGLE collaboration, on the basis of recently available difference image analysis (DIA) photometry. The 19 binaries brighter than 16.4 mag in I band and with the depth of primary and secondary eclipse greater than 0.25 mag were investigated. The solutions were obtained by a modified version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The quality of DIA light curves - a good phase coverage and relatively small scatter - is enough to calculate realistic estimates for the third light l_3 and the argument of periastron. It was found that solutions of detached, eccentric systems with flat light curve between eclipses usually may suffer from indetermination of l_3 in contrast to those of similar systems having some proximity effects. The physical properties of the stars were estimated on the basis of their photometric elements and indices assuming the distance modulus to SMC ~1...

  20. A New Method for the Detections of Multiple Faults Using Binary Decision Diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhongliang; CHEN Ling; ZHANG Guangzhao

    2006-01-01

    With the complexity of integrated circuits is continually increasing, a local defect in circuits may cause multiple faults. The behavior of a digital circuit with a multiple fault may significantly differ from that of a single fault. A new method for the detection of multiple faults in digital circuits is presented in this paper, the method is based on binary decision diagram (BDD). First of all, the BDDs for the normal circuit and faulty circuit are built respectively. Secondly, a test BDD is obtained by the XOR operation of the BDDs corresponds to normal circuit and faulty circuit. In the test BDD, each input assignment that leads to the leaf node labeled 1 is a test vector of multiple faults. Therefore, the test set of multiple faults is generated by searching for the type of input assignments in the test BDD. Experimental results on some digital circuits show the feasibility of the approach presented in this paper.

  1. Araucaria Project: Pulsating stars in binary systems and as distance indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Bogumił; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Smolec, Radosław

    2017-09-01

    Pulsating stars, like Cepheids or RR Lyrae stars, are ones of the most important distance indicators. They are also key objects for testing the predictions of stellar evolution and stellar pulsation theory. In the Araucaria Project we have studied these objects since 2002, measuring distances to the galaxies in the Local Group and beyond. In 2010 we have for the first time confirmed spectroscopically the existence of a classical Cepheid in an eclipsing binary system. This has opened an opportunity to study in great details and with high accuracy (better than 1%) the physical parameters of these very important objects. First dynamical mass determination (Mcep = 4.16 ± 0.03 M⊙) let us solve the long-standing mass discrepancy problem. Since then we have measured masses for 6 classical Cepheids in binary systems and determined projection factors for three of them. One of the analyzed systems was confirmed to consist of two first-overtone Cepheids. Type II Cepheids are recently becoming more important as distance indicators and astrophysics laboratory, although our knowledge of these stars is quite limited. Their evolutionary status is also not well understood and observational constraints are needed to confirm the current theories. We are presenting here our first results of the spectroscopic analysis of 4 of these systems. The masses of type II Cepheids seem consistent with the expected 0.5 - 0.6 M⊙. We also present first results of the fully modeled pulsator originally classified as peculiar W Vir star. The mass of this star is 1.51 ± 0.09 M⊙ and the p-factor 1.3 ± 0.03. It was eventually found not to belong to any typical Cepheid group.

  2. Comparison of Ordinary Kriging and Multiple Indicator Kriging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK) is one of the popular non-linear methods that can handle skewed distribution such as that for gold ... Drill hole data obtained for the study were largely ... vein sets normal to the trend of the shear zone. The.

  3. Binary variable multiple-model multiple imputation to address missing data mechanism uncertainty: application to a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Juned; Harel, Ofer; Crespi, Catherine M; Hedeker, Donald

    2014-07-30

    The true missing data mechanism is never known in practice. We present a method for generating multiple imputations for binary variables, which formally incorporates missing data mechanism uncertainty. Imputations are generated from a distribution of imputation models rather than a single model, with the distribution reflecting subjective notions of missing data mechanism uncertainty. Parameter estimates and standard errors are obtained using rules for nested multiple imputation. Using simulation, we investigate the impact of missing data mechanism uncertainty on post-imputation inferences and show that incorporating this uncertainty can increase the coverage of parameter estimates. We apply our method to a longitudinal smoking cessation trial where nonignorably missing data were a concern. Our method provides a simple approach for formalizing subjective notions regarding nonresponse and can be implemented using existing imputation software.

  4. Multiple-objective response-adaptive repeated measurement designs in clinical trials for binary responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yin; Wang, Jing; Carriere, Keumhee C

    2014-02-20

    A multiple-objective allocation strategy was recently proposed for constructing response-adaptive repeated measurement designs for continuous responses. We extend the allocation strategy to constructing response-adaptive repeated measurement designs for binary responses. The approach with binary responses is quite different from the continuous case, as the information matrix is a function of responses, and it involves nonlinear modeling. To deal with these problems, we first build the design on the basis of success probabilities. Then we illustrate how various models can accommodate carryover effects on the basis of logits of response profiles as well as any correlation structure. Through computer simulations, we find that the allocation strategy developed for continuous responses also works well for binary responses. As expected, design efficiency in terms of mean squared error drops sharply, as more emphasis is placed on increasing treatment benefit than estimation precision. However, we find that it can successfully allocate more patients to better treatment sequences without sacrificing much estimation precision.

  5. Phase field modeling of multiple dendrite growth of AI-Si binary alloy under isothermal solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qiang; Zhang Yutuo; Cui Haixia; Wang Chengzhi

    2008-01-01

    Phase field method offers the prospect of being able to perform realistic numerical experiments on dendrite growth in metallic systems. In this study, the growth process of multiple dendrites in Ai-2-mole-%-Si binary alloy under isothermal solidification was simulated using phase field model. The simulation results showed the impingement of arbitrarily oriented crystals and the competitive growth among the grains during solidification. With the increase of growing time, the grains begin to coalesce and impinge the adjacent grains. When the dendrites start to impinge, the dendrite growth is obviously inhibited.

  6. Stock Market Index Data and indicators for Day Trading as a Binary Classification problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bruni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Classification is the attribution of labels to records according to a criterion automatically learned from a training set of labeled records. This task is needed in a huge number of practical applications, and consequently it has been studied intensively and several classification algorithms are available today. In finance, a stock market index is a measurement of value of a section of the stock market. It is often used to describe the aggregate trend of a market. One basic financial issue would be forecasting this trend. Clearly, such a stochastic value is very difficult to predict. However, technical analysis is a security analysis methodology developed to forecast the direction of prices through the study of past market data. Day trading consists in buying and selling financial instruments within the same trading day. In this case, one interesting problem is the automatic individuation of favorable days for trading. We model this problem as a binary classification problem, and we provide datasets containing daily index values, the corresponding values of a selection of technical indicators, and the class label, which is 1 if the subsequent time period is favorable for day trading and 0 otherwise. These datasets can be used to test the behavior of different approaches in solving the day trading problem.

  7. Stock Market Index Data and indicators for Day Trading as a Binary Classification problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Renato

    2017-02-01

    Classification is the attribution of labels to records according to a criterion automatically learned from a training set of labeled records. This task is needed in a huge number of practical applications, and consequently it has been studied intensively and several classification algorithms are available today. In finance, a stock market index is a measurement of value of a section of the stock market. It is often used to describe the aggregate trend of a market. One basic financial issue would be forecasting this trend. Clearly, such a stochastic value is very difficult to predict. However, technical analysis is a security analysis methodology developed to forecast the direction of prices through the study of past market data. Day trading consists in buying and selling financial instruments within the same trading day. In this case, one interesting problem is the automatic individuation of favorable days for trading. We model this problem as a binary classification problem, and we provide datasets containing daily index values, the corresponding values of a selection of technical indicators, and the class label, which is 1 if the subsequent time period is favorable for day trading and 0 otherwise. These datasets can be used to test the behavior of different approaches in solving the day trading problem.

  8. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P A Ioannidis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H], co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm], and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author. We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011-2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to

  9. Indication of a massive circumbinary planet orbiting the low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1658-298

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chetana; Paul, Biswajit; Sharma, Rahul; Jaleel, Abdul; Dutta, Anjan

    2017-06-01

    We present an X-ray timing analysis of the transient X-ray binary MXB 1658-298, using data obtained from the RXTE and XMM-Newton observatories. We have made 27 new mid-eclipse time measurements from observations made during the two outbursts of the source. These new measurements have been combined with the previously known values to study long-term changes in orbital period of the binary system. We have found that the mid-eclipse timing record of MXB 1658-298 is quite unusual. The long-term evolution of mid-eclipse times indicates an overall orbital period decay with a time-scale of -6.5(7) × 107 yr. Over and above this orbital period decay, the O-C residual curve also shows a periodic residual on shorter time-scales. This sinusoidal variation has an amplitude of ˜9 lt-s and a period of ˜760 d. This is indicative of the presence of a third body around the compact X-ray binary. The mass and orbital radius of the third body are estimated to lie in the ranges 20.5-26.9 Jupiter mass and 750-860 lt-s, respectively. If true, then it will be the most massive circumbinary planet and also the smallest period binary known to host a planet.

  10. Multiple-Channel Lo cal Binary Fitting Mo del for Medical Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qi; WANG Long; SHEN Shuting

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative M-L (Multiple-channel local binary fitting) model for medical image segmentation. Designed to improve upon existing image segmentation models, the M-L model introduces a regional limit function to the multi-band active con-tour model to enable multilayer image segmentation. The Gaussian kernel function is used to improve the previous model’s robustness, necessitating the use of a new initial-ization curve which enhances the accuracy of segmentation results. Compared to existing image segmentation meth-ods, the proposed M-L model improves numerical stability and efficiency through the introduction of a new penalty term and an increased step length. This simulation exper-iment verifies the advantages of the new M-L model for improved medical image segmentation, including increased efficiency and usability of the model.

  11. Light curves of the latest FUor: Indication of a close binary

    CERN Document Server

    Hackstein, M; Kóspál, Á; Hambsch, F -J; Chini, R; Ábrahám, P; Moór, A; Nuñez, F Pozo; Ramolla, M; Westhues, Ch; Kaderhandt, L; Fein, Ch; Domínguez, A Barr; Hodapp, K -W

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the recent FUor 2MASS J06593158-0405277 (V960 Mon) since November 2009 at various observatories and multiple wavelengths. After the outburst by nearly 2.9 mag in $r$ around September 2014 the brightness gently fades until April 2015 by nearly 1 mag in $U$ and 0.5 mag in $z$. Thereafter the brightness at $\\lambda>5000 \\AA$ was constant until June 2015 while the shortest wavelengths ($U, B$) indicate a new rise, similar to that seen for the FUor V2493 Cyg (HBC722). Our near-infrared (NIR) monitoring between December 2014 and April 2015 shows a smaller outburst amplitude ($\\sim$2 mag) and a smaller (0.2 $-$ 0.3 mag) post-outburst brightness decline. Optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams indicate that the brightness decline is caused by growing extinction. The post-outburst light curves are modulated by an oscillating color-neutral pattern with a period of about 17 days and an amplitude declining from $\\sim$0.08 mag in October 2014 to $\\sim$0.04 mag in May 2015. The properties of the oscillating p...

  12. Assessing the Impact of Faking on Binary Personality Measures: An IRT-Based Multiple-Group Factor Analytic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a model-based multiple-group procedure for assessing the impact of faking on personality measures and the scores derived from these measures. The assessment is at the item level and the base model, which is intended for binary items, can be parameterized both as an Item Response Theory (IRT) model and as an Item…

  13. APPLICATION OF BINARY DESCRIPTORS TO MULTIPLE FACE TRACKING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  14. V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind: Eclipsing Binaries as Parts of Multiple Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasche, P.; Juryšek, J.; Nemravová, J.; Uhlař, R.; Svoboda, P.; Wolf, M.; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, M.; Prouza, M.; Čechura, J.; Korčáková, D.; Šlechta, M.

    2017-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries remain crucial objects for our understanding of the universe. In particular, those that are components of multiple systems can help us solve the problem of the formation of these systems. Analysis of the radial velocities together with the light curve produced for the first time precise physical parameters of the components of the multiple systems V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind. Their visual orbits were also analyzed, which resulted in slightly improved orbital elements. What is typical for all these systems is that their most dominant source is the third distant component. The system V773 Cas consists of two similar G1-2V stars revolving in a circular orbit and a more distant component of the A3V type. Additionally, the improved value of parallax was calculated to be 17.6 mas. Analysis of QS Aql resulted in the following: the inner eclipsing pair is composed of B6V and F1V stars, and the third component is of about the B6 spectral type. The outer orbit has high eccentricity of about 0.95, and observations near its upcoming periastron passage between the years 2038 and 2040 are of high importance. Also, the parallax of the system was derived to be about 2.89 mas, moving the star much closer to the Sun than originally assumed. The system BR Ind was found to be a quadruple star consisting of two eclipsing K dwarfs orbiting each other with a period of 1.786 days; the distant component is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of about 6 days. Both pairs are moving around each other on their 148 year orbit. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 091.D-0122(A), 094.A-9029(D), 095.A-9032(A), and 096.A-9039(A) and also on data from the 2 m telescope at the Ondřejov observatory in the Czech Republic

  15. MILLIONS OF MULTIPLES: DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING CLOSE-SEPARATION BINARY SYSTEMS IN SYNOPTIC SKY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Arcavi, Iair [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark, E-mail: emil.terziev@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to Almost-Equal-To 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1 Degree-Sign to 4 Degree-Sign (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize {approx}450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than m{sub R} = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  16. Contact Binaries as Viable Distance Indicators: New, Competitive (V)JHKs Period-Luminosity Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodian; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Based on the largest catalogs currently available, comprising 6090 contact binaries (CBs) and 2167 open clusters, we determine the near-infrared $JHK_{\\rm s}$ CB period--luminosity (PL) relations, for the first time achieving the low levels of intrinsic scatter that make these relations viable as competitive distance calibrators. To firmly establish our distance calibration on the basis of open cluster CBs, we require that (i) the CB of interest must be located inside the core radius of its host cluster; (ii) the CB's proper motion must be located within the $2\\sigma$ distribution of that of its host open cluster; and (iii) the CB's age, $t$, must be comparable to that of its host cluster, i.e., $\\Delta \\log (t\\mbox{ yr}^{-1}) <0.3$. We thus select a calibration sample of 66 CBs with either open cluster distances or accurate space-based parallaxes. The resulting near-infrared PL relations, for both late-type (i.e., W Ursae Majoris-type) and---for the first time---early-type CBs, are as accurate as the well...

  17. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  18. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  19. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  20. The Impact of Stellar Multiplicity on Planetary Systems, I.: The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Adam L; Huber, Daniel; Mann, Andrew W; Dupuy, Trent J

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of 382 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry (NRM) on the Keck-II telescope. Among the full sample of 506 candidate binary companions to KOIs, we super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of 0.4; we instead only found 23 companions (a 4.6 sigma deficit), many of which must be wider pairs that are only close in projection. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a_cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S_bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside a_cut = 47 +59/-23 AU, the planet occurrence rate in...

  1. MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the measure between GDP dependent variable in the sector of hotels and restaurants and the following independent variables: overnight stays in the establishments of touristic reception, arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception and investments in hotels and restaurants sector in the period of analysis 1995-2007. With the multiple regression analysis I found that investments and tourist arrivals are significant predictors for the GDP dependent variable. Based on these results, I identified those components of the marketing mix, which in my opinion require investment, which could contribute to the positive development of tourist arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception.

  2. MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the measure between GDP dependent variable in the sector of hotels and restaurants and the following independent variables: overnight stays in the establishments of touristic reception, arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception and investments in hotels and restaurants sector in the period of analysis 1995-2007. With the multiple regression analysis I found that investments and tourist arrivals are significant predictors for the GDP dependent variable. Based on these results, I identified those components of the marketing mix, which in my opinion require investment, which could contribute to the positive development of tourist arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception.

  3. 一类二元关系的公共后继指数集%On the Set of Common Consequent Indices of a Class of Binary Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红平; 苗正科

    2008-01-01

    Let V = {α1, α2,…, αn} be a finite set with n ≥ 2 and Pn(V) the set of all primitive binary relations on V. For Q ∈ Pn(V), denote by G(Q) the directed graph corresponding to Q.For positive integer d ≤ n, let Pn(V, d) = {Q:Q ∈ Pn(V) and G(Q) contains exactly d loops}. In this paper, it is proved that the set of common consequent indices of binary relations in Pn(V, d) is {1, 2 , n - [d/2]}. Furthermore, the minimal extremal binary relations are described.

  4. Describing rainfall in northern Australia using multiple climate indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks Rogers, Cassandra Denise; Beringer, Jason

    2017-02-01

    Savanna landscapes are globally extensive and highly sensitive to climate change, yet the physical processes and climate phenomena which affect them remain poorly understood and therefore poorly represented in climate models. Both human populations and natural ecosystems are highly susceptible to precipitation variation in these regions due to the effects on water and food availability and atmosphere-biosphere energy fluxes. Here we quantify the relationship between climate phenomena and historical rainfall variability in Australian savannas and, in particular, how these relationships changed across a strong rainfall gradient, namely the North Australian Tropical Transect (NATT). Climate phenomena were described by 16 relevant climate indices and correlated against precipitation from 1900 to 2010 to determine the relative importance of each climate index on seasonal, annual and decadal timescales. Precipitation trends, climate index trends and wet season characteristics have also been investigated using linear statistical methods. In general, climate index-rainfall correlations were stronger in the north of the NATT where annual rainfall variability was lower and a high proportion of rainfall fell during the wet season. This is consistent with a decreased influence of the Indian-Australian monsoon from the north to the south. Seasonal variation was most strongly correlated with the Australian Monsoon Index, whereas yearly variability was related to a greater number of climate indices, predominately the Tasman Sea and Indonesian sea surface temperature indices (both of which experienced a linear increase over the duration of the study) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation indices. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the climatic processes driving variability and, subsequently, the importance of understanding the relationships between rainfall and climatic phenomena in the Northern Territory in order to project future rainfall patterns in the

  5. Millions of Multiples: Detecting and Characterizing Close-Separation Binary Systems in Synoptic Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Terziev, Emil; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bloom, Joshua S; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H K; Dekany, Richard G; Kraus, Adam L; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A N; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P

    2012-01-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread-functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. We have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to approximately 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <5% false-positive...

  6. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  7. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method is presented for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Gatifloxacin, flurbiprofen and their degradation products were detected at 254 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm column and mixture of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and methanol 30:70 v/v as mobile phase. Response was linear over the range of 15-105 mg mL-1 for gatifloxacin (r² > 0.998 and of 1.5-10.5 mg mL-1 for flurbiprofen (r² > 0.999. The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products (peak purity index > 0.9999. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in human serum, urine, pharmaceutical formulations, and their stability studies.

  8. Resolving multiple supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays II: genetic algorithm implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Petiteau, Antoine; Sesana, Alberto; de Araujo, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) might detect gravitational waves (GWs) from massive black hole (MBH) binaries within this decade. The signal is expected to be an incoherent superposition of several nearly-monochromatic waves of different strength. The brightest sources might be individually resolved, and the overall deconvolved, at least partially, in its individual components. In this paper we extend the maximum-likelihood based method developed in Babak & Sesana 2012, to search for individual MBH binaries in PTA data. We model the signal as a collection of circular monochromatic binaries, each characterized by three free parameters: two angles defining the sky location, and the frequency. We marginalize over all other source parameters and we apply an efficient multi-search genetic algorithm to maximize the likelihood function and look for sources in synthetic datasets. On datasets characterized by white Gaussian noise plus few injected sources with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the range 10-60, our search...

  9. A SURVEY OF THE HIGH ORDER MULTIPLICITY OF NEARBY SOLAR-TYPE BINARY STARS WITH Robo-AO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Roberts, Lewis C. Jr. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai" i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2015-01-20

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 10{sup 3.5} to 10{sup 5} days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7.5} days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  10. A Survey of the High Order Multiplicity of Nearby Solar-type Binary Stars with Robo-AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 103.5 to 105 days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 106 to 107.5 days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  11. Smart stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for determination of binary mixtures without prior separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bardicy, Mohammad G; Lotfy, Hayam M; El-Sayed, Mohammad A; El-Tarras, Mohammad F

    2008-01-01

    Ratio subtraction and isosbestic point methods are 2 innovating spectrophotometric methods used to determine vincamine in the presence of its acid degradation product and a mixture of cinnarizine (CN) and nicergoline (NIC). Linear correlations were obtained in the concentration range from 8-40 microg/mL for vincamine (I), 6-22 microg/mL for CN (II), and 6-36 microg/mL for NIC (III), with mean accuracies 99.72 +/- 0.917% for I, 99.91 +/- 0.703% for II, and 99.58 +/- 0.847 and 99.83 +/- 1.039% for III. The ratio subtraction method was utilized for the analysis of laboratory-prepared mixtures containing different ratios of vincamine and its degradation product, and it was valid in the presence of up to 80% degradation product. CN and NIC in synthetic mixtures were analyzed by the 2 proposed methods with the total content of the mixture determined at their respective isosbestic points of 270.2 and 235.8 nm, and the content of CN was determined by the ratio subtraction method. The proposed method was validated and found to be suitable as a stability-indicating assay method for vincamine in pharmaceutical formulations. The standard addition technique was applied to validate the results and to ensure the specificity of the proposed methods.

  12. Phase field modeling of multiple dendrite growth of Al-Si binary alloy under isothermal solidifi cation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase field method offers the prospect of being able to perform realistic numerical experiments on dendrite growth in metallic systems. In this study, the growth process of multiple dendrites in Al-2-mole-%-Si binary alloy under isothermal solidifi cation was simulated using phase fi eld model. The simulation results showed the impingement of arbitrarily oriented crystals and the competitive growth among the grains during solidifi cation. With the increase of growing time, the grains begin to coalesce and impinge the adjacent grains. When the dendrites start to impinge, the dendrite growth is obviously inhibited.

  13. Validation of Binary, Fractional and Interpolated Snow Maps at Multiple Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittger, K.; McKenzie, C.; Painter, T.; Dozier, J.

    2008-12-01

    Mapping snow cover from multispectral sensors began with a simple normalized index using visible and near infrared wavelengths to classify pixels as either snow covered or snow free, a "binary" classification. Using a canopy reflectance model and incorporating a vegetation index improved the binary algorithm. Although the binary snow mapping methods are computationally simple, they are in practice flawed because sensors with fine spatial resolution usually have a coarse temporal resolution, and vice versa. For sensors with fine enough temporal resolution to track the dynamic seasonal snow environment, few pixels are either completely snow covered or completely snow free. Methods to estimate snow cover enable us to determine the fraction of the pixel covered with snow. Fractional methods include: decision tree classifiers, relationships of snow cover to snow index developed using regressions with finer-resolution data, and spectral un-mixing. Finally, daily data can be interpolated to produce a best estimate of snow cover. Here, we compare snow cover retrievals from binary and fractional snow cover algorithms using various satellites at fine and moderate resolution: AVHRR (1km), MODIS (500m), Landsat (30m) and ASTER (15m), AVIRIS (2m), and 1m data from degraded classified imagery. For binary snow cover we use both NDSI and NDSI with vegetation correction. For fractional snow cover we use a currently implemented operation algorithm MOD10A1 and our own estimates from MODSCAG spectral un-mixing. For smoothed estimates of snow cover we use another operational algorithm, MOD10A2 and our own reanalysis of MODSCAG fractional snow cover. The main study area is the Sierra Nevada of California, along with scenes in the Upper Rio Grande, Colorado Rocky Mountains and the Annapurna and Khumbal Himal. We find that fractional methods are superior to binary methods. Moreover, we find that linear spectral un-mixing gives the best estimates of snow cover at moderate resolution over

  14. BRANDEX: A FORTRAN/Pascal code to calculate the multiple binary splitting of an excited nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knop, R.; Stokstad, R.G.

    1989-05-01

    BRANDEX is a statistical calculation based on averages of physical distributions that will predict cross sections for particle coincidence channels resulting from the breakup of an excited nucleus through a sequential binary process. With minor modification, it can make predictions for an arbitrary nucleus, integrating over an arbitrary weighted range of excitation. An example is given for /sup 16/O breakup using the experimentally obtained excitation energy distribution. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Gaia eclipsing binary and multiple systems. Supervised classification and self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süveges, M.; Barblan, F.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Prša, A.; Holl, B.; Eyer, L.; Kochoska, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Large surveys producing tera- and petabyte-scale databases require machine-learning and knowledge discovery methods to deal with the overwhelming quantity of data and the difficulties of extracting concise, meaningful information with reliable assessment of its uncertainty. This study investigates the potential of a few machine-learning methods for the automated analysis of eclipsing binaries in the data of such surveys. Aims: We aim to aid the extraction of samples of eclipsing binaries from such databases and to provide basic information about the objects. We intend to estimate class labels according to two different, well-known classification systems, one based on the light curve morphology (EA/EB/EW classes) and the other based on the physical characteristics of the binary system (system morphology classes; detached through overcontact systems). Furthermore, we explore low-dimensional surfaces along which the light curves of eclipsing binaries are concentrated, and consider their use in the characterization of the binary systems and in the exploration of biases of the full unknown Gaia data with respect to the training sets. Methods: We have explored the performance of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Random Forest classification and self-organizing maps (SOM) for the above aims. We pre-processed the photometric time series by combining a double Gaussian profile fit and a constrained smoothing spline, in order to de-noise and interpolate the observed light curves. We achieved further denoising, and selected the most important variability elements from the light curves using PCA. Supervised classification was performed using Random Forest and LDA based on the PC decomposition, while SOM gives a continuous 2-dimensional manifold of the light curves arranged by a few important features. We estimated the uncertainty of the supervised methods due to the specific finite training set using ensembles of models constructed

  16. Detection of binary and multiple systems among rapidly rotating K and M dwarf stars from Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Oláh, Katalin; Joss, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    From an examination of ~18,000 Kepler light curves of K- and M-stars we find some 500 which exhibit rotational periods of less than 2 days. Among such stars, approximately 50 show two or more incommensurate periodicities. We discuss the tools that allow us to differentiate between rotational modulation and other types of light variations, e.g., due to pulsations or binary modulations. We find that these multiple periodicities are independent of each other and likely belong to different, but physically bound, stars. This scenario was checked directly by UKIRT and adaptive optics imaging, time-resolved Fourier transforms, and pixel-level analysis of the data. Our result is potentially important for discovering young multiple stellar systems among rapidly rotating K- and M-dwarfs.

  17. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, Viscosities and Refractive Indices of Binary Mixtures of Benzene with Benzyl Alcohol,Benzonitrile, Benzoyl Chloride and Chlorobenzene at 303.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI,A.; PANDEY,J.D.; SONI,N.K.; NAIN,A.K.; LAL,B.; CHAND,D.

    2005-01-01

    Densities, p, ultrasonic speeds, u, viscosities, η, and refractive indices, n, of pure benzene, benzyl alcohol (BA),benzonitrile (BN), benzoyl chloride (BC), chlorobenzene (CB) and their thirty six binary mixtures, with benzene as common component, were measured at 303.15 K over the entire mole fraction range. From these experimental data the values of deviations in ultrasonic speed, Au, isentropic compressibility, Δks, excess acoustic impedance, ZE, deviation in viscosity, Δη, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow, G*E, and partial molar isentropic compressibility, Kφ,2 of BA, BN, BC and CB in benzene were computed. The variation of these derived functions with composition of the mixtures suggested the increased cohesion (molecular order) in the solution and that interaction (A-B)>(A-A) or (B-B). Moreover, theoretical prediction of ultrasonic speed, viscosity and refractive index of all the four binary mixtures was made on the basis of empirical and semi-empirical relations by using the experimental values of the pure components. Comparison of theoretical results with the experimental values was made in order to assess the suitability of these relations in reproducing the experimental values of u, η and n. Also, molecular radii of pure liquids and the average molecular radii of binary mixtures were evaluated using the corresponding refractive indices of pure liquids and binary mixtures. The average molecular radii of binary mixtures were found to be additive with respect to mole fraction of the pure component.

  18. Transport Properties of the 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-Trichloromethane Binary System: Indication of Trichloromethane Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeva, David R; Petenuci, João; Hoffmann, Markus M

    2016-09-15

    Self-diffusion coefficients and electrical conductivity were studied for the binary system 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-trichloromethane ([C6mim][NTf2]-CHCl3) as a function of composition and temperature. Self-diffusion coefficients of cation and anion are identical for ionic liquid mole fractions xIL < 0.95. The self-diffusion coefficient of CHCl3 is consistently larger than that of the ions by a factor of 4. A double logarithmic plot for the ratio of self-diffusion coefficient and temperature versus viscosity is linear for ionic liquid mole fractions 0.1 < xIL < 0.9 indicating (a) a fractional Stokes-Einstein applies where self-diffusion is inverse proportional to some power b of viscosity (D ∼ η(-b)) and (b) single average length scales are associated with the mass transport of [C6mim][NTf2] and CHCl3. However, the obtained length scale for CHCl3 is unreasonably small, which is indicative of CHCl3 segregation. The molar conductivity displays a maximum near xIL = 0.2. Evaluation of the ionicity from molar conductivity and self-diffusion coefficients indicates a gradual speciation change from charged species to neutral species for xIL < 0.5. The temperature dependencies of self-diffusion and molar conductivity follow Arrhenius behavior. The obtained xIL-dependent activation energies are found to be linear for molar conductivity and largest for the cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients. The activation energies for the self-diffusion of CHCl3 appear to be identical with those obtained from fluidity data.

  19. hamlet, a binary genetic switch between single- and multiple- dendrite neuron morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrian W; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2002-08-23

    The dendritic morphology of neurons determines the number and type of inputs they receive. In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), the external sensory (ES) neurons have a single nonbranched dendrite, whereas the lineally related multidendritic (MD) neurons have extensively branched dendritic arbors. We report that hamlet is a binary genetic switch between these contrasting morphological types. In hamlet mutants, ES neurons are converted to an MD fate, whereas ectopic hamlet expression in MD precursors results in transformation of MD neurons into ES neurons. Moreover, hamlet expression induced in MD neurons undergoing dendrite outgrowth drastically reduces arbor branching.

  20. Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

  1. Multiple binary classifications via linear discriminant analysis for improved controllability of a powered prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Levi J; Scheme, Erik J; Englehart, Kevin B; Hudgins, Bernard S

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a novel pattern recognition based myoelectric control system that uses parallel binary classification and class specific thresholds. The system was designed with an intuitive configuration interface, similar to existing conventional myoelectric control systems. The system was assessed quantitatively with a classification error metric and functionally with a clothespin test implemented in a virtual environment. For each case, the proposed system was compared to a state-of-the-art pattern recognition system based on linear discriminant analysis and a conventional myoelectric control scheme with mode switching. These assessments showed that the proposed control system had a higher classification error ( p myoelectric control system ( p myoelectric control system which is robust, easily configured, and highly usable.

  2. A Multiple Core Execution for Multiobjective Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Feature Selection Method with the Kernel P System Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Elkhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane computing is a theoretical model of computation inspired by the structure and functioning of cells. Membrane computing models naturally have parallel structure, and this fact is generally for all variants of membrane computing like kernel P system. Most of the simulations of membrane computing have been done in a serial way on a machine with a central processing unit (CPU. This has neglected the advantage of parallelism in membrane computing. This paper uses multiple cores processing tools in MATLAB as a parallel tool to implement proposed feature selection method based on kernel P system-multiobjective binary particle swarm optimization to identify marker genes for cancer classification. Through this implementation, the proposed feature selection model will involve all the features of a P system including communication rule, division rule, parallelism, and nondeterminism.

  3. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien

    2013-11-01

    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Tristable and multiple bistable activity in complex random binary networks of two-state units

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Simon; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    We study complex networks of stochastic two-state units. Our aim is to model discrete stochastic excitable dynamics with a rest and an excited state. These two states are assumed to possess different waiting time distributions. The rest state is treated as an activation process with an exponentially distributed life time, whereas the latter in the excited state shall have a constant mean which may originate from any distribution. The activation rate of any single unit is determined by its neighbors according to a random complex network structure. In order to treat this problem in an analytical way, we use a heterogeneous mean-field approximation yielding a set of equations general valid for uncorrelated random networks. Based on this derivation we focus on random binary networks where the network is solely comprised of nodes with either of two degrees. The ratio between the two degrees is shown to be a crucial parameter. Dependent on the composition of the network the steady states show the usual transition f...

  5. Optimising threshold levels for information transmission in binary threshold networks: Independent multiplicative noise on each threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bingchang; McDonnell, Mark D.

    2015-02-01

    The problem of optimising the threshold levels in multilevel threshold system subject to multiplicative Gaussian and uniform noise is considered. Similar to previous results for additive noise, we find a bifurcation phenomenon in the optimal threshold values, as the noise intensity changes. This occurs when the number of threshold units is greater than one. We also study the optimal thresholds for combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian noise, and find that all threshold levels need to be identical to optimise the system when the additive noise intensity is a constant. However, this identical value is not equal to the signal mean, unlike the case of additive noise. When the multiplicative noise intensity is instead held constant, the optimal threshold levels are not all identical for small additive noise intensity but are all equal to zero for large additive noise intensity. The model and our results are potentially relevant for sensor network design and understanding neurobiological sensory neurons such as in the peripheral auditory system.

  6. Precise capacity analysis in binary networks with multiple coding level inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Yali; Huang, Yibi

    2010-03-01

    We compute retrieval probabilities as a function of pattern age for networks with binary neurons and synapses updated with the simple Hebbian learning model studied in Amit and Fusi ( 1994 ). The analysis depends on choosing a neural threshold that enables patterns to stabilize in the neural dynamics. In contrast to most earlier work, where selective neurons for each pattern are drawn independently with fixed probability f, here we analyze the situation where f is drawn from some distribution on a range of coding levels. In order to set a workable threshold in this setting, it is necessary to introduce a simple inhibition in the neural dynamics whose magnitude depends on the total activity of the network. Proper choice of the threshold depends on the value of the covariances between the synapses for which we provide an explicit formula. Retrieval probabilities depend on the distribution of the fields induced by a learned pattern. We show that the field induced by the first learned pattern evolves as a Markov chain during subsequent learning epochs, leading to a recursive formula for the distribution. Alternatively, the distribution can be computed using a normal approximation, which involves the value of the synaptic covariances. Capacity is computed as the sum of the retrieval probabilities over all ages. We show through simulation that the chosen threshold enables retrieval with asynchronous dynamics even in the presence of significant noise in the initial state of the pattern. The computed probabilities with both methods are shown to be very close to probabilities estimated from simulation. The analysis is extended to randomly connected networks.

  7. The crucial role of higher order multiplicity in wide binary formation: a case study using the β-Pictoris moving group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The `in situ' formation of very wide binaries is hard to explain as their physical separations are beyond the typical size of a collapsing cloud core (≈5000-10 000 au). Here we investigate the formation process of such systems. We compute population statistics such as the multiplicity fraction, companion-star fraction and physical separation distribution of companions in the β-Pictoris moving group. We compare previous multiplicity studies in younger and older regions and show that the dynamic evolution of a young population with a high degree of primordial multiplicity can lead to a processed separation distribution, similar to the field population. The evolution of outer components is attributed to the dynamical unfolding of higher order (triple) systems; a natural consequence of which is the formation of wide binaries. We find a strong preference for wide systems to contain three or more components (>1000 au: 11/14, 10 000 au: 6 / 7). We argue that the majority of wide binaries identified in young moving groups are primordial. Under the assumption that stellar populations, within our galaxy, have statistically similar primordial multiplicity, we can infer that the paucity of wide binaries in the field is the result of dynamical evolution.

  8. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective: This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design: This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1 skilled antenatal care and (2 skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities. Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results: In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011 and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011. The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions: Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups.

  9. Viscosities and refractive indices of binary systems acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Emila M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosities and refractive indices of three binary systems, acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol, were measured at eight temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, 323.15K and at atmospheric pressure. From these data viscosity deviations and deviations in refractive index were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The viscosity modelling was done by two types of models: predictive UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG VISCO and correlative Teja-Rice and McAlister equations. The refractive indices of binary mixtures were predicted by various mixing rules and compared with experimental data. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  10. Synthesis of multiple-shell WO3 hollow spheres by a binary carbonaceous template route and their applications in visible-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Guangcheng; Yan, Yan; Ma, Qiang; Li, Junfang; Yang, Haifeng; Lu, Xiaojing; Wang, Chao

    2012-10-29

    Hollow go lightly: well-defined multiple-shell WO(3) hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile binary carbonaceous spheres template route. Compared with single-shell WO(3) hollow spheres, the unusual porous multiple-shell structure of the WO(3) hollow spheres proves to greatly enhance photocatalytic activity toward degradation of organic pollutants under visible-light irradiation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of…

  12. Binary star database: binaries discovered in non-optical bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Tessema, Solomon B.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.

    The Binary star Database (BDB) is the world's principal database of binary and multiple systems of all observational types. In particular, it should contain data on binaries discovered in non-optical bands, X-ray binaries (XRBs) and radio pulsars in binaries. The goal of the present study was to compile complete lists of such objects. Due to the lack of a unified identification system for XRBs, we had to select them from five principal catalogues of X-ray sources. After cross-identification and positional cross-matching, a general catalogue of 373 XRBs was constructed for the first time. It contains coordinates, indication of photometric and spectroscopic binarity, and extensive cross-identification. In the preparation of the catalogue, a number of XRB classification disagreements were resolved, some catalogued identifiers and coordinates were corrected, and duplicated entries in the original catalogues were found. We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data.

  13. A Generalized Recursive Algorithm for Binary Multiplication based on Vedic Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ajinkya; Joglekar, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    A generalized algorithm for multiplication is proposed through recursive application of the Nikhilam Sutra from Vedic Mathematics, operating in radix - 2 number system environment suitable for digital platforms. Statistical analysis has been carried out based on the number of recursions profile as a function of the smaller multiplicand. The proposed algorithm is efficient for smaller multiplicands as well, unlike most of the asymptotically fast algorithms. Further, a basic block schematic of Hardware Implementation of our algorithm is suggested to exploit parallelism and speed up the implementation of the algorithm in a multiprocessor environment.

  14. Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners among Vietnamese women: analysis from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Thai Son

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Under current HIV transmission mechanisms operating in Vietnam, women are seen as victims of their male partners. Having multiple sexual partners is one of the well-known risk factors for HIV infection. However, little is known about women's risky sexual behaviour and their vulnerability to HIV in Vietnam. This study aims to explore association between early sexual initiation and the number of lifetime sexual partners in Vietnamese women. Although the Vietnamese culture is socially conservative in this area, identifying women's risky sexual behaviour is important for the protection of women at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Design: A total of 8,791 women, who reported having had sexual intercourse, were included in this analysis of data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Vietnam. Data were collected using two-stage strata sampling, first at the national level and second across six geographical regions (n=8,791. Multivariable logistic regressions describe association between early initiation of a sexual activity and lifetime multiple sexual partners. Results: Early sexual intercourse was significantly associated with having lifetime multiple sexual partners. Women who were aged 19 or younger at first sexual intercourse were over five times more likely to have multiple sexual partners, compared with women whose first sexual intercourse was after marriage; aged 10–14 years (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.9–18.8 at first intercourse; and aged 15–19 years (OR=5.4; 95% CI=4.0–7.2 at first intercourse. There was significant association with having multiple sexual partners for women of lower household wealth and urban residence, but the association with educational attainment was not strong. Conclusions: The study results call for health and education policies to encourage the postponement of early sexual activity in young Vietnamese women as protection against risky sexual behaviour later in life.

  15. Candidates of eclipsing multiples based on extraneous eclipses on binary light curves: KIC 7622486, KIC 7668648, KIC 7670485 and KIC 8938628

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jia; He, Jian-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Four candidates of eclipsing multiples, based on new extraneous eclipses found on Kepler binary light curves, are presented and studied. KIC 7622486 is a double eclipsing binary candidate with orbital period of 2.2799960 days and 40.246503 days. The two binary systems do not eclipse each other in the line of sight, but there is mutual gravitational influence between them which leads to the small but definite eccentricity 0.0035(0.0022) on the short 2.2799960 days period orbit. KIC 7668648 is hierarchical quadruple system candidate, with two sets of solid 203(+-5) days period extraneous eclipses and another independent set of extraneous eclipses. A clear and credible extraneous eclipse is found on the binary light curve of KIC 7670485 which made it a triple system candidates. Two sets of extraneous eclipse of about 390 days and 220 days period are found on KIC 8938628 binary curves, which not only confirms the previous conclusion of $388.5(+-0.3) triple system, but also proposed a new additional objects that m...

  16. UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS's ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner's sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual's risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person's risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.

  17. A survey of the high order multiplicity of nearby solar-type binary stars with Robo-AO

    CERN Document Server

    Riddle, Reed L; Mason, Brian D; Hartkopf, William I; Roberts,, Lewis C; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Das, H K; Dekany, Richard G; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the SDSS $i'$ band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over $10''$ to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their sub-systems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary sub-systems with periods from $10^{3.5}$ to $10^5$ days is 0.12$\\pm$0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of sub-systems in both ...

  18. Multiple time scales in cataclysmic binaries. The low-field magnetic dwarf nova DO Draconis

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, I L; Han, W; Kim, Y; Yoon, J -N

    2008-01-01

    We study the variability of the cataclysmic variable DO Dra, on time-scales of between minutes and decades. The characteristic decay time dt/dm=0.902(3) days/mag was estimated from our 3 nights of CCD R observations. The quiescent data show a photometric wave with a cycle about 303(15)d. We analyzed the profile of the composite (or mean) outburst. We discovered however, that a variety of different outburst heights and durations had occurred, contrary to theoretical predictions. With increasing maximum brightness, we find that the decay time also increases; this is in contrast to the model predictions, which indicate that outbursts should have a constant shape. This is interpreted as representing the presence of outburst-to-outburst variability of the magnetospheric radius. A presence of a number of missed weak narrow outbursts is predicted from this statistical relationship. A new type of variability is detected, during 3 subsequent nights in 2007: periodic (during one nightly run) oscillations with rapidly-d...

  19. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalogue - IV. A 0.61 + 0.45 M_sun binary in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Rozyczka, M; Kaluzny, J; Ratajczak, M; Borkowski, J; Sybilski, P; Muterspaugh, M W; Reichart, D E; Ivarsen, K M; Haislip, J B; Crain, J A; Foster, A C; Nysewander, M C; LaCluyze, A P

    2012-01-01

    We present the orbital and physical parameters of a newly discovered low-mass detached eclipsing binary from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) database: ASAS J011328-3821.1 A - a member of a visual binary system with the secondary component separated by about 1.4 seconds of arc. The radial velocities were calculated from the high-resolution spectra obtained with the 1.9-m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, 3.9-m AAT/UCLES and 3.0-m Shane/HamSpec telescopes/spectrographs on the basis of the TODCOR technique and positions of H_alpha emission lines. For the analysis we used V and I band photometry obtained with the 1.0-m Elizabeth and robotic 0.41-m PROMPT telescopes, supplemented with the publicly available ASAS light curve of the system. We found that ASAS J011328-3821.1 A is composed of two late-type dwarfs having masses of M_1 = 0.612 +/- 0.030 M_sun, M_2 = 0.445 +/- 0.019 M_sun and radii of R_1 = 0.596 +/- 0.020 R_sun, R_2 = 0.445 +/- 0.024 R_sun, both show a substantial level of activity, which manifests in strong H_alp...

  20. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen, Sara Tangmose;

    2016-01-01

    When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical regres...... the need for interval estimation. To illustrate and evaluate the method, Köhler et al. (1995) third molar scores are used to estimate the age in a dataset of 3200 male subjects in the juvenile age range.......When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical...... regression models but becomes less trivial as soon as the number of indicators increases. Each of the age indicators can lead to a different point estimate ("the most plausible value for age") and a prediction interval ("the range of possible values"). The major challenge in the combination of multiple...

  1. A New Measurement Equivalence Technique Based on Latent Class Regression as Compared with Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurement equivalence is an essential prerequisite for making valid comparisons in mental health questionnaires across groups. In most methods used for assessing measurement equivalence, which is known as Differential Item Functioning (DIF), latent variables are assumed to be continuous. Objective: To compare a new method called Latent Class Regression (LCR) designed for discrete latent variable with the multiple indicators multiple cause (MIMIC) as a continuous latent variable technique to assess the measurement equivalence of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which is a cross deferent subgroup of Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 among 771 nurses working in the hospitals of Fars and Bushehr provinces of southern Iran. To identify the Minor Psychiatric Disorders (MPD), the nurses completed self-report GHQ-12 questionnaires and sociodemographic questions. Two uniform-DIF detection methods, LCR and MIMIC, were applied for comparability when the GHQ-12 score was assumed to be discrete and continuous, respectively. Results: The result of fitting LCR with 2 classes indicated that 27.4% of the nurses had MPD. Gender was identified as an influential factor of the level of MPD.LCR and MIMIC agree with detection of DIF and DIF-free items by gender, age, education and marital status in 83.3, 100.0, 91.7 and 83.3% cases, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the GHQ-12 is to a great degree, an invariant measure for the assessment of MPD among nurses. High convergence between the two methods suggests using the LCR approach in cases of discrete latent variable, e.g. GHQ-12 and adequate sample size. PMID:27482129

  2. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  3. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  4. A Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm Based on Sequential Binary Tree%基于有序二叉树的多模式匹配算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佩华; 王永成; 刘功申

    2002-01-01

    By analyzing the multiple pattern matching algorithm based on tree structure, a multiple pattern matching algorithm based on sequential binary tree is proposed in this paper. It is proved by experiment that the algorithm has three features: its constructing process is quick. Its cost of memory is small. At the same time, its searching process is as quickly as the traditional algorithm. The algorithm proposed in this paper is suit for the application whose pattern set is changing dynamically, that is to say, it is suit for the application whose automata must be constructed dynamically. So, the algorithm has a good application prospect.

  5. Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okereke, Emmanuel O.

    2000-09-01

    This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ≤ .05 cut-off level for

  6. Densities, viscosities, refractive indices, and surface tensions for binary and ternary mixtures of 2-propanol, tetrahydropyran, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, Shalu 43301, Taiwan (China); Tu, C.-H., E-mail: chtu@pu.edu.t [Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, Shalu 43301, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Densities, viscosities, refractive indices, and surface tensions of the ternary system (2-propanol + tetrahydropyran + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) at T = 303.15 K and its constituent binary systems (2-propanol + tetrahydropyran, 2-propanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and tetrahydropyran + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) at T = (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15) K were measured at atmospheric pressure. Densities were determined using a vibrating-tube densimeter. Viscosities were measured with an automatic microviscometer based on the rolling-ball principle. Refractive indexes were measured using a digital Abbe-type refractometer. Surface tensions were determined by the Wilhelmy-plate method. From these data, excess molar volumes, deviations in viscosity, deviations in refractive index, and deviations in surface tension were calculated. The results for the binary and ternary systems were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation and the variable-degree polynomials in terms of compositions, respectively. The experimental and calculated quantities are used to study the nature of mixing behaviour between mixture components.

  7. Profile of peroxidative injury and antioxidant indicators in singleton, twins and multiple bearing goats throughout pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Ghani MA; T.M. El-sherry TM; Hayder M; Abou-Khalil NS

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes in profile of the oxidant and antioxidant indicators throughout pregnancy in goats.Methods: Estrus in goats was synchronized using an intravaginal progestogen impregnated sponge and the buck was introduced in the herd during the experiment for breeding purpose. Serum nitric oxide (NO) as standard angiogenic marker, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as a cryoprotectant indicator, total peroxide (TPX) as a pathogenetic effector were measured, followed by calculation of OSI% (TPX/TAC)×100 as a reflector of the oxidant/antioxidant status, andmalondialdhyde were estimated.Results:Compared with values in singleton and twins bearing goats, TAC values in multiple bearing goats were higher in 4thmonth and lower in 5th month (P<0.05). Values of TPX were lower in multiple bearing goats in 4th month and higher in 5th month (P<0.05) when compared with singleton and twins bearing goats.In contrary, NO values started to increase from the 2nd month until 4th month of gestation in all pregnant goats. However, the NO was lower in 5th month (P<0.05) in multiple bearing goats.Values of NO were negatively correlated with OSI % in allbearing goats.Conclusion: Knowing the relationship between the fetal number and oxidative stress indicators could be useful in the clinical management of such pregnancies and could be useful in the early detection or prediction adverse pregnancy outcome. Particularly, the 4th and 5th month of gestation increases the liability to reactive oxygen species in goats.

  8. MEASURED DENSITIES, REFRACTIVE INDICES, EXCESS MOLAR VOLUMES AND DEVIATIONS CALCULATED FROM MOLAR REFRACTION OF THE BINARY MIXTURE OF ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL AND TERNARY MIXTURE ETHANOL + 1-NONANOL + WATER AT 293.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Densities, and refractive indices were measured for the binary system ethanol + 1-nonanol and ternary system ethanol + 1-nonanol + water at 293.15 K. The excess molar volumes, and the deviations molar refraction were calculated for binary and ternary system. Redlich-Kister type equation was fitted to the excess molar volumes and, the deviations from a mole fraction average of the molar refraction, and the values of coefficients were calculated

  9. A Survey of the High Order Multiplicity of Nearby Solar-Type Binary Stars with Robo-AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    the secondary within 10 pixel radius from the image center. For closer (overlapping) binaries we used blind decon- volution, as described by Tokovinin...frame on a bright spike caused by cosmic rays, while the remaining frames were centered correctly. This produced a false satellite that could be

  10. Exploring eclipsing binaries, triples and higher-order multiple star systems with the SuperWASP archive

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E

    2015-01-01

    The Super Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) is a whole-sky high-cadence optical survey which has searched for exoplanetary transit signatures since 2004. Its archive contains long-term light curves for ~30 million 8-15 V magnitude stars, making it a valuable serendipitous resource for variable star research. We have concentrated on the evidence it provides for eclipsing binaries, in particular those exhibiting orbital period variations, and have developed custom tools to measure periods precisely and detect period changes reliably. Amongst our results are: a collection of 143 candidate contact or semi-detached eclipsing binaries near the short-period limit in the main sequence binary period distribution; a probable hierarchical triple exhibiting dramatic sinusoidal period variations; a new doubly-eclipsing quintuple system; and new evidence for period change or stability in 12 post-common-envelope eclipsing binaries, which may support the existence of circumbinary planets in such systems. A large-scal...

  11. Sleep stage classification by body movement index and respiratory interval indices using multiple radar sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masayuki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Suzumura, Kazuki; Matsui, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed sleep has become more common in recent years. To increase the quality of sleep, undergoing sleep observation has gained interest as an attempt to resolve possible problems. In this paper, we evaluate a non-restrictive and non-contact method for classifying real-time sleep stages and report on its potential applications. The proposed system measures body movements and respiratory signals of a sleeping person using a multiple 24-GHz microwave radar placed beneath the mattress. We determined a body-movement index to identify wake and sleep periods, and fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals to identify sleep stages. For identifying wake and sleep periods, the rate agreement between the body-movement index and the reference result using the R&K method was 83.5 ± 6.3%. One-minute standard deviations, one of the fluctuation indices of respiratory intervals, had a high degree of contribution and showed a significant difference across the three sleep stages (REM, LIGHT, and DEEP; p sleep was significant (p sleep periods and to estimate the three sleep stages. The accuracy was 79.3% for classification and 71.9% for estimation. This is a novel system for measuring body movements and body-surface movements that are induced by respiration and for measuring high sensitivity pulse waves using multiple radar signals. This method simplifies measurement of sleep stages and may be employed at nursing care facilities or by the general public to increase sleep quality.

  12. Binary/BCD-to-ASCII data converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Converter inputs multiple precision binary words, converts data to multiple precision binary-coded decimal, and routes data back to computer. Converter base can be readily changed without need for new gate structure for each base changeover.

  13. Massive black hole binaries in gas-rich galaxy mergers; multiple regimes of orbital decay and interplay with gas inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lucio

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of black holes (BHs) in galaxy mergers and circumnuclear discs in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we highlight for the first time the existence of a clear transition, for unequal mass BHs, between the regime in which the orbital decay is dominated by the conventional dynamical friction wake and one in which global disc torques associated with density waves launched by the secondary BH as well as co-orbital torques arising from gas gravitationally captured by the BH dominate and lead to faster decay. The new regime intervenes at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization driven dynamical friction. It bears some resemblance with planet migration in protoplanetary discs. While the orbital timescale is reasonably matched by the migration rate for the Type-I regime, the dominant negative torque arises near the co-rotation resonance, which is qualitatively similar to what is found in the so-called Type-III migration, the fastest migration regime identified so far for planets. This fast decay rate brings the BHs to separations of order 10-1 pc, the resolution limit of our simulations, in less than ˜107 yr in a smooth disc, while the decay timescale can increase to >108 yr in clumpy discs due to gravitational scattering with molecular clouds. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations will slow down the orbital decay subsequently. How fast the binary BH can reach the separation at which gravitational waves take over will be determined by the nature of the interaction with the circumbinary disc and the complex torques exerted the gas flowing through the edge of such disc, the subject of many recent studies. We also present a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for rapid orbital decay of massive BH binaries and those required for prominent

  14. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayzenberg I

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ilya Ayzenberg, Robert Hoepner, Ingo Kleiter Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany Abstract: Fingolimod (FTY720, an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Keywords: immunotherapy, bradycardia, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, neuroprotection, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease 

  15. Evaluation of Multiple Spring Phenological Indicators of Yearly GPP and NEP at Three Canadian Forest Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenological shifts in events such as flowering and bud break are important indicators of ecosystem processes, and are therefore of particular significance for carbon (C cycle research. Using long-term flux data from three contrasting plant functional type (evergreen and deciduous boreal forest sites, we evaluated and compared the responses of annual C fluxes to multiple spring phenological indicators, including the C-uptake period onset (CUP onset, spring temperature (average value from March to May, and satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI (average value from March to May. We found that the CUP onset was negatively correlated with annual gross primary production (GPP for all three sites, but that its predictive strength for annual net ecosystem production (NEP differed substantially among plant functional types. Spring temperature demonstrated particularly good potential for predicting both annual GPP and NEP for the evergreen sites, but not for the deciduous site. Spring EVI was demonstrated to have potential for predicting annual NEP for all sites. However, both plant functional types confounded the correlation of annual NEP with annual GPP. Although none of these phenological indicators provided consistent insight into annual C fluxes, using various currently available datasets our results remain potentially useful for the assessment of forest C cycling with future climate change. Previous analyses using only a single phenological metric should be considered with caution.

  16. Study of Eclipsing Binary and Multiple Systems in OB Associations: I. Ori OB1a - IM Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Bakis, H; Bilir, S; Mikulasek, Z; Zejda, M; Yaz, E; Demircan, O; Bulut, I

    2011-01-01

    All available photometric and spectroscopic observations were collected and used as the basis of a detailed analysis of the close binary IM Mon. The orbital period of the binary was refined to 1.19024249(0.00000014) days. The Roche equipotentials, fractional luminosities (in (B, V) and H_p bands) and fractional radii for the component stars in addition to mass ratio q, inclination i of the orbit and the effective temperature T_eff of the secondary cooler less massive component were obtained by the analysis of light curves. IM Mon is classified to be a detached binary system in contrast to the contact configuration estimations in the literature. The absolute parameters of IM Mon were derived by the simultaneous solutions of light and radial velocity curves as M_1,2=5.50(0.24)M_o and 3.32(0.16)M_o, R1,2=3.15(0.04)R_o and 2.36(0.03)R_o, T_eff1,2=17500(350) K and 14500(550) K implying spectral types of B4 and B6.5 ZAMS stars for the primary and secondary components respectively. The modelling of the high resoluti...

  17. Multiple metal resistant transferable phenotypes in bacteria as indicators of soil contamination with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.P.; Ryan, D.J.; Dowling, D.N. [Dept. of Science and Health, Inst. of Tech. Carlow, Carlow (Ireland)

    2005-07-01

    Environmental contamination by heavy metals affects microbial communities. The number of single and multiple heavy metal resistant bacteria may be an indicator of the level of contamination. This paper details the isolation and characterisation of metal resistant microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere/soil samples obtained from an abandoned zinc, lead and copper mine and a local unaffected site. This data was compared to the level of heavy metal in the soils to establish the effect of metals on the microbial community and to determine the relationship between pollutant levels and resistant strains. This paper outlines the diversity of transferable resistance determinants between both sites and details the levels of heavy metal resistant bacteria and those expressing transferable multiple heavy metal tolerance. Methods. The sample sites were located in Co. Galway, Ireland. The first sample site (site A) was a former lead, zinc and copper mine, which was closed in 1961 due to exhaustion of ore. The second site (site B) was located two and a half kilometres from the mining site and was not affected by the mining operations. Composite soil samples were characterised for general soil matrix composition, organic content, pH and general chemical parameters. The soil was also enumerated for the total viable heterotrophic counts and tested on Pseudomonas selective agar (PSA) for total Pseudomonas counts and Sucrose Asparagine (SA), which is semi-selective for fluorescent Pseudomonas. (orig.)

  18. The Effect of Variability on X-Ray Binary Luminosity Functions: Multiple-epoch Observations of NGC 300 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, B.; Gross, J.; Williams, B. F.; Eracleous, M.; Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Skillman, E. D.

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained three epochs of Chandra ACIS-I observations (totaling ∼184 ks) of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300 to study the logN–logS distributions of its X-ray point-source population down to ∼2 × 10‑15 erg s‑1 cm‑2 in the 0.35–8 keV band (equivalent to ∼1036 erg s‑1). The individual epoch logN–logS distributions are best described as the sum of a background active galactic nucleus (AGN) component, a simple power law, and a broken power law, with the shape of the logN–logS distributions sometimes varying between observations. The simple power law and AGN components produce a good fit for “persistent” sources (i.e., with fluxes that remain constant within a factor of ∼2). The differential power-law index of ∼1.2 and high fluxes suggest that the persistent sources intrinsic to NGC 300 are dominated by Roche-lobe-overflowing low-mass X-ray binaries. The variable X-ray sources are described by a broken power law, with a faint-end power-law index of ∼1.7, a bright-end index of ∼2.8–4.9, and a break flux of ∼ 8× {10}-15 erg s‑1 cm‑2 (∼4 × 1036 erg s‑1), suggesting that they are mostly outbursting, wind-fed high-mass X-ray binaries, although the logN–logS distribution of variable sources likely also contains low-mass X-ray binaries. We generate model logN–logS distributions for synthetic X-ray binaries and constrain the distribution of maximum X-ray fluxes attained during outburst. Our observations suggest that the majority of outbursting X-ray binaries occur at sub-Eddington luminosities, where mass transfer likely occurs through direct wind accretion at ∼1%–3% of the Eddington rate.

  19. Multiple indices method for real-time tsunami inundation forecast using a dense offshore observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N.; Aoi, S.; Hirata, K.; Suzuki, W.; Kunugi, T.; Nakamura, H.

    2015-12-01

    We started to develop a new methodology for real-time tsunami inundation forecast system (Aoi et al., 2015, this meeting) using densely offshore tsunami observations of the Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (S-net), which is under construction along the Japan Trench (Kanazawa et al., 2012, JpGU; Uehira et al., 2015, IUGG). In our method, the most important concept is involving any type and/or form uncertainties in the tsunami forecast, which cannot be dealt with any of standard linear/nonlinear least square approaches. We first prepare a Tsunami Scenario Bank (TSB), which contains offshore tsunami waveforms at the S-net stations and tsunami inundation information calculated from any possible tsunami source. We then quickly select several acceptable tsunami scenarios that can explain offshore observations by using multiple indices and appropriate thresholds, after a tsunami occurrence. At that time, possible tsunami inundations coupled with selected scenarios are forecasted (Yamamoto et al., 2014, AGU). Currently, we define three indices: correlation coefficient and two variance reductions, whose L2-norm part is normalized either by observations or calculations (Suzuki et al., 2015, JpGU; Yamamoto et al., 2015, IUGG). In this study, we construct the TSB, which contains various tsunami source models prepared for the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment in the Japan Trench region (Hirata et al., 2014, AGU). To evaluate the propriety of our method, we adopt the fault model based on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as a pseudo "observation". We also calculate three indices using coastal maximum tsunami height distributions between observation and calculation. We then obtain the correlation between coastal and offshore indices. We notice that the index value of coastal maximum tsunami heights is closer to 1 than the index value of offshore waveforms, i.e., the coastal maximum tsunami height may be predictable within appropriate thresholds defined for

  20. Microlensing Discovery of a Population of Very Tight, Very Low-mass Binary Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, J -Y; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Dominik, M; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Bozza, V; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, K; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Takino, S; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Almeida, L A; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Gorbikov, E; Jablonski, F; Henderson, C B; Hwang, K -H; Janczak, J; Jung, Y -K; Kaspi, S; Lee, C -U; Malamud, U; Maoz, D; McGregor, D; Munoz, J A; Park, B -G; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Browne, P; Burgdorf, M J; Novati, S Calchi; Dodds, P; Fang, X -S; Finet, F; Glitrup, M; Grundahl, F; Gu, S -H; Hardis, S; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Hornstrup, A; Hundertmark, M; Jessen-Hansen, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Maier, G; Mancini, L; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wambsganss, J; Wertz, O; Zimmer, F; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Cassan, A; Cole, A A; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Menzies, J W; Sahu, K C; Zub, M; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the brown-dwarf mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low-mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 Msun and 0.034 Msun, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field brown-dwarf binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that brown dwarf binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of ~0.02 Msun. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of brown-dwarf binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  1. MICROLENSING DISCOVERY OF A POPULATION OF VERY TIGHT, VERY LOW MASS BINARY BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Dominik, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bozza, V. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Chote, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-05-10

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M{sub Sun} and 0.034 M{sub Sun }, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of {approx}0.02 M{sub Sun }. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  2. Elucidating the True Binary Fraction of VLM Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; SAHLMANN, JOHANNES; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagne, Jonathan; Skrzypek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs are found in abundance in nearly all Galactic environments, yet their formation mechanism(s) remain an open question. One means of testing current formation theories is to use multiplicity statistics. The majority of VLM binaries have been discovered through direct imaging, and current angular resolution limits (0.05”-0.1") are coincident with the 1-4 AU peak in the projected separation distribution of known systems, suggesting an observational bias. I have developed a separation-independent method to detect T dwarf companions to late-M/early-L dwarfs by identifying methane absorption in their unresolved, low-resolution, near-infrared spectra using spectral indices and template fitting. Over 60 spectral binary candidates have been identified with this and comparable methods. I discuss follow-up observations, including laser-guide star adaptive optics imaging with Keck/NIRC2, which have confirmed 9 systems; and radial velocity and astrometric monitoring observations that have confirmed 7 others. The direct imaging results indicate a resolved binary fraction of 18%, coincident with current estimates of the VLM binary fraction; however, our sample contained 5 previously confirmed binaries, raising its true binary fraction to 47%. To more accurately measure the true VLM binary fraction, I describe the construction of an unbiased, volume-limited, near-infrared spectral sample of M7-L5 dwarfs within 25 pc, of which 4 (1%) are found to be spectral binary candidates. I model the complex selection biases of this method through a population simulation, set constraints on the true binary fraction as traced by these systems, and compare to the predictions of current formation theories. I also describe how this method may be applied to conduct a separation-unbiased search for giant exoplanets orbiting young VLM stars and brown dwarfs.

  3. Massive Black Hole binaries in gas-rich galaxy mergers; multiple regimes of orbital decay and interplay with gas inflows

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of BHs in galaxy mergers and circunmunclear disks in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we discuss the importance of a fast orbital decay regime dominated by global disk torques rather than by the local dynamical friction wake. This regime can dominate at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization dominated by local dynamical friction. It is similar to Type-I migration in planetary evolution. It can bring the black holes to separations small enough for gravitational waves to take over on a timescale ranging from less than $\\sim 10^7$ yr to up to $10^8$ yr, depending on whether the interstellar medium is smooth or clumpy. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations slows down but does not interrupt the orbital decay.Subsequently, we discuss a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for...

  4. The Effect of Variability on X-Ray Binary Luminosity Functions: Multiple Epoch Observations of NGC 300 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, Breanna; Williams, Benjamin F; Eracleous, Michael; Gaetz, Terrance J; Plucinsky, Paul P; Skillman, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained three epochs of Chandra ACIS-I observations (totaling $\\sim$184 ks) of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC~300 to study the logN-logS distributions of its X-ray point source population down to $\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{-15}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ in the 0.35-8 keV band (equivalent to $\\sim$10$^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$). The individual epoch logN-logS distributions are best described as the sum of a background AGN component, a simple power law, and a broken power law, with the shape of the logN-logS distributions sometimes varying between observations. The simple power law and AGN components produce a good fit for "persistent" sources (i.e., with fluxes that remain constant within a factor of $\\sim$2). The differential power law index of $\\sim$1.2 and high fluxes suggest that the persistent sources intrinsic to NGC~300 are dominated by Roche lobe overflowing low mass X-ray binaries. The variable X-ray sources are described by a broken power law, with a faint-end power law index of $\\sim$1.7, a bright-end index ...

  5. Study of Eclipsing Binary and Multiple Systems in OB Associations IV: Cas OB6 Member DN Cas

    CERN Document Server

    Bakis, V; Bilir, S; Eker, Z

    2016-01-01

    An early-type, massive, short-period ($P_{\\rm orb}=2^{\\rm d}.310951$) eclipsing spectroscopic binary DN Cas has been re-visited with new spectral and photometric data. The masses and radii of the components have been obtained as $M_1=19.04\\pm0.07 M_\\odot$, $M_2=13.73\\pm 0.05M_\\odot$ and $R_1=7.22\\pm0.06 R_\\odot$, $R_2=5.79\\pm0.06R_\\odot$, respectively. Both components present synchronous rotation ($V_{\\rm rot1}=160\\,$km s$^{-1}$, $V_{\\rm rot2}=130\\,$km s$^{-1}$) with their orbit. Orbital period analysis yielded a physically bound additional component in the system with a minimum mass of $M_3=0.88 M_\\odot$ orbiting in an eccentric orbit ($e=0.37\\pm0.2$) with an orbital period of $P_{12}=42\\pm9$ yrs. High precision absolute parameters of the system allowed us to derive a distance to DN Cas as 1.7$\\pm$0.2 kpc which locates the system within the borders of the Cas OB6 association (d=1.8 kpc; Mel'nik & Dambis, 2009). The space velocities and the age of DN Cas are in agreement with those of Cas OB6. The age of ...

  6. ALICE measurements in p–Pb collisions: Charged particle multiplicity, centrality determination and implications for binary scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toia, Alberica, E-mail: alberica.toia@cern.ch [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Measurements of particle production in proton–nucleus collisions provide a reference to disentangle final state effects, i.e. signatures of the formation of a deconfined hot medium, from initial state effects, already present in cold nuclear matter. Since many initial state effects are expected to vary as function of the number of collisions suffered by the incoming proton, it is crucial to estimate the centrality of the collision. In p-Pb collisions categorization of events into different centrality classes using a particle multiplicity distribution is complicated by the low particle multiplicities and the large multiplicity fluctuations. We present ALICE measurements of particle production in p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV, including the pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum dependence, and we discuss the event classification in centrality classes and its implications for the measurements of nuclear modification factors.

  7. ALICE Measurements in p-Pb Collisions: Charged Particle Multiplicity, Centrality Determination and implications for Binary Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Toia, Alberica

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of particle production in proton-nucleus collisions provide a reference to disentangle final state effects, i.e. signatures of the formation of a deconfined hot medium, from initial state effects, already present in cold nuclear matter. Since many initial state effects are expected to vary as a function of the number of collisions suffered by the incoming proton, it is crucial to estimate the centrality of the collision. In p-Pb collisions categorization of events into different centrality classes using a particle multiplicity distribution is complicated by the low particle multiplicities and the large multiplicity fluctuations. We present ALICE measurements of particle production in p-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 5.02$ TeV, including the pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum dependence, we discuss the event classification in centrality classes and its implications for the measurements of nuclear modification factors.

  8. Exploring the Birth of Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    More than half of all stars are thought to be in binary or multiple star systems. But how do these systems form? The misaligned spins of some binary protostars might provide a clue.Two Formation ModelsIts hard to tell how multiple-star systems form, since these systems are difficult to observe in their early stages. But based on numerical simulations, there are two proposed models for the formation of stellar binaries:Turbulent fragmentationTurbulence within a single core leads to multiple dense clumps. These clumps independently collapse to form stars that orbit each other.Disk fragmentationGravitational instabilities in a massive accretion disk cause the formation of a smaller, secondary disk within the first, resulting in two stars that orbit each other.Log column density for one of the authors simulated binary systems, just after the formation of two protostars. Diamonds indicate the protostar positions. [Adapted from Offner et al. 2016]Outflows as CluesHow can we differentiate between these formation mechanisms? Led by Stella Offner (University of Massachusetts), a team of scientists has suggested that the key isto examine the alignment of the stars protostellar outflows jets that are often emitted from the poles of young, newly forming stars.Naively, wed expect that disk fragmentation would produce binary stars with common angular momentum. As the stars spins would be aligned, they would therefore also launch protostellar jets that were aligned with each other. Turbulent fragmentation, on the other hand, would cause the stars to have independent angular momentum. This would lead to randomly oriented spins, so the protostellar jets would be misaligned.Snapshots from the authors simulations. Left panel of each pair: column density; green arrows giveprotostellar spin directions. Right panel: synthetic observations produced from the simulations; cyan arrows giveprotostellar outflow directions. [Offner et al. 2016]Simulations of FragmentationIn order to better

  9. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  10. Vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-Indication for live kidney donation and transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lafranca (Jeffrey); M.V. Bruggen (Mark Van); F.F.P. Kimenai; T.C.K. Tran (Thi C. K.); T. Terkivatan (Türkan); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); J.N.M.I. Jzermans (Jan N. M.I.); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Methods: Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n=951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or othe

  11. ATCA radio detection of MAXI J1535-571 indicates it is a strong black hole X-ray binary candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Tetarenko, A. J.; Jacpot Xrb Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    MAXI J1535-571 is a newly discovered Galactic hard X-ray transient (GCN #21788, ATels #10699, 10700). Following its identification as a potential hard-state low-mass X-ray binary (ATel #10702) and a potential black hole system (ATel #10708), we conducted target of opportunity observations of this source with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA).

  12. A novel gateway-compatible binary vector series (PC-GW) for flexible cloning of multiple genes for genetic transformation of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Yalamanchili, Roopa; La Hovary, Christophe; Ji, Mikyoung; Rodriguez-Welsh, Maria; Aslett, Denise; Ganapathy, Sowmya; Grunden, Amy; Sederoff, Heike; Qu, Rongda

    2015-09-01

    The rapidly advancing field of plant synthetic biology requires transforming plants with multiple genes. This has sparked a growing interest in flexible plant transformation vectors, which can be used for multi-gene transformations. We have developed a novel binary vector series, named the PC-GW series (GenBank: KP826769-KP826773), for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. The PC-GW vectors use the pCAMBIA vector backbone, and contain NPTII, hpt, bar, mCherry or egfp genes as selectable markers for plant transformation. In a modified multiple cloning site (MCS) of the T-DNA region, we have placed the attR1, attR2 and ccdB sequences for rapid cloning of one to four genes by Gateway™-assisted recombination. In addition, we have introduced four meganuclease sites, and other restriction sites for multi-gene vector construction. Finally, we have placed a CaMV 35S promoter and a 35S terminator on the 5' and 3' ends of the MCS. The CaMV 35S promoter is flanked by PstI restriction sites that can be used to replace it with another promoter sequence if needed. The PC-GW vectors provide choices for selectable markers, cloning methods, and can accommodate up to eight gene constructs in a single T-DNA, thereby significantly reducing the number of transformations or crosses needed to generate multi-transgene expressing plants.

  13. Defining, validating, and increasing indices of happiness among people with profound multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C W; Reid, D H

    1996-01-01

    In this study we attempted to operationalize, measure, and increase happiness among people with profound disabilities. Happiness indices were defined and observed among 5 individuals. Validation measures indicated that (a) increases in happiness indices were observed when individuals were presented with most preferred stimuli relative to least preferred stimuli, (b) increases in unhappiness indices were observed when they were presented with least preferred relative to most preferred stimuli, and (c) practitioner ratings of participant happiness coincided with observed indices. Subsequently, classroom staff increased happiness indices through presentation and contingent withdrawal of activities. Results suggested that a behavioral approach can enhance happiness as one aspect of quality of life among people with profound disabilities. Research directions are offered that focus on using a behavioral approach to investigate other private events that are important among people with disabilities. PMID:8881345

  14. Assessment of indices of temperature extremes simulated by multiple CMIP5 models over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Siyan; Xu, Ying; Zhou, Botao; Shi, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Given that climate extremes in China might have serious regional and global consequences, an increasing number of studies are examining temperature extremes in China using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. This paper investigates recent changes in temperature extremes in China using 25 state-of-the-art global climate models participating in CMIP5. Thirteen indices that represent extreme temperature events were chosen and derived by daily maximum and minimum temperatures, including those representing the intensity (absolute indices and threshold indices), duration (duration indices), and frequency (percentile indices) of extreme temperature. The overall performance of each model is summarized by a "portrait" diagram based on relative root-mean-square error, which is the RMSE relative to the median RMSE of all models, revealing the multi-model ensemble simulation to be better than individual model for most indices. Compared with observations, the models are able to capture the main features of the spatial distribution of extreme temperature during 1986-2005. Overall, the CMIP5 models are able to depict the observed indices well, and the spatial structure of the ensemble result is better for threshold indices than frequency indices. The spread amongst the CMIP5 models in different subregions for intensity indices is small and the median CMIP5 is close to observations; however, for the duration and frequency indices there can be wide disagreement regarding the change between models and observations in some regions. The model ensemble also performs well in reproducing the observational trend of temperature extremes. All absolute indices increase over China during 1961-2005.

  15. Development of multiple performance indices and system parameter study for the design of a MEMS accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    For the design of a MEMS accelerometer, proper performance indices should be defined and employed. Performance indices are obtained using either an experimental method or a numerical method. In the present study, a vibration analysis model of a MEMS accelerometer is introduced to calculate three performance indices: sensitivity, measurable acceleration range, and measurable frequency range. The accuracy of the vibration analysis model is first validated by comparing its modal and transient results with those of a commercial finite element code. Measurable acceleration and frequency ranges versus allowable errors for electrical and mechanical sensitivities are obtained and the effects of system parameter variations on the three performance indices are investigated.

  16. An Evaluation of Multiple Single-Case Outcome Indicators Using Convergent Evidence Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Busse, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the consistency of five single-case outcome indicators, used to assess response-to-intervention data from a pilot Tier 2 reading intervention that was implemented at an elementary school. Using convergent evidence scaling, the indicators were converted onto a common interpretive scale for each case…

  17. Testing congruence among multiple grazing indicators: a multi-site study across the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Lehnert, Lukas; Holzapfel, Maika; Schultz, Roland; Heberling, Gwendolyn; Görzen, Eugen; Meyer, Hanna; Seeber, Elke; Pinkert, Stefan; Ritz, Markus; Ansorge, Hermann; Bendix, Jörg; Seifert, Bernhard; Miehe, Georg; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Yongping; Wesche, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Aim Animal husbandry is one of the most widespread land use types, and grazing is a key topic in grassland management. A wide range of indicators are employed in grazing assessments and they often yield widely differing estimates on the associated level of degradation threat. Covering Tibet as a large grassland region with long history of pastoralism, we selected representative indicators to test: (1) how grazing responses change along large-scale climatic gradients, and (2) whether their responses to both grazing intensities and local abiotic conditions are congruent. Location Tibetan Plateau Methods Biotic indicators including species and growth form compositions of vascular plants, richness and abundance of small mammals and ants, together with soil nutrients and field spectra were compared in pairs of high and low grazing intensity at 18 sites across large climatic gradients. Altitude, temperature, and precipitation were considered as potentially influential abiotic factors. Responses of indicators to grazing intensity and environmental gradients were explored by multivariate and univariate analyses. Results All indicators responded strongly to environmental changes, but the response patterns and the most influential abiotic factors varied among indicators. Grazing responses showed low overall congruence. Only vegetation cover, soil nutrient concentrations, and spectral indices were sensitive to grazing across large spatial scales. Grazing effects were significant only when local abiotic factors were taken into account. Main conclusions The results imply that grazing assessments require both appropriate indicators and local calibration. Overall, the threat of grassland degradation across the Tibetan Plateau is not as severe as is commonly assumed.

  18. Excess molar volumes and refractive indices of (methoxybenzene+benzene, or toluene, or o-xylene, or m-xylene, or p-xylene, or mesitylene) binary mixtures between T=(288.15 to 303.15)K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kandary, Jasem A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)]. E-mail: jalkandary@yahoo.com; Al-Jimaz, Adel S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait); Abdul-Latif, Abdul-Haq M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2006-11-15

    Densities {rho} and refractive indices n{sub D} for (anisole+benzene, or toluene, or o-xylene, or m-xylene or p-xylene or mesitylene) binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fraction, at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15)K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured. The excess molar volume V{sup E} and molar refraction deviation {delta}R{sub m}, have been calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial relation to estimate the binary coefficients and standard errors. The excess molar volumes are positive for (anisole+mesitylene) binary mixtures and negative for (anisole+benzene, or toluene, or xylene isomers) binary mixtures at various temperatures. Partial molar volumes V-bar {sub i} and partial excess molar volumes V-bar {sub i}{sup E} have been also derived from the experimental data. The calculated values have been used to explain the dependency of intermolecular interaction between the mixing components on the alkyl substitution on benzene ring.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum multiple infections in Mozambique, its relation to other malariological indices and to prospective risk of malaria morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Alfredo; Saute, Francisco; Aponte, John J; Almeda, Jesús; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Dgedge, Martinho; Alonso, Pedro L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum clones infecting individuals living in a rural area of southern Mozambique and analyse the relationship between multiplicity of infection, age and other malariometric indices, including prospective risk of clinical malaria. The genotyping was based on the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) analysis of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2). We analysed 826 samples collected during five cross-sectional surveys from residents of Manhiça ranging in age from 4 months to 83 years. We also determined the multiplicity of infection in samples obtained from 6-month-old infants (n = 79) and children <10 years (n = 158) who were then treated and followed prospectively for 1 year or 75 weeks, respectively. Multiplicity of infection did not vary significantly during the first year of life, but increased thereafter, and decreased during adulthood to the levels found in infants. With increasing multiplicity of infection, there was a statistically significant decrease in the risk of submicroscopic infections. There was also a significant correlation between multiplicity of infection and parasite density in infants, children <4 years of age and adults, suggesting that high densities increase the probability of discriminating more clones in complex infections. We found that the relationship between multiple infections and malaria morbidity is age-dependent. In infants, the risk of subsequent episodes of clinical malaria was related to the parasite density but not to baseline multiplicity of infection. In older children, however, the more clones a child carried, the more likely they were to have a clinical malaria episode, and this was true after adjusting for parasite densities. This change in the association between multiplicity and risk of clinical malaria may indicate a shift in the host response to P. falciparum.

  20. Joint model of multiple longitudinal measures and a binary outcome: An application to predict orthostatic hypertension for subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chiuan He; Tseng, Yi-Kuan; Chang, Yeu-Jhy

    2015-07-01

    Stroke patients with orthostatic hypertensive responses that are one of the blood pressure regulation problems can easily fall down while doing rehabilitation, which may result in prolonged hospitalization and delayed treatment and recovery. This may result in increasing the medical cost and burden. In turn, developing a diagnostic test for the orthostatic hypertension (OH) is clinically important for patients who are suffering from stroke. Clinically, a patient needs to have a tilt testing that requires measuring the change of blood pressures and heart rate at all angles to determine whether a stroke patient has OH. It takes lots of time and effort to perform the test. Assuming there exist measurement errors when obtaining the blood pressures and heart rate at all angles, this paper proposes using multiple mixed-effect models to obtain the true trajectories of these measurements, which take into account the measurement error and the possible correlation among multiple measurements, and a logistic regression uses these true trajectories at a given time and other fixed-effect covariates as predictors to predict the status of OH. The joint likelihood function is derived to estimate parameters and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve is used to estimate the predictive power of the model. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methods. Also, the proposed model is implemented in the real data and provides an acceptable predictive power. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Use of Multivariate Relevance Vector Machines in forecasting multiple geomagnetic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, T.; Andriyas, S.

    2017-02-01

    The forecasting ability of Multivariate Relevance Vector Machines (MVRVM), used previously to generate forecasts for the Dst index, is extended to forecast the Dst, AL, and PC indices during the years 1975-2007. Such learning machines are used in forecasting because of their robustness, efficiency, and sparseness. The MVRVM model was trained on solar wind and geomagnetic activity data sampled every hour with activity periods of various intensities, durations, and features. It was found that during the training phase, for a given error threshold, 14.60% of the training data was needed to explain the features of the data. The trained model was then tested on 177 different storm intervals, at various levels of geomagnetic activity, to generate simultaneous forecasts of the three indices at a lead time of one hour (1-h). The focus of the modeling was to assess the forecasts during main storm (MS) time periods when the indices show enhanced activity above quiet time values. The forecasts obtained by the MVRVM model reported in this paper returned a MS time average prediction efficiency, PE bar of 82.42%, 84.40%, and 76.00% and RMSE bar of 13.70 nT, 97.00 nT, and -0.77 mV/m, for the Dst, AL, and PC indices, respectively. The qualitative numbers indicated that the model underestimated the peak amplitude of the indices during the geomagnetic activity, but the peaks were forecasted on time by the model, on average. The forecasting results indicate a robust model generalization and the MVRVM's ability to learn the input-output relationship through a sparse model framework. A qualitative comparison with the previous univariate RVM forecast of Dst indicates that the model goodness of fit numbers improved in the present study.

  2. Early indicators of enduring symptoms in high school athletes with multiple previous concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Covassin, Tracey; Karpf, Robin

    2011-06-01

    Despite recent findings of cognitive, emotional, physical, and behavioral symptomatology in retired professional athletes with a history of multiple concussions, there is little systematic research examining these symptoms in high school athletes with a history of concussion. To identify cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms at baseline in nonconcussed high school athletes based on concussion history. A multicenter sample of 616 high school athletes who completed baseline evaluations were assigned to groups based on history of concussion (none, 1, 2, or more previous concussions). The Post-Concussion Symptom Scale was administered as part of a computerized neuropsychological test battery during athletes' preseason baseline evaluations. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine symptoms reported at the time of baseline neuropsychological testing. High school athletes with a history of 2 or more concussions showed significantly higher ratings of concussion-related symptoms (cognitive, physical, sleep difficulties) than athletes with a history of one or no previous concussions. It appears that youth athletes who sustain multiple concussions experience a variety of subtle effects, which may be possible precursors of the future onset of concussion-related difficulties. Copyright © 2011 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. A Comparative Study of Multiple Object Detection Using Haar-Like Feature Selection and Local Binary Patterns in Several Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhail Guennouni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Object detection has been attracting much interest due to the wide spectrum of applications that use it. It has been driven by an increasing processing power available in software and hardware platforms. In this work we present a developed application for multiple objects detection based on OpenCV libraries. The complexity-related aspects that were considered in the object detection using cascade classifier are described. Furthermore, we discuss the profiling and porting of the application into an embedded platform and compare the results with those obtained on traditional platforms. The proposed application deals with real-time systems implementation and the results give a metric able to select where the cases of object detection applications may be more complex and where it may be simpler.

  4. Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Dotti, M.; /Insubria U., Como; Mayer, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-19

    If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.

  5. A consistent picture of the hydroclimatic response to global warming from multiple indices: Models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Raffaele, F.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze trends of six daily precipitation-based and physically interconnected hydroclimatic indices in an ensemble of historical and 21st century climate projections under forcing from increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)8.5), along with gridded (land only) observations for the late decades of the twentieth century. The indices include metrics of intensity (SDII) and extremes (R95) of precipitation, dry (DSL), and wet spell length, the hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and a newly introduced index of precipitation area (PA). All the indices in both the 21st century and historical simulations provide a consistent picture of a predominant shift toward a hydroclimatic regime of more intense, shorter, less frequent, and less widespread precipitation events in response to GHG-induced global warming. The trends are larger and more spatially consistent over tropical than extratropical regions, pointing to the importance of tropical convection in regulating this response, and show substantial regional spatial variability. Observed trends in the indices analyzed are qualitatively and consistently in line with the simulated ones, at least at the global and full tropical scale, further supporting the robustness of the identified prevailing hydroclimatic responses. The HY-INT, PA, and R95 indices show the most consistent response to global warming, and thus offer the most promising tools for formal hydroclimatic model validation and detection/attribution studies. The physical mechanism underlying this response and some of the applications of our results are also discussed.

  6. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  7. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  8. Comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple data sets over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Dutra, E.; Barbosa, P.; Pappenberger, F.; Wetterhall, F.; Vogt, J. V.

    2014-05-01

    Drought monitoring is a key component to mitigate impacts of droughts. Lack of reliable and up-to-date precipitation data sets is a common challenge across the globe. This study investigates different data sets and drought indicators on their capability to improve drought monitoring in Africa. The study was performed for four river basins located in different climatic regions (the Oum er-Rbia in Morocco, the Blue Nile in eastern Africa, the Upper Niger in western Africa, and the Limpopo in southeastern Africa) as well as the Greater Horn of Africa. The five precipitation data sets compared are the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite monthly rainfall product 3B-43, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded precipitation data set, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses, and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation. The set of drought indicators used includes the Standardized Precipitation Index, the Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index, and Soil Moisture Anomalies. A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a good agreement in the timing of the rainy seasons. The main differences between the data sets are in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas affected by drought, all the drought indicators agree on the time of drought onset and recovery although there is disagreement on the extent of the affected area. In regions with limited rain gauge data the estimation of the different drought indicators is characterized by a higher uncertainty. Further comparison suggests that the main source of differences in the computation of the drought indicators is the uncertainty in the precipitation data sets rather than the estimation of the distribution parameters of the drought indicators.

  9. Multiple criteria group decision making method based on binary connection number aggregation operators%基于二元联系数集结算子的多准则群决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪新凡; 王坚强; 杨恶恶

    2013-01-01

    定义了二元联系数的加性运算法则,给出了几种新的算术集结算子,即二元联系数加权算术平均(BCNWAA)算子、二元联系数有序加权平均(BCNOWA)算子和二元联系数混合集结(BCNHA)算子,提出了一种基于二元联系数的准则权重信息不完全确定的群决策方法。该方法利用BCNWAA算子和BCNHA算子对二元联系数准则值进行集结;利用二元联系数准则值的方差和准则权重的随机性,通过构建优化模型确定最优准则权重。最后,通过实例分析表明了该方法的可行性和有效性。%Some additive operational laws of binary connection numbers are defined, and several new arithmetic aggregation operators, such as the binary connection number weighted arithmetic averaging(BCNWAA) operator, the binary connection number ordered weighted averaging(BCNOWA) operator and the binary connection number hybrid aggregation(BCNHA) operator, are proposed. Then an approach is developed for solving multiple criterion group decision making based on binary connection numbers with incomplete uncertain information. In this method, binary connection number criterion values are aggregated using the BCNWAA operator and the BCNHA operator, some optimal models are constructed to determine the optimal criterion weights using the variance of binary connection number criterion values and the randomness of criterion weights. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed method.

  10. Profile of peroxidative injury and antioxidant indicators in singleton, twins and multiple bearing goats throughout pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdel-Ghani

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Knowing the relationship between the fetal number and oxidative stress indicators could be useful in the clinical management of such pregnancies and could be useful in the early detection or prediction adverse pregnancy outcome. Particularly, the 4th and 5th month of gestation increases the liability to reactive oxygen species in goats.

  11. Nitrogen detection with hyperspectral normalized ratio indices across multiple plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Mutanga, O.

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of recent studies relating vegetation leaf chemistry with remotely sensed data is the prediction of chlorophyll and nitrogen content using indices based on a combination of bands from the red and infrared wavelengths. The use of high spectral resolution data offers the opportunity to

  12. Jet multiplicity in the proto-binary system NGC1333-IRAS4A. The detailed CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI view

    CERN Document Server

    Santangelo, G; Cabrit, S; Maury, A J; Gueth, F; Maret, S; Lefloch, B; Belloche, A; André, Ph; Hennebelle, P; Anderl, S; Podio, L; Testi, L

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the paucity of sub-arcsecond (sub)mm observations required to probe the innermost regions of newly forming protostars, several fundamental questions are still being debated, such as the existence and coevality of close multiple systems. We study the physical and chemical properties of the jets and protostellar sources in the NGC1333-IRAS4A proto-binary system using continuum emission and molecular tracers of shocked gas. We observed NGC1333-IRAS4A in the SiO(6-5), SO(6_5-5_4), and CO(2-1) lines and the continuum emission at 1.3, 1.4, and 3 mm using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the framework of the CALYPSO large program. We clearly disentangle for the first time the outflow emission from the two sources A1 and A2. The two protostellar jets have very different properties: the A1 jet is faster, has a short dynamical timescale (<10^3 yr), and is associated with H2 shocked emission, whereas the A2 jet, which dominates the large-scale emission, is associated with diffuse emission, bends, a...

  13. Non-ergodicity transition and multiple glasses in binary mixtures: on the accuracy of the input static structure in the mode coupling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchangnwa Nya, F; Ayadim, A; Germain, Ph; Amokrane, S

    2012-08-15

    We examine the question of the accuracy of the static correlation functions used as input in the mode coupling theory (MCT) of non-ergodic states in binary mixtures. We first consider hard-sphere mixtures and compute the static pair structure from the Ornstein-Zernike equations with the Percus-Yevick closure and more accurate ones that use bridge functions deduced from Rosenfeld's fundamental measures functional. The corresponding MCT predictions for the non-ergodicity lines and the transitions between multiple glassy states are determined from the long-time limit of the density autocorrelation functions. We find that while the non-ergodicity transition line is not very sensitive to the input static structure, up to diameter ratios D(2)/D(1) = 10, quantitative differences exist for the transitions between different glasses. The discrepancies with the more accurate closures become even qualitative for sufficiently asymmetric mixtures. They are correlated with the incorrect behavior of the PY structure at high size asymmetry. From the example of ultra-soft potential it is argued that this issue is of general relevance beyond the hard-sphere model.

  14. Development of Vulnerability Indicators for Deltaic Social-Ecological Systems Facing Multiple Environmental and Anthropogenic Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Hagenlocher, M.; Haas, S.; Renaud, F.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas are low-lying coastal areas that form where rivers flow into the ocean. Hosting dense populations, featuring rich biodiversity and being hot spots of both agricultural and industrial production, they are considered of great economic and ecological importance. Long-term sustainability of deltas is increasingly under threat due to the consequences of natural and man-made hazards, including large-scale human interventions such as dam construction and extraction of underground resources. Understanding prevailing vulnerabilities in these deltaic systems is becoming increasingly important for the development of spatially-targeted adaptation options at the sub-delta scale (coastal regions, floodplains etc.) which is imperative for the sustainability and in some cases even for the survival of deltaic social-ecological systems (SES). We developed an inclusive SES-centered framework for vulnerability assessments, allowing for different sets of vulnerability indicators to be identified which can then be combined for deltas globally in a modular way. The modular structure allows being responsive to the specific multi-hazard settings of a given delta SES while also considering the interactions between the hazards in one given location. It therefore represents a departure from the usual fixed set of indicators used in existing vulnerability assessments. We present (1) the methods applied for indicator development, including local stakeholder consultations and a systematic literature review, as well as (2) the resulting modular set of indicators to be used in future spatially explicit vulnerability assessments. The approach aims to provide a ʾblueprintʿ for delta vulnerability assessments worldwide. Due to its modular structure it fosters both transferability and reproducibility. This work is part of a global project on 'Catalyzing action towards sustainability of deltaic systems (DELTAS)' funded by the Belmont Forum and the 2015 Sustainable Deltas Initiative, endorsed

  15. Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Mark; Erdmann, Georgia; Schulz, Garvin; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Domes, Katja

    2009-09-22

    Frequent convergent evolution in phylogenetically unrelated taxa points to the importance of ecological factors during evolution, whereas convergent evolution in closely related taxa indicates the importance of favourable pre-existing characters (pre-adaptations). We investigated the transitions to arboreal life in oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari), a group of mostly soil-living arthropods. We evaluated which general force-ecological factors, historical constraints or chance-was dominant in the evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites. A phylogenetic study of 51 oribatid mite species and four outgroup taxa, using the ribosomal 18S rDNA region, indicates that arboreal life evolved at least 15 times independently. Arboreal oribatid mite species are not randomly distributed in the phylogenetic tree, but are concentrated among strongly sclerotized, sexual and evolutionary younger taxa. They convergently evolved a capitate sensillus, an anemoreceptor that either precludes overstimulation in the exposed bark habitat or functions as a gravity receptor. Sexual reproduction and strong sclerotization were important pre-adaptations for colonizing the bark of trees that facilitated the exploitation of living resources (e.g. lichens) and served as predator defence, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that ecological factors are most important for the observed pattern of convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites, supporting an adaptationist view of evolution.

  16. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73% to 87%) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most unique variance to reading comprehension at all grade levels. In addition, we fit a multiple group 4-factor MIMIC model to investigate the relative stability (or variability) of the predictor contributions to reading comprehension across development (i.e., grade levels). The results revealed that the contributions of verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory to reading comprehension were stable across the three grade levels. Decoding was the only predictor that could not be constrained to be equal across grade levels. The contribution of decoding skills to reading comprehension was higher in third grade and then remained relatively stable between seventh and tenth grade. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using MIMIC models to explain individual differences in reading comprehension across the development of reading skills. PMID:25821346

  17. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  18. Inter-comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple precipitation datasets in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Dutra, Emanuel; Barbosa, Paulo; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of implementing different drought indicators to improve drought monitoring capabilities at continental scale. Several global and continental datasets based on re-analysis, gridded observation, and remote sensing data were tested. At regional level the capabilities of each indicator and dataset on five regions on the African continent (Oum er-rbia, Blue Nile, Upper Niger, Limpopo and the Great Horn of Africa) were compared. The five precipitation datasets used were the ERA - Interim reanalysis (0.5°x0.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite monthly rainfall product 3B43 (0.25°x0.25° resolution from 1998 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded precipitation dataset V.5 (1°x1° resolution from 1901 to 2010), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses (2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010), and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP, 2.5°x2.5° resolution from 1979 to 2010). The set of indicators proposed included Standardized Precipitation index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI), Standardized Run-off index (SRI), Soil Moisture Anomalies (SMA). A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a general agreement in the timing of the peaks including the Great Horn of Africa where there are two rainy seasons. The main differences are observed thus in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas that are under drought, all the datasets agree with the certain time of onset and recovery but there are sometimes disagreements on the area affected. The agreement between datasets depends on the threshold selected to define the drought conditions. The comparison between SPI estimations suggest that the main sources of uncertainties (due by lack of ground information

  19. Evaluation of the impact of alveolar nitrogen excretion on indices derived from multiple breath nitrogen washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF. Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. METHODS: A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC and lung clearance index (LCI measurements. RESULTS: Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8% in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%, and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6-13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24-49%. CONCLUSIONS: Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen.

  20. Biomarkers Indicative of Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Waubant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption is one of the hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS. It is incompletely understood whether BBB disruption is the initial MS event leading to MS lesion formation or whether it is merely a consequence of cellular infiltration in the central nervous system (CNS. The presence of gadolinium enhancing (Gd+ lesions on serial brain MRI scans is frequently used to evaluate BBB disruption. The presence of Gd enhancement has therefore been used as a reference for most works evaluating promising biomarkers of BBB disruption that are reviewed here. These promising biomarkers include cytokines and chemokines, and their receptors, cell surface markers, and matrix metalloproteinases and their natural inhibitors. At this time, none of these markers have been shown as sensitive as the presence of Gd enhancement to reflect BBB disruption. However, MRI scanning is not only unpractical and expensive; it may also under represent the overall extent of BBB disruption. Developing new MS biomarkers that are sensitive and specific for BBB disruption could 1 improve the monitoring of disease activity; 2 improve the monitoring of response to MS therapies which target BBB disruption; and 3 advance our understanding of dynamic MS processes participating in BBB disruption.

  1. Derivation of Relationships between Spectral Vegetation Indices from Multiple Sensors Based on Vegetation Isolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Obata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An analytical form of relationship between spectral vegetation indices (VI is derived in the context of cross calibration and translation of vegetation index products from different sensors. The derivation has been carried out based on vegetation isoline equations that relate two reflectance values observed at different wavelength ranges often represented by spectral band passes. The derivation was first introduced and explained conceptually by assuming a general functional form for VI model equation. This process is universal by which two VIs of different sensors and/or different model equations can be related conceptually. The general process was then applied to the actual case of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from two sensors in a framework of inter-sensor continuity. The derivation results indicate that the NDVI from one sensor can be approximated by a rational function of NDVI from the other sensor as a parameter. Similar result was obtained for the case of soil adjusted VI, enhanced VI, and two-band variance of enhanced VI.

  2. The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes on Escherichia coli: multiple indicators of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Tu Thi Anh; McEvoy, John, E-mail: john.mcevoy@ndsu.edu; Khan, Eakalak [North Dakota State University, Environmental and Conservation Sciences Program (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was investigated using four indicators of viability: enzyme activity, membrane integrity, plate count, and total RNA. The study examined the effects of SWCNT concentration (5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 μg/ml), SWCNT length (0.5–2 and 5–30 μm), and bacterial density (6.5 log{sub 10} CFU and 9 log{sub 10} CFU per treatment) on E. coli ATCC 8739 viability. Results show that anti-bacterial activity is dependent on both the length and concentration of SWCNTs. Long SWCNTs (5–30 µm) were more toxic for E. coli than short SWCNTs (0.5–2 µm). The susceptibility of E. coli to SWCNTs was dependent on the initial density of cells in the treatment, with cells at the higher density being more resistant. Estimates of viability reductions were generally similar for the four assays examined; however, the beta galactosidase and LIVE/DEAD assays were more conservative than the plate count as indicators of viability reductions.

  3. Evidencing the association between swimming capacities and performance indicators in water polo: a multiple regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontic, Dean; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz

    2017-06-01

    Swimming capacities are hypothesized to be important determinants of water polo performance but there is an evident lack of studies examining different swimming capacities in relation to specific offensive and defensive performance variables in this sport. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between five swimming capacities and six performance determinants in water polo. The sample comprised 79 high-level youth water polo players (all males, 17-18 years of age). The variables included six performance-related variables (agility in offence and defense, efficacy in offence and defense, polyvalence in offence and defense), and five swimming-capacity tests (water polo sprint test [15 m], swimming sprint test [25 m], short-distance [100 m], aerobic endurance [400 m] and an anaerobic lactate endurance test [4× 50 m]). First, multiple regressions were calculated for one-half of the sample of subjects which were then validated with the remaining half of the sample. The 25-m swim was not included in the regression analyses due to the multicollinearity with other predictors. The originally calculated regression models were validated for defensive agility (R=0.67 and R=0.55 for the original regression calculation and validation subsample, respectively) offensive agility (R=0.59 and R=0.61), and offensive efficacy (R=0.64 and R=0.58). Anaerobic lactate endurance is a significant predictor of offensive and defensive agility, while 15 m sprint significantly contributes to offensive efficacy. Swimming capacities are not found to be related to the polyvalence of the players. The most superior offensive performance can be expected from those players with a high level of anaerobic lactate endurance and advanced sprinting capacity, while anaerobic lactate endurance is recognized as most important quality in defensive duties. Future studies should observe players' polyvalence in relation to (theoretical) knowledge of technical and tactical tasks. Results reinforce

  4. Suicidality and divalproex sodium: analysis of controlled studies in multiple indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Xenia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses of antiepileptic drugs have indicated an increase in the risk of suicidality. The objective of this report was to provide clinical information and an independent meta-analysis of divalproex sodium and suicidality events by analyzing data from 13 placebo-controlled studies and 1 low-dose controlled study. Methods Adverse events considered to be possibly suicide related were identified using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA methodology. Indications included epilepsy, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, impulsive aggression, and dementia. Narratives were produced for every event, and suicidality event ratings were performed by a third party blinded to treatment assignment. Statistical analyses were conducted using methodology similar to that reported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Results Suicidality events were identified in 5 of the 13 placebo-controlled studies. Of the 1,327 (0.83% subjects taking divalproex sodium, 11 had suicidality events: 2 suicide attempts and 9 suicidal ideation. Of 992 (0.91% subjects taking placebo, 9 had suicidality events: 1 preparatory act toward suicide, 2 suicide attempts, and 6 suicidal ideation. Across placebo-controlled studies, the overall estimated odds ratio (OR of suicidal behavior or ideation was 0.72 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.84. The OR for suicidal behavior was 0.37 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.58, and the OR for suicidal ideation was 0.90 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.79. Conclusions In this meta-analysis, divalproex sodium does not appear to increase the risk of suicide-related adverse events relative to placebo in the populations studied. Clinicians should nonetheless remain vigilant in assessing suicidality, not only in patients treated for mental disorders with inherently high suicide risk, but also in patients taking antiepileptic medications.

  5. Accurate discrimination of conserved coding and non-coding regions through multiple indicators of evolutionary dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservation of sequences between related genomes has long been recognised as an indication of functional significance and recognition of sequence homology is one of the principal approaches used in the annotation of newly sequenced genomes. In the context of recent findings that the number non-coding transcripts in higher organisms is likely to be much higher than previously imagined, discrimination between conserved coding and non-coding sequences is a topic of considerable interest. Additionally, it should be considered desirable to discriminate between coding and non-coding conserved sequences without recourse to the use of sequence similarity searches of protein databases as such approaches exclude the identification of novel conserved proteins without characterized homologs and may be influenced by the presence in databases of sequences which are erroneously annotated as coding. Results Here we present a machine learning-based approach for the discrimination of conserved coding sequences. Our method calculates various statistics related to the evolutionary dynamics of two aligned sequences. These features are considered by a Support Vector Machine which designates the alignment coding or non-coding with an associated probability score. Conclusion We show that our approach is both sensitive and accurate with respect to comparable methods and illustrate several situations in which it may be applied, including the identification of conserved coding regions in genome sequences and the discrimination of coding from non-coding cDNA sequences.

  6. Evaluation of daily precipitation indices over North America in multiple datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Gachon, Philippe; Scinocca, John; Laprise, René

    2015-04-01

    The study presents a regional analysis and evaluation of simulations from two Canadian regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5 developed respectively at EC-CCCma and UQAM/ESCER, participating in the CORDEX-North America experiment. The focus is on the models' skill in simulating daily precipitation indices with respect to several sets of gridded observations. The Canadian RCMs are also compared against four reanalyses and six other RCMs that take part to the NARCCAP program. The different configurations of Canadian RCM simulations allow also to evaluate the respective effects of different spatial resolutions, driving fields and nudging procedures on the simulated fields. Results show that, for the winter season, the 0.44 degree CanRCM4 and CRCM5 reproduce quite accurately the cumulative total amount of precipitation, as well as the occurrence of wet days and the 90th, 95th and 99th percentiles of daily precipitation. The increase in resolution is associated with an increase in precipitation of high intensity, while the use of interior spectral nudging or different driving fields influences the dry spells' occurrence, especially over Mexico and central US.

  7. A pair of mouse KRAB zinc finger proteins modulates multiple indicators of female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher J; Robins, Diane M

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are the largest class of transcriptional regulators in mammals, yet few have been assigned biological roles. Cloning the genes underlying the regulator of sex-limitation (rsl) phenotype, in which the normally male-specific sex-limited protein (SLP) is expressed in female mice, identified two KRAB-ZFPs, Rsl1 and Rsl2, as influencing sexually dimorphic liver gene expression. Combined absence of both repressors in rsl mice leads to increased expression in female liver of major urinary proteins (MUPs) and certain enzymes of steroid metabolism, as well as SLP. We hypothesized that this altered gene expression might affect reproductive physiology in rsl females. Urinary MUP (uMUP) concentration varied with the estrous cycle in both wt and rsl females but was consistently higher in rsl urine. A behavioral odor test revealed that wild-type (wt) males preferred rsl to wt females, possibly due to elevated uMUPs providing greater pheromone presentation. To ascribe activity to Rsl1, Rsl2, or both, the genes were individually expressed as liver-specific transgenes. RSL2 overexpression accentuated uMUP fluctuations across the estrous cycle, whereas RSL1 overexpression did not. In addition, puberty onset, as indicated by vaginal opening (VO), occurred 2 days earlier in rsl females, and excess RSL2, but not RSL1, restored VO timing to wt. Hence, transcriptional repression by RSL in liver modifies female mouse reproduction via targets that likely impact both hormonal and pheromonal cues. The large and rapidly diversifying KRAB-ZFP family may modulate biological processes, including reproduction, to confer individual differences that may isolate populations and ultimately lead to speciation.

  8. Enclave Compositions Indicate Multiple Felsic Components at Chaos Crags, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E. R.; Hammersley, L. C.; Clynne, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Chaos Crags, located in Lassen Volcanic National Park, is a series of 6 rhyodacite domes that exhibit dramatic evidence of magma mixing. Mafic enclaves from the Chaos Crags form two distinct textural groups: a finer-grained group containing abundant plagioclase crystals from the host rhyodacite, and a coarser-grained group generally lacking host phenocrysts. Enclave samples were collected from Dome B of the Chaos Crags with the intent of obtaining complete suites of the two textural groups. Geochemical data for the enclaves shows a weak correlation between texture and geochemistry. Notably, the geochemical data also shows two distinct chemical trends that appear to represent mixing with two different felsic components. The dominant trend shows mixing between the host rhyodacite and the mafic end member. The second trend is interpreted to result from mixing between the mafic end member and a cryptic felsic component that is distinct from the host rhyodacite. Modeling of major oxides, selected trace elements and rare earth elements suggests that, although the two clusters of enclaves mix towards different felsic end members, they appear start from the same mafic end member, which has a composition of approximately: SiO2 51.84%, CaO 10.45%, K2O 0.69%, P2O5 0.10%, MgO 5.35%, Na2O 2.8%, FeO 8.25%, Fe2O3 1.84%, Al2O3 19.47% and TiO2 0.76%, a composition common in the Lassen region. Preliminary modeling results indicate that, at 75% SiO2, the cryptic felsic component has a composition of: K2O 5.25%, P2O5 1.2%, Na2O 8.25%, Al2O3 14.65%, Fe2O3 0.18%, FeO 0.88% and TiO2 1.46%, with negligible amounts of CaO and MgO. At 70% SiO2 this composition is approximately: K2O 4.3%, P2O5 0.95%, Na2O 7.05%, Al2O3 15.66%, TiO2 1.31%, FeO 2.51% and Fe2O3 0.55% with negligible amounts of CaO and MgO. It is likely that this previously unrecognized mixing trend represents crustal contamination of the mafic end member. A suite of samples with compositions intermediate between these two trends

  9. Health-related quality of life and functional status quality indicators for older persons with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Sydney M; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Salive, Marcel E; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Review. Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  10. Analyzing Latent State-Trait and Multiple-Indicator Latent Growth Curve Models as Multilevel Structural Equation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eGeiser

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latent state-trait (LST and latent growth curve (LGC models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1 a large number of time points, (2 individually-varying times of observation, (3 unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4 incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person using the software Mplus (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012 and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models.

  11. Quantification of carotid artery plaque stability with multiple region of interest based ultrasound strain indices and relationship with cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. H.; Varghese, T.; Mitchell, C. C.; Jackson, D. C.; Wilbrand, S. M.; Hermann, B. P.; Dempsey, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability and instability in carotid artery plaque has been assessed based on strain variations using noninvasive ultrasound imaging. We previously demonstrated that carotid plaques with higher strain indices in a region of interest (ROI) correlated to patients with lower cognition, probably due to cerebrovascular emboli arising from these unstable plaques. This work attempts to characterize the strain distribution throughout the entire plaque region instead of being restricted to a single localized ROI. Multiple ROIs are selected within the entire plaque region, based on thresholds determined by the maximum and average strains in the entire plaque, enabling generation of additional relevant strain indices. Ultrasound strain imaging of carotid plaques, was performed on 60 human patients using an 18L6 transducer coupled to a Siemens Acuson S2000 system to acquire radiofrequency data over several cardiac cycles. Patients also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests under a protocol based on National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network guidelines. Correlation of strain indices with composite cognitive index of executive function revealed a negative association relating high strain to poor cognition. Patients grouped into high and low cognition groups were then classified using these additional strain indices. One of our newer indices, namely the average L  -  1 norm with plaque (AL1NWP) presented with significantly improved correlation with executive function when compared to our previously reported maximum accumulated strain indices. An optimal combination of three of the new indices generated classifiers of patient cognition with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.880, 0.921 and 0.905 for all (n  =  60), symptomatic (n  =  33) and asymptomatic patients (n  =  27) whereas classifiers using maximum accumulated strain indices alone provided AUC values of 0.817, 0.815 and 0

  12. Multiple Applications of Alamar Blue as an Indicator of Metabolic Function and Cellular Health in Cell Viability Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sephra N. Rampersad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the adverse effects of test compounds on living systems, detection of toxic thresholds, and expansion of experimental data sets to include multiple toxicity end-point analysis are required for any robust screening regime. Alamar Blue is an important redox indicator that is used to evaluate metabolic function and cellular health. The Alamar Blue bioassay has been utilized over the past 50 years to assess cell viability and cytotoxicity in a range of biological and environmental systems and in a number of cell types including bacteria, yeast, fungi, protozoa and cultured mammalian and piscine cells. It offers several advantages over other metabolic indicators and other cytotoxicity assays. However, as with any bioassay, suitability must be determined for each application and cell model. This review seeks to highlight many of the important considerations involved in assay use and design in addition to the potential pitfalls.

  13. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  14. Residue arithmetic in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barsi, Ferruccio

    1988-01-01

    A natural approach to the problem of performing mod m computations in a binary system is presented and a solution is suggested which is based upon a straightforward relation between the residues of a same integer X with respect to different moduli. The proposed solution proves fruitful in various applications, such as converting binary integers to residue notation and mod m addition or multiplication. Even if the most usual implementation approach for mod m processors is based on look-up tabl...

  15. The incidence of binaries in Globular Cluster stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Lucatello, S; Gratton, R; Vesperini, E; D'Orazi, V; Carretta, E; Bragaglia, A

    2015-01-01

    Binary fraction and orbital characteristics provide indications on the conditions of star formation, as they shed light on the environment they were born in. Multiple systems are more common in low density environments rather than in higher density ones. In the current debate about the formation of Globular Clusters and their multiple populations, studying the binary incidence in the populations they host offers a crucial piece of information on the environment of their birth and their subsequent dynamical evolution. Through a multi-year observational campaign using FLAMES at VLT, we monitored the radial velocity of 968 Red-Giant Branch stars located around the half-light radii in a sample of 10 Galactic Globular Clusters. We found a total of 21 radial velocity variables identified as {\\it bona fide} binary stars, for a binary fraction of 2.2%$\\pm$0.5%. When separating the sample into first generation and second generation stars, we find a binary fraction of 4.9%$\\pm$1.3% and 1.2%$\\pm$0.4% respectively. Throu...

  16. Temporal variation (seasonal and interannual) of vegetation indices of maize and soybeans across multiple years in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Remotely sensed reflectance parameters from corn and soybean surfaces can be correlated to crop production. Surface reflectance of a typical Upper Midwest corn /soybean region in central Iowa across multiple years reveal subtle dynamics in vegetative surface response to a continually varying climate. From 2006 through 2014 remotely sensed data have been acquired over production fields of corn and soybeans in central IA, U.S.A. with the fields alternating between corn and soybeans. The data have been acquired using ground-based radiometers with 16 wavebands covering the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared wavebands and combined into a series of vegetative indices. These data were collected on clear days with the goal of collecting data at a minimum of once per week from prior to planting until after fall tillage operations. Within each field, five sites were established and sampled during the year to reduce spatial variation and allow for an assessment of changes in the vegetative indices throughout the growing season. Ancillary data collected for each crop included the phenological stage at each sampling date along with biomass sampled at the onset of the reproductive stage and at physiological maturity. Evaluation of the vegetative indices for the different years revealed that patterns were related to weather effects on corn and soybean growth. Remote sensing provides a method to evaluate changes within and among growing seasons to assess crop growth and development as affected by differences in weather variability.

  17. Evaluation of efficacy and indications of surgical fixation for multiple rib fractures: a propensity-score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Nishimura, T; Takesada, H; Morioka, T; Hagawa, N; Yamamoto, T; Kaga, S; Terada, T; Shinyama, N; Yamamoto, H; Mizobata, Y

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of recent surgical rib fixation and establish its indications not only for flail chest but also for multiple rib fractures. Between 2007 and 2015, 187 patients were diagnosed as having multiple rib fractures in our institution. After the propensity score matching was performed, ten patients who had performed surgical rib fixation and ten patients who had treated with non-operative management were included. Categorical variables were analyzed with Fischer's exact test and non-parametric numerical data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for comparison of pre- and postoperative variables. All statistical data are presented as median (25-75 % interquartile range [IQR]) or number. The surgically treated patients extubated significantly earlier than non-operative management patients (5.5 [1-8] vs 9 [7-12] days: p = 0.019). The duration of continuous intravenous narcotic agents infusion days (4.5 [3-6] vs 12 [9-14] days: p = 0.002) and the duration of intensive care unit stay (6.5 [3-9] vs 12 [8-14] days: p = 0.008) were also significantly shorter in surgically treated patients. Under the same ventilating conditions, the postoperative values of tidal volume and respiratory rate improved significantly compared to those values measured just before the surgery. The incidence of pneumonia as a complication was significantly higher in non-operative management group (p = 0.05). From the viewpoints of early respiratory stabilization and intensive care unit disposition without any complications, surgical rib fixation is a sufficiently acceptable procedure not only for flail chest but also for repair of severe multiple rib fractures.

  18. Vertical Profiles of the 3-D Wind Velocity Retrieved from Multiple Wind Lidars Performing Triple Range-Height-Indicator Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, Mithu; Iungo, G. Valerio; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-02-06

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  19. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  20. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  1. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011 describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results: There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5 to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60

  2. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    15,894 at 100 Myr (∼8%). The total binary fraction among freefloating BDs is 0.43, higher than indicated by current observations, which, however, are still incomplete. Also, the gradual breakup of higher-order multiples leads to many more singles, thus lowering the binary fraction. The main threat to newly born triple systems is internal instabilities, not external perturbations. At 1 Myr there are 1325 BD binaries still bound to a star, corresponding to 0.66% of the simulations, but only 253 (0.13%) are stable on timescales >100 Myr. These simulations indicate that dynamical interactions in newborn triple systems of stellar embryos embedded in and accreting from a cloud core naturally form a population of freefloating BD binaries, and this mechanism may constitute a significant pathway for the formation of BD binaries.

  3. Massive binary stars and self-enrichment of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzard, R. G.; de Mink, S. E.; Pols, O. R.; Langer, N.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.

    ~Globular clusters contain many stars with surface abundance patterns indicating contributions from hydrogen burning products, as seen in the anti-correlated elemental abundances of e.g. sodium and oxygen, and magnesium and aluminium. Multiple generations of stars can explain this phenomenon, with the second generation forming from a mixture of pristine gas and ejecta from the first generation. We show that massive binary stars may be a source of much of the material that makes this second generation of stars. Mass transfer in binaries is often non-conservative and the ejected matter moves slowly enough that it can remain inside a globular cluster and remain available for subsequent star formation. Recent studies show that there are more short-period massive binaries than previously thought, hence also more stars that interact and eject nuclear-processed material.

  4. Massive Binary Stars and Self-Enrichment of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Izzard, Robert G; Pols, Onno R; Langer, Norbert; Sana, Hugues; de Koter, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters contain many stars with surface abundance patterns indicating contributions from hydrogen burning products, as seen in the anti-correlated elemental abundances of e.g. sodium and oxygen, and magnesium and aluminium. Multiple generations of stars can explain this phenomenon, with the second generation forming from a mixture of pristine gas and ejecta from the first generation. We show that massive binary stars may be a source of much of the material that makes this second generation of stars. Mass transfer in binaries is often non-conservative and the ejected matter moves slowly enough that it can remain inside a globular cluster and remain available for subsequent star formation. Recent studies show that there are more short-period massive binaries than previously thought, hence also more stars that interact and eject nuclear-processed material.

  5. Startle potentiation to uncertain threat as a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology: An examination across multiple internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Lieberman, Lynne; Shankman, Stewart A; Phan, K Luan

    2017-01-01

    Heightened reactivity to uncertain threat (U-threat) is an important individual difference factor that may characterize fear-based internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) and distinguish them from distress/misery IPs. To date, however, the majority of existing research examining reactivity to U-threat has been within individuals with panic disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) and no prior study has directly tested this hypothesis across multiple IPs. The current study therefore explored whether heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology across 5 groups: current (a) social anxiety disorder (SAD); (b) specific phobia (SP); (c) generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); (d) MDD; and (c) individuals with no history of psychopathology (controls). All 160 adults completed a well-validated threat-of-shock task designed to probe responses to predictable (P-) and U-threat. Startle eyeblink potentiation was recorded as an index of aversive arousal. Results indicated that individuals with SAD and SP evidenced greater startle potentiation to U-threat, but not P-threat, relative to individuals with GAD, MDD, and controls (who did not differ). The current findings, along with the prior panic disorder and MDD literature, suggest that heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based disorders and could represent a neurobiological organizing principle for internalizing psychopathology. The findings also suggest that individuals with fear disorders generally display a hypersensitivity to uncertain aversive events, which could contribute to their psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. QSRR Study of GC Retention Indices of Volatile Compounds Emitted from Mosla chinensis Maxim by Multiple Linear Regression%QSRR Study of GC Retention Indices of Volatile Compounds Emitted from Mosla chinensis Maxim by Multiple Linear Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧; 李祖光; 陈小珍

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds emitted from Mosla chinensis Maxim were analyzed by headspace solid-phase micro- extraction (HS-SPME) and headspace liquid-phase microextraction (HS-LPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main volatiles from Mosla chinensis Maxim were studied in this paper. It can be seen that 61 compounds were separated and identified. Forty-nine volatile compounds were identified by SPME method, mainly including myrcene, a-terpinene, p-cymene, (E)-ocimene, thymol, thymol acetate and (E)-fl-farnesene. Forty-five major volatile compounds were identified by LPME method, including a-thujene, a-pinene, camphene, butanoic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester, myrcene, butanoic acid, butyl ester, a-terpinene, p-cymene, (E)-ocimene, butane, 1,1-dibutoxy-, thymol, thymol acetate and (E)-fl-farnesene. After analyzing the volatile compounds, multiple linear regression (MLR) method was used for building the regression model. Then the quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) model was validated by predictive-ability test. The prediction results were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results demonstrated that headspace SPME-GC-MS and LPME-GC-MS are the simple, rapid and easy sample enrichment technique suitable for analysis of volatile compounds. This investigation provided an effective method for predicting the retention indices of new compounds even in the absence of the standard candidates.

  7. Different patterns of white matter degeneration using multiple diffusion indices and volumetric data in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sousa Alves

    Full Text Available Alzheimeŕs disease (AD represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM. In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia.

  8. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kien Gia; Lee, Jong-Koo; Nam, You-Seon; Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (psoap and water at handwashing sites should be increased and practical teaching programs should be deployed in order to increase handwashing rates.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis with multiple markers indicates repeated loss of the adult medusa stage in Campanulariidae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Boero, Ferdinando; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2006-03-01

    The Campanulariidae is a group of leptomedusan hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) that exhibit a diverse array of life cycles ranging from species with a free medusa stage to those with a reduced or absent medusa stage. Perhaps the best-known member of the taxon is Obelia which is often used as a textbook model of hydrozoan life history. However, Obelia medusae have several unique features leading to a hypothesis that Obelia arose, in a saltational fashion, from an ancestor that lacked a medusa, possibly representing an example of a rare evolutionary reversal. To address the evolution of adult sexual stages in Campanulariidae, a molecular phylogenetic approach was employed using two nuclear (18S rDNA and calmodulin) and two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) genes. Prior to the main analysis, we conducted a preliminary analysis of leptomedusan taxa which suggests that Campanulariidae as presently considered needs to be redefined. Campanulariid analyses are consistent with morphological understanding in that three major clades are recovered. However, several recognized genera are not monophyletic calling into question some "diagnostic" features. Furthermore, ancestral states were reconstructed using parsimony, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate possible evolutionary transitions in life-history stages. The results indicate that life-cycle transitions have occurred multiple times, and that Obelia might be derived from an ancestor with Clytia-like features.

  10. Extent of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Nepal: Further Analysis of Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Pragya; Kunwar, Ritu; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Karki, Surendra

    2017-02-08

    Water sources classified as "improved" may not necessarily provide safe drinking water for householders. We analyzed data from Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 to explore the extent of fecal contamination of household drinking water. Fecal contamination was detected in 81.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.9-84.2) household drinking water from improved sources and 89.6% (95% CI: 80.4-94.7) in water samples from unimproved sources. In adjusted analysis, there was no difference in odds of fecal contamination of household drinking water between improved and unimproved sources. We observed significantly lower odds of fecal contamination of drinking water in households in higher wealth quintiles, where soap and water were available for handwashing and in households employing water treatment. The extent of contamination of drinking water as observed in this study highlights the huge amount of effort required to ensure the provision of safely managed water in Nepal by 2030 as aimed in sustainable development goals.

  11. Multiple indicators of ambient and personal ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, D Michal; Kimlin, Michael G; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Alexander, Bruce H; Linet, Martha S

    2010-12-02

    Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that ultraviolet radiation (UV) may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but few, if any, have assessed multiple indicators of ambient and personal UV exposure. Using the US Radiologic Technologists study, we examined the association between NHL and self-reported time outdoors in summer, as well as average year-round and seasonal ambient exposures based on satellite estimates for different age periods, and sun susceptibility in participants who had responded to two questionnaires (1994-1998, 2003-2005) and who were cancer-free as of the earlier questionnaire. Using unconditional logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for 64,103 participants with 137 NHL cases. Self-reported time outdoors in summer was unrelated to risk. Lower risk was somewhat related to higher average year-round and winter ambient exposure for the period closest in time, and prior to, diagnosis (ages 20-39). Relative to 1.0 for the lowest quartile of average year-round ambient UV, the estimated OR for successively higher quartiles was 0.68 (0.42-1.10); 0.82 (0.52-1.29); and 0.64 (0.40-1.03), p-trend=0.06), for this age period. The lower NHL risk associated with higher year-round average and winter ambient UV provides modest additional support for a protective relationship between UV and NHL.

  12. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iulian Iancu,* Nimrod Pick,* Orit Seener-Lorsh, Pinhas Dannon Be’er Ya’akov Mental Health Center, affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel *These authors share first authorship of this paper Background: While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years with schizophrenia (n=16 or schizoaffective disorder (n=4 who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised.Results: Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment. We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant.Conclusion: C/M-ECT is safe and effective for

  13. Binary multiple stearic acid/lauric acid phase change material%硬脂酸-月桂酸二元复合相变材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 相恒学; 徐德增; 王倩倩

    2012-01-01

    With stearic acid (SA), lauric acid (LA) as raw materials, the binary of fatty acids phase change materials were prepared by melt blending. Phase change temperature and latent heat of the SA/SA PCM were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The structure, crystalline morphology, and thermal insulation properties of the SA/LA PCM were investigated using fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FTIR), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), and temperature-recording instrument. The FTIR and POM results showed that SA and LA was combininged by intermolecular forces, and SA/LA PCM was formed eutectic structure, moreover, the radius of crystal reduced with decrement of the SA/LA ratio. The DSC results indicated that SA/LA PCM had high latent heat storage capacity of more than 200 J/g. With the reducing SA/LA ratio, crystallization temperature reduced first and then increased, showing the performance characteristics of eutectic mixture. Cooling curves of SA/LA PCM showed that with the reducing SA/LA ratio, the platform temperature reduced first and then increased, and when the SA/LA was equal to 1/2, the temperature platform appeared at 30. 9 ℃ , the soaking time was continued for about 25 min twice as long as that of pure SA or LA.%以硬脂酸(SA)、月桂酸(LA)为原料,通过熔融共混法制备了二元脂肪酸相变材料.采用红外光谱(FTIR)、偏光显微镜(POM)、差示扫描量热仪(DSC)及温度记录仪分别表征了共混相变材料的结构、结晶形态、相变温度和焓值以及保温性能.FTIR表明共混相变材料中硬脂酸与月桂酸通过分子间作用力结合在一起;POM表明SA与LA在共混物中形成共晶结构,且随SA/LA质量配比的减小,结晶半径减小;DSC表明共混相变材料的结晶焓达到200 J/g,随SA/LA质量配比的减小结晶温度先降低后升高,表现出低共熔物特征;步冷曲线表明,随SA/LA质量配比的减小,平台温度先降低后

  14. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazutaka; Hodgkin, Marian Ellen

    2017-01-01

    School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the ‘tipping point’ school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls’ school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15–17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls’ dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl’s marriage so as to reduce girls’ school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups. PMID:28727793

  15. Somatic mutation spectrum in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance indicates a less complex genomic landscape compared to multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulasova, Aneta; Wardell, Christopher P; Murison, Alexander; Boyle, Eileen M; Jackson, Graham H; Smetana, Jan; Kufova, Zuzana; Pour, Ludek; Sandecka, Viera; Almasi, Martina; Vsianska, Pavla; Gregora, Evzen; Kuglik, Petr; Hajek, Roman; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J; Walker, Brian A

    2017-05-26

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant precursor of multiple myeloma with a 1% risk of progression per year. Although targeted analyses have shown the presence of specific genetic abnormalities such as IGH translocations, RB1 deletion, 1q gain, hyperdiploidy or RAS genes mutations, little is known about the molecular mechanism of malignant transformation. We have performed whole exome sequencing together with CGH+SNP array analysis in 33 flow-cytometry separated abnormal plasma cell samples from MGUS patients to describe somatic gene mutations and chromosome changes at the genome-wide level. Non-synonymous mutations and copy-number alterations were present in 97.0% and in 60.6% of cases, respectively. Importantly, the number of somatic mutations was significantly lower in MGUS compared to myeloma (P < 10-4) and we identified six genes that were significantly mutated in myeloma (KRAS, NRAS, DIS3, HIST1H1E, EGR1 and LTB) within the MGUS dataset. We also found a positive correlation with increasing chromosome changes and somatic gene mutations. IGH translocations were present in 27.3% of cases comprising t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) or t(14;20) and were present in a similar frequency to myeloma, consistent with the primary lesion hypothesis. MYC translocations and TP53 deletions or mutations were not detected in MGUS samples indicating they may be drivers of progression to myeloma. Data from this study show that MGUS is genetically similar to myeloma, however overall genetic abnormalities are present at significantly lower levels compared to myeloma. Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  16. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Duy Kien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective: This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design: Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results: Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions: Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition.

  17. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition.

  18. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition. PMID:26950558

  19. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  20. Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...

  1. The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

  2. The Binary Garrote

    CERN Document Server

    Kappen, H J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I present a new model and solution method for sparse regression. The model introduces binary selector variables $s_i$ for the features $i$ in a way that is similar to Breiman's Garrote model. I refer to this method as the binary Garrote (BG). The posterior probability for $s_i$ is computed in the variational approximation. The BG is compared numerically with the Lasso method and with ridge regression. Numerical results on synthetic data show that the BG yields more accurate predictions and more accurately reconstructs the true model than the other methods. The naive implementation of the BG requires the inversion of a modified covariance matrix which scales cubic in the number of features. We indicate how for sparse problem the solution can be computed linear in the number of features.

  3. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Gia To

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Objective: Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Design: Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Results: Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (p<0.05. Those having access to an improved sanitation facility were more likely to practise handwashing [odds ratio (OR=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.37–2.09, p<0.001], as were those with access to improved water sources (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.37–2.21, p<0.001. Conclusions: Households with low education, low wealth, belonging to ethnic minorities, and with low access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources should be targeted for interventions implementing handwashing

  4. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zeis, T.

    2015-04-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate–glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1β signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1β and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others

  5. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual commun...... of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals....

  6. Long-Term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara; Millsap, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally bereaved children and adolescents over a 6-year period. Method: Participants were 244 youths (ages 8-16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had…

  7. Measurement with multiple indicators and psychophysical scaling in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Saris, W.E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the theory of reasoned action of Fishbein and Ajzen. The measurements were done using two category scales and two psychophysical scales. No consistent difference in results was found between the four modalities. However, if the latter were used as multiple in

  8. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely…

  9. Rotationally-Driven Fragmentation for the Formation of the Binary Protostellar System L1551 IRS 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Jeremy; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Either bulk rotation or local turbulence is widely invoked to drive fragmentation in collapsing cores so as to produce multiple star systems. Even when the two mechanisms predict different manners in which the stellar spins and orbits are aligned, subsequent internal or external interactions can drive multiple systems towards or away from alignment thus masking their formation process. Here, we demonstrate that the geometrical and dynamical relationship between the binary system and its surrounding bulk envelope provide the crucial distinction between fragmentation models. We find that the circumstellar disks of the binary protostellar system L1551 IRS 5 are closely parallel not just with each other but also with their surrounding flattened envelope. Measurements of the relative proper motion of the binary components spanning nearly 30 yr indicate an orbital motion in the same sense as the envelope rotation. Eliminating orbital solutions whereby the circumstellar disks would be tidally truncated to sizes smal...

  10. SpeX spectroscopy of unresolved very low mass binaries. II. Identification of 14 candidate binaries with late-M/early-L and T dwarf components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Gelino, Christopher R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Schmidt, Sarah J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Cruz, Kelle [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 104 The Green, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Metchev, Stanimir, E-mail: daniella@physics.ucsd.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  11. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

    2002-01-01

    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  12. Massive black hole binary mergers in dynamical galactic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GWs from massive black hole (MBH) binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar timing arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GWs from MBH binaries (MBHBs), have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBHs and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations (`Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disc. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1}} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6 - significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHBs driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual active galactic nuclei to constrain binary evolution.

  13. The VLA Nascent Disk And Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Perseus Protostars. Resolving the Sub-Arcsecond Binary System in NGC 1333 IRAS2A

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, John J; Looney, Leslie W; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chandler, Claire J; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Sadavoy, Sarah I; Melis, Carl; Harris, Robert J; Perez, Laura M; Kratter, Kaitlin; Jorgensen, Jes K; Plunkett, Adele L; Hull, Charles L H

    2014-01-01

    We are conducting a Jansky VLA Ka-band (8 mm and 1 cm) and C-band (4 cm and 6.4 cm) survey of all known protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud, providing resolution down to $\\sim$0.06'' and $\\sim$0.35" in Ka-band and C-band, respectively. Here we present first results from this survey that enable us to examine the source NGC 1333 IRAS2A in unprecedented detail and resolve it into a proto-binary system separated by 0.621"$\\pm$0.006" ($\\sim$143 AU) at 8 mm, 1 cm, and 4 cm. These 2 sources (IRAS2A VLA1 and VLA2) are likely driving the two orthogonal outflows known to originate from IRAS2A. The brighter source IRAS2A VLA1 is extended perpendicular to its outflow in the VLA data, with a deconvolved size of 0.055" ($\\sim$13 AU), possibly tracing a protostellar disk. The recently reported candidate companions (IRAS2A MM2 and MM3) are not detected in either our VLA data, CARMA 1.3 mm data, or SMA 850 $\\mu$m data. SMA CO ($J=3\\rightarrow2$), CARMA CO ($J=2\\rightarrow1$), and lower resolution CARMA CO ($J=1\\rightarr...

  14. Binary Planetary Nebulae Nuclei towards the Galactic Bulge. I. Sample Discovery, Period Distribution and Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Udalski, A

    2009-01-01

    Binarity has been hypothesised to play an important, if not ubiquitous, role in the formation of planetary nebulae (PNe). Yet there remains a severe paucity of known binary central stars required to test the binary hypothesis and to place strong constraints on the physics of the common-envelope (CE) phase of binary stellar evolution. Large photometric surveys offer an unrivalled opportunity to efficiently discover many binary central stars. We have combined photometry from the OGLE microlensing survey with the largest sample of PNe towards the Galactic Bulge to systematically search for new binaries. A total of 21 periodic binaries were found thereby more than doubling the known sample. The orbital period distribution was found to be best described by CE population synthesis models when no correlation between primary and secondary masses is assumed for the initial mass ratio distribution. A comparison with post-CE white dwarf binaries indicates both distributions are representative of the true post-CE period ...

  15. Analysis of the Difficulty and Discrimination Indices of Multiple-Choice Questions According to Cognitive Levels in an Open and Distance Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçdar, Serpil; Karadag, Nejdet; Sahin, Murat Dogan

    2016-01-01

    This is a descriptive study which intends to determine whether the difficulty and discrimination indices of the multiple-choice questions show differences according to cognitive levels of the Bloom's Taxonomy, which are used in the exams of the courses in a business administration bachelor's degree program offered through open and distance…

  16. Indicators in time, space and multiple domains: lessons from applying an integrated assessment tool for agricultural systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.J.C.; Andersen, E.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In Integrated Assessment and Modelling (IAM) quantitative simulation models are frequently used to compute indicators on several dimensions of sustainability. These quantitative simulation models can be derived from different disciplines and formalisms and can operate on different temporal and

  17. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...

  18. Reflection of the Multiplicity of Possible Problem Solutions as an Indicator of Metasubject Learning Outcomes in Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilenkova L.N.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of experimental studies of the tasks design aimed at modeling the whole-part relation in the narrative picture content as the current diagnostic of metasubjective competencies. Subjects were offered diagnostic tasks on reflection of multiplicity of possible solutions of a problem. The sample consisted of 168 students of grades I-III of two Moscow secondary schools. The diagnostic capabilities of the designed tasks were tested in a forming experiment. Materials for training sessions were assignments based on interpreting the actions of the characters in the picture story in form of mathematical models of arithmetic. The tasks used in the forming experiment differed in their content from the diagnostic tasks. According to one of the techniques, the results of the experimental group students significantly improved. On this basis, we conclude that the proposed diagnostic task can be used to assess the ability of primary school students to realize the multiplicity of possible solutions to the problem. In another technique, they scored poorly, including the assessment after the training classes. This is due to a lack of formation of the concept of zero in students, that is necessary for successful completion of the assignment. We conclude that metasubjective competences are closely related to the subjects, since the lack of subject knowledge makes it difficult to perform tasks of metasubjective nature. Teachers can use this kind of diagnostic tasks in the real learning process as the current diagnostic of metasubjective competencies.

  19. The new Wolf-Rayet binary system WR62a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Barbá, R. H.

    2013-04-01

    Context. A significant number of the Wolf-Rayet stars seem to be binary or multiple systems, but the nature of many of them is still unknown. Dedicated monitoring of WR stars favours the discovery of new systems. Aims: We explore the possibility that WR62a is a binary system. Methods: We analysed the spectra of WR62a, obtained between 2002 and 2010, to look for radial-velocity and spectral variations that would suggest there is a binary component. We searched for periodicities in the measured radial velocities and determined orbital solutions. A period search was also performed on the "All-Sky Automated Survey" photometry. Results: We find that WR62a is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a WN5 primary star and an O 5.5-6 type secondary component in orbit with a period of 9.1447 d. The minimum masses range between 21 and 23 M⊙ for the WN star and between 39 and 42 M⊙ for the O-type star, thus indicating that the WN star is less massive than the O-type component. We detect a phase shift in the radial-velocity curve of the He ii λ4686 emission line relative to the other emission line curves. The equivalent width of this emission line shows a minimum value when the WN star passes in front of the system. The analysis of the ASAS photometry confirms the spectroscopic periodicity, presenting a minimum at the same phase.

  20. The new Wolf-Rayet binary system WR62a

    CERN Document Server

    Collado, A; Barbá, R H

    2013-01-01

    Context. A significant number of the Wolf-Rayet stars seem to be binary or multiple systems, but the nature of many of them is still unknown. Dedicated monitoring of WR stars favours the discovery of new systems. Aims. We explore the possibility that WR62a is a binary system. Methods. We analysed the spectra of WR62a, obtained between 2002 and 2010, to look for radial-velocity and spectral variations that would suggest there is a binary component. We searched for periodicities in the measured radial velocities and determined orbital solutions. A period search was also performed on the "All-Sky Automated Survey" photometry. Results. We find that WR62a is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a WN5 primary star and an O 5.5-6 type secondary component in orbit with a period of 9.1447 d. The minimum masses range between 21 and 23 Mo for the WN star and between 39 and 42 Mo for the O-type star, thus indicating that the WN star is less massive than the O-type component. We detect a phase shift in the radial-velo...

  1. The importance of determining surgical indications in cases of lung cancer and interstitial pneumonia with multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakajima

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The greatest problem in treating pulmonary cancer complicated with interstitial pneumonia is acute exacerbation, wherein, in the absence of any surgical indications, alternative treatment is limited. Thus, contra-indicating surgery for a patient due to a diagnosis of metastasis within the lungs, based only on nodule images, should be avoided. If nodules are noted in the area of the pleura, the possibility exists that these could be intrapulmonary lymph nodes, along with metastasis within the lung, and thoracoscopic surgery should be implemented proactively while keeping these in mind.

  2. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García-Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient’s fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment. TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

  3. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  4. Using multiple indices to evaluate scenarios for the remediation of contaminated land: the Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critto, Andrea; Agostini, Paola

    2009-09-01

    The management of contaminated sites requires the investigation of different involved aspects (from socioeconomic to risk and technological issues) and the presentation of useful and condensed information to decision makers. For this purpose, indices are more and more recognized as effective and valuable tools. This paper presents specific indices created within the DEcision Support sYstem for REhabilitation of contaminated sites (DESYRE). DESYRE is a software which aids decision making for the rehabilitation of a large contaminated site (i.e., megasite) by the creation and comparison of different rehabilitation alternatives. The software is composed of six modules, each dealing with a specific aspect of the remediation process, ending with the decision module. In this module, scenarios (i.e., suitable solutions for the rehabilitation of the contaminated site including selected land use, socioeconomic benefits, remediation costs, time span, environmental impacts, technology set/s, and residual risk) are created and evaluated by means of suitable indices. Nine indices cover the socioeconomic, risk, technological, cost, time, and environmental impact aspects. Mathematical algorithms are used to calculate these indices by taking into account data collected during the analytical steps of the DESYRE system and elaborated through the support of the spatial analysis, which is embedded in the system. The case study of Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy is presented in order to document the effectiveness of developed indices in evaluating management solutions and presenting options to decision makers. For the purpose of this study, three different scenarios for the remediation of a part of the site of Porto Marghera (approximately 530 ha) are developed and compared. The three scenarios consider the industrial land use and deal with the contamination in soil caused by inorganic and organic compounds. The scenarios mainly differ for the number of the included remediation

  5. Quantifying Multiple Work-Related Psychosocial Risk Factors: Proposal for a Composite Indicator Based on the COPSOQ II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, Adrienne; Nistor, Katalin; Zakor, Tünde; Szabó, Anita; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-05-23

    To determine national reference values for the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) across occupational sectors and develop a composite score to estimate the cumulative effect of multiple work-related stressors, in order to facilitate the implementation of occupational health directives on psychosocial risk assessment. Cross-sectional data was collected via an online questionnaire. The sample included 13,104 individuals and was representative of the general Hungarian adult working population in terms of gender, age, education, and occupation. Mean scores were calculated for 18 scales on work environment and for 5 outcome scales of the COPSOQ II across 18 occupational sectors. We analyzed the association between a composite psychosocial risk score (CPRS), reflecting severity of exposure to multiple risk factors, and high stress, burnout, sleep troubles, and poor self-rated health. We found occupation-related differences in the mean scores on all COPSOQ II scales. Scores on the "Stress" scale ranged from 47.9 to 56.2, with the highest mean score in accommodation and food services sector. Variability was greatest with respect to emotional demands (range 40.3-67.6) and smallest with respect to role clarity (range 70.3-75.7). The prevalence of negative health outcomes increased with the CPRS. Five risk categories were formed, for which the odds ratio of negative outcomes ranged from 1.6 to 56.5. The sector-specific psychosocial risk profiles covering 18 work environmental factors can be used as a reference in organizational surveys and international comparisons. The CPRS proved to be a powerful predictor of self-reported negative health outcomes.

  6. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  7. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  8. Composition dependent adsorption of multiple CO molecules on binary silver-gold clusters Ag(n)Au(m)+ (n + m = 5): theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolan, Denisia M; Nössler, Melanie; Mitrić, Roland; Bernhardt, Thorsten M; Bonacić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2010-07-28

    The binding energies of multiple CO molecules to five-atom silver-gold cluster cations have been obtained employing temperature dependent gas phase ion trap measurements and ab initio calculations. The CO binding energies to Ag(n)Au(m)(+) (n + m = 5) decrease with increasing number of silver atoms. Most strikingly, after the adsorption of the fourth CO to Au(5)(+) and of the third CO to Ag(5)(+), respectively, a pronounced decrease in the binding energies of further CO molecules was observed. This is related to a CO-induced structural transformation yielding more compact metal cluster geometries. First principles calculations revealed that the exact structure of the carbonyl complexes with multiple CO and the nature of the CO-induced structural transformation strongly depend on the composition of the metal cluster as well as on the number of adsorbed CO molecules.

  9. VLSI binary multiplier using residue number systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsi, F.; Di Cola, A.

    1982-01-01

    The idea of performing multiplication of n-bit binary numbers using a hardware based on residue number systems is considered. This paper develops the design of a VLSI chip deriving area and time upper bounds of a n-bit multiplier. To perform multiplication using residue arithmetic, numbers are converted from binary to residue representation and, after residue multiplication, the result is reconverted to the original notation. It is shown that the proposed design requires an area a=o(n/sup 2/ log n) and an execution time t=o(log/sup 2/n). 7 references.

  10. Statistical Study of Visual Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rahman, H I; Elsanhoury, W H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, some statistical distributions of wide pairs included in Double Star Catalogue are investigated. Frequency distributions and testing hypothesis are derived for some basic parameters of visual binaries. The results reached indicate that, it was found that the magnitude difference is distributed exponentially, which means that the majority of the component of the selected systems is of the same spectral type. The distribution of the mass ratios is concentrated about 0.7 which agree with Salpeter mass function. The distribution of the linear separation appears to be exponentially, which contradict with previous studies for close binaries.

  11. Progression of a fracture site impaction as a prognostic indicator of impacted femoral neck fracture treated with multiple pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant.

  12. Abnormal Nerve Conduction Study Findings Indicating the Existence of Peripheral Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Warabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. However, there have been limited reports of peripheral neuropathy as a complication of neuromyelitis optica (NMO. In this paper, we showed the characteristics and differences between peripheral neuropathy as a complication of MS and NMO. Method. We analyzed a series of 58 MS and 28 NMO patients and evaluated nerve conduction studies (NCS in 21 MS and 5 NMO patients. Results. Six of the 58 MS and 3 of the 28 NMO patients revealed abnormal NCS findings. Three (5.2% of the 58 MS patients fulfilled the criteria for CIDP. One (3.6% of the 28 NMO patients showed peripheral neuropathy at the same time of NMO relapse, although CIDP was not seen in NMO. The other 5 (3 MS and 2 NMO patients were complicated with neuropathy caused by concomitant diabetes mellitus and Sjögren’s syndrome. Conclusion. Frequency of abnormal NCS findings might exhibit no significant difference between MS and NMO, although the cause and pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathy were different in MS and in NMO. There might be a group of NMO who were affected simultaneously in the central and peripheral nervous tissues.

  13. Quantum gate operations using midinfrared binary shaped pulses on the rovibrational states of carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaari, Ryan R; Brown, Alex

    2010-01-07

    Frequency domain shaped binary laser pulses were optimized to perform 2 qubit quantum gate operations in (12)C(16)O. The qubit rovibrational state representation was chosen so that all gate operations consisted of one-photon transitions. The amplitude and phase varied binary pulses were determined using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. Binary pulses have two possible amplitudes, 0 or 1, and two phases, 0 or pi, for each frequency component of the pulse. Binary pulses are the simplest to shape experimentally and provide a minimum fidelity limit for amplitude and phase shaped pulses. With the current choice of qubit representation and using optimized binary pulses, fidelities of 0.80 and as high as 0.97 were achieved for the controlled-NOT and alternative controlled-NOT quantum gates. This indicates that with a judicious choice of qubits, most of the required control can be obtained with a binary pulse. Limited control was observed for 2 qubit NOT and Hadamard gates due to the need to control multiple excitations. The current choice of qubit representation produces pulses with decreased energies and superior fidelities when compared with rovibrational qubit representations consisting of two-photon transitions. The choice of input pulse energy is important and applying pulses of increased energy does not necessarily lead to a better fidelity.

  14. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  15. Using a summary measure for multiple quality indicators in primary care: the Summary QUality InDex (SQUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemeth Lynne S

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the quality of primary care is becoming a priority in national healthcare agendas. Audit and feedback on healthcare quality performance indicators can help improve the quality of care provided. In some instances, fewer numbers of more comprehensive indicators may be preferable. This paper describes the use of the Summary Quality Index (SQUID in tracking quality of care among patients and primary care practices that use an electronic medical record (EMR. All practices are part of the Practice Partner Research Network, representing over 100 ambulatory care practices throughout the United States. Methods The SQUID is comprised of 36 process and outcome measures, all of which are obtained from the EMR. This paper describes algorithms for the SQUID calculations, various statistical properties, and use of the SQUID within the context of a multi-practice quality improvement (QI project. Results At any given time point, the patient-level SQUID reflects the proportion of recommended care received, while the practice-level SQUID reflects the average proportion of recommended care received by that practice's patients. Using quarterly reports, practice- and patient-level SQUIDs are provided routinely to practices within the network. The SQUID is responsive, exhibiting highly significant (p Conclusion The SQUID algorithm is feasible and straightforward, and provides a useful QI tool. Its statistical properties and clear interpretation make it appealing to providers, health plans, and researchers.

  16. An analysis of delay-locked loop tracking binary Markovian sequence in the presence of multiple access interference and channel noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keisuke; Fujisaka, Hisato; Kamio, Takeshi; Haeiwa, Kazuhisa

    This paper presents an analysis of delay-locked loops in direct spreading code division multiple access systems with Markovian spreading sequences. The established analysis with piecewise constant approximation is similar to the mean field analysis which estimates macroscopic characteristics of a spatially-distributed probabilistic system from the local interaction between the elements of the system with low computational complexity. The low complexity makes it possible to analyze the behavior of not only second-order archetype delay-locked loops but also higher-order non-coherent delay-locked loops in the presence of both multiple access interference and channel noise. It is found from the presented analysis that replacing i.i.d. spreading sequences with Markovian spreading sequences with non-vanishing negative autocorrelation reduces the phase tracking error of a non-coherent 1Δ delay-locked loop. The time spent for estimating the error by the presented method is about 1/1000 compared with that by the path integral method.

  17. A multi-sensor method for in-situ quantification of multiple biodiversity and ecosystem service indicators in wetland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Prager, Katharina; Koma, Zsófia

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity and ecosystem services are in the focus of biogeosciences research and conservation management worldwide. However, their quantification is notoriously difficult. Since full coverage of biodiversity and/or ecosystem services is unfeasible due to their complexity, indicators are recommended: biophysical quantities that are measureable and are expected to be closely related to biodiversity or to ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, many biodiversity and ecosystem service assessments are based on upscaling very few (if any) in-situ measurements using models driven by basic land cover data. Also, many assessments select only a single or very few indicators, which then does not enable analysis of trade-offs and interconnections. Here we propose a system of simple yet reliable field measurements, based on basic sensors, measurements, imaging and sampling technology, suitable for quantitatively representing many components of biodiversity and ecosystem services in emergent wetland vegetation. Along a transect from open water to the shore, sampling stations are laid out that include water temperature, air temperature and humidity sensors, zenith facing photographs and pole contact counts of vegetation in height intervals. Additionally, for some of these stations, small quadrats of vegetation are harvested, separated to individual species and weighed in height intervals above ground/water. Underwater surface of vegetation is estimated by counting stalks and registering average diameter. Finally, decomposition is quantified by leaving a standard amount of biomass in a plastic net bag and re-weighing it a year later. This system allows measuring alpha and beta diversity together with vertical structural diversity, leaf area (as a proxy of shading and pollution absorbtion), biomass (as a proxy of carbon sequestration), underwater surface (as a proxy of fish population sustaining), microclimate influence and soil provision. The necessary tools are temperature and

  18. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Lee, Chul Ou; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination.Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clu...

  19. Coordinating and Evaluating of Multiple Key Performance Indicators for Manufacturing Equipment:Case Study of Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Hongye Su; Shan Lu; Yue Wang; Quanling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing equipment takes the task of operation and directly effects on the manufacturing process. One single Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is mainly employed to evaluate equipment in most studies, neither inte-grating the KPIs into a completed evaluation system nor considering the impact and conflict among KPIs. In this paper, a KPI evaluation architecture is presented to define and analyze KPIs, and then a common structure for KPI to obtain the KPI set of manufacturing equipment is introduced. An available multi-KPI coordination model is proposed to discern and balance the relationship among multi-KPI. Final y, a case study is introduced to il ustrate the applicability of the coordination model by using multi-objective optimization strategy and an efficient solu-tion is obtained.

  20. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  1. Exact Synthesis of 3-Qubit Quantum Circuits from Non-Binary Quantum Gates Using Multiple-Valued Logic and Group Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guowu; Song, Xiaoyu; Perkowski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach to optimally synthesize quantum circuits from non-permutative quantum gates such as Controlled-Square-Root-of-Not (i.e. Controlled-V). Our approach reduces the synthesis problem to multiple-valued optimization and uses group theory. We devise a novel technique that transforms the quantum logic synthesis problem from a multi-valued constrained optimization problem to a group permutation problem. The transformation enables us to utilize group theory to exploit the properties of the synthesis problem. Assuming a cost of one for each two-qubit gate, we found all reversible circuits with quantum costs of 4, 5, 6, etc, and give another algorithm to realize these reversible circuits with quantum gates.

  2. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  3. Ecological water quality assessment in the Guapiaçu-Macacu hydrographic complex (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using multiple indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A quick diagnosis of the ecological quality of five sections of the Macacu-Guapiaçu hydrographic complex was performed using visual assessment protocol (VAP, conventional analysis, composition and structure of ciliates and the occurrence of benthic macro invertebrates. Water samples were collected from five sampling stations (A-E in July of 2010. Protists were sampled with aid of artificial substrates, and macro invertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method. A total of 22 taxa of protozoa and 51 taxa of macro invertebrates was registered at the five stations. Reference station (A showed greater protist diversity and higher values of BMWP-CETEC and IBE-IOC indices relating to macro invertebrates. The impacted stations (B and E presented lower diversity and higher abundance of protozoa, as well as the lowest values for the rates. The four methods used were convergent to diagnose reference station (A, the impacted stations (B and E and those in intermediate conditions (C and D. Thus, the methods were complementary, as the conventional parameters and ciliate assembly were more sensitive to detecting the increase in organic pollution and VAP and macro invertebrate assembly detected changes in geomorphology and habitat degradation.

  4. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  5. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  6. Planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David V.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2014-10-01

    The majority of binary stars do not eclipse. Current searches for transiting circumbinary planets concentrate on eclipsing binaries, and are therefore restricted to a small fraction of potential hosts. We investigate the concept of finding planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries, whose geometry would require mutually inclined planes. Using an N-body code we explore how the number and sequence of transits vary as functions of observing time and orbital parameters. The concept is then generalised thanks to a suite of simulated circumbinary systems. Binaries are constructed from radial-velocity surveys of the solar neighbourhood. They are then populated with orbiting gas giants, drawn from a range of distributions. The binary population is shown to be compatible with the Kepler eclipsing binary catalogue, indicating that the properties of binaries may be as universal as the initial mass function. These synthetic systems produce transiting circumbinary planets occurring on both eclipsing and non-eclipsing binaries. Simulated planets transiting eclipsing binaries are compared with published Kepler detections. We find 1) that planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries are probably present in the Kepler data; 2) that observational biases alone cannot account for the observed over-density of circumbinary planets near the stability limit, which implies a physical pile-up; and 3) that the distributions of gas giants orbiting single and binary stars are likely different. Estimating the frequency of circumbinary planets is degenerate with the spread in mutual inclination. Only a minimum occurrence rate can be produced, which we find to be compatible with 9%. Searching for inclined circumbinary planets may significantly increase the population of known objects and will test our conclusions. Their presence, or absence, will reveal the true occurrence rate and help develop circumbinary planet formation theories.

  7. Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_yr^{-1} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6-significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHB driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual AGN to constrain binary evolution.

  8. Coupled binary embedding for large-scale image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Visual matching is a crucial step in image retrieval based on the bag-of-words (BoW) model. In the baseline method, two keypoints are considered as a matching pair if their SIFT descriptors are quantized to the same visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has two limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power during quantization. Second, SIFT only describes the local texture feature. Both drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the BoW model and lead to false positive matches. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to embed multiple binary features at indexing level. To model correlation between features, a multi-IDF scheme is introduced, through which different binary features are coupled into the inverted file. We show that matching verification methods based on binary features, such as Hamming embedding, can be effectively incorporated in our framework. As an extension, we explore the fusion of binary color feature into image retrieval. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary features greatly enhances the precision of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets (Ukbench, Holidays, DupImage, and MIR Flickr 1M). We show that our method significantly improves the baseline approach. In addition, large-scale experiments indicate that the proposed method requires acceptable memory usage and query time compared with other approaches. Further, when global color feature is integrated, our method yields competitive performance with the state-of-the-arts.

  9. Formation of wide binaries by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho; Dunham, Michael M.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Choi, Minho; Bergin, Edwin A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the formation of wide-binary systems of very low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.1 solar masses, M⊙) is challenging 1,2,3 . The most obvious route is through widely separated low-mass collapsing fragments produced by turbulent fragmentation of a molecular core4,5. However, close binaries or multiples from disk fragmentation can also evolve to wide binaries over a few initial crossing times of the stellar cluster through tidal evolution6. Finding an isolated low-mass wide-binary system in the earliest stage of formation, before tidal evolution could occur, would prove that turbulent fragmentation is a viable mechanism for (very) low-mass wide binaries. Here we report high-resolution ALMA observations of a known wide-separation protostellar binary, showing that each component has a circumstellar disk. The system is too young7 to have evolved from a close binary, and the disk axes are misaligned, providing strong support for the turbulent fragmentation model. Masses of both stars are derived from the Keplerian rotation of the disks; both are very low-mass stars.

  10. Effects of high-pressure processing on Listeria monocytogenes , spoilage microflora and multiple compound quality indices in chilled cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, R.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2004-01-01

    ), 150, 200 and 250 MPa. Secondly, storage trials with the naturally contaminated product and HPP at 0.1 (control) and 200 MPa were realized. Shelf-life, microbial changes and chemical changes were determined and existing predictive models and multiple compound quality indices evaluated. HPP with 250 MPa...... did not inactivate L. monocytogenes but significant lag phases of 17 and 10 days were observed at ca 5 and 10degreesC, respectively. HPP with 200 MPa had a marked effect on both colour and texture of CSS.Conclusions: High-pressure processing was unable to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes or spoilage...... like CSS where consumers expect specific quality attributes....

  11. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  12. A Search For X-ray Emission From Colliding Magnetospheres In Young Eccentric Stellar Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, Konstantin V; Kospal, Agnes; Salter, Demerese M; Garmire, Gordon P

    2016-01-01

    Among young binary stars whose magnetospheres are expected to collide, only two systems have been observed near periastron in the X-ray band: the low-mass DQ Tau and the older and more massive HD 152404. Both exhibit elevated levels of X-ray emission at periastron. Our goal is to determine whether colliding magnetospheres in young high-eccentricity binaries commonly produce elevated average levels of X-ray activity. This work is based on Chandra snapshots of multiple periastron and non-periastron passages in four nearby young eccentric binaries (Parenago 523, RX J1622.7-2325 Nw, UZ Tau E, and HD 152404). We find that for the merged sample of all 4 binaries the current X-ray data show an increasing average X-ray flux near periastron (at about 2.5-sigma level). Further comparison of these data with the X-ray properties of hundreds of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, produced by the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), indicates that the X-ray emission from the merged sample of our binaries can not be...

  13. The origin of very wide binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Davies, Melvyn B; Parker, Richard J; Kroupa, P; Malmberg, D

    2011-01-01

    A large population of fragile, wide (> 1000 AU) binary systems exists in the Galactic field and halo. These wide binary stars cannot be primordial because of the high stellar density in star forming regions, while formation by capture in the Galactic field is highly improbable. We propose that these binary systems were formed during the dissolution phase of star clusters (see Kouwenhoven et al. 2010, for details). Stars escaping from a dissolving star cluster can have very similar velocities, which can lead to the formation of a wide binary systems. We carry out N-body simulations to test this hypothesis. The results indicate that this mechanism explains the origin of wide binary systems in the Galaxy. The resulting wide binary fraction and semi-major axis distribution depend on the initial conditions of the dissolving star cluster, while the distributions in eccentricity and mass ratio are universal. Finally, since most stars are formed in (relatively tight) primordial binaries, we predict that a large fract...

  14. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal st

  15. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given

  16. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  17. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010-2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea.

  18. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, P; Vanzi, L; Soto, M G; Vos, J; Wittenmyer, R A; Olivares, F; Drass, H; Mennickent, R E; Vuckovic, M; Rojo, P; Melo, C H F

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions.The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between $\\sim$ 97-1600 days and eccentricities of between $\\sim$ 0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a diffe...

  19. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011 and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Thi Hoang Vu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15–49 years. Design: Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial variables (N=8,341. Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs are reported. Results: Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30–34 years (reference 15–19 years (OR=1.63; high socioeconomic status (SES (OR=0.8; having two living children (OR=2.4; and having a son (OR=1.4. The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. Conclusions: The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area.

  20. Multiple indicators of poor diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are associated with higher body mass index percentile but not glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Lipsky, Leah M; Laffel, Lori M B; Mehta, Sanjeev N

    2012-11-01

    Diet is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes treatment, and poor diet quality may affect glycemic control and other health outcomes. Yet diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains understudied. To evaluate multiple indicators of diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their associations with hemoglobin A1c and body mass index percentile. In this cross-sectional study, participants completed 3-day diet records, and data were abstracted from participants' medical records. Diet quality indicators included servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) score; Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 score (NRF 9.3); and glycemic index. Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ≥ 1 year, aged 8 to 18 years, were recruited at routine clinic visits. Of 291 families enrolled, 252 provided diet data. Associations of diet quality indicators to HbA1c and body mass index percentile were examined using analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Participants demonstrated low adherence to dietary guidelines; mean HEI-2005 score was 53.4 ± 11.0 (range = 26.7 to 81.2). Intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was less than half the recommended amount. Almost half of the participants' daily energy intake was derived from refined-grain products, desserts, chips, and sweetened beverages. Higher fruit (P = 0.04) and whole-grain (P = 0.03) intake were associated with lower HbA1c in unadjusted, but not adjusted analyses; vegetable intake, HEI-2005 score, NRF 9.3 score, and glycemic index were not associated with HbA1c. Higher fruit (P = 0.01) and whole-grain (P = 0.04) intake and NRF 9.3 score (P = 0.02), but not other diet quality indicators, were associated with lower body mass index percentile in adjusted analyses. Data demonstrate poor diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes and provide support for the importance of diet quality for weight management. Future research on determinants of

  1. Enhancing Binary Images of Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Aman; Siegel, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reasons behind the superior performance of belief propagation decoding of non-binary LDPC codes over their binary images when the transmission occurs over the binary erasure channel. We show that although decoding over the binary image has lower complexity, it has worse performance owing to its larger number of stopping sets relative to the original non-binary code. We propose a method to find redundant parity-checks of the binary image that eliminate these additional stopping sets, so that we achieve performance comparable to that of the original non-binary LDPC code with lower decoding complexity.

  2. Boolean analysis of addition and multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faltin, F. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Metropolis, N.; Ross, B.; Rota, G.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The notions of binary string and binary symmetric function are introduced, and basic results presented. Boolean algorithms are given for binary addition and multiplication. An analysis of the redundancies involved is straightforward. The examination of carry propagation which arises in the Boolean analysis of functions may lead to a new interpretation of the notion of computational complexity.

  3. Flood/drought event identification using an effective indicator based on the correlations between multiple time scales of the Standardized Precipitation Index and river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xingwei; Chen, Ying; Liu, Meibing; Gao, Lu

    2017-04-01

    In order to further investigate the capability of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify flood/drought events, monthly precipitation data from 26 precipitation stations and monthly discharge data from four hydrological stations from 1960 to 2006 in the Minjiang River basin were used to analyze the correlations between multiple time scales of the SPI and river discharge. The SPI series that had a maximum correlation with discharge was chosen to detect flood/drought events in the basin, and the results were compared to historical flood/drought events. The results indicated the following. (1) High Pearson correlations between the SPI and discharge were identified at shorter time scales (1 to 3 months), and the maximum correlation was found on the time scale of 2 months. (2) Five floods among the six largest historical flood events in the Minjiang River basin were identified with the 2-month SPI, but the SPI does have shortcomings in identifying more general floods. The SPI also identified major drought events that were consistent with historical data. This demonstrates that the 2-month SPI is an effective indicator for the identification of major flood/drought events in the Minjiang River basin.

  4. Binary Logistic Regression Versus Boosted Regression Trees in Assessing Landslide Susceptibility for Multiple-Occurring Regional Landslide Events: Application to the 2009 Storm Event in Messina (Sicily, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, L.; Cama, M.; Maerker, M.; Parisi, L.; Rotigliano, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events within the Mediterranean region. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), corresponding to the catchments of the Briga and the Giampilieri streams both stretching for few kilometres from the Peloritan ridge (eastern Sicily, Italy) to the Ionian sea. This area was struck on the 1st October 2009 by an extreme climatic event resulting in thousands of rapid shallow landslides, mainly of debris flows and debris avalanches types involving the weathered layer of a low to high grade metamorphic bedrock. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 landslide archive, BLR- and BRT-based susceptibility models were obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation; besides, the models trained in one of the two catchments (Briga) were tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the other (Giampilieri), adopting a spatial partition (SP) based validation procedure. All the validation procedures were based on multi-folds tests so to evaluate and compare the reliability of the fitting, the prediction skill, the coherence in the predictor selection and the precision of the susceptibility estimates. All the obtained models for the two methods produced very high predictive performances, with a general congruence between BLR and BRT in the predictor importance. In particular, the research highlighted that BRT-models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR-models, for RP based modelling, whilst for the SP-based models the difference in predictive skills between the two methods dropped drastically, converging to an analogous excellent performance. However, when looking at the precision of the probability estimates, BLR demonstrated to produce more robust

  5. Path Planning of Fire Suppression Based on Multiple Binary Tree Pareto Optimal Solution Set%基于多叉树Pareto最优解集的火灾扑救路径规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪华兵

    2015-01-01

    A path planning algorithm of fire suppression is proposed based on multiple binary tree Pareto optimal solution set , the fire scene environment map and fire evolvement trend is reconstructed, realize the optimization of path, using the Pareto optimal solution set, the construction of fire fighting path planning model of dynamic development trend of multi tree Pareto optimal solution set based on the fire. The experimental results show that, the model can quickly achieve the recogni⁃tion of fire hot, and it can effectively avoid the interference of path planning in complex building of obstacles, to achieve the optimal path selection for fire fighting. In dynamic unknown environment, the fire fighting path planning and selection can achieve the optimal segmentation, shortest path is obtained, it can effectively avoid the stop complex building, effectively save the fire fighting time.%提出一种基于多叉树Pareto最优解集的火灾扑救路径规划算法,对火灾现场的环境地图和火灾演化态势进行重构,实现对路径的优选,采用Pareto最优解集,构建基于多叉树Pareto最优解集的火源动态发展态势下的火灾扑救路径规划模型。实验结果表明,该模型能快速实现对火源热点的识别,并且规划路径能有效规避复杂建筑障碍物的干扰,实现对火灾扑救路径的最优选择。在动态未知环境中,对火灾扑救路径的规划和选择能达到最优,路径最短,分段较少,能有效地避免复杂建筑物的阻挡,有效节省了火灾扑救时间。

  6. Managing serious clinical deterioration in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong: from indicators development to multiple measures in reducing the rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jasperine Ka Yee; Lee, Quinnie; Lam, Jaden Chun Ho; Tang, Kam Shing

    2017-06-01

    Timely detection and management of acutely deteriorating patients can save lives. Tuen Mun Hospital (TMH), a 1800-bed acute tertiary hospital serving more than 1.06 million populations in Hong Kong, is exploring to quantitatively monitor serious clinical deterioration (SCD) and uses it to guide patient care improvement initiatives. Literature review on definition and measurement of SCD was conducted. Monthly SCD rates of TMH were first calculated according to the published methodology and benchmarked against those of international centres. A refined composite clinical indicator good for local use was compiled. In the second phase, p-control charts of SCD have been plotted based on cumulative data. TMH's performance was comparable with that of international centres. SCD on p-control charts has been plotting since January 2013. There were peaks in all 4 SCD rates during the winter surge period in 2013-2014. In the third phase, multiple measures have been taking to reduce the SCD rates including targeting the 3 main factors of winter surge situation. We are delighted to observe that the pattern did not repeat in the rate of cardiac arrest without do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DNACPR) and rate of death without DNACPR in the same period in 2014-2015. SCD becomes a clinical governance tool to monitor the performance of clinical teams in treating acutely deteriorating patients in TMH. Any abnormal patterns or indications of special cause variations in the control charts would alert leaders to look for root causes of special cause variations and manage accordingly. We hope that this project will extend to corporate level and become a sustainable clinical indicator to guide audits, quality improvement initiatives and strategic planning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  8. Subclinical circulation of avian hepatitis E virus within a multiple-age rearing and broiler breeder farm indicates persistence and vertical transmission of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxler, Salome; Pać, Krzysztof; Prokofieva, Irina; Liebhart, Dieter; Chodakowska, Beata; Furmanek, Danuta; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple-age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical signs (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including cockerels and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histological methods. At all time points, samples from the hens were positive for avian HEV RNA. The birds did not show any clinical signs, even though histopathological lesions of non-specific aetiology in the liver and spleen could be demonstrated. A significant increase in the number of positive birds and viral load was seen in week 45, in accordance with an increase in antibody titres. In comparison, cockerels investigated in week 62 tested negative by RT-PCR and ELISA. Avian HEV RNA was also detected in day-old chicks hatched from eggs laid in week 25, indicating vertical transmission. All partial helicase and capsid sequences retrieved within this study clustered together and were identical to previous sequences obtained from the same multiple-age farm. In conclusion, avian HEV persisted on the farm over years and circulated between the rearing and the production sites without causing any clinical signs although high viral loads in the adult hens were observed.

  9. DNA chip-based expression profile analysis indicates involvement of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in multiple plant responses to hormone and abiotic treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Hui LIN; Rui YE; Hui MA; Zhi Hong XU; Hong Wei XUE

    2004-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolic pathway is considered critical in plant responses to many environmental factors,and previous studies have indicated the involvement of multiple PI-related gene families during cellular responses.Through a detailed analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome,82 polypeptides were identified as being involved in PI signaling. These could be grouped into different families including PI synthases (PIS),PI-phosphate kinases (PIPK),phospholipases (PL),inositol polyphosphate phosphatases (IPPase),inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK),PI transfer proteins and putative inositol polyphosphate receptors. The presence of more than 10 isoforms of PIPK,PLC,PLD and IPPase suggested that these genes might be differentially expressed during plant cellular responses or growth and development. Accordingly,DNA chip technology was employed to study the expression patterns of various isoforms.In total,79 mRNA clones were amplified and used for DNA chip generation. Expression profile analysis was performed using samples that represented multiple tissues or cellular responses. Tested samples included normal leaf,stem and flower tissues,and leaves from plants treated with various hormones (auxin,cytokinin,gibberellin,abscisic acid and brassinosteroid) or environmental factors (temperature,calcium,sodium,drought,salicylic acid and jasmonic acid).Results showed that many PI pathway-related genes were differentially expressed under these experimental conditions.In particular,the different isoforms of each family were specifically expressed in many cases,suggesting their involvement in tissue specificity and cellular responses to environmental conditions. This work provides a starting point for functional studies of the relevant PI-related proteins and may help shed light onto the role of PI pathways in development and cellular responses.

  10. Multiple small "imaging" branch-duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in familial pancreatic cancer: indicator for concomitant high grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, D K; Dietzel, K; Bargello, M; Matthaei, E; Kloeppel, G; Esposito, I; Heverhagen, J T; Gress, T M; Slater, E P; Langer, P

    2013-03-01

    Most screening programs for familial pancreatic cancer are currently based on endoscopic ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cystic lesions, especially those suspicious for small intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the branch ducts, can be visualized in up to 40 % of individuals at risk, but their pathological importance in the setting of FPC is yet not well established. Individuals at risk from a prospective screening program for familial pancreatic cancer with small "imaging" IPMNs of the branch-duct type (BD-IPMN) who underwent pancreatic resection were analysed regarding clinico-pathological data and the locations of pancreatic lesions. Five of 125 individuals at risk who underwent screening had multiple small (size 2-10 mm) unicystic lesions and/or multicystic single lesions in the pancreatic body and tail suspicious for BD-IPMNs upon MRI imaging and decided to undergo surgical resection after interdisciplinary counselling, although none fulfilled the consensus criteria for IPMN resection. Histological examination revealed BD-IPMNs with low or moderate dysplasia of the gastric type in combination with multifocal PanIN2 and PanIN3 lesions in 4 individuals. The remaining patient had only tiny ductectasias in the pancreatic tail with multifocal PanIN 2 lesions in the entire gland and one PanIN3 lesion in the pancreatic head. Intriguingly, the location of the most dysplastic histological lesions (PanIN3) did not correspond to the preoperatively detected lesions and were not visible in preoperative imaging. In the setting of FPC, the presence of multiple small "imaging" BD-IPMNs may indicate the presence of high-grade PanIN lesions elsewhere in the pancreas.

  11. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  12. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility....

  13. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  14. Planet scattering around binaries: ejections, not collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically affects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multiplanet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  15. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  16. Wobbling Ancient Binaries - Here Be Planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonathan; Hinse, Tobias; Marshall, Jonathan; Mustill, Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of planets have been proposed to orbit several post main-sequence binary star systems on the basis of observed variations in the timing of eclipses between the binary components. A common feature of these planet candidates is that the best-fit orbits are often highly eccentric, such that the multiple planet systems proposed regularly feature mutually crossing orbits - a scenario that almost always leads to unstable planetary systems. In this work, we present the results of dynamical studies of all multiple-planet systems proposed to orbit these highly evolved binary stars, finding that most do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. In one of the potentially stable cases (the NN Serpentis 2-planet system), we consider the evolution of the binary star system, and show that it is highly unlikely that planets could survive from the main sequence to obtain their current orbits - again casting doubt on the proposed planets. We conclude by considering alternative explanations for the obs...

  17. Understanding discs in binary YSOs - detailed modelling of VV CrA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, P.; Wolf, S.; Ratzka, T.; Costigan, G.; Launhardt, R.; Leinert, C.; Ober, F.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.

    2016-05-01

    Given that a majority of stars form in multiple systems, in order to fully understand the star- and planet-formation processes we must seek to understand them in multiple stellar systems. With this in mind, we present an analysis of the enigmatic binary T-Tauri system VV Corona Australis, in which both components host discs, but only one is visible at optical wavelengths. We seek to understand the peculiarities of this system by searching for a model for the binary which explains all the available continuum observations of the system. We present new mid-infrared interferometry and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with archival millimetre-wave observations, which resolve the binary at 1.3 mm for the first time. We compute a grid of pre-main-sequence radiative transfer models and calculate their posterior probabilities given the observed spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared interferometric visibilities of the binary components, beginning with the assumption that the only differences between the two components are their inclination and position angles. Our best-fitting solution corresponds to a relatively low-luminosity T-tauri binary, with each component's disc having a large scaleheight and viewed at moderate inclination (˜50°), with the infrared companion inclined by ˜5° more than the primary. Comparing the results of our model to evolutionary models suggests stellar masses ˜1.7 M⊙ and an age for the system of 3.5 Myr, towards the upper end of previous estimates. Combining these results with accretion indicators from NIR spectroscopy, we determine an accretion rate of 4.0 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 for the primary. We suggest that future observations of VV Corona Australis and similar systems should prioritize high angular resolution sub-mm and NIR imaging of the discs and high-resolution optical/NIR spectroscopy of the central stars.

  18. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  19. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  20. Interacting Jets from Binary Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, G C; O'Sullivan, S; Spicer, D; Bacciotti, F; Rosén, A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly pa...

  1. The Young Visual Binary Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Avilez, Ian; Allen, Thomas; Zoonematkermani, Saeid; Biddle, Lauren; Muzzio, Ryan; Wittal, Matthew; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution H-band and in some cases K-band spectra of each component in close to 100 young multiple systems in the nearby star forming regions of Taurus, Ophiuchus, TW Hya, and Orion. The binary separations for the pairs in our sample range from 30 mas to 3 arcseconds. The imaging and most of our spectra were obtained with instruments behind adaptive optics systems in order to resolve even the closest companions. We are in the process of determining fundamental stellar and circumstellar properties, such as effective temperature, Vsin(i), veiling, and radial velocity, for each component in the entire sample. The beta version of our database includes systems in the Taurus region and provides plots, downloadable ascii spectra, and values of the stellar and circumstellar properties for both stars in each system. This resource is openly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. In this poster we describe initial results from our analysis of the survey data. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  2. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  3. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann J. Ligocki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available * These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS. In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS+ antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS+ rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS+ rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS+ rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS+ antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS+ antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS+ antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients.

  4. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Thi-Tu Bui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is strong evidence that breastfeeding (BF significantly benefits mothers and infants in various ways. Yet the proportion of breastfed babies in Vietnam is low and continues to decline. This study fills an important evidence gap in BF practices in Vietnam. Objective: This paper examines the trend of early initiation of BF and exclusive BF from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam and explores the determinants at individual and contextual levels. Design: Data from three waves of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were combined to estimate crude and adjusted trends over time for two outcomes – early initiation of BF and exclusive BF. Three-level logistic regressions were fitted to examine the impacts of both individual and contextual characteristics on early initiation of BF and exclusive BF in the 2011 data. Results: Both types of BF showed a decreasing trend over time after controlling for individual-level characteristics but this trend was more evident for early initiation of BF. Apart from child's age, individual-level characteristics were not significant predictors of the BF outcomes, but provincial characteristics had a strong association. When controlling for individual-level characteristics, mothers living in provinces with a higher percentage of mothers with more than three children were more likely to have initiated early BF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.11 but less likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.88–1.01. Mothers living in areas with a higher poverty rate were more likely to breastfeed exclusively (OR: 1.07; CI: 1.02–1.13, and those who delivered by Caesarean section were less likely to initiate early BF. Conclusions: Our results suggest that environmental factors are becoming more important for determining BF practices in Vietnam. Intervention programs should therefore not only consider individual factors, but should also consider the potential impact of

  5. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  6. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  7. Wealth inequality and utilization of reproductive health services in the Republic of Vanuatu: insights from the multiple indicator cluster survey, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mosiur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Republic of Vanuatu has improved maternal indicators, more needs to be done to improve equity among the poorest in the use of reproductive health services to expedite the progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 5(MDG 5 target. While large developing country studies provide evidence of a rich-poor gap in reproductive health services utilization, not much is written in terms of Pacific Islands. Thus, this study aims to examine the degree of inequality in utilization of reproductive health services in a nationally representative sample of Vanuatu households. Methods This paper used data from the 2007 Vanuatu Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS. The analyses were based on responses from 615 ever married women, living with at least one child below two years of age. Outcomes included antenatal care (ANC and use of birth attendants at delivery, place of delivery, and counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed in the analysis. Results Findings revealed that the economic well-being status of the household to which women belong, played a crucial role in explaining the variation in service utilization. Inequality in utilization was found to be more pronounced between the poorest and richest groups within the wealth quintiles. In adjusted models, mothers in the richest bands of wealth were 5.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-22.47, 2.12 (95% CI: 1.02-3.42, 4.0 (95% CI 1.58-10.10, and 2.0 (95% CI 1.02-5.88 times more likely to have assisted delivery from medically trained personnel, have institutional deliveries, and have counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Association between household wealth inequality and utilization of ANC and delivery assistance from medically trained personnel, institutional delivery, and counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS suggest that higher utilization of reproductive health care services in

  8. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring. I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. A.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W.; Barbá, R.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Crowther, P.; Damineli, A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gieles, M.; Grin, N. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Lockwood, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Neijssel, C.; Norman, C.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Richardson, N. D.; Schootemeijer, A.; Shenar, T.; Soszyński, I.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Massive binaries play a crucial role in the Universe. Knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters is important for a wide range of topics from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels and from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors, yet no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. Aims: The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring project was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity (RV) monitoring of 102 massive binaries in the 30 Doradus region. Methods: In this paper we analyze 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined (SB1) and 31 double-lined (SB2) spectroscopic binaries. Results: Overall, the binary fraction and orbital properties across the 30 Doradus region are found to be similar to existing Galactic samples. This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of massive binary systems. A small difference is found in the distribution of orbital periods, which is slightly flatter (in log space) in 30 Doradus than in the Galaxy, although this may be compatible within error estimates and differences in the fitting methodology. Also, orbital periods in 30 Doradus can be as short as 1.1 d, somewhat shorter than seen in Galactic samples. Equal mass binaries (q> 0.95) in 30 Doradus are all found outside NGC 2070, the central association that surrounds R136a, the very young and massive cluster at 30 Doradus's core. Most of the differences, albeit small, are compatible with expectations from binary evolution. One outstanding exception, however, is the fact that earlier spectral types (O2-O7) tend to have shorter orbital periods than later spectral types (O9.2-O9.7). Conclusions: Our results point to a relative universality of the incidence rate of massive binaries and their orbital properties in the

  9. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    1978-01-01

    Indicates some of the information that may be obtained from a binary solid-liquid phase equilibria experiment and a method to write a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental results may be compared. (Author/CP)

  10. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  11. Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.

  12. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  13. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cholis, Ilias; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on timescales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO a...

  14. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-10-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of ˜30 M⊙ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on time scales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO and the Einstein Telescope to such effects. We show that if PBHs make up the dark matter, then roughly one event should have a detectable eccentricity given LIGO's expected sensitivity and observing time of six years. The Einstein Telescope should see O (10 ) such events after ten years.

  15. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Marzari, F

    2016-01-01

    When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman and Wiegert (1999) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Delta determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability. For two planet systems, the value of Delta is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoti...

  16. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  17. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  18. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  19. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  20. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  1. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  2. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  3. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tauto

  4. Adjusted indices of multiple deprivation to enable comparisons within and between constituent countries of the UK including an illustration using mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gary A; Barclay, Matthew E; Payne, Rupert A

    2016-11-15

    Social determinants can have a major impact on health and as a consequence substantial inequalities are seen between and within countries. The study of inequalities between countries relies on having accurate and consistent measures of deprivation across the country borders. However, in the UK most socioeconomic deprivation measures are not comparable between countries. We give a method of adjusting the Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for use across the UK, describe the deprivation of each UK country, and show the problems introduced by naïvely using country-specific deprivation measures in a UK-wide analysis of mortality rates. 42 148 geographic areas covering the population of the UK. Adjusted IMD scores based on the income and employment domains of country-specific IMD scores, adjusting for the contribution of other domains. The mortality rate among people aged under 75 years standardised to the UK age structure was compared between country-specific and UK-adjusted IMD quintiles. Of the constituent countries of the UK, Northern Ireland was the most deprived with 37% of the population living in areas in the most deprived fifth of the UK, followed by Wales with 22% of the population living in the most deprived fifth of the UK. England and Scotland had similar levels of deprivation. Deprivation-specific mortality rates were similar in England and Wales. Northern Ireland had lower mortality rates than England for each deprivation group, with similar differences for each group. Scotland had higher mortality rates than England for each deprivation group, with larger differences for more deprived groups. Analyses of between-country and within-country inequalities by socioeconomic position should use consistent measures; failing to use consistent measures may give misleading results. The published adjusted IMD scores we describe allow consistent analysis across the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  5. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Almog, Assaf

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of time series of activity of their fundamental elements (such as stocks or neurons respectively). While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relationships between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to replicate the observed binary/non-binary relations very well, and to mathematically...

  6. 293.15K时乙腈+水+[Hmim]Cl三元系统及其二元系统的折光率测定与关联%efractive Indices for Acetonitrile+Water+[Hmim]Cl and Its Binary Systems at 293.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金胜哲; 郑叶玲; 何昌春; 彭昌军; 刘洪来

    2011-01-01

    主要通过折光率来研究离子液体对乙腈+水系统物理性质的影响。采用折光仪测定了乙腈+水+[Hmim]Cl(1-己基-3-甲基咪唑氯盐)三元系统及相应的乙腈+水、水+[Hmim]Cl、乙腈+[Hmim]Cl二元系统在293.15 K时的折光率,并获得了这些系统的过量折光率,建立了折光率与组成间的经验关系。结果表明,在全部浓度范围内过量折光率均为正值,且乙腈+水的折光率随组成变化出现极大值,而水+[Hmim]Cl、乙腈+[Hmim]Cl的折光率均随离子液体组成的增加而增加。用Redlich-Kister、Cibulka模型和Singh模型分别关联了二元和三元系统的过量折光率,证实可采用Kohler方程估算三元系统的折光率。%This work investigated the effect of ionic liquid on the physical properties of acetonitrile + water with the refractive indices,which were measured for the ternary system(acetonitrile + water + Cl(1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride)) and its binary systems(acetonitrile + water,water + Cl and acetonitrile + Cl) at 293.15 K by a refractometer.The excess refractive indices of the mixtures were obtained and the relationship of refractive indices with mole fractions was established with an empirical model.It was shown that the excess refractive indices were positive over the whole range of compositions,and there was a maximum for the refractive indices over the range of the investigated mole fraction in acetonitrile + water and the refractive indices in water + Cl and acetonitrile + Cl increased as the mole fraction of the ionic liquid increased.Furthermore,the excess refractive indices for the binary and ternary systems were fitted to the Redlich-Kister,Cibulka and Singh equations,respectively.As a result,the Kohler equation can successfully predict the refractive indices for the ternary system.

  7. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  8. An investigation into the fraction of particle accelerators among colliding-wind binaries. Towards an extension of the catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; Benaglia, P.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.

    2017-03-01

    Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) are multiple systems made of early-type stars able to accelerate particles up to relativistic velocities. The relativistic particles can interact with different fields (magnetic or radiation) in the colliding-wind region and produce non-thermal emission. In many cases, non-thermal synchrotron radiation might be observable and thus constitute an indicator of the existence of a relativistic particle population in these multiple systems. To date, the catalogue of PACWBs includes about 40 objects spread over many stellar types and evolutionary stages, with no clear trend pointing to privileged subclasses of objects likely to accelerate particles. This paper aims at discussing critically some criteria for selecting new candidates among massive binaries. The subsequent search for non-thermal radiation in these objects is expected to lead to new detections of particle accelerators. On the basis of this discussion, some broad ideas for observation strategies are formulated. At this stage of the investigation of PACWBs, there is no clear reason to consider particle acceleration in massive binaries as an anomaly or even as a rare phenomenon. We therefore consider that several PACWBs will be detected in the forthcoming years, essentially using sensitive radio interferometers which are capable of measuring synchrotron emission from colliding-wind binaries. Prospects for high-energy detections are also briefly addressed.

  9. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring: I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, L A; Taylor, W; Barbá, R; Bonanos, A; Crowther, P; Damineli, A; de Koter, A; de Mink, S E; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Grin, N J; Hénault-Brunet, V; Langer, N; Lennon, D; Lockwood, S; Apellániz, J Maíz; Moffat, A F J; Neijssel, C; Norman, C; Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Richardson, N D; Schootemeijer, A; Shenar, T; Soszyński, I; Tramper, F; Vink, J S

    2016-01-01

    Massive binaries (MBs) play a crucial role in the Universe and knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters (OPs) is important for a wide range of topics, from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels, from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors. Yet, no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity monitoring of 102 MBs in the 30 Dor. In this paper, we analyse 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined and 31 double-lined spectroscopic binaries. Overall, the OPs and binary fraction are remarkably similar across the 30 Dor region and compared to existing Galactic samples (GSs). This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of MBs. A small difference is found in the distribu...

  10. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orbits of visual binaries and dynamical masses (Malkov+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.; Tamazian, V. S.; Docobo, J. A.; Chulkov, D. A.

    2012-10-01

    To compile the orbit list, we combined data from both OARMAC (catalog of Orbits and Ephemerides of Visual Double Stars) and ORB6 (Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars). At this stage, we maintained systems without parallax, but removed systems without a period / semi-major axis. The resulting list contains 3139 orbits for 2278 pairs: 1588 pairs have a single orbit, 548 pairs have two orbits, 120 pairs have three orbits, 19 pairs have four orbits, one pair has five orbits, and two pairs have seven orbits. Table 1 contains a compiled set (1) of 3139 orbit solutions for visual binary stars. Separate entries are provided for different pairs in multiple systems. Several solutions per pair are possible. Each entry includes main orbital elements (Semi-major axis, period, eccentricity with corresponding uncertainties), indication of multiplicity and number of solutions, as well as visual magnitudes, spectral classes of the components, parallax and interstellar extinction estimate. Table 2 contains a refined set of 652 solely binary systems with reliable orbit and determined parallax. One entry corresponds to one system. 3 masses estimates are provided: 1) Dynamical mass with uncertainty derived from Kepler's third law and trigonometric parallax, 2) Photometric mass estimated from visual magnitudes, parallax and mass-luminosity relation, 3) Spectroscopic mass based on mass-spectrum relation introduced by Straizys V. & Kuriliene G. 1981Ap&SS..80..353S. Main orbital elements, parallax, components magnitudes, spectral classes (2 data files).

  12. Multiple antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria in the littoral zone of Lake Shira as an indicator of human impact on the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobova, Tatiana I; Barkhatov, Yuri V; Salamatina, Ol'ga V; Popova, Lyudmila Yu

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to Ampicillin and Kanamycin displayed by heterotrophic bacteria isolated in Summer and in Spring from the littoral and the central parts of Lake Shira (a therapeutic lake in the Khakasia Republic, Russia) has been investigated. It has been found that in Summer, human and animal microflora featuring multiple antibiotic resistance (to Ampicillin and Kanamycin) predominates in all the studied stations of the littoral zone of the lake. In Spring, concentrations of bacteria featuring multiple antibiotic resistance decrease significantly and bacteria sensitive to antibiotics predominate in the lake. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria of Lake Shira is caused by the input of allochthonous bacteria into the lake; this feature of heterotrophic bacteria of Lake Shira can be used to monitor the impact on the ecosystem made by health resorts.

  13. Binary outcome variables and logistic regression models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua LIU

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often study binary variables that indicate whether or not a specific event,such as remission of depression symptoms,occurs during the study period.The indicator variable Y takes two values,usually coded as one if the event (remission) is present and zero if the event is not present(non-remission).Let p be the probability that the event occurs ( Y =1),then 1-p will be the probability that the event does not occur ( Y =0).

  14. Evolution of binary seeds in collapsing protostellar gas clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsuka, Tatsuya; Tsuribe, Toru; Tanaka, Suguru; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2017-02-01

    We perform 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gas accretion on to the seeds of binary stars to investigate their short-term evolution. Taking into account the dynamically evolving envelope with non-uniform distribution of gas density and angular momentum of accreting flow, our initial condition includes a seed binary and a surrounding gas envelope, modelling the phase of core collapse of gas cloud when the fragmentation has already occurred. We run multiple simulations with different values of initial mass ratio q0 (the ratio of secondary over primary mass) and gas temperature. For our simulation setup, we find a critical value of qc = 0.25 which distinguishes the later evolution of mass ratio q as a function of time. If q0 ≳ qc, the secondary seed grows faster and q increases monotonically towards unity. If q0 ≲ qc, on the other hand, the primary seed grows faster and q is lower than q0 at the end of the simulation. Based on our numerical results, we analytically calculate the long-term evolution of the seed binary including the growth of binary by gas accretion. We find that the seed binary with q0 ≳ qc evolves towards an equal-mass binary star and that with q0 ≲ qc evolves to a binary with an extreme value of q. Binary separation is a monotonically increasing function of time for any q0, suggesting that the binary growth by accretion does not lead to the formation of close binaries.

  15. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  16. Binary Love Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

  17. Binary Love relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  18. Spectroscopic and DFT study of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of sulfamethoxazole in neat and binary solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M C; Sancho, M I; Blanco, S E

    2014-01-24

    The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π(*)). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture.

  19. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.

  20. Constraining the Statistics of Population III Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of approx. 36, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at approx. < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, approx. 50 are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and 50 of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.

  1. Design and optimization of broadband wide-angle antireflection structures for binary diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Waller, Laura; Barbastathis, George

    2010-04-01

    We propose a class of antireflecting structures that can effectively suppress reflections for binary diffractive optics. In this structure, multiple periodic thin films with gradually varying refractive indices are used to shift all reflected diffraction to the transmitted orders. The structure is optimized to operate over broad bands and wide angles using rigorous coupled-wave analysis and genetic algorithms. We validated the structure numerically using finite-difference time-domain methods. The proposed structure may lead to more efficient diffractive devices for applications in thin-film photovoltaic, waveguide coupler, and holographic optical elements.

  2. Entropies of short binary sequences in heart period dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysarz, D; Bettermann, H; van Leeuwen, P

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic aspects of R-R intervals have often been analyzed by means of linear and nonlinear measures. The goal of this study was to analyze binary sequences, in which only the dynamic information is retained, by means of two different aspects of regularity. R-R interval sequences derived from 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of 118 healthy subjects were converted to symbolic binary sequences that coded the beat-to-beat increase or decrease in the R-R interval. Shannon entropy was used to quantify the occurrence of short binary patterns (length N = 5) in binary sequences derived from 10-min intervals. The regularity of the short binary patterns was analyzed on the basis of approximate entropy (ApEn). ApEn had a linear dependence on mean R-R interval length, with increasing irregularity occurring at longer R-R interval length. Shannon entropy of the same sequences showed that the increase in irregularity is accompanied by a decrease in occurrence of some patterns. Taken together, these data indicate that irregular binary patterns are more probable when the mean R-R interval increases. The use of surrogate data confirmed a nonlinear component in the binary sequence. Analysis of two consecutive 24-h ECG recordings for each subject demonstrated good intraindividual reproducibility of the results. In conclusion, quantification of binary sequences derived from ECG recordings reveals properties that cannot be found using the full information of R-R interval sequences.

  3. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  4. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand adherence to multiple evidence-based indicators in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; Heyhoe, Jane; Louch, Gemma; Ingleson, Emma; Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Foy, Robbie

    2016-08-08

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting posing particular implementation challenges. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high-impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. Here, we explore health professionals' perceived determinants of adherence to these indicators, examining the degree to which determinants were indicator-specific or potentially generalisable across indicators. We interviewed 60 general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers in West Yorkshire, the UK, about adherence to four indicators: avoidance of risky prescribing; treatment targets in type 2 diabetes; blood pressure targets in treated hypertension; and anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Interview questions drew upon the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using framework analysis. Professional role and identity and environmental context and resources featured prominently across all indicators whilst the importance of other domains, for example, beliefs about consequences, social influences and knowledge varied across indicators. We identified five meta-themes representing more general organisational and contextual factors common to all indicators. The TDF helped elicit a wide range of reported determinants of adherence to 'high-impact' indicators in primary care. It was more difficult to pinpoint which determinants, if targeted by an implementation strategy, would maximise change. The meta-themes broadly underline the need to align the design of interventions targeting general practices with higher level supports and broader contextual considerations. However, our findings suggest that it is feasible to develop interventions to promote the uptake of different evidence-based indicators which share common features whilst also including

  5. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  6. Misaligned disks in the binary protostar IRS 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent high angular resolution (∼ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 2) ALMA observations of the 1.1 mm continuum and of HCO+ J = 3–2 and HCN J = 3–2 gas toward the binary protostar IRS 43 reveal multiple Keplerian disks that are significantly misaligned (\\gt 60^\\circ ), both in inclination...... and position angle and also with respect to the binary orbital plane. Each stellar component has an associated circumstellar disk while the binary is surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Together with archival VLA measurements of the stellar positions over 25 years, and assuming a circular orbit, we use our...... continuum measurements to determine the binary separation, a=74+/- 4 {au}, and its inclination, i\\lt 30^\\circ . The misalignment in this system suggests that turbulence has likely played a major role in the formation of IRS 43....

  7. Massive Black Hole Binary Mergers in Dynamical Galactic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Waves (GW) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GW from Massive Black Hole (MBH) Binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GW from MBHB, have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW Background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBH and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations ('Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar 'loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disk. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most...

  8. Misaligned Disks in the Binary Protostar IRS 43

    CERN Document Server

    Brinch, Christian; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Nelson, Richard P; Gressel, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Recent high angular resolution ($\\sim$0.2") ALMA observations of the 1.1 mm continuum and of HCO+ J=3-2 and HCN J=3-2 gas towards the binary protostar IRS 43 reveal multiple Keplerian disks which are significantly misaligned ($\\gt$ 60$^\\circ$), both in inclination and position angle and also with respect to the binary orbital plane. Each stellar component has an associated circumstellar disk while the binary is surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Together with archival VLA measurements of the stellar positions over 25 years, and assuming a circular orbit, we use our continuum measurements to determine the binary separation, a = 74 $\\pm$ 4 AU, and its inclination, i $\\lt$ 30$^\\circ$. The misalignment in this system suggests that turbulence has likely played a major role in the formation of IRS 43.

  9. Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.

    Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.

  10. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  11. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Bai, Linyan; Feng, Jianzhong; Lin, Xiaosong; Wang, Li; Xu, Lijun; Ran, Qiyun; Wang, Kui

    2016-04-19

    Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI), which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP) were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS). Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province.

  12. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  13. Formation of discs around super-massive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicovic, Felipe G.; Cuadra, Jorge; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    We model numerically the evolution of 104 M ⊙ turbulent molecular clouds in near-radial infall onto 106 M ⊙, equal-mass supermassive black hole binaries, using a modified version of the SPH code gadget-3. We investigate the different gas structures formed depending on the relative inclination between the binary and the cloud orbits. Our first results indicate that an aligned orbit produces mini-discs around each black hole, almost aligned with the binary; a perpendicular orbit produces misaligned mini-discs; and a counter-aligned orbit produces a circumbinary, counter-rotating ring.

  14. Formation of discs around super-massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goicovic, Felipe G; Sesana, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We model numerically the evolution of $10^4M_\\odot$ turbulent molecular clouds in near-radial infall onto $10^6M_\\odot$, equal-mass super-massive black hole binaries, using a modified version of the SPH code GADGET-3. We investigate the different gas structures formed depending on the relative inclination between the binary and the cloud orbits. Our first results indicate that an aligned orbit produces mini-discs around each black hole, almost aligned with the binary; a perpendicular orbit produces misaligned mini-discs; and a counter-aligned orbit produces a circumbinary, counter-rotating ring.

  15. Searching for Binary Supermassive Black Holes via Variable Broad Emission Line Shifts: Low Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lile; Ju, Wenhua; Rafikov, Roman R; Ruan, John J; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHs) are expected to result from galaxy mergers, and thus are natural byproducts (and probes) of hierarchical structure formation in the Universe. They are also the primary expected source of low-frequency gravitational wave emission. We search for binary BHs using time-variable velocity shifts in broad Mg II emission lines of quasars with multi-epoch observations. First, we inspect velocity shifts of the binary SMBH candidates identified in Ju et al. (2013), using SDSS spectra with an additional epoch of data that lengthens the typical baseline to ~10 yr. We find variations in the line-of-sight velocity shifts over 10 years that are comparable to the shifts observed over 1-2 years, ruling out the binary model for the bulk of our candidates. We then analyze 1438 objects with 8 yr median time baselines, from which we would expect to see velocity shifts >1000 km/s from sub-pc binaries. We find only one object with an outlying velocity of 448 km/s, indicating, based on our mod...

  16. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  17. Rotational mixing in close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Yoon, S -Ch; Brott, I; Glebbeek, E; Verkoulen, M; Pols, O R

    2008-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40 solar mass) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.

  18. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  19. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  20. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  1. SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER AND NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I. III; Spencer, Meghin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tobin, John J., E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-04-10

    We examine the spectroscopic binary population for two massive nearby regions of clustered star formation, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, supplementing the data presented by Tobin et al. with more recent observations and more extensive analysis. The inferred multiplicity fraction up to 10 au based on these observations is 5.3 ± 1.2% for NGC 2264 and 5.8 ± 1.1% for the ONC; these values are consistent with the distribution of binaries in the field in the relevant parameter range. Eight of the multiple systems in the sample have enough epochs to perform an initial fit for the orbital parameters. Two of these sources are double-lined spectroscopic binaries; for them, we determine the mass ratio. Our reanalysis of the distribution of stellar radial velocities toward these clusters presents a significantly better agreement between stellar and gas kinematics than was previously thought.

  2. Spectroscopic Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Kounkel, Marina; Tobin, John J; Mateo, Mario; III., John I Bailey; Spencer, Meghin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the spectroscopic binary population for two massive nearby regions of clustered star formation, the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264, supplementing the data presented by Tobin et al. (2009, 2015) with more recent observations and more extensive analysis. The inferred multiplicity fraction up to 10 AU based on these observations is $5.3\\pm 1.2$% for NGC 2264 and $5.8\\pm 1.1$% for the ONC; they are consistent with the distribution of binaries in the field in the relevant parameter range. Eight of the multiple systems in the sample have enough epochs to make an initial fit for the orbital parameters. Two of these sources are double-lined spectroscopic binaries; for them we determine the mass ratio. Our reanalysis of the distribution of stellar radial velocities towards these clusters presents a significantly better agreement between stellar and gas kinematics than was previously thought.

  3. Toward Complete Statistics of Massive Binary Stars: Penultimate Results from the Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kobulnicky, Henry A; Lundquist, Michael J; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A; Alvarez, Carlos A Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C; Dale, Daniel A; Brotherton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P 45 d, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary properties at P<25 d are determined by local physics of disk/clump fragmentation and are relatively insensitive to environmental and evolutionary factors. Fully 30% of the unbiased parent sample is a binary with period P < 45 d. Completeness corrections imply a binary fraction near 55% for P < 5000 d. The observed distribution of mass ratios 0.2

  4. The binary fractions in the massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1805 and NGC 1818

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2013-01-01

    Using high-resolution data sets obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate the radial distributions of the F-type main-sequence binary fractions in the massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1805 and NGC 1818. We apply both an isochrone-fitting approach and chi^2 minimization using Monte Carlo simulations, for different mass-ratio cut-offs, q, and present a detailed comparison of the methods' performance. Both methods yield the same radial binary fraction profile for the same cluster, which therefore supports the robustness and applicability of either method to young star clusters which are as yet unaffected by the presence of multiple stellar populations. The binary fractions in these two clusters are characterized by opposite trends in their radial profiles. NGC 1805 exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing radius in the central region, followed by a slow increase to the field's binary-fraction level, while NGC 1818 shows a monotonically increasing trend. This may indicate d...

  5. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  6. The Massive Wolf-Rayet Binary HDE318016 (=WR 98)

    CERN Document Server

    Gamen, R C; Gamen, Roberto C.; Niemela, Virpi S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the discovery of OB type absorption lines superimposed to the emission line spectrum, and the first double-lined orbital elements for the massive Wolf-Rayet binary HDE 318016 (=WR 98), a spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit with a period of 47.825 days. The semiamplitudes of the orbital motion of the emission lines differ from line to line, indicating mass ratios between 1 and 1.7 for MWR/MOB.

  7. Fuel poverty in Scotland: refining spatial resolution in the Scottish Fuel Poverty Indicator using a GIS-based multiple risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Colin; Shortt, Niamh

    2008-12-01

    Fuel poverty describes a complex interaction between households with low income and energy inefficiency. The Scottish Executive has charged local Scottish authorities with the task of eradicating fuel poverty by 2016. In order to direct investment and tackle fuel poverty, a local authority must know which areas are more likely to contain fuel poor households. Currently, local area fuel poverty indicators, based on small area statistics, are used to identify target areas. This paper proposes an innovative methodology for refinement of the Scottish Fuel Poverty Indicator using GIS as a framework for integrating census data with georeferenced energy efficiency data on local housing stock. This allows a multi-scale mapping of fuel poverty risk at both a census output area level and an individual dwelling level. The proposed methodology highlights small areas, and households, possibly susceptible to fuel poverty previously masked by the aggregation of statistics to large geographic units.

  8. Insights into the evolution of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina): Barcoding and phylogenetic data from Lake Tanganyika endemics indicate multiple invasions and unsettle existing taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Weier, Tina; de Voogd, Nicole J; Wörheide, Gert; Sutcliffe, Patricia; Todd, Jonathan A; Michel, Ellinor

    2011-10-01

    Sponges are a conspicuous element in many benthic habitats including in Africa's oldest, deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. Despite their prevalence and pivotal ecological role as filter feeders, knowledge of the evolutionary history of sponges is in its infancy. Here, we provide the first molecular analysis targeting the evolution of sponges from Lake Tanganyika. Independent markers indicate the occurrence of several colonisation events which have shaped the current Tanganyikan lacustrine sponge biodiversity. This is in contrast to a range of previously studied organisms that have diversified within the lake from single lineages. Our tree reconstructions indicate the presence of two genera, Oncosclera and Eunapius, which are globally distributed. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis of monophyly for the sponges from Lake Tanganyika and challenge existing higher taxonomic structure for freshwater sponges.

  9. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery.

  10. Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...

  11. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  12. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  13. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  14. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  15. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  16. Spin Correlation in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farbiash, N; Farbiash, Netzach; Steinitz, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We examine the correlation of projected rotational velocities in binary systems. It is an extension of previous work (Steinitz and Pyper, 1970; Levato, 1974). An enlarged data basis and new tests enable us to conclude that there is indeed correlation between the projected rotational velocities of components of binaries. In fact we suggest that spins are already correlated.

  17. Evolutionary Memory in Binary Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Steinitz, N F R

    2004-01-01

    Correlation between the spins (rotational velocities) in binaries has previously been established. We now continue and show that the degree of spin correlation is independent of the components' separation. Such a result might be related for example to Zhang's non-linear model for the formation of binary stars from a nebula.

  18. Correlation of multiple sclerosis (MS incidence trends with solar and geomagnetic indices: Time to revise the method of reporting MS epidemiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Abdollahi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we introduced solar related geomagnetic disturbances (GMD as a potential environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to test probable correlation between solar activities and GMD with long-term variations of MS incidence.After a systematic review, we studied the association betwee n alterations in the solar wind velocity (VSW and planetary A index (AP, a GMD index with MS incidence in Tehran and western Greece, during the 23(rd solar cycle (1996-2008, by an ecological-correlational study.We found moderate to strong correlations among MS incidence of Tehran with VSW (rS = 0.665, P = 0.013, with 1 year delay, and also with AP (rS = 0.864, P = 0.001 with 2 year delay. There were very strong correlations among MS incidence data of Greece with VSW (r = 0.906, P < 0.001 and with AP (r = 0.844, P = 0.001, both with 1 year lag.It is the first time that a hypothesis has introduced an environmental factor that may describe MS incidence alterations; however, it should be reminded that correlation does not mean necessarily the existence of a causal relationship. Important message of these findings for researchers is to provide MS incidence reports with higher resolution for consecutive years, based on the time of disease onset and relapses, not just the time of diagnosis. Then, it would be possible to further investigate the validity of GMD hypothesis or any other probable environmental risk factors.

  19. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients.

  20. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Observatory in California indicated that the object was likely a binary quasar in the midst of a galaxy merger. Carnegie's Mulchaey then used the 6.5 meter Baade-Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas observatory in Chile to obtain deeper images and more detailed spectroscopy of the merging galaxies. "Just because you see two galaxies that are close to each other in the sky doesn't mean they are merging," says Mulchaey. "But from the Magellan images we can actually see tidal tails, one from each galaxy, which suggests that the galaxies are in fact interacting and are in the process of merging." Thomas Cox, now a fellow at the Carnegie Observatories, corroborated this conclusion using computer simulations of the merging galaxies. When Cox's model galaxies merged, they showed features remarkably similar to what Mulchaey observed in the Magellan images. "The model verifies the merger origin for this binary quasar system," he says. "It also hints that this kind of galaxy interaction is a key component of the growth of black holes and production of quasars throughout our universe." * The authors of the paper published in the Astrophysical Journal are Paul J. Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Adam D. Myers of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Wayne A. Barkhouse of the University of North Dakota, John S. Mulchaey of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Vardha N. Bennert of the Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Thomas J. Cox of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Thomas L. Aldcroft of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Joan M. Wrobel of National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  1. Observing binary inspiral with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, L S

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a binary neutron star or black hole system leads to orbital decay and the eventual coalescence of the binary's components. During the last several minutes before the binary components coalesce, the radiation will enter the bandwidth of the United States Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and the French/Italian VIRGO gravitational radiation detector. The combination of detector sensitivity, signal strength, and source density and distribution all point to binary inspiral as the most likely candidate for observation among all the anticipated sources of gravitational radiation for LIGO/VIRGO. Here I review briefly some of the questions that are posed to theorists by the impending observation of binary inspiral.

  2. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  3. Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...

  4. Magnetic activity of interacting binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin A.

    2017-10-01

    Interacting binaries provide unique parameter regimes, both rapid rotation and tidal distortion, in which to test stellar dynamo theories and study the resulting magnetic activity. Close binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been found to differentially rotate, and so can provide testbeds for tidal dissipation efficiency in stellar convective envelopes, with implications for both CV and planet-star evolution. Furthermore, CVs show evidence of preferential emergence of magnetic flux tubes towards the companion star, as well as large, long-lived prominences that form preferentially within the binary geometry. Moreover, RS CVn binaries also show clear magnetic interactions between the two components in the form of coronal X-ray emission. Here, we review several examples of magnetic interactions in different types of close binaries.

  5. Strategy Independent Reduction Lengths in Rewriting and Binary Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Zantema, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give a criterion by which one can conclude that every reduction of a basic term to normal form has the same length. As a consequence, the number of steps to reach the normal form is independent of the chosen strategy. In particular this holds for TRSs computing addition and multiplication of natural numbers, both in unary and binary notation.

  6. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  7. Simple Low-Rate Non-Binary LDPC Coding for Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Suthisopapan, Puripong; Meesomboon, Anupap; Imtawil, Virasit; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2011-01-01

    Binary LDPC coded relay systems have been well studied previously with the assumption of infinite codeword length. In this paper, we deal with non-binary LDPC codes which can outperform their binary counterpart especially for practical codeword length. We utilize non-binary LDPC codes and recently invented non-binary coding techniques known as multiplicative repetition to design the low-rate coding strategy for the decode-and-forward half-duplex relay channel. We claim that the proposed strategy is simple since the destination and the relay can decode with almost the same computational complexity by sharing the same structure of decoder. Numerical experiments are carried out to show that the performances obtained by non-binary LDPC coded relay systems surpass the capacity of direct transmission and also approach within less than 1.5 dB from the achievable rate of the relay channels.

  8. Possible Evidence for Enhanced Seasonality During the Little Ice Age Indicated by Multiple Isotopes from Kepler Lake, South-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyo, A.; Yu, Z.; Bebout, G.

    2008-12-01

    We present multiple-proxy data from two short cores (85 cm and 101 cm) from Kepler Lake, an evaporation- insensitive, groundwater-fed marl lake in South-Central Alaska to reconstruct climate and environmental changes in the recent centuries. The proxies used include calcite C and O isotopes, organic matter (OM) C and N isotopes, and loss on ignition (LOI) analysis. Two cores can be visually correlated based upon LOI results. A 600 year chronology was established based on 3 calibrated AMS 14C dates of terrestrial macrofossils and 210Pb analysis. δ18OVPDB values of inorganic calcite range from - 17.0‰ to -15.7‰, with the highest values between 1470 and 1840 AD during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The relatively high δ18O values during the cold LIA contrast with the conventional temperature interpretation of O isotopes. Therefore, the isotopic shifts around the LIA were likely caused by a shift in atmospheric circulation. A weakening of the wintertime Aleutian Low pressure system residing over the Gulf of Alaska would result in enriched 18O in precipitation as well as a colder winter climate in SC Alaska. During the LIA period CaCO3 contents were elevated by ~15% to >80%. Calcite precipitation in freshwater lakes is primarily a function of summer temperature; we propose that the LIA in SC Alaska represents a period of colder winters and warmer summers. This interpretation is also supported by C isotopes, reflecting aquatic productivity. Both δ13C OM and δ13Ccalcite (relative to VPDB) exhibit relatively high values at 1600 to 1840 AD, after which δ13COM remains constant throughout the rest of the record and δ13Ccalcite declines after the LIA. The delayed increase in δ13C of OM and calcites at 1600 AD may reflect the differential responses of calcite precipitation and aquatic productivity. The negative shift of ~1‰ in δ18O in the 1840s has also been documented in ice cores from Mt. Logan and in marl lake sediments from the southern Yukon, suggesting a broad

  9. Structured Numbers. Properties of a hierarchy of internal operations in binary tress.

    OpenAIRE

    Blondel, Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of operations on (finite and infinite) binary trees. The operations are obtained by successive repetition of one initial operation. The first three operations are generalizations of the operations of addition, multiplication and exponentiation for positive integers.

  10. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  11. Towards Physarum binary adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al. (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show - in computer models - that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate x, y-->xy, x+y and three-input two-output x,y,z-->x yz,x+y+z. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  12. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  13. On the Component Masses of Visual Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninkovic, S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars we found those belonging to the Main Sequence to form a sample containing 432 visual binaries. Their total masses were obtained dynamically, i.e. they were calculated using the orbital elements and the new Hipparcos parallaxes. For the same pairs the total mass was also found astrophysically - by applying the mass-luminosity relation. The apparent magnitudes of the components were found in two different ways: by deriving them from total magnitudes and magnitude differences, and by taking their values directly from a catalogue. The results for these two approaches show no essential discrepancy. The values of total masses obtained dynamically have a large dispersion involving even completely unrealistic values. This is a clear indication that the input data are not sufficiently reliable. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the agreement between total masses obtained by usin two different ways is quite satisfactory indicating that i for many visual binaries, as a rule not too distant and with high-quality orbital elements, the dynamical total masses can be reliable; ii the mass-luminosity relation yields quite satisfactory estimates for the component masses when they belong to the Main Sequence and iii a correlation between the relative parallax error and orbit grade exists.

  14. On the component masses of visual binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars we found those belonging to the Main Sequence to form a sample containing 432 visual binaries. Their total masses were obtained dynamically, i.e. they were calculated using the orbital elements and the new Hipparcos parallaxes. For the same pairs the total mass was also found astrophysically - by applying the mass-luminosity relation. The apparent magnitudes of the components were found in two different ways: by deriving them from total magnitudes and magnitude differences, and by taking their values directly from a catalogue. The results for these two approaches show no essential discrepancy. The values of total masses obtained dynamically have a large dispersion involving even completely unrealistic values. This is a clear indication that the input data are not sufficiently reliable. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the agreement between total masses obtained by us in two different ways is quite satisfactory indicating that i for many visual binaries, as a rule not too distant and with high-quality orbital elements, the dynamical total masses can be reliable; ii the mass-luminosity relation yields quite satisfactory estimates for the component masses when they belong to the Main Sequence and iii a correlation between the relative parallax error and orbit grade exists.

  15. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  16. Complicated Structure of Interacting Young Binary System: Outflows and Gas-Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, M.; Beck, T. L.; Chris, C. J.; Takami, M.

    2014-07-01

    It is important to understand the formation and evolution of the young binary system because many young stars are born in binary or multiple systems. We report recent discovery of binary jet and wind from UY Aur system with high-angular resolution observation by using NIFS (NIR Integral Field Spectrograph) /GEMINI combined with adaptive optics system, Altair. The primary, UY Aur A, reveals widely opened wind while the secondary, UY Aur B, shows small jets in NIR [Fe II] emission. Outflows from low-mass young binary or multiple systems have been observed from a few tens of samples. Outflows are closely related mass accretion. Many simulations show an accretion flow toward the individual circumstellar disks from the outer circumbinary disk as well as a stream bridge between the circumstellar disks. We will discuss how to use TMT and ALMA for anatomy of young binary systems.

  17. Analysis of an incomplete binary outcome derived from frequently recorded longitudinal continuous data: application to daily pain evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunouf, P; Grouin, J-M; Molenberghs, G

    2012-07-10

    Randomized clinical trials increasingly collect daily data, frequently using electronic diaries. Such data are usually summarized into an 'intermediate' continuous outcome (such as the mean of the daily values in a period before a scheduled clinic visit). These are in turn often summarized further into a binary outcome, for example, indicating whether the intermediate continuous outcome has improved by a prespecified amount from randomization. This article compares and contrasts statistical approaches for analyzing such binary outcomes when the underlying study is subject to dropout so that some of the underlying diary data are missing. Such analysis involves rigorous rules for the derivation of outcomes, a thorough data exploration for the selection of covariates, and an elucidation of the missingness mechanism. The investigated statistical methods for treatment-effect analysis are based on direct modeling and on multiple imputation and are applied either to the binary outcome or the intermediate continuous outcome or to the daily diary data. These are compared on the basis of criteria for inferences at prespecified times during the follow-up. We show that multiple-imputation methods are particularly well adapted to our context and that missing data imputation on the daily diary data, rather than the derived outcomes, makes best use of the available information. The data set, which motivated our investigation, comes from a placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect on pain of a new compound.

  18. Multiple indices of soil nitrogen status and temperature regulate microbial C allocation to CO2, substrate choices, and contributions to SOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, S. A.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The response of microbial resource demand to many environmental variables, including temperature and natural organic and inorganic N variability, remains poorly understood. Furthermore, we do not understand how these variables can influence CO2 release vs. C retention in cell walls, which as microbial necromass can generate long-lived soil organic matter (SOM). We explore microbial resource demand and C retention vs. release in one temperate forest and two boreal forests along a climate gradient. We characterized SOM C:N and inorganic N, extracellular enzyme activity (E), and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentration and δ13C. Experimental warming permitted us to assess how interactions between soil N status and warming influence resource demand and C flows through microbes in the two boreal soils. For all soils, we used δ13C of respired CO2 and δ13CPLFA to generate indices of C allocation to biomass vs. to respiratory costs (Δ), useful for cross-site comparisons. Decreasing values of Δ indicate a greater proportion of 13C-enriched C allocated to respiration relative to PLFA-C; changes in Δ with warming or N status thus imply that these variables can influence the physiological mechanisms determining the fate of microbial C after it is imported into the cell. We thus were able to assess the influence of soil N status and warming on substrate decay via E, the fate of microbial C from diverse substrates via Δ, and one index of microbial composition relevant to SOM formation [PLFA]. In all soils, E often varied with N status in ways predicted by stoichiometric theory. For example, the ratio of exo-enzymes associated with labile C decay to those linked to organic N decay (EC:N) increased with inorganic N, and EC:N declined as substrate C:N increased. In contrast to measures of decay, all soils exhibited distinct responses of microbial composition and C allocation to N status and warming. In the temperate forest soils, Gram+ bacteria responded positively to

  19. Dynamical Evolution of Wide Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda H. Mallada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulate numerically encounters of wide binaries with field stars and Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs by means of the impulse approximation. We analyze the time evolution of the distributions of eccentricities and semimajor axes of wide binaries with given initial conditions, at intervals of 109 yr, up to 1010 yr (assumed age of the Galaxy. We compute the fraction of surviving binaries for stellar encounters, for GMC encounters and for a combination of both, and hence, the dynamical lifetime for different semimajor axes and different masses of binaries (0.5, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.5, and 3 Msolar. We find that the dynamical lifetime of wide binaries considering only GMCs is half than that considering only stars. For encounters with GMCs we analyze the influence of the initial inclination of the orbital plane of the binary with respect to the plane perpendicular to the relative velocity vector of the binary and the GMC. We find that the perturbation is maximum when the angle is minimum.

  20. Mapping freshwater deltaic wetlands and aquatic habitats at multiple scales with high-resolution multispectral WorldView-2 imagery and Indicator Species Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C.; Liu, H.; Anenkhonov, O.; Autrey, B.; Chepinoga, V.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing technology has long been used in wetland inventory and monitoring though derived wetland maps were limited in applicability and often unsatisfactory largely due to the relatively coarse spatial resolution of conventional satellite imagery. The advent of high-resolution multispectral satellite systems presents new and exciting capabilities in mapping wetland systems with unprecedented accuracy and spatial detail. This research explores and evaluates the use of high-resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) multispectral imagery in identifying and classifying freshwater deltaic wetland vegetation and aquatic habitats in the Selenga River Delta, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance that drains into Lake Baikal, Russia - a United Nations World Heritage site. A hybrid approach was designed and applied for WV2 image classification consisting of initial unsupervised classification, training data acquisition and analysis, indicator species analysis, and final supervised classification. A hierarchical scheme was defined and adopted for classifying aquatic habitats and wetland vegetation at genus and community levels at a fine scale, while at a coarser scale representing wetland systems as broad substrate and vegetation classes for regional comparisons under various existing wetland classification systems. Rigorous radiometric correction of WV2 images and orthorectification based on GPS-derived ground control points and an ASTER global digital elevation model resulted in 2- to 3-m positional accuracy. We achieved overall classification accuracy of 86.5% for 22 classes of wetland and aquatic habitats at the finest scale and >91% accuracy for broad vegetation and aquatic classes at more generalized scales. At the finest scale, the addition of four new WV2 spectral bands contributed to a classification accuracy increase of 3.5%. The coastal band of WV2 was found to increase the separation between different open water and aquatic habitats, while yellow, red-edge, and

  1. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  2. Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ∼70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ∼10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.

  3. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  4. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  5. Binary module test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

  6. Anoxia duirng the Late Permian Binary Mass Extinction and Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Samar; Abbas, Afsar; Mohanty, Shukadev

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence quite convincingly indicates that the Late Permian biotic crisis was in fact a binary extinction with a distinct end-Guadalupian extinction pulse preceding the major terminal end-Permian Tartarian event by 5 million years. In addition anoxia appears to be closely associated with each of these end-Paleozoic binary extinctions. Most leading models cannot explain both anoxia and the binary characteristic of this crisis. In this paper we show that the recently proposed volcanogeni...

  7. Properties of the components in young binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas, Jens

    1999-10-01

    Using near-infrared speckle-interferometry we have obtained resolved JHK-photometry for the components of 58 young binary systems. By placing the components into a color-color diagram we identify some unusual red objects that are candidates for infrared companions or substellar objects. We place a subsample that consists of the components of 14 weak-lined TTS systems (where no significant circumstellar excess emission is expected) into a color-magnitude diagram and show that in all these systems the components are coeval within the uncertainties. Particularly this is the case for the triple system HBC 358. Using the J-magnitude as an indicator for the stellar luminosity, the optical spectral type of the system and the previously justified assumption that all components are coeval we can place the components into the HRD and derive their masses by comparison with theoretical pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks. The results are the following: The distribution of mass ratios is neither clustered towards M2 / M1 = 1 nor is it a function of the primary's mass or the components' projected separation. Comparison of these results with predictions of theoretical multiple star formation models suggests that most of the systems have formed by fragmentation during protostellar collapse, and that the components' masses are principally determined by fragmentation and not by the following accretion processes. Furthermore the infrared source HV Tau C is discussed using new observational data. We show that this source is no Herbig-Haro object, but an active T Tauri star. So the HV Tau-system does not impose a problem on current models of T Tauri stars and their environment. From relative positions of the components at different epochs we derive their relative velocities and show that in most close systems orbital motion can be proved. The analysis of this orbital motion leads to an empirical mass estimate for T Tauri-stars which is larger than the masses one would expect from the

  8. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  9. Binary progenitor models of type IIb supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Claeys, J S W; Pols, O R; Eldridge, J J; Baes, M

    2011-01-01

    Massive stars that lose their hydrogen-rich envelope down to a few tenths of a solar mass explode as extended type IIb supernovae, an intriguing subtype that links the hydrogen-rich type II supernovae with the hydrogen-poor type Ib and Ic. The progenitors may be very massive single stars that lose their envelope due to their stellar wind, but mass stripping due to interaction with a companion star in a binary system is currently considered to be the dominant formation channel. We computed an extensive grid of binary models with the Eggleton binary evolution code. The predicted rate from our standard models, which assume conservative mass transfer, is about 6 times smaller than the current rate indicated by observations. It is larger but still comparable to the rate expected from single stars. To recover the observed rate we must generously allow for uncertainties and low accretion efficiencies in combination with limited angular momentum loss from the system. Motivated by the claims of detection and non-detec...

  10. Observational Signatures of Binary Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Roedig, Constanze; Miller, M Coleman

    2014-01-01

    Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary AGN. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength $\\lambda_n$ at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches $\\propto \\lambda_n^{16/3}$; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A sec...

  11. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  12. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  13. Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, L.

    We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.

  14. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  15. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  16. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  17. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  18. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  19. Mass-transfer in close binary and their companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Zhu, Liying; Li, Linjia

    2016-07-01

    Secular and/or cyclical orbital period variations of close binaries can be derived by analyzing the (O-C) diagram. The secular variations are usually explained as mass transfer between components, while the most plausible explanation of the cyclic period changes is the light-travel time effect (LTTE) through the presence of a third body. Mass transfer and additional companions in close binary systems are important for understanding the formation and evolution of the systems. Here, UV light curves of several close binaries based on the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) observations are presented and analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) method. Then, based on those light-curve solutions and new analysis of the orbital period variations, the multiplicity, geometrical structure and evolution state of targets are discussed.

  20. A Quintuple Star System Containing Two Eclipsing Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaport, S; Kalomeni, B; Borkovits, T; Latham, D; Bieryla, A; Ngo, H; Mawet, D; Howell, S; Horch, E; Jacobs, T L; LaCourse, D; Sodor, A; Vanderburg, A; Pavlovski, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11" on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09", while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The 'A' binary is circular with a 5.1-day period, while the 'B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-day period. The gamma velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ~10 km/s. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09", indicates that the orbital period and separation of the 'C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ~65 years and ~25 AU, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e., 21...

  1. ON THE LIKELIHOOD OF PLANET FORMATION IN CLOSE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah, E-mail: hjangcon@uwyo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, 1000 East University, Department 3905, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To date, several exoplanets have been discovered orbiting stars with close binary companions (a ≲ 30 AU). The fact that planets can form in these dynamically challenging environments implies that planet formation must be a robust process. The initial protoplanetary disks in these systems from which planets must form should be tidally truncated to radii of a few AU, which indicates that the efficiency of planet formation must be high. Here, we examine the truncation of circumstellar protoplanetary disks in close binary systems, studying how the likelihood of planet formation is affected over a range of disk parameters. If the semimajor axis of the binary is too small or its eccentricity is too high, the disk will have too little mass for planet formation to occur. However, we find that the stars in the binary systems known to have planets should have once hosted circumstellar disks that were capable of supporting planet formation despite their truncation. We present a way to characterize the feasibility of planet formation based on binary orbital parameters such as stellar mass, companion mass, eccentricity, and semimajor axis. Using this measure, we can quantify the robustness of planet formation in close binaries and better understand the overall efficiency of planet formation in general.

  2. A quintuple star system containing two eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, S.; Lehmann, H.; Kalomeni, B.; Borkovits, T.; Latham, D.; Bieryla, A.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Howell, S.; Horch, E.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Sódor, Á.; Vanderburg, A.; Pavlovski, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11 arcsec on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09 arcsec, while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The `A' binary is circular with a 5.1-d period, while the `B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-d period. The γ velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ˜10 km s-1. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09 arcsec, indicates that the orbital period and separation of the `C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ≃65 yr and ≃25 au, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e. 212651213) has an RV and proper motion that differ from that of 212651234 by only ˜1.4 km s-1 and ˜3 mas yr-1. This set of similar space velocities in three dimensions strongly implies that these two objects are also physically bound, making this at least a quintuple star system.

  3. RAPID ORBITAL DECAY IN THE 12.75-MINUTE BINARY WHITE DWARF J0651+2844

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mukadam, Anjum S., E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We report the detection of orbital decay in the 12.75-minute, detached binary white dwarf (WD) SDSS J065133.338+284423.37 (hereafter J0651). Our photometric observations over a 13 month baseline constrain the orbital period to 765.206543(55) s and indicate that the orbit is decreasing at a rate of (- 9.8 {+-} 2.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s s{sup -1} (or -0.31 {+-} 0.09 ms yr{sup -1}). We revise the system parameters based on our new photometric and spectroscopic observations: J0651 contains two WDs with M{sub 1} = 0.26 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 2} = 0.50 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }. General relativity predicts orbital decay due to gravitational wave radiation of (- 8.2 {+-} 1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s s{sup -1} (or -0.26 {+-} 0.05 ms yr{sup -1}). Our observed rate of orbital decay is consistent with this expectation. J0651 is currently the second-loudest gravitational wave source known in the milli-Hertz range and the loudest non-interacting binary, which makes it an excellent verification source for future missions aimed at directly detecting gravitational waves. Our work establishes the feasibility of monitoring this system's orbital period decay at optical wavelengths.

  4. Relação de risco como indicador do número de animais necessário no mapeamento genético de características binárias complexas em bovinos Risk ratio as indicator of the number of animals necessary for genetic mapping of complex binary traits in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thaler Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de simulação de dados objetiva avaliar a relação de risco (lambda R como indicador do número de animais genotipados necessário para o mapeamento genético de características binárias, tais como a mastite bovina. Dados foram simulados para diferentes prevalências, modelos genéticos e seus parâmetros, em famílias com aproximadamente cinco meios-irmãos afetados. Analisaram os dados gerados em pares de meios-irmãos afetados ("affected sib pairs analysis". O número necessário de famílias genotipadas aumenta com a prevalência, enquanto os valores de lambda R decrescem, validando lambdaR como indicador do número de animais necessário para o mapeamento para diferentes prevalências. São necessárias mais famílias para características dominantes em relação às recessivas. Penetrância incompleta exerce pouca influência, enquanto fenocópias aumentam o número necessário de animais. Um segundo locus diminui o poder de detecção de genes, especialmente em modelos com heterogeneidade de locus. Pode-se concluir que lambda R é indicador útil para determinar o número de animais necessários em experimentos de mapeamento genético com famílias de meios-irmãos.The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the suitability of risk ratio (lambda R as indicator of the number of genotyped animals necessary for mapping genes for binary traits, such as mastitis in cattle. Data were simulated for different prevalences, genetic models and parameters of these, in families with five affected halfsibs in average. The data were analyzed with methodology of "affected sib pairs". The number of genotyped halfsib families needed increase with the prevalence. As risk ratio is lower with higher prevalences, lambda R is an adequate indicator for comparing power for traits with different prevalences. The number of animals needed was substantially higher for dominant as for recessive traits. Incomplete penetrance had little

  5. The influence of binaries on galactic chemical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    De Donder, E; Donder, Erwin De; Vanbeveren, Dany

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the galaxy in which we live is one of the great intellectual challenges facing modern science. With the advent of high quality observational data, the chemical evolution modeling of our galaxy has been the subject of numerous studies in the last years. However, all these studies have one missing element which is the evolution of close binaries. Reason: their evolution is very complex and single stars only perhaps can do the job. (Un)Fortunately at present we know that the majority of the observed stars are members of a binary or multiple system and that certain objects can only be formed through binary evolution. Therefore galactic studies that do not account for close binary evolution may be far from realistic. Because of the large expertise developed through the years in stellar evolution in general and binary evolution in particular at the Brussels Astrophysical Institute, we found ourselves in a privileged position to be the first to do chemical evolutionary simulations with the inclusion of...

  6. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  7. The Effect of Novel Binary Accelerator System on Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Kamoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties, curing characteristics, and swelling behaviour of vulcanized natural rubber with a novel binary accelerator system are investigated. Results indicate that the mechanical properties were improved. Crosslinking density of vulcanized natural rubber was measured by equilibrium swelling method. As a result, the new binary accelerator was found to be able to improve both cure rate and crosslinking density. Using the numerical analysis of test interaction between binary accelerator and operational modelling of vulcanization-factors experiments, it can be concluded that the interaction (Cystine, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide was significant and the optimum value of binary accelerator was suggested, respectively, at levels 0 and +1.

  8. Binary Encodings of Non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems: Algorithms and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, N; 10.1613/jair.1776

    2011-01-01

    A non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) can be solved directly using extended versions of binary techniques. Alternatively, the non-binary problem can be translated into an equivalent binary one. In this case, it is generally accepted that the translated problem can be solved by applying well-established techniques for binary CSPs. In this paper we evaluate the applicability of the latter approach. We demonstrate that the use of standard techniques for binary CSPs in the encodings of non-binary problems is problematic and results in models that are very rarely competitive with the non-binary representation. To overcome this, we propose specialized arc consistency and search algorithms for binary encodings, and we evaluate them theoretically and empirically. We consider three binary representations; the hidden variable encoding, the dual encoding, and the double encoding. Theoretical and empirical results show that, for certain classes of non-binary constraints, binary encodings are a competitive op...

  9. Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Poryadin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system

  10. High-mass X-ray binaries and OB runaway stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, L.; van der Meer, A.; Tijani, A.H.; Allen, C.; Scarfe, C.

    2004-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) represent an important phase in the evolution of massive binary systems and provide fundamental information on the properties of the OB-star primaries and their compact secondaries (neutron star, black hole). Recent observations indicate that the neutron stars in som

  11. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  12. Binary droplet collision at high Weber number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kuo-Long; Chou, Ping-Chung; Tseng, Yu-Jen

    2009-09-01

    By using the techniques developed for generating high-speed droplets, we have systematically investigated binary droplet collision when the Weber number (We) was increased from the range usually tested in previous studies on the order of 10 to a much larger value of about 5100 for water (a droplet at 23 m/s with a diameter of 0.7 mm). Various liquids were also used to explore the effects of viscosity and surface tension. Specifically, beyond the well-known regimes at moderate We's, which exhibited coalescence, separation, and separation followed by satellite droplets, we found different behaviors showing a fingering lamella, separation after fingering, breakup of outer fingers, and prompt splattering into multiple secondary droplets as We was increased. The critical Weber numbers that mark the boundaries between these impact regimes are identified. The specific impact behaviors, such as fingering and prompt splattering or splashing, share essential similarity with those also observed in droplet-surface impacts, whereas substantial variations in the transition boundaries may result from the disparity of the boundary conditions at impacts. To compare the outcomes of both types of collisions, a simple model based on energy conservation was carried out to predict the maximum diameter of an expanding liquid disk for a binary droplet collision. The results oppose the dominance of viscous drag, as proposed by previous studies, as the main deceleration force to effect a Rayleigh-Taylor instability and ensuing periphery fingers, which may further lead to the formations of satellite droplets.

  13. Multiwavelength Studies of gamma-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Christina

    2011-01-01

    High mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) consist of an O or B star orbited by either a neutron star or a black hole. Of the 114 known Galactic HMXBs, a handful of these objects, dubbed gamma-ray binaries, have been observed to produce MeV-TeV emission. The very high energy emission can be produced either by accretion from the stellar wind onto a black hole or a collision between the stellar wind and a relativistic pulsar wind. Both these scenarios make gamma-ray binaries valuable nearby systems for studying the physics of shocks and jets. Currently, the nature of the compact object and the high energy production mechanism is unknown or unconfirmed in over half of these systems. My goal for this dissertation is to constrain the parameters describing two of these systems: LS 5039 and HD 259440. LS 5039 exhibits gamma-ray emission modulated with its orbital period. The system consists of an ON6.5V((f)) star and an unidentified compact companion. Using optical spectra from the CTIO 1.5m telescope, we found LS 5039 to have an orbital period of 3.90608 d and an eccentricity of 0.337. Spectra of the Halpha line observed with SOAR indicate a mass loss rate of ˜ 1.9x10 -8 M yr-1. Observations taken with ATCA at 13 cm, 6 cm, and 3 cm indicate radio fluxes between 10--40 mJy. The measurements show variability with time, indicating a source other than thermal emission from the stellar wind. HD 259440 is a B0pe star that was proposed as the optical counterpart to the gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057. Using optical spectra from the KPNO CF, KPNO 2.1m, and OHP telescopes, we find a best fit stellar effective temperature of 27500--30000 K, a log surface gravity of 3.75--4.0, a mass of 13.2--19.0 Msolar, and a radius of 6.0--9.6 Rsolar. By fitting the spectral energy distribution, we find a distance between 1.1--1.7 kpc. We do not detect any significant radial velocity shifts in our data, ruling out orbital periods shorter than one month. If HD 259440 is a binary, it is likely a long

  14. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. II. 2165 Eclipsing Binaries in the Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Slawson, Robert W; Welsh, William F; Orosz, Jerome A; Rucker, Michael; Batalha, Natalie M; Doyle, Laurance R; Engle, Scott G; Conroy, Kyle; Coughlin, Jared; Gregg, Trevor Ames; Fetherolf, Tara; Short, Donald R; Windmiller, Gur; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Uddin, Kamal; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shawn E; Thompson, Susan E; Sanderfer, Dwight T; Borucki, William; Koch, David

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission provides nearly continuous monitoring of ~156 000 objects with unprecedented photometric precision. Coincident with the first data release, we presented a catalog of 1879 eclipsing binary systems identified within the 115 square degree Kepler FOV. Here, we provide an updated catalog augmented with the second Kepler data release which increases the baseline nearly 4-fold to 125 days. 386 new systems have been added, ephemerides and principle parameters have been recomputed. We have removed 42 previously cataloged systems that are now clearly recognized as short-period pulsating variables and another 58 blended systems where we have determined that the Kepler target object is not itself the eclipsing binary. A number of interesting objects are identified. We present several exemplary cases: 4 EBs that exhibit extra (tertiary) eclipse events; and 8 systems that show clear eclipse timing variations indicative of the presence of additional bodies bound in the system. We have updated the period a...

  15. Stellar and circumstellar properties of visual binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, S; Reipurth, B; Zinnecker, H; Daemgen, S; Petr-Gotzens, M G; Koehler, R; Ratzka, Th; Aspin, C; Konopacky, Q M; Ghez, A M

    2013-01-01

    Our general understanding of multiple star and planet formation is primarily based on observations of young multiple systems in low density regions like Tau-Aur and Oph. Since many, if not most, of the stars are born in clusters, observational constraints from young binaries in those environments are fundamental for understanding both the formation of multiple systems and planets in multiple systems throughout the Galaxy. We build upon the largest survey for young binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) which is based on Hubble Space Telescope observations to derive both stellar and circumstellar properties of newborn binary systems in this cluster environment. We present Adaptive Optics spatially-resolved JHKL'-band photometry and K-band R$\\sim$\\,5000 spectra for a sample of 8 ONC binary systems from this database. We characterize the stellar properties of binary components and obtain a census of protoplanetary disks through K-L' color excess. For a combined sample of ONC binaries including 7 additional s...

  16. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  17. Marangoni Convection in Binary Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Oron, A; Behringer, Robert P.; Oron, Alexander; Zhang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of sodium chloride/water, we have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadowgraph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stage and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes i...

  18. Evaporative Instability in Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ranga; Uguz, Erdem

    2012-11-01

    In this talk we depict the physics of evaporative convection for binary systems in the presence of surface tension gradient effects. Two results are of importance. The first is that a binary system, in the absence of gravity, can generate an instability only when heated from the vapor side. This is to be contrasted with the case of a single component where instability can occur only when heated from the liquid side. The second result is that a binary system, in the presence of gravity, will generate an instability when heated from either the vapor or the liquid side provided the heating is strong enough. In addition to these results we show the conditions at which interfacial patterns can occur. Support from NSF OISE 0968313, Partner Univ. Fund and a Chateaubriand Fellowship is acknowledged.

  19. Black Hole Binaries in Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    I discuss some of what is known and unknown about the behavior of black hole binary systems in the quiescent accretion state. Quiescence is important for several reasons: 1) the dominance of the companion star in the optical and IR wavelengths allows the binary parameters to be robustly determined - as an example, we argue that the longer proposed distance to the X-ray source GRO J1655-40 is correct; 2) quiescence represents the limiting case of an extremely low accretion rate, in which both accretion and jets can be observed; 3) understanding the evolution and duration of the quiescent state is a key factor in determining the overall demographics of X-rary binaries, which has taken on a new importance in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  20. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  1. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  2. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  3. Coupled parametric processes in binary nonlinear photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Saygin, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    We study parametric interactions in a new type of nonlinear photonic structures, which is realized in the vicinity of a pair of nonlinear crystals. In this kind of structure, which we call binary, multiple nonlinear optical processes can be implemented simultaneously, owing to multiple phase-matching conditions, fulfilled separately in the constituent crystals. The coupling between the nonlinear processes by means of modes sharing similar frequency is attained by the spatially-broadband nature of the parametric fields. We investigate the spatial properties of the fields generated in the binary structure constructed from periodically poled crystals for the two examples: 1) single parametric down-conversion, and 2) coupled parametric down-conversion and up-conversion processes. The efficacy of the fields' generation in these examples is analyzed through comparison with the cases of traditional single periodically poled crystal and aperiodic photonic structure, respectively. It has been shown that the relative s...

  4. Toward Complete Statistics of Massive Binary Stars: Penultimate Results from the Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, Daniel C.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Vargas Álvarez, Carlos A.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M.

    2014-08-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P power law provides a statistically compelling prescription, but if features are ignored, a power law with exponent β ~= -0.22 provides a crude approximation over P = 1.4-2000 days, as does a piece-wise linear function with a break near 45 days. The cumulative period distribution flattens at P > 45 days, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary properties at P period P < 45 days. Completeness corrections imply a binary fraction near 55% for P < 5000 days. The observed distribution of mass ratios 0.2 < q < 1 is consistent with uniform, while the observed distribution of eccentricities 0.1 < e < 0.6 is consistent with uniform plus an excess of e ~= 0 systems. We identify six stars, all supergiants, that exhibit aperiodic velocity variations of ~30 km s-1 attributed to atmospheric fluctuations.

  5. Evidence for compact binary systems around Kepler red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colman, Isabel L.; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of 168 oscillating red giants from NASA's Kepler mission that exhibit anomalous peaks in their Fourier amplitude spectra. These peaks result from ellipsoidal variations that are indicative of binary star systems, at frequencies such that the orbit of any stellar companion w...

  6. Hopping in a supercooled binary Lennard-Jones liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, Jeppe

    1998-01-01

    A binary Lennard–Jones liquid has been investigated by molecular dynamics at equilibrium supercooled conditions. At the lowest temperature investigated, hopping is present in the system as indicated by a secondary peak in 4r2Gs(r,t), where Gs(r,t) is the van Hove self correlation function...

  7. Binary Sequences from a Pair of Elliptic Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhixiong; ZHANG Ning; XIAO Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    A family of binary sequences were constructed by using an elliptic curve and its twisted curves over finite fields. It was shown that these sequences possess "good" cryptographic properties of 0-1 distribution, long period and large linear complexity. The results indicate that such sequences provide strong potential applications in cryptography.

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  9. Strategy Independent Reduction Lengths in Rewriting and Binary Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Zantema

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a criterion by which one can conclude that every reduction of a basic term to normal form has the same length. As a consequence, the number of steps to reach the normal form is independent of the chosen strategy. In particular this holds for TRSs computing addition and multiplication of natural numbers, both in unary and binary notation.

  10. MEASURING C PROGRAM COVERAGE BASED ON BINARY DECISION DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Liang; Xu Baowen; Chen Lin

    2005-01-01

    Test coverage analysis is a structural testing technique, which helps to evaluate the sufficiency of software testing. This letter presents two test generation algorithms based on binary decision diagrams to produce tests for the Multiple-Condition Criterion(M-CC) and the Modified Condition/Decision Criterion(MC/DC), and describes the design of the C program Coverage Measurement Tool (CCMT), which can record dynamic behaviors of C programs and quantify test coverage.

  11. A simple method of constructing binary black hole initial data

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    By applying a parabolic-hyperbolic formulation of constraint equations and superposing Kerr-Schild black holes, a simple method is introduced to initialize time evolution of binary black hole systems. In constructing the initial data no use of boundary conditions in the strong field regime is made. The proposed new method offers a direct control on the ADM parameters of the composite system, and it could also be applied to construct initial data for multiple black holes.

  12. Light curve solutions of the ultrashort-period $Kepler$ binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjurkchieva, Diana

    2015-01-01

    We carried out light curve solutions of the ultrashort-period binaries with MS components observed by $Kepler$. All six targets turned out almost in thermal contact with contact or slightly overcontact configurations. Two of them, KID 4921906 and KID 6309193, are not eclipsing but reveal ellipsoidal and spot variability. One of the components of KID 8108785 exhibits inherent, quasi-sinusoidal, small-amplitude variability. KID 12055255 turned out a very rare case of ultrashort-period overcontact binary consisting of two M dwarfs. Our modeling indicated that the variability of KID 9532219 is due to eclipses but not to $\\delta$ Sct pulsations as it was previously supposed.

  13. Near-Infrared Polarimetry of the GG Tauri A Binary System

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Yoichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; McElwain, Michael W; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Mayama, Satoshi; Currie, Thayne; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    A high angular resolution near-infrared polarized-intensity image of the GG Tau A binary system was obtained with the Subaru Telescope. The image shows the circumbinary disk scattering the light from the central binary. The azimuthal profile of the polarized intensity of the circumbinary disk is roughly reproduced by a simple disk model with the Henyey-Greenstein function and the Rayleigh function, indicating small dust grains at the surface of the disk. Combined with a previous observation of the circumbinary disk, our image indicates that the gap structure in the circumbinary disk orbits anti-clockwise, while material in the disk orbit clockwise. We propose a shadow of material located between the central binary and the circumbinary disk. The separations and position angles of the stellar components of the binary in the past 20 years are consistent with the binary orbit with a = 33.4 AU and e = 0.34.

  14. THE EFFECT OF UNRESOLVED BINARIES ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER PROPER-MOTION DISPERSION PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchini, P.; Norris, M. A.; Ven, G. van de; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bellini, A.; Marel, R. P. van der; Watkins, L. L.; Anderson, J., E-mail: bianchini@mpia.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    High-precision kinematic studies of globular clusters (GCs) require an accurate knowledge of all possible sources of contamination. Among other sources, binary stars can introduce systematic biases in the kinematics. Using a set of Monte Carlo cluster simulations with different concentrations and binary fractions, we investigate the effect of unresolved binaries on proper-motion dispersion profiles, treating the simulations like Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion samples. Since GCs evolve toward a state of partial energy equipartition, more-massive stars lose energy and decrease their velocity dispersion. As a consequence, on average, binaries have a lower velocity dispersion, since they are more-massive kinematic tracers. We show that, in the case of clusters with high binary fractions (initial binary fractions of 50%) and high concentrations (i.e., closer to energy equipartition), unresolved binaries introduce a color-dependent bias in the velocity dispersion of main-sequence stars of the order of 0.1–0.3 km s{sup −1} (corresponding to 1%−6% of the velocity dispersion), with the reddest stars having a lower velocity dispersion, due to the higher fraction of contaminating binaries. This bias depends on the ability to distinguish binaries from single stars, on the details of the color–magnitude diagram and the photometric errors. We apply our analysis to the HSTPROMO data set of NGC 7078 (M15) and show that no effect ascribable to binaries is observed, consistent with the low binary fraction of the cluster. Our work indicates that binaries do not significantly bias proper-motion velocity-dispersion profiles, but should be taken into account in the error budget of kinematic analyses.

  15. CAF\\'E-BEANS: An exhaustive hunt for high-mass binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Negueruela, I; Simón-Díaz, S; Alfaro, E J; Herrero, A; Alonso, J; Barbá, R; Lorenzo, J; Marco, A; Monguió, M; Morrell, N; Pellerin, A; Sota, A; Walborn, N R

    2014-01-01

    CAF\\'E-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAF\\'E-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.

  16. Binary stars in the RAVE survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwitter T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We searched the sample of RAVE survey spectra for both types of spectroscopic binary stars in order to estimate their number in the sample and perform a study on newly discovered binaries.

  17. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Orosz, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Peters, G. J., E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  18. Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, Franck; Emery, J. P.; Iglesias, J.; Pollock, J.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Michalowski, T.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.

    2008-01-01

    To date, 162 asteroids are known to be binary or multiple systems. Insights, such as the size and shape of their components, the nature of their surface, their bulk density are the key to understanding how these multiple asteroidal systems formed. We obtained 19.9h of observations using the Spitzer/

  19. Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, Franck; Emery, J. P.; Iglesias, J.; Pollock, J.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Michalowski, T.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.

    2008-01-01

    To date, 162 asteroids are known to be binary or multiple systems. Insights, such as the size and shape of their components, the nature of their surface, their bulk density are the key to understanding how these multiple asteroidal systems formed. We obtained 19.9h of observations using the Spitzer/

  20. Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, Franck; Emery, J. P.; Iglesias, J.; Pollock, J.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Michalowski, T.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.

    2008-01-01

    To date, 162 asteroids are known to be binary or multiple systems. Insights, such as the size and shape of their components, the nature of their surface, their bulk density are the key to understanding how these multiple asteroidal systems formed. We obtained 19.9h of observations using the

  1. Review of candidates of binary systems with an RR Lyrae component

    CERN Document Server

    Skarka, Marek; Zejda, Miloslav; Mikulášek, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview and current status of research on RR Lyrae stars in binary systems. In present days the number of binary candidates has steeply increased and suggested that multiple stellar systems with an RR Lyrae component is much higher than previously thought. We discuss the probability of their detection using various observing methods, compare recent results regarding selection effects, period distribution, proposed orbital parameters and the Blazhko effect.

  2. Eclipsing Binary Science through the Monocle of Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Eclipsing Binary Working Group

    2013-07-01

    The notable success of space-borne missions such as MOST, CoRoT and Kepler triggered a surge of exciting new results in stellar astrophysics, ranging from asteroseismology, discoveries of new subclasses of objects such as heartbeat stars, to the literal firehose of extrasolar planets. The nearly continuous observing mode and an unprecedented photometric precision provide us with data that challenge even the most sophisticated models. Eclipsing binary stars play a major role since their accurate modeling provides fundamental stellar parameters (masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities) across the H-R diagram by relying on the uniquely favorable geometry that alleviates the need for any calibrations. NASA's Kepler mission is particularly well suited for the study of binaries; the ~10-ppm precision and the ~105-square degree field of view yield a sample of ~2500 eclipsing systems of varying types and morphologies, that have been observed uninterruptedly for 4 years in a row. I will present statistical results of the complete set of Kepler eclipsing binaries, including the distributions of the periods, galactic latitudes, morphologies, orbital properties and fundamental stellar parameters. The mission provided us with ground-breaking observations of multiple components through the measurements of eclipse timing variations. I will emphasize the pioneering efforts to detect and analyze stellar and substellar tertiaries orbiting binary stars and explore the implications of multiplicity on the evolution of these systems. Several theoretical aspects of reliable modeling still elude our grasp, and I will provide a theorist's perspective of the direction that our field might take in the next several years. Lastly, I will focus on a few notable "head-scratchers", systems that deserve special attention because of their uniqueness and/or general importance to astrophysics. This presentation will encapsulate the results based on the work and dedication of the entire Kepler

  3. Two Normal Basis Multiplication Algorithms for GF(2n)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Haining; LIU Duo; DAI Yiqi

    2006-01-01

    For software implementations, word-level normal basis multiplication algorithms utilize the full data-path of the processor, and hence are more efficient than the bit-level multiplication algorithm presented in the IEEE standard P1363-2000. In this paper, two word-level normal basis multiplication algorithms are proposed for GF(2n). The first algorithm is suitable for high complexity normal bases, while the second algorithm is fast for type-Ⅰ optimal normal bases and low complexity normal bases. Theoretical analyses and experimental results both indicate that the presented algorithms are efficient in GF(2233), GF(2283), GF(2409),and GF(2571), which are four of the five binary fields recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) applications.

  4. PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ASTEROSEISMIC BINARIES IN KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Farmer, R.; Kolb, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Girardi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Université Paris XI, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-03-20

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single light curve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ''asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution (IMRD) of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibration of the much debated IMRD near mass ratio unity.

  5. Prospects for detecting asteroseismic binaries in Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Miglio, A; Farmer, R; Kolb, U; Girardi, L; Elsworth, Y; Appourchaux, T; Handberg, R

    2014-01-01

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single lightcurve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ``asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibrati...

  6. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  7. Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves Generated by Compact Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, E F D

    2015-01-01

    Binary Systems are the most studied sources of gravitational waves. The mechanisms of emission and the behavior of the orbital parameters are well known and can be written in analytic form in several cases. Besides, the strongest indication of the existence of gravitational waves has arisen from the observation of binary systems. On the other hand, when the detection of gravitational radiation becomes a reality, one of the observed pattern of the signals will be probably of stochastic background nature, which are characterized by a superposition of signals emitted by many sources around the universe. Our aim here is to develop an alternative method of calculating such backgrounds emitted by cosmological compact binary systems during their periodic or quasiperiodic phases. We use an analogy with a problem of Statistical Mechanics in order to perform this sum as well as taking into account the temporal variation of the orbital parameters of the systems. Such a kind of background is of particular importance sinc...

  8. Activities of binary baths with 1% solute as standard states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The relationships of activities with 1% solute as standard state and mass fraction of solute, and hot-dip temperature, were given on the base of Miedema's model, Tanaka expression, some basic thermodynamic relationships; and discussion was carried out on Zn-Mn and Zn-Ti binary alloys by calculation, in which varied colors can be achieved on the hot-dip steel sheets. The results indicate that the activity of solute shows positive deviation relative to Henry's law for both Zn-Mn and Zn-Ti binary dilute solution. The degree of deviation increases with increasing solute and decreases with increasing bath temperature. As the solution is very dilute solution (w(Mn)≤40% for Zn-Mn alloy,w(Ti)≤8% for Zn-Ti alloy), the two binary baths can all be treated as ideal dilute solutions.

  9. Early-type Eclipsing Binaries at Intermediate Orbital Periods

    CERN Document Server

    Moe, Maxwell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze 221 eclipsing binaries (EBs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud with B-type main-sequence (MS) primaries ($M_1$ $\\approx$ 4 - 14 M$_{\\odot}$) and orbital periods $P$ = 20 - 50 days that were photometrically monitored by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. We utilize our three-stage automated pipeline to (1) classify all 221 EBs, (2) fit physical models to the light curves of 130 detached well-defined EBs from which unique parameters can be determined, and (3) recover the intrinsic binary statistics by correcting for selection effects. We uncover two statistically significant trends with age. First, younger EBs tend to reside in dustier environments with larger photometric extinctions, an empirical relation that can be implemented when modeling stellar populations. Second, younger EBs generally have large eccentricities. This demonstrates that massive binaries at moderate orbital periods are born with a Maxwellian "thermal" orbital velocity distribution, which indicates they formed via dynamica...

  10. Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Markus; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2010-09-28

    Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids are calculated theoretically. The proposed mean-field-like formalism interpolates between the limits of a hard-sphere system at high temperatures and the colloidal crystals which minimize Madelung-like energy sums at low temperatures. Comparison with computer simulations of an equimolar mixture of oppositely charged, equally sized spheres indicate semiquantitative accuracy of the proposed formalism. We calculate global phase diagrams of binary mixtures of equally sized spheres with opposite charges and equal charge magnitude in terms of temperature, pressure, and composition. The influence of the screening of the Coulomb interaction upon the topology of the phase diagram is discussed. Insight into the topology of the global phase diagram as a function of the system parameters leads to predictions on the preparation conditions for specific binary colloidal crystals.

  11. The Fate of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba

    2017-08-01

    Following merger, a neutron star (NS) binary can produce roughly one of three different outcomes: (1) a stable NS, (2) a black hole (BH), or (3) a supramassive, rotationally supported NS, which then collapses to a BH following angular momentum losses. Which of these fates occur and in what proportion has important implications for the electromagnetic transient associated with the mergers and the expected gravitational wave (GW) signatures, which in turn depend on the high density equation of state (EOS). Here we combine relativistic calculations of NS masses using realistic EOSs with Monte Carlo population synthesis based on the mass distribution of NS binaries in our Galaxy to predict the distribution of fates expected. For many EOSs, a significant fraction of the remnants are NSs or supramassive NSs. This lends support to scenarios in which a quickly spinning, highly magnetized NS may be powering an electromagnetic transient. This also indicates that it will be important for future GW observatories to focus on high frequencies to study the post-merger GW emission. Even in cases where individual GW events are too low in signal to noise to study the post merger signature in detail, the statistics of how many mergers produce NSs versus BHs can be compared with our work to constrain the EOS. To match short gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) X-ray afterglow statistics, we find that the stiffest EOSs are ruled out. Furthermore, many popular EOSs require a significant fraction of ˜60%-70% of SGRBs to be from NS-BH mergers rather than just binary NSs.

  12. The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture is s...

  13. Binary typing of staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the development. application and validation of straindifferentiating DNA probes for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a system. that yields a binary output. By comparing the differential hybridization of these DNA probes to staphylococcal geno

  14. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  15. Bayesian analysis of binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, David C.

    2005-03-01

    This manuscript details Bayesian methodology for "learning by example", with binary n-sequences encoding the objects under consideration. Priors prove influential; conformable priors are described. Laplace approximation of Bayes integrals yields posterior likelihoods for all n-sequences. This involves the optimization of a definite function over a convex domain--efficiently effectuated by the sequential application of the quadratic program.

  16. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  18. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  19. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this description leads to a binary erasure decoding algorithm of non-binary LDPC codes, whose complexity depends linearly on the cardinality of the alphabet. We also give insights into the structure of stopping sets for non-binary LDPC codes, and discuss several aspects related to upper-layer FEC applications.

  20. Massive binary stars as a probe of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.

    2010-10-01

    Massive stars are among the largest and most influential objects we know of on a sub-galactic scale. Binary systems, composed of at least one of these stars, may be responsible for several types of phenomena, including type Ib/c supernovae, short and long gamma ray bursts, high-velocity runaway O and B-type stars, and the density of the parent star clusters. Our understanding of these stars has met with limited success, especially in the area of their formation. Current formation theories rely on the accumulated statistics of massive binary systems that are limited because of their sample size or the inhomogeneous environments from which the statistics are collected. The purpose of this work is to provide a higher-level analysis of close massive binary characteristics using the radial velocity information of 113 massive stars (B3 and earlier) and binary orbital properties for the 19 known close massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. This work provides an analysis using the largest amount of massive star and binary information ever compiled for an O-star rich cluster like Cygnus OB2, and compliments other O-star binary studies such as NGC 6231, NGC 2244, and NGC 6611. I first report the discovery of 73 new O or B-type stars and 13 new massive binaries by this survey. This work involved the use of 75 successful nights of spectroscopic observation at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory in addition to observations obtained using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph at WIYN, the HIRES echelle spectrograph at KECK, and the Hamilton spectrograph at LICK. I use these data to estimate the spectrophotometric distance to the cluster and to measure the mean systemic velocity and the one-sided velocity dispersion of the cluster. Finally, I compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo models, the results of which indicate that the binary fraction of the cluster is 57 +/- 5% and that the indices for the power law distributions, describing the log of the periods, mass

  1. VQ-based model for binary error process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Tibor; Polec, Jaroslav; Csóka, Filip; Kotuliaková, Kvetoslava

    2017-05-01

    A variety of complex techniques, such as forward error correction (FEC), automatic repeat request (ARQ), hybrid ARQ or cross-layer optimization, require in their design and optimization phase a realistic model of binary error process present in a specific digital channel. Past and more recent modeling approaches focus on capturing one or more stochastic characteristics with precision sufficient for the desired model application, thereby applying concepts and methods severely limiting the model applicability (eg in the form of modeled process prerequisite expectations). The proposed novel concept utilizing a Vector Quantization (VQ)-based approach to binary process modeling offers a viable alternative capable of superior modeling of most commonly observed small- and large-scale stochastic characteristics of a binary error process on the digital channel. Precision of the proposed model was verified using multiple statistical distances against the data captured in a wireless sensor network logical channel trace. Furthermore, the Pearson's goodness of fit test of all model variants' output was performed to conclusively demonstrate usability of the model for realistic captured binary error process. Finally, the presented results prove the proposed model applicability and its ability to far surpass the capabilities of the reference Elliot's model.

  2. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray and radio sources in binaries (Malkov+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Y.; Tessema, S. B.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2016-05-01

    We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data. (4 data files).

  4. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  5. The first stars: formation of binaries and small multiple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stacy, A; Bromm, V

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the formation of metal-free, Population III (Pop III), stars within a minihalo at z ~ 20 with a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation, starting from cosmological initial conditions. Employing a hierarchical, zoom-in procedure, we achieve sufficient numerical resolution to follow the collapsing gas in the center of the minihalo up to number densities of 10^12 cm^-3. This allows us to study the protostellar accretion onto the initial hydrostatic core, which we represent as a growing sink particle, in improved physical detail. The accretion process, and in particular its termination, governs the final masses that were reached by the first stars. The primordial initial mass function (IMF), in turn, played an important role in determining to what extent the first stars drove early cosmic evolution. We continue our simulation for 5000 yr after the first sink particle has formed. During this time period, a disk-like configuration is assembled around the first protostar. The disk is gravitat...

  6. The formation of binary and multiple stars in clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Bate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos aspectos te oricos de la formaci on de estrellas dobles y m ultiples, particularmente en c umulos este- lares. En primer lugar, revisamos los procesos individuales que pueden ocurrir durante la formaci on de estrellas dobles y m ultiples: fragmentaci on, acreci on, interacciones con discos circunestelares e interacciones din amicas. En segundo, discutimos los resultados recientes del c alculo hidrodin amico a gran escala de la formaci on de un c umulo, en el cual todos estos procesos ocurren simult aneamente, y examinamos los mecanismos de formaci on y las propiedades resultantes de las binarias y m ultiples en el c umulo.

  7. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF BINARY AND MULTIPLE SYSTEMS IN OPEN CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la poblaci ́on de estrellas binarias y m ́ultiples en c ́umulos abierto s representa un importante campo de investigaci ́on en astrof ́ısica estelar. Sin embargo, el diagrama H-R se ve afectado cuando estas estrellas no son tomadas en cuenta, ya que la dispersi ́on del color entre las estrellas en el C MD a lo largo de la Secuencia Principal se debe, en parte, a una abundante poblaci ́on de estrellas binarias no resueltas . Pero este problema no puede resolverse mediante la fotometr ́ıa cl ́asica porque la fotometr ́ıa no tiene suficiente resoluci ́on espacial. Una soluci ́on a este problema puede estar basada en la interferometr ́ıa Speckle , una t ́ecnica que permite hacer mediciones astrom ́etricas de alta precisi ́on para estrellas binarias: separaci ́on angular y ́angulo de posici ́on.

  8. Binary Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    represents an n-stage linear feedback shift register where 1 and for 0 < i < n, fi 1 if there is a feedback th "tap connected to the i stage of the...u:045,. v:075; k Efl and 1fl ;P 31. Wk 5 10 20 9 18 U V 0 2006 1942 2050 1846 1830 1742 1702 5 1854 2578 2470 1918 2190 2142 10 1898 2406 1830 1846

  9. Populating the Galaxy with close Be binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kiel, P D; Murray, J R; Hayasaki, K

    2007-01-01

    Be/X-ray binaries comprise roughly two-thirds of the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which is a class of X-ray binaries that results from the high mass of the companion or donor star (> 10 solar masses). Currently the formation and evolution of X-ray producing Be binaries is a matter of great debate. Modelling of these systems requires knowledge of Be star evolution and also consideration of how the evolution changes when the star is in close proximity to a companion. Within this work we complete a full population synthesis study of Be binaries for the Galaxy. The results for the first time match aspects of the observational data, most notably the observed upper limit to the period distribution. We conclude that greater detailed studies on the evolution of Be stars within X-ray binaries needs to be completed, so that rapid binary evolution population synthesis packages may best evolve these systems.

  10. A possible mechanism to explain the lack of binary asteroids among the Plutinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compère, A.; Farrelly, D.; Lemaître, A.; Hestroffer, D.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Binary asteroids are common in the solar system, including in the Kuiper belt. However, there seems to be a marked disparity between the binary populations in the classical part of the Kuiper belt and the part of the belt in the 3:2 resonance with Neptune - i.e., the region inhabited by the Plutinos. In particular, binary Plutinos are extremely rare. Aims: We study the impact of the 3:2 resonance on the formation of Kuiper belt binaries, according to the Nice model, in order to explain such phenomenon. Methods: Numerical simulations are performed within the 2 + 2 body approximation (Sun/Neptune + binary partners). The MEGNO chaos indicator is used to map out regular and chaotic regions of phase space. Residence times of test (binary) particles within the Hill sphere are compared inside and outside of the 3:2 resonance. The effect of increasing the heliocentric eccentricity of the centre of mass of the binary system is studied. This is done because mean-motion resonances between a planet and an asteroid usually have the effect of increasing the eccentricity of the asteroid. Results: The stable zones in the MEGNO maps are mainly disrupted in the resonant, eccentric case: the number of binary asteroids created in this case is significantly lower than outside the 3:2 resonance. Conclusions: In the 2 + 2 body approximation, the pumping of the eccentricity of the centre of mass of a potential binary destabilises the formation of binaries. This may be a factor in explaining the scarcity of binaries in the Plutino population.

  11. Wide- and contact-binary formation in substructured young stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, J.; Boily, C. M.; Moraux, E.; Roos, O.

    2017-02-01

    We explore with collisional gravitational N-body models the evolution of binary stars in initially fragmented and globally subvirial clusters of stars. Binaries are inserted in the (initially) clumpy configurations so as to match the observed distributions of the field-binary-stars' semimajor axes a and binary fraction versus primary mass. The dissolution rate of wide binaries is very high at the start of the simulations, and is much reduced once the clumps are eroded by the global infall. The transition between the two regimes is sharper as the number of stars N is increased, from N = 1.5 k up to 80 k. The fraction of dissolved binary stars increases only mildly with N, from ≈15 per cent to ≈25 per cent for the same range in N. We repeated the calculation for two initial system mean number densities of 6 per pc3 (low) and 400 per pc3 (high). We found that the longer free-fall time of the low-density runs allows for prolonged binary-binary interactions inside clumps and the formation of very tight (a ≈ 0.01 au) binaries by exchange collisions. This is an indication that the statistics of such compact binaries bear a direct link to their environment at birth. We also explore the formation of wide (a ≳ 5 × 104 au) binaries and find a low (≈0.01 per cent) fraction mildly bound to the central star cluster. The high-precision astrometric mission Gaia could identify them as outflowing shells or streams.

  12. Resolving the Birth of High-Mass Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    New observations may help us to learn more about the birth of high-mass star systems. For the first time, scientists have imaged a very young, high-mass binary system and resolved the individual disks that surround each star and the binary.Massive MultiplesIts unusually common for high-mass stars to be discovered in multiple-star systems. More than 80% of all O-type stars which have masses greater than 16 times that of the Sun are in close multiple systems, compared with a multiplicity fraction of only 20% for stars of 3 solar masses, for instance.Reconstructed VLTI observations of the two components of the high-mass binary IRAS17216-3801. [Adapted from Kraus et al. 2017]Why do more massive stars preferentially form in multiple-star systems? Many different models of high-mass star formation have been invoked to explain this observation, but before we can better understand the process, we need better observations. In particular, past observations have placed few constraints on the architecture and disk structure of early high-mass stars.Conveniently, a team of scientists led by Stefan Kraus (University of Exeter) may have found exactly what we need: a high-mass protobinary that is still in the process of forming. Using ESOs Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), Kraus and collaborators have captured the first observations of a very young, high-mass binary system in which the circumbinary disk and the two circumstellar dust disks could all be spatially resolved.Clues from Resolved DisksThe VLTI near-infrared observations reveal that IRAS17216-3801, originally thought to be a single high-mass star, is instead a close binary separated by only 170 AU. Its two components are both surrounded by disks from which the protostars are actively accreting mass, and both of these circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the separation vector of the binary. This confirms that the system is very young, as tidal forces havent yet had time to align the disks

  13. The dynamical importance of binary systems in young massive star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the binary fractions in star clusters is of fundamental importance for many fields in astrophysics. Observations indicate that the majority of stars are found in binary systems, while most stars with masses greater than $0.5 M_\\odot$ are formed in star clusters. In addition, since binaries are on average more massive than single stars, in resolved star clusters these systems are thought to be good tracers of (dynamical) mass segregation. Over time, dynamical evolution through two-body relaxation will cause the most massive objects to migrate to the cluster center, while the relatively lower-mass objects remain in or migrate to orbits at greater radii. This process will globally dominate a cluster's stellar distribution. However, close encounters involving binary systems may disrupt `soft' binaries. This process will occur more frequently in a cluster's central, dense region than in its periphery, which may mask the effects of mass segregation. Using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope o...

  14. An experimental study on the coalescence process of binary droplets in oil under ultrasonic standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoming; Cao, Juhang; He, Limin; Wang, Hongping; Yan, Haipeng; Qin, Yahua

    2017-01-01

    The coalescence process of binary droplets in oil under ultrasonic standing waves was investigated with high-speed photography. Three motion models of binary droplets in coalescence process were illustrated: (1) slight translational oscillation; (2) sinusoidal translational oscillation; (3) migration along with acoustic streaming. To reveal the droplets coalescence mechanisms, the influence of main factors (such as acoustic intensity, droplet size, viscosity and interfacial tension, etc) on the motion and coalescence of binary droplets was studied under ultrasonic standing waves. Results indicate that the shortest coalescence time is achieved when binary droplets show sinusoidal translational oscillation. The corresponding acoustic intensity in this case is the optimum acoustic intensity. Under the optimum acoustic intensity, drop size decrease will bring about coalescence time decrease by enhancing the binary droplets oscillation. Moreover, there is an optimum interfacial tension to achieve the shortest coalescence time.

  15. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  16. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Grünewald, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

  17. Desktop setup for binary holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Olaf; Rothe, Hendrik

    1996-08-01

    Binary gratings as holograms itself or as photographic masking tools for further fabrication steps can fulfill a lot of applications. The commonly used semiconductor technologies for direct writing of high resolution structures are often too expensive. On the other hand computer plots at a reasonable price with photographic reduction do not meet the needs of precision e.g. for interferometric inspection. The lack of cheap and reliable instruments for direct writing in an appropriate resolution is still a problem in fabricating synthetic holograms. Using off-the-shelf components a direct writing plotter for binary patterns can be built at moderate costs. Typical design rules as well as experimental results are given and the final setup is introduced.

  18. Mass transfer between binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  19. Information graphs for binary predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G; McRoberts, N; Burnett, F J

    2015-01-01

    Binary predictors are used in a wide range of crop protection decision-making applications. Such predictors provide a simple analytical apparatus for the formulation of evidence related to risk factors, for use in the process of Bayesian updating of probabilities of crop disease. For diagrammatic interpretation of diagnostic probabilities, the receiver operating characteristic is available. Here, we view binary predictors from the perspective of diagnostic information. After a brief introduction to the basic information theoretic concepts of entropy and expected mutual information, we use an example data set to provide diagrammatic interpretations of expected mutual information, relative entropy, information inaccuracy, information updating, and specific information. Our information graphs also illustrate correspondences between diagnostic information and diagnostic probabilities.

  20. Close supermassive binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  1. Binary neuron with optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Degeratu, Ştefania; Şchiopu, Paul; Şchiopu, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of binary neuron, a model of McCulloch-Pitts neuron with optical devices. This model of neuron can be implemented not only in the optic integrated circuits but also in the classic optical circuits it being cheap and immune not only into electromagnetic fields but also into any kind of radiation. The transfer speed of information through the neuron is very higher, it being limited only by the light speed from the received medium.

  2. Classification with binary gene expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna, Salih; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2009-01-01

    Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how p...

  3. 多种赋权方法联合应用制定科技实力评价指标权重%Application of Multiple Methods for Weight of Technology Strength Assessment Indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何倩; 顾洪; 郭晓晶; 许金芳; 贺佳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore approaches in identifying weights of technology strength assessment indicator. Methods To combine subjective methods(expert evaluation method, contrast rank method, Saaty's weight method) with objectives methods( standard deviation method , entropy method, CRITIC method) for the weights of technology strength assessment indicator. Results The correlation coefficient were greater than 0. 7 among the subjective methods. There is negative correlation between entropy method and standard deviation method, while there is positive correlation between expert evaluation method, Saaty's weight method and entropy method. The most important indicators are the number of scientific paper, the number of designed equipment, the number of military standard, the number of SCI/EI/ISTP, the number of the first level prize in science and technology. Conclusion Application of multiple methods could be used to evaluate weights of indicator for comprehensive assessment.%目的 制定评价科技实力指标权重.方法 采用主观赋权(专家打分法、对比排序法、Saaty’s权重法)和客观赋权(标准离差法、熵权法、CRITIC法)相结合的方法制定科技实力指标权重.结果 主观赋权法得到的指标权重之间相关系数均大于0.7,客观赋权方法中,熵权法和标准离差法及CRITIC法得到的权重之间存在负相关;主观赋权方法中排序法和Satty,s权重法均与熵权法得到的权重存在正相关.权重较大的指标为科学著作总数、装备定型总数、军用标准总数、SCI/EI/ISTP数、第一等级科技获奖数等.结论 多种赋权方法联合应用制定评价指标权重较单一方法赋权更具有合理性.

  4. An Updated Look at Binary Characteristics of Massive Stars in the Cygnus OB2 Association

    CERN Document Server

    Kiminki, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a statistical analysis of the massive star binary characteristics in the Cygnus OB2 Association using radial velocity information of 114 B3-O3 primary stars and orbital properties for the 24 known binaries. We compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo simulations to infer the intrinsic binary fraction and distributions of mass ratios, periods, and eccentricities. We model the distribution of mass ratio, log-period, and eccentricity as power-laws and find best fitting indices of alpha=0.1+/-0.5, beta=0.2+/-0.4, and gamma=-0.6+/-0.3 respectively. These distributions indicate a preference for massive companions, short periods, and low eccentricities. Our analysis indicates that the binary fraction of the cluster is 44+/-8% if all binary systems are (artificially) assumed to have P<1000 days; if the power-law period distribution is extrapolated to 10^4 years, a plausible upper limit for bound systems, the binary fraction is ~90+/-10%. Of these binary (or higher order) systems, ~45% will ...

  5. Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...

  6. Close Binaries, Triples, and Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Jason; Zavala, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the variable radio source b Per (HR1324) are part of an ongoing survey of close binary systems using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Historical observations of b Per include sparse photometric and spectroscopic observations dating back to 1923, clearly showing this object to be a non-eclipsing, single-lined ellipsoidal variable. This is where the story for b Per stopped until recent inclusion of optical interferometric data which led to the detection of a third, long-period component. As the interferometric observations continue to build up so to is the understanding of this binary system, with the modeled orbital parameters pointing to an edge-on orientation that may allow for the detection of an eclipse by the long-period component. These types of eclipse events are quite rare for long-period binaries due to the nearly edge-on orientation required for their detection, leaving open the opportunity for more traditional methods of observation to add to the body of knowledge concerning this understudied system. Here we present the latest observational data of the b Per system along with an introduction to the best fit orbital parameters governing the eclipsing nature of this complex triple-system.

  7. Hunting for brown dwarf binaries and testing atmospheric models with X-Shooter

    CERN Document Server

    Manjavacas, E; Alcalá, J M; Zapatero-Osorio, M R; Béjar, V J S; Homeier, D; Bonnefoy, M; Smart, R L; Henning, T; Allard, F

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the brown dwarf binary fraction may contribute to the understanding of the substellar formation mechanisms. Unresolved brown dwarf binaries may be revealed through their peculiar spectra or the discrepancy between optical and near-infrared spectral type classification. We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 22 brown dwarfs with these characteristics using the X-Shooter spectrograph at the VLT. We aimed to identify brown dwarf binary candidates, and to test if the BT-Settl 2014 atmospheric models reproduce their observed spectra. To find binaries spanning the L-T boundary, we used spectral indices and compared the spectra of the selected candidates to single spectra and synthetic binary spectra. We used synthetic binary spectra with components of same spectral type to determine as well the sensitivity of the method to this class of binaries. We identified three candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs. We are not able to identify binaries with components of similar spectral ...

  8. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  9. Social indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

    1975-05-16

    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  10. Characterization of multiple SPS knockout mutants reveals redundant functions of the four Arabidopsis sucrose phosphate synthase isoforms in plant viability, and strongly indicates that enhanced respiration and accelerated starch turnover can alleviate the blockage of sucrose biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaji, Abdellatif; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Ricarte-Bermejo, Adriana; Sánchez-López, Ángela María; Muñoz, Francisco José; Romero, Jose M; Ruiz, María Teresa; Baslam, Marouane; Almagro, Goizeder; Sesma, María Teresa; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2015-09-01

    We characterized multiple knock-out mutants of the four Arabidopsis sucrose phosphate synthase (SPSA1, SPSA2, SPSB and SPSC) isoforms. Despite their reduced SPS activity, spsa1/spsa2, spsa1/spsb, spsa2/spsb, spsa2/spsc, spsb/spsc, spsa1/spsa2/spsb and spsa2/spsb/spsc mutants displayed wild type (WT) vegetative and reproductive morphology, and showed WT photosynthetic capacity and respiration. In contrast, growth of rosettes, flowers and siliques of the spsa1/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsc mutants was reduced compared with WT plants. Furthermore, these plants displayed a high dark respiration phenotype. spsa1/spsb/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsb/spsc seeds poorly germinated and produced aberrant and sterile plants. Leaves of all viable sps mutants, except spsa1/spsc and spsa1/spsa2/spsc, accumulated WT levels of nonstructural carbohydrates. spsa1/spsc leaves possessed high levels of metabolic intermediates and activities of enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, and accumulated high levels of metabolic intermediates of the nocturnal starch-to-sucrose conversion process, even under continuous light conditions. Results presented in this work show that SPS is essential for plant viability, reveal redundant functions of the four SPS isoforms in processes that are important for plant growth and nonstructural carbohydrate metabolism, and strongly indicate that accelerated starch turnover and enhanced respiration can alleviate the blockage of sucrose biosynthesis in spsa1/spsc leaves.

  11. Applying Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator and Akaike Information Criterion Analysis to Find the Best Multiple Linear Regression Models between Climate Indices and Components of Cow’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Marami Milani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new, and respiratory rate predictor RRP with three main components of cow’s milk (yield, fat, and protein for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO and the Akaike information criterion (AIC techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest number of climate predictors. Uncertainty estimation is employed by applying bootstrapping through resampling. Cross validation is used to avoid over-fitting. Climatic parameters are calculated from the NASA-MERRA global atmospheric reanalysis. Milk data for the months from April to September, 2002 to 2010 are used. The best linear regression models are found in spring between milk yield as the predictand and THI, ESI, ETI, HLI, and RRP as predictors with p-value < 0.001 and R2 (0.50, 0.49 respectively. In summer, milk yield with independent variables of THI, ETI, and ESI show the highest relation (p-value < 0.001 with R2 (0.69. For fat and protein the results are only marginal. This method is suggested for the impact studies of climate variability/change on agriculture and food science fields when short-time series or data with large uncertainty are available.

  12. Is 1220 Crocus a precessing, binary asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    Photoelectric data of the asteroid 1220 Crocus over a 13 night period in 1984 revealed the presence of two separate periods. The light curves were indicative of a precessing body, but not one in free precession due to motions induced by a collision. Closer examinations revealed periods of 30.7 and 7.9 hr with amplitudes of 0.87 and 0.15 mag, respectively. An analysis of the source of an external torque which could be causing a forced precession led to the hypothesis that 1220 Crocus has a satellite. Verification of the binary asteroid configuration will depend on more detailed light curves, the possible modulation of the shorter period by the longer, and possible use of the Space Telescope.

  13. Is 1220 Crocus a precessing, binary asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, R. P.

    1985-07-01

    Photoelectric data of the asteroid 1220 Crocus over a 13 night period in 1984 revealed the presence of two separate periods. The light curves were indicative of a precessing body, but not one in free precession due to motions induced by a collision. Closer examinations revealed periods of 30.7 and 7.9 hr with amplitudes of 0.87 and 0.15 mag, respectively. An analysis of the source of an external torque which could be causing a forced precession led to the hypothesis that 1220 Crocus has a satellite. Verification of the binary asteroid configuration will depend on more detailed light curves, the possible modulation of the shorter period by the longer, and possible use of the Space Telescope.

  14. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. {\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.}\\ {\\bf 2011}, {\\em 106}, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  15. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2016-11-12

    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett.2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  16. Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sklerose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shariat, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kostopoulos, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste chronisch-entzuendliche Erkrankung des Myelins mit eingesprengten Laesionen im Bereich der weissen Substanz des zentralen Nervensystems. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat bei der Diagnosestellung und Verlaufskontrolle eine Schluesselrolle. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit Hauptcharakteristika der MR-Bildbebung. (orig.)

  17. Towards A Complete Census of the Solar-Type Binaries in the Young Open Cluster M37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Meibom, Soren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2012-08-01

    Binary stars govern the dynamical evolution of star clusters and determine the formation rates and mechanisms for exotic stars like blue stragglers and X-ray sources. Understanding the near-primordial (after removal of the natal gas) binary population of star clusters is of primary importance for dynamical models of star clusters, which have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of star cluster evolution. Yet the binary frequencies and distributions of binary orbital parameters (period, eccentricity, etc.) for young coeval stellar populations are poorly known, due to a lack of necessary observations. Time-series radial-velocity surveys are essential for identifying and characterizing binary populations. Using WIYN/Hydra data, we have already identified a nearly complete sample of 329 solar-type (1.5 open cluster M37. Of these stars, 82 show significant radial-velocity variability, indicative of a binary companion. Kinematic orbital solutions are crucial to define the initial binary conditions critical for dynamical star cluster models, and to understand how binaries affects stellar rotational evolution. As we have already identified the binaries in M37, we have a unique opportunity to add significantly to our knowledge of young binaries with minimal additional telescope time. We propose to initiate a WIYN/Hydra multi-epoch radial-velocity survey of the 82 velocity variables in M37.

  18. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-11-11

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.

  19. Forecast Modelling via Variations in Binary Image-Encoded Information Exploited by Deep Learning Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Xu, Ming; Niu, Dongxiao; Wang, Shoukai; Liang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Traditional forecasting models fit a function approximation from dependent invariables to independent variables. However, they usually get into trouble when date are presented in various formats, such as text, voice and image. This study proposes a novel image-encoded forecasting method that input and output binary digital two-dimensional (2D) images are transformed from decimal data. Omitting any data analysis or cleansing steps for simplicity, all raw variables were selected and converted to binary digital images as the input of a deep learning model, convolutional neural network (CNN). Using shared weights, pooling and multiple-layer back-propagation techniques, the CNN was adopted to locate the nexus among variations in local binary digital images. Due to the computing capability that was originally developed for binary digital bitmap manipulation, this model has significant potential for forecasting with vast volume of data. The model was validated by a power loads predicting dataset from the Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012.

  20. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Mandic, Vuk; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-01-01

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational wave detectors, and discuss the possibility of using the stochastic gravitational-wave background measurement to constrain the dark matter component in the form of black holes.