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Sample records for multiple binary indicators

  1. Joint analysis of time-to-event and multiple binary indicators of latent classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Multiple categorical variables are commonly used in medical and epidemiological research to measure specific aspects of human health and functioning. To analyze such data, models have been developed considering these categorical variables as imperfect indicators of an individual's "true" status o...

  2. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  3. Computing all hybridization networks for multiple binary phylogenetic input trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Benjamin

    2015-07-30

    The computation of phylogenetic trees on the same set of species that are based on different orthologous genes can lead to incongruent trees. One possible explanation for this behavior are interspecific hybridization events recombining genes of different species. An important approach to analyze such events is the computation of hybridization networks. This work presents the first algorithm computing the hybridization number as well as a set of representative hybridization networks for multiple binary phylogenetic input trees on the same set of taxa. To improve its practical runtime, we show how this algorithm can be parallelized. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficiency of the software Hybroscale, containing an implementation of our algorithm, by comparing it to PIRNv2.0, which is so far the best available software computing the exact hybridization number for multiple binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa. The algorithm is part of the software Hybroscale, which was developed specifically for the investigation of hybridization networks including their computation and visualization. Hybroscale is freely available(1) and runs on all three major operating systems. Our simulation study indicates that our approach is on average 100 times faster than PIRNv2.0. Moreover, we show how Hybroscale improves the interpretation of the reported hybridization networks by adding certain features to its graphical representation.

  4. Parameter Estimation for Improving Association Indicators in Binary Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bashiri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is estimation of Binary logistic regression parameters for maximizing the log-likelihood function with improved association indicators. In this paper the parameter estimation steps have been explained and then measures of association have been introduced and their calculations have been analyzed. Moreover a new related indicators based on membership degree level have been expressed. Indeed association measures demonstrate the number of success responses occurred in front of failure in certain number of Bernoulli independent experiments. In parameter estimation, existing indicators values is not sensitive to the parameter values, whereas the proposed indicators are sensitive to the estimated parameters during the iterative procedure. Therefore, proposing a new association indicator of binary logistic regression with more sensitivity to the estimated parameters in maximizing the log- likelihood in iterative procedure is innovation of this study.

  5. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  6. Multiple Indicator Stationary Time Series Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the propriety and practical advantages of specifying multivariate time series models in the context of structural equation modeling for time series and longitudinal panel data. For time series data, the multiple indicator model specification improves on classical time series analysis. For panel data, the multiple indicator model…

  7. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  8. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age. In th...

  9. BSDB: A New Consistent Designation Scheme for Identifying Objects in Binary and Multiple Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new consistent scheme for designation of objects in binary and multiple systems, BSDB, is described. It was developed in the frame of the Binary star DataBase, BDB (http://www.inasan.ru, due to necessity of a unified and consistent system for designation of objects in the database, and the name of the designation scheme was derived from that of the database. The BSDB scheme covers all types of observational data. Three classes of objects introduced within the BSDB nomenclature provide correct links between objects and data, what is especially important for complex multiple stellar systems. The final stage of establishing the BSDB scheme is compilation of the Identification List of Binaries, ILB, where all known objects in binary and multiple stars are presented with their BSDB identifiers along with identifiers according to major catalogues and lists.

  10. Decimal multiplication using compressor based-BCD to binary converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidhar Mukkamala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to implement a scalable decimal to binary converter from 8 to 64 bits (i.e 2-digit to 16-digit using parallel architecture. The proposed converters, along with binary coded decimal (BCD adder and binary to BCD converters, are used in parallel implementation of Urdhva Triyakbhyam (UT-based 32-bit BCD multiplier. To increase the performance, compressor circuits were used in converters and multiplier. The designed hardware circuits were verified by behavioural and post layout simulations. The implementation was carried out using Virtex-6 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC with 90-nm technology library platforms. The results on FPGA shows that compressor based converters and multipliers produced less amount of propagation delay with a slight increase of hardware resources. In case of ASIC implementation, a compressor based converter delay is equivalent to conventional converter with a slight increase of gate count. However, the reduction of delay is evident in case of compressor based multiplier.

  11. Multiplicity distributions in the binary fragmenting with inhibition at the transition line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-03-01

    Properties of the fragment multiplicity distribution obtained in the sequential binary fragmentation process at the transition line are investigated. It is shown that the multifragment cumulant correlation functions have the hierarchical, linked-pair structure. Several distinct classes of multiplicity domains are clearly identified, and the asymptotic appearance of the Koba - Nielsen - Olesen scaling is discussed. (author). 36 refs.

  12. Multiplicity distributions in the binary fragmenting with inhibition at the transition line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Properties of the fragment multiplicity distribution obtained in the sequential binary fragmentation process at the transition line are investigated. It is shown that the multifragment cumulant correlation functions have the hierarchical, linked-pair structure. Several distinct classes of multiplicity domains are clearly identified, and the asymptotic appearance of the Koba - Nielsen - Olesen scaling is discussed. (author)

  13. Is stellar multiplicity universal? Tight stellar binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, Gaspard; Lacour, S.; Moraux, E.; Goodwin, S.; Bouvier, J.

    2018-05-01

    We present a survey for the tightest visual binaries among 0.3-2 M⊙ members the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Among 42 targets, we discovered 13 new 0{^''.}025-0{^''.}15 companions. Accounting for the Branch bias, we find a companion star fraction (CSF) in the 10-60 au range of 21^{+8}_{-5}%, consistent with that observed in other star-forming regions (SFRs) and twice as high as among field stars; this excess is found with a high level of confidence. Since our sample is dominated by disk-bearing targets, this indicates that disk disruption by close binaries is inefficient, or has not yet taken place, in the ONC. The resulting separation distribution in the ONC drops sharply outside 60 au. These findings are consistent with a scenario in which the initial multiplicity properties, set by the star formation process itself, are identical in the ONC and in other SFRs and subsequently altered by the cluster's dynamical evolution. This implies that the fragmentation process does not depend on the global properties of a molecular cloud, but on the local properties of prestellar cores, and that the latter are self-regulated to be nearly identical in a wide range of environments. These results, however, raise anew the question of the origin of field stars as the tight binaries we have discovered will not be destroyed as the ONC dissolves into the galactic field. It thus appears that most field stars formed in regions that differ from well-studied SFRs in the Solar neighborhood, possibly due to changes in core fragmentation on Gyr timescales.

  14. On the kinematics of visual binary and multiple stars of the FK4 cataloque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Kinematic features of single, binary and multiple stars are considered. To compare kinematics of such stars with the kinematics of single stars the data on positions and proper motions of those stars which are given in the basic catalogue FK4. Single as well as visual binary and multiple stars united because of their limited content in FK4 have been subdivided by spectra and classes of luminosity into groups with account for known kinematic peculiarities of various spectral groups. Kinematic features for the studied spectral groups are given. By the stars of the FK4 catalogue for various spectral classes the difference of kinematic features of single, visual binary and multiple stars is obtained. However the values of these differences need to be specified due to small number of stars included in five of six groups considered

  15. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are made...

  16. Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.

    2011-10-01

    Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.

  17. LUT REVEALS AN ALGOL-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY WITH THREE ADDITIONAL STELLAR COMPANIONS IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Hu, J.-Y., E-mail: zhuly@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson–Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O–C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i′ ∼ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M{sub ⊙}. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  18. Generalised Multiplicative Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzenoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulli, V. R.; Stone, Branden; Wang, Shaohui; Wei, Bing

    2017-05-01

    Many types of topological indices such as degree-based topological indices, distance-based topological indices, and counting-related topological indices are explored during past recent years. Among degree-based topological indices, Zagreb indices are the oldest one and studied well. In the paper, we define a generalised multiplicative version of these indices and compute exact formulas for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and jagged-rectangle Benzenoid systems.

  19. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  20. On Multiple Zagreb Indices of TiO2 Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mehar Ali; Imran, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The First and Second Zagreb indices were first introduced by I. Gutman and N. Trinajstic in 1972. It is reported that these indices are useful in the study of anti-inflammatory activities of certain chemical instances, and in elsewhere. Recently, the first and second multiple Zagreb indices of a graph were introduced by Ghorbani and Azimi in 2012. In this paper, we calculate the Zagreb indices and the multiplicative versions of the Zagreb indices of an infinite class of Titania nanotubes TiO(2)[m,n].

  1. Comparison of Ordinary Kriging and Multiple Indicator Kriging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK) is one of the popular non-linear methods that can handle skewed distribution such as that for gold ... historical deposits: Nkran, Adubia, Abore, and a ... information from the mine on the geology of the deposit.

  2. Theoretical Models of Protostellar Binary and Multiple Systems with AMR Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Saigo, Kazuya; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2017-05-01

    We present theoretical models for protostellar binary and multiple systems based on the high-resolution numerical simulation with an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, SFUMATO. The recent ALMA observations have revealed early phases of the binary and multiple star formation with high spatial resolutions. These observations should be compared with theoretical models with high spatial resolutions. We present two theoretical models for (1) a high density molecular cloud core, MC27/L1521F, and (2) a protobinary system, L1551 NE. For the model for MC27, we performed numerical simulations for gravitational collapse of a turbulent cloud core. The cloud core exhibits fragmentation during the collapse, and dynamical interaction between the fragments produces an arc-like structure, which is one of the prominent structures observed by ALMA. For the model for L1551 NE, we performed numerical simulations of gas accretion onto protobinary. The simulations exhibit asymmetry of a circumbinary disk. Such asymmetry has been also observed by ALMA in the circumbinary disk of L1551 NE.

  3. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  4. Stock Market Index Data and indicators for Day Trading as a Binary Classification problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Renato

    2017-02-01

    Classification is the attribution of labels to records according to a criterion automatically learned from a training set of labeled records. This task is needed in a huge number of practical applications, and consequently it has been studied intensively and several classification algorithms are available today. In finance, a stock market index is a measurement of value of a section of the stock market. It is often used to describe the aggregate trend of a market. One basic financial issue would be forecasting this trend. Clearly, such a stochastic value is very difficult to predict. However, technical analysis is a security analysis methodology developed to forecast the direction of prices through the study of past market data. Day trading consists in buying and selling financial instruments within the same trading day. In this case, one interesting problem is the automatic individuation of favorable days for trading. We model this problem as a binary classification problem, and we provide datasets containing daily index values, the corresponding values of a selection of technical indicators, and the class label, which is 1 if the subsequent time period is favorable for day trading and 0 otherwise. These datasets can be used to test the behavior of different approaches in solving the day trading problem.

  5. Stock Market Index Data and indicators for Day Trading as a Binary Classification problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bruni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Classification is the attribution of labels to records according to a criterion automatically learned from a training set of labeled records. This task is needed in a huge number of practical applications, and consequently it has been studied intensively and several classification algorithms are available today. In finance, a stock market index is a measurement of value of a section of the stock market. It is often used to describe the aggregate trend of a market. One basic financial issue would be forecasting this trend. Clearly, such a stochastic value is very difficult to predict. However, technical analysis is a security analysis methodology developed to forecast the direction of prices through the study of past market data. Day trading consists in buying and selling financial instruments within the same trading day. In this case, one interesting problem is the automatic individuation of favorable days for trading. We model this problem as a binary classification problem, and we provide datasets containing daily index values, the corresponding values of a selection of technical indicators, and the class label, which is 1 if the subsequent time period is favorable for day trading and 0 otherwise. These datasets can be used to test the behavior of different approaches in solving the day trading problem.

  6. A Multiple-star Combined Solution Program - Application to the Population II Binary μ Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudehus, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    A multiple-star combined-solution computer program which can simultaneously fit astrometric, speckle, and spectroscopic data, and solve for the orbital parameters, parallax, proper motion, and masses has been written and is now publicly available. Some features of the program are the ability to scale the weights at run time, hold selected parameters constant, handle up to five spectroscopic subcomponents for the primary and the secondary each, account for the light travel time across the system, account for apsidal motion, plot the results, and write the residuals in position to a standard file for further analysis. The spectroscopic subcomponent data can be represented by reflex velocities and/or by independent measurements. A companion editing program which can manage the data files is included in the package. The program has been applied to the Population II binary μ Cas to derive improved masses and an estimate of the primordial helium abundance. The source code, executables, sample data files, and documentation for OpenVMS and Unix, including Linux, are available at http://www.chara.gsu.edu/\\rlap\\ \\ gudehus/binary.html.

  7. Close Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster: On the Universality of Stellar Multiplicity and the Origin of Field Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Gaspard; Lacour, Sylvestre; Moraux, Estelle; Bouvier, Jerome; Goodwin, Simon

    2018-01-01

    While stellar multiplicity is an ubiquitous outcome of star formation, there is a clear dichotomy between the multiplicity properties of young (~1 Myr-old) stellar clusters, like the ONC, which host a mostly field-like population of visual binaries, and those of equally young sparse populations, like the Taurus-Auriga region, which host twice as many stellar companions. Two distinct scenarios can account for this observation: one in which different star-forming regions form different number of stars, and one in which multiplicity properties are universal at birth but where internal cluster dynamics destroy many wide binaries. To solve this ambiguity, one must probe binaries that are sufficiently close so as not to be destroyed through interactions with other cluster members. To this end, we have conducted a survey for 10-100 au binaries in the ONC using the aperture masking technique with the VLT adaptive optics system. Among our sample of the 42 ONC members, we discovered 13 companions in this range of projected separations. This is consistent with the companion frequency observed in the Taurus population and twice as high as that observed among field stars. This survey thus strongly supports the idea that stellar multiplicity is characterized by near-universal initial properties that can later be dynamically altered. On the other hand, this exacerbates the question of the origin of field stars, since only clusters much denser than the ONC can effectively destroyed binaries closer than 100 au.

  8. V773 Cas, QS Aql, AND BR Ind: ECLIPSING BINARIES AS PARTS OF MULTIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zasche, P.; Juryšek, J.; Nemravová, J.; Wolf, M.; Korčáková, D. [Astronomical Institute, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, CZ-180 00, Praha 8, V Holešovičkách 2 (Czech Republic); Uhlař, R. [Private Observatory, Pohoří 71, CZ-254 01, Jílové u Prahy (Czech Republic); Svoboda, P. [Private Observatory, Výpustky 5, CZ-614 00, Brno (Czech Republic); Hoňková, K. [Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of Czech Astronomical Society, Vsetínská 941/78, CZ-757 01, Valašské Meziříčí (Czech Republic); Mašek, M.; Prouza, M. [Institute of Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 1999/2, CZ-182 21, Praha (Czech Republic); Čechura, J.; Šlechta, M., E-mail: zasche@sirrah.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, CZ-251 65, Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries remain crucial objects for our understanding of the universe. In particular, those that are components of multiple systems can help us solve the problem of the formation of these systems. Analysis of the radial velocities together with the light curve produced for the first time precise physical parameters of the components of the multiple systems V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind. Their visual orbits were also analyzed, which resulted in slightly improved orbital elements. What is typical for all these systems is that their most dominant source is the third distant component. The system V773 Cas consists of two similar G1-2V stars revolving in a circular orbit and a more distant component of the A3V type. Additionally, the improved value of parallax was calculated to be 17.6 mas. Analysis of QS Aql resulted in the following: the inner eclipsing pair is composed of B6V and F1V stars, and the third component is of about the B6 spectral type. The outer orbit has high eccentricity of about 0.95, and observations near its upcoming periastron passage between the years 2038 and 2040 are of high importance. Also, the parallax of the system was derived to be about 2.89 mas, moving the star much closer to the Sun than originally assumed. The system BR Ind was found to be a quadruple star consisting of two eclipsing K dwarfs orbiting each other with a period of 1.786 days; the distant component is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of about 6 days. Both pairs are moving around each other on their 148 year orbit.

  9. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W

    2016-07-01

    Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H]), co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm]), and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author). We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators) and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011-2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to select all the

  10. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P A Ioannidis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H], co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm], and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author. We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011-2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to

  11. Spitzer/IRS Observations Of Multiple Main-Belt And Binary Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Im, S.

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of Ida's companion in 1993, 195 companions of asteroids have been discovered. To understand the formation process of these interesting bodies, their physical properties such as their bulk density, size, shape, and surface roughness need to be determined. During the Spitzer Cycle-4, we obtained IRS thermal emission spectra (5-42 um) of 23 known binary systems. The majority of asteroids are from the main-belt (16), while the rest are NEOs (7). After extracting the thermal spectra, we used a modified Standard Thermal Model (STM) to calculate their equivalent diameter (from 0.8 km to 237 km), their albedo (from 0.04 for C-type to 0.394 for a V-type) and their beaming factor related to the surface roughness and thermal inertia. We derive their emissivity spectra, which is useful to detect silicate features. Combining these measurements with 3D-models of these multiple asteroid systems obtained by lightcurve inversion, we should be able to derive an accurate estimate of their bulk-density and contrast them with their taxonomic classes. Preliminary studies by Marchis et al. (2008)1, suggested a relationship between bulk density and the taxonomic class of asteroids, which varies from 0.9 g/cc for C-complex to 2.4 g/cc for S-complex asteroids. The National Science Foundation supported this research under award number AAG-0807468. It was conducted with the Spitzer space telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. 1 Marchis et al. , 2008, "Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS", 40th DPS Meeting, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 40, 508

  12. Multiple ECG Fiducial Points-Based Random Binary Sequence Generation for Securing Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.

  13. EFFECTIVE INDICES FOR MONITORING MENTAL WORKLOAD WHILE PERFORMING MULTIPLE TASKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bin-Wei; Wang, Mao-Jiun J; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Fang

    2015-08-01

    This study identified several physiological indices that can accurately monitor mental workload while participants performed multiple tasks with the strategy of maintaining stable performance and maximizing accuracy. Thirty male participants completed three 10-min. simulated multitasks: MATB (Multi-Attribute Task Battery) with three workload levels. Twenty-five commonly used mental workload measures were collected, including heart rate, 12 HRV (heart rate variability), 10 EEG (electroencephalography) indices (α, β, θ, α/θ, θ/β from O1-O2 and F4-C4), and two subjective measures. Analyses of index sensitivity showed that two EEG indices, θ and α/θ (F4-C4), one time-domain HRV-SDNN (standard deviation of inter-beat intervals), and four frequency-domain HRV: VLF (very low frequency), LF (low frequency), %HF (percentage of high frequency), and LF/HF were sensitive to differentiate high workload. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) and LF/HF were most effective for monitoring high mental workload. LF/HF showed the highest correlations with other physiological indices. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) showed strong correlations with subjective measures across different mental workload levels. Operation strategy would affect the sensitivity of EEG α (F4-C4) and HF.

  14. RED GIANTS IN ECLIPSING BINARY AND MULTIPLE-STAR SYSTEMS: MODELING AND ASTEROSEISMIC ANALYSIS OF 70 CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Rawls, M. L.; Jackiewicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Guzik, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Red giant stars are proving to be an incredible source of information for testing models of stellar evolution, as asteroseismology has opened up a window into their interiors. Such insights are a direct result of the unprecedented data from space missions CoRoT and Kepler as well as recent theoretical advances. Eclipsing binaries are also fundamental astrophysical objects, and when coupled with asteroseismology, binaries provide two independent methods to obtain masses and radii and exciting opportunities to develop highly constrained stellar models. The possibility of discovering pulsating red giants in eclipsing binary systems is therefore an important goal that could potentially offer very robust characterization of these systems. Until recently, only one case has been discovered with Kepler. We cross-correlate the detected red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs from Kepler data to find possible candidate systems. Light-curve modeling and mean properties measured from asteroseismology are combined to yield specific measurements of periods, masses, radii, temperatures, eclipse timing variations, core rotation rates, and red giant evolutionary state. After using three different techniques to eliminate false positives, out of the 70 systems common to the red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs we find 13 strong candidates (12 previously unknown) to be eclipsing binaries, one to be a non-eclipsing binary with tidally induced oscillations, and 10 more to be hierarchical triple systems, all of which include a pulsating red giant. The systems span a range of orbital eccentricities, periods, and spectral types F, G, K, and M for the companion of the red giant. One case even suggests an eclipsing binary composed of two red giant stars and another of a red giant with a δ-Scuti star. The discovery of multiple pulsating red giants in eclipsing binaries provides an exciting test bed for precise astrophysical modeling, and follow-up spectroscopic observations of many of the

  15. Multiple kernel learning using single stage function approximation for binary classification problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, S.; Sumitra, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the multiple kernel learning (MKL) is formulated as a supervised classification problem. We dealt with binary classification data and hence the data modelling problem involves the computation of two decision boundaries of which one related with that of kernel learning and the other with that of input data. In our approach, they are found with the aid of a single cost function by constructing a global reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) as the direct sum of the RKHSs corresponding to the decision boundaries of kernel learning and input data and searching that function from the global RKHS, which can be represented as the direct sum of the decision boundaries under consideration. In our experimental analysis, the proposed model had shown superior performance in comparison with that of existing two stage function approximation formulation of MKL, where the decision functions of kernel learning and input data are found separately using two different cost functions. This is due to the fact that single stage representation helps the knowledge transfer between the computation procedures for finding the decision boundaries of kernel learning and input data, which inturn boosts the generalisation capacity of the model.

  16. Experimental investigations of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons in elements and binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Manpreet; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2008-01-01

    The energy, intensity and angular distributions of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons, emerging from targets of pure elements and binary alloys, are observed as a function of target thickness in reflection and transmission geometries. The observed spectra recorded by a properly shielded NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, in addition to singly scattered events, consist of photons scattered more than once for thick targets. To extract the contribution of multiply scattered photons from the measured spectra, a singly scattered distribution is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events increase with increase in target thickness, and saturate for a particular thickness called saturation thickness. The saturation thickness decreases with increasing atomic number. The multiple scattering, an interfering background noise in Compton profiles and Compton cross-section measurements, has been successfully used as a new technique to assign the 'effective atomic number' to binary alloys. Monte Carlo calculations support the present experimental results

  17. Experimental Determination of Impurity and Interdiffusion Coefficients in Seven Ti and Zr Binary Systems Using Diffusion Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangqi; Liu, Zi-Kui; Zhao, Ji-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion coefficients of seven binary systems (Ti-Mo, Ti-Nb, Ti-Ta, Ti-Zr, Zr-Mo, Zr-Nb, and Zr-Ta) at 1200 °C, 1000 °C, and 800 °C were experimentally determined using three Ti-Mo-Nb-Ta-Zr diffusion multiples. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was performed to collect concentration profiles at the binary diffusion regions. Forward simulation analysis (FSA) was then applied to extract both impurity and interdiffusion coefficients in Ti-rich and Zr-rich part of the bcc phase. Excellent agreements between our results and most of the literature data validate the high-throughput approach combining FSA with diffusion multiples to obtain a large amount of systematic diffusion data, which will help establish the diffusion (mobility) databases for the design and development of biomedical and structural Ti alloys.

  18. Causal mediation analysis with a binary outcome and multiple continuous or ordinal mediators: Simulations and application to an alcohol intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Koning, Ina M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a method to estimate the combined effect of multiple continuous/ordinal mediators on a binary outcome: 1) fit a structural equation model with probit link for the outcome and identity/probit link for continuous/ordinal mediators, 2) predict potential outcome probabilities, and 3) compute natural direct and indirect effects. Step 2 involves rescaling the latent continuous variable underlying the outcome to address residual mediator variance/covariance. We evaluate the estimation...

  19. Hierarchical multiple binary image encryption based on a chaos and phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Hou, Chenxia; Lv, Xiaodong; Wang, Hongjuan; Gong, Qiong; Qin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Based on the chaos and phase retrieval algorithm, a hierarchical multiple binary image encryption is proposed. In the encryption process, each plaintext is encrypted into a diffraction intensity pattern by two chaos-generated random phase masks (RPMs). Thereafter, the captured diffraction intensity patterns are partially selected by different binary masks and then combined together to form a single intensity pattern. The combined intensity pattern is saved as ciphertext. For decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is performed, in which a support constraint in the output plane and a median filtering operation are utilized to achieve a rapid convergence rate without a stagnation problem. The proposed scheme has a simple optical setup and large encryption capacity. In particular, it is well suited for constructing a hierarchical security system. The security and robustness of the proposal are also investigated. (letter)

  20. A SURVEY OF THE HIGH ORDER MULTIPLICITY OF NEARBY SOLAR-TYPE BINARY STARS WITH Robo-AO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P. [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Roberts, Lewis C. Jr. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai" i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411007 (India)

    2015-01-20

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 10{sup 3.5} to 10{sup 5} days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7.5} days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  1. The evolution of female preferences for multiple indicators of quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, G.S.; Weissing, F.J.

    In a variety of species, females exhibit preferences for multiple male ornaments. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. Which, if any, of these hypotheses is the most plausible in general remains largely unresolved based on the available empirical data. Yet theoretical

  2. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  3. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method is presented for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Gatifloxacin, flurbiprofen and their degradation products were detected at 254 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm column and mixture of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and methanol 30:70 v/v as mobile phase. Response was linear over the range of 15-105 mg mL-1 for gatifloxacin (r² > 0.998 and of 1.5-10.5 mg mL-1 for flurbiprofen (r² > 0.999. The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products (peak purity index > 0.9999. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in human serum, urine, pharmaceutical formulations, and their stability studies.

  4. Modelling and nonlinear shock waves for binary gas mixtures by the discrete Boltzmann equation with multiple collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The discrete Boltzmann equation is a mathematical model in the kinetic theory of gases which defines the time and space evolution of a system of gas particles with a finite number of selected velocities. Discrete kinetic theory is an interesting field of research in mathematical physics and applied mathematics for several reasons. One of the relevant fields of application of the discrete Boltzmann equation is the analysis of nonlinear shock wave phenomena. Here, a new multiple collision regular plane model for binary gas mixtures is proposed within the discrete theory of gases and applied to the analysis of the classical problems of shock wave propagation

  5. Sufficient condition for generation of multiple solidification front in one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobula, E.; Kalicka, Z.

    1981-10-01

    In the paper we consider the one-dimensional solidification of binary alloys in the finite system. The authors present the sufficient condition for solidification in the liquid in front of the moving solid-liquid interface. The effect may produce a fluctuating concentration distributin in the solid. The convection in the liquid and supercooling required for homogeneous nucleation are omitted. A local-equilibrium approximation at the liquid-solid interface is supposed. (author)

  6. Araucaria Project: Pulsating stars in binary systems and as distance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki Bogumił

    2017-01-01

    Type II Cepheids are recently becoming more important as distance indicators and astrophysics laboratory, although our knowledge of these stars is quite limited. Their evolutionary status is also not well understood and observational constraints are needed to confirm the current theories. We are presenting here our first results of the spectroscopic analysis of 4 of these systems. The masses of type II Cepheids seem consistent with the expected 0.5 − 0.6 M⊙. We also present first results of the fully modeled pulsator originally classified as peculiar W Vir star. The mass of this star is 1.51 ± 0.09 M⊙ and the p-factor 1.3 ± 0.03. It was eventually found not to belong to any typical Cepheid group.

  7. Gaia eclipsing binary and multiple systems. Supervised classification and self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süveges, M.; Barblan, F.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Prša, A.; Holl, B.; Eyer, L.; Kochoska, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Large surveys producing tera- and petabyte-scale databases require machine-learning and knowledge discovery methods to deal with the overwhelming quantity of data and the difficulties of extracting concise, meaningful information with reliable assessment of its uncertainty. This study investigates the potential of a few machine-learning methods for the automated analysis of eclipsing binaries in the data of such surveys. Aims: We aim to aid the extraction of samples of eclipsing binaries from such databases and to provide basic information about the objects. We intend to estimate class labels according to two different, well-known classification systems, one based on the light curve morphology (EA/EB/EW classes) and the other based on the physical characteristics of the binary system (system morphology classes; detached through overcontact systems). Furthermore, we explore low-dimensional surfaces along which the light curves of eclipsing binaries are concentrated, and consider their use in the characterization of the binary systems and in the exploration of biases of the full unknown Gaia data with respect to the training sets. Methods: We have explored the performance of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Random Forest classification and self-organizing maps (SOM) for the above aims. We pre-processed the photometric time series by combining a double Gaussian profile fit and a constrained smoothing spline, in order to de-noise and interpolate the observed light curves. We achieved further denoising, and selected the most important variability elements from the light curves using PCA. Supervised classification was performed using Random Forest and LDA based on the PC decomposition, while SOM gives a continuous 2-dimensional manifold of the light curves arranged by a few important features. We estimated the uncertainty of the supervised methods due to the specific finite training set using ensembles of models constructed

  8. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model of internal barriers to drug treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Kelly, Brian C; Liao, Yanhui; He, Haoyu; Luo, Tao; Deng, Huiqiong; Liu, Tieqiao; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2015-03-01

    Although evidence exists for distinct barriers to drug abuse treatment (BDATs), investigations of their inter-relationships and the effect of individual characteristics on the barrier factors have been sparse, especially in China. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model is applied for this target. A sample of 262 drug users were recruited from three drug rehabilitation centers in Hunan Province, China. We applied a MIMIC approach to investigate the effect of gender, age, marital status, education, primary substance use, duration of primary drug use, and drug treatment experience on the internal barrier factors: absence of problem (AP), negative social support (NSS), fear of treatment (FT), and privacy concerns (PC). Drug users of various characteristics were found to report different internal barrier factors. Younger participants were more likely to report NSS (-0.19, p=0.038) and PC (-0.31, p<0.001). Compared to other drug users, ice users were more likely to report AP (0.44, p<0.001) and NSS (0.25, p=0.010). Drug treatment experiences related to AP (0.20, p=0.012). In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) occurred in three items when participant from groups with different duration of drug use, ice use, or marital status. Individual characteristics had significant effects on internal barriers to drug treatment. On this basis, BDAT perceived by different individuals could be assessed before tactics were utilized to successfully remove perceived barriers to drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  10. hamlet, a binary genetic switch between single- and multiple- dendrite neuron morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrian W; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2002-08-23

    The dendritic morphology of neurons determines the number and type of inputs they receive. In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), the external sensory (ES) neurons have a single nonbranched dendrite, whereas the lineally related multidendritic (MD) neurons have extensively branched dendritic arbors. We report that hamlet is a binary genetic switch between these contrasting morphological types. In hamlet mutants, ES neurons are converted to an MD fate, whereas ectopic hamlet expression in MD precursors results in transformation of MD neurons into ES neurons. Moreover, hamlet expression induced in MD neurons undergoing dendrite outgrowth drastically reduces arbor branching.

  11. V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind: eclipsing binaries as parts of multiple systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasche, P.; Juryšek, Jakub; Nemravová, J.; Uhlář, R.; Svoboda, P.; Wolf, M.; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, Martin; Prouza, Michael; Čechura, Jan; Korčáková, D.; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, č. 1 (2017), 1-7, č. článku 36. ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S; GA MŠk LG14013 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985815 Keywords : binaries * eclipsing stars * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.609, year: 2016

  12. [Virological and immunological indices in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, A P; Kameneva, S N; Agafonova, O A; Neverov, A A; Ignat'ev, G M

    2004-01-01

    The level of specific antibodies to viruses of measles, parotitis, type-6 herpes, Epstein-Barr, tick-borne encephalitis and Borrelia burgdorferi as well as presence of genetic samples and antigens of the above infectious antigens were studied in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The cytokines Th1 and Th2 parameters were investigated in blood serum of patients at different MS stages. The titer of antibodies to measles virus was noted to be increasing in MS patients with age and disease aggravation. The level of antibodies to any of the studied infectious agents, except for the type-6 herpes virus, was not dynamically changing for as long as 9 months. The viral genetic samples (measles RNA) were detected just once in 2 patients; the detection time coincided in both cases with MS aggravation. The cytokines dynamics failed to correlate with MS aggravation or exacerbation while the total index of all studied cytokines was decreased. A high MMPw 9 content in blood serum correlated with MS exacerbation in 1 patient.

  13. REFINED METALLICITY INDICES FOR M DWARFS USING THE SLoWPoKES CATALOG OF WIDE, LOW-MASS BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhital, Saurav; Stassun, Keivan G.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; West, Andrew A.; Massey, Angela P.; Bochanski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results from spectroscopic observations of 113 ultra-wide, low-mass binary systems, largely composed of M0-M3 dwarfs, from the SLoWPoKES catalog of common proper motion pairs identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Radial velocities of each binary member were used to confirm that they are comoving and, consequently, to further validate the high fidelity of the SLoWPoKES catalog. Ten stars appear to be spectroscopic binaries based on broad or split spectral features, supporting previous findings that wide binaries are likely to be hierarchical systems. We measured the Hα equivalent width of the stars in our sample and found that components of 81% of the observed pairs have similar Hα levels. The difference in Hα equivalent width among components with similar masses was smaller than the range of Hα variability for individual objects. We confirm that the Lépine et al. ζ-index traces iso-metallicity loci for most of our sample of M dwarfs. However, we find a small systematic bias in ζ, especially in the early-type M dwarfs. We use our sample to recalibrate the definition of ζ. While representing a small change in the definition, the new ζ is a significantly better predictor of iso-metallicity for the higher-mass M dwarfs.

  14. Two Wrongs Make a Right: Addressing Underreporting in Binary Data from Multiple Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Scott J; Blas, Betsabe; Carroll, Raymond J; Sinha, Samiran

    2017-04-01

    Media-based event data-i.e., data comprised from reporting by media outlets-are widely used in political science research. However, events of interest (e.g., strikes, protests, conflict) are often underreported by these primary and secondary sources, producing incomplete data that risks inconsistency and bias in subsequent analysis. While general strategies exist to help ameliorate this bias, these methods do not make full use of the information often available to researchers. Specifically, much of the event data used in the social sciences is drawn from multiple, overlapping news sources (e.g., Agence France-Presse, Reuters). Therefore, we propose a novel maximum likelihood estimator that corrects for misclassification in data arising from multiple sources. In the most general formulation of our estimator, researchers can specify separate sets of predictors for the true-event model and each of the misclassification models characterizing whether a source fails to report on an event. As such, researchers are able to accurately test theories on both the causes of and reporting on an event of interest. Simulations evidence that our technique regularly out performs current strategies that either neglect misclassification, the unique features of the data-generating process, or both. We also illustrate the utility of this method with a model of repression using the Social Conflict in Africa Database.

  15. Viscosities and refractive indices of binary systems acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Emila M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosities and refractive indices of three binary systems, acetone+1-propanol, acetone+1,2-propanediol and acetone+1,3-propanediol, were measured at eight temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, 323.15K and at atmospheric pressure. From these data viscosity deviations and deviations in refractive index were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The viscosity modelling was done by two types of models: predictive UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG VISCO and correlative Teja-Rice and McAlister equations. The refractive indices of binary mixtures were predicted by various mixing rules and compared with experimental data. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  16. The Multiple-component Binary Hyad, vA 351 - a Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, George Fritz; Franz, Otto G.; Wasserman, Lawrence H.

    2017-06-01

    We extend results first announced by Franz et al. (1998) in the abstract, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AAS...19310207F ,that identified vA 351 = H346 in the Hyades as a multiple star system containing a white dwarf. With HST/FGS fringe tracking and scanning, spanning four years, we establish a parallax, relative orbit, and mass fraction for the A-B components, with a period, P~5.47y. With ground-based radial velocities from the McDonald Observatory Struve 2.1m telescope and Sandiford Spectrograph, spanning 14 years, we find that component B consists of BC, two M dwarf stars orbiting with a very short period (P(BC)~0.75 days), having a mass ratio C/B~0.94. We confirm that the total mass of the system can only be reconciled with the distance and component photometry by including a fainter, higher mass component, proposed to be a ~0.8Msun white dwarf. Thus, the quadruple system consists of three M dwarfs (A,B,C) and one white dwarf (D). The M dwarf masses and absolute magnitudes are consistent with the Benedict et al. (2016, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AJ....152..141B) lower Main Sequence Mass-Luminosity Relation. The radial velocity signal has so far yielded a signature only for the short-period BC orbital motion. Velocities from H-α and He I emission lines confirm the BC period from absorption lines, with similar (He I) and higher (H-α) velocity amplitudes.

  17. Causal mediation analysis with a binary outcome and multiple continuous or ordinal mediators: Simulations and application to an alcohol intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Webb-Vargas, Yenny; Koning, Ina M; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    We investigate a method to estimate the combined effect of multiple continuous/ordinal mediators on a binary outcome: 1) fit a structural equation model with probit link for the outcome and identity/probit link for continuous/ordinal mediators, 2) predict potential outcome probabilities, and 3) compute natural direct and indirect effects. Step 2 involves rescaling the latent continuous variable underlying the outcome to address residual mediator variance/covariance. We evaluate the estimation of risk-difference- and risk-ratio-based effects (RDs, RRs) using the ML, WLSMV and Bayes estimators in Mplus. Across most variations in path-coefficient and mediator-residual-correlation signs and strengths, and confounding situations investigated, the method performs well with all estimators, but favors ML/WLSMV for RDs with continuous mediators, and Bayes for RRs with ordinal mediators. Bayes outperforms WLSMV/ML regardless of mediator type when estimating RRs with small potential outcome probabilities and in two other special cases. An adolescent alcohol prevention study is used for illustration.

  18. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien

    2013-11-01

    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective: This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design: This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1 skilled antenatal care and (2 skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities. Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results: In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011 and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011. The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions: Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups.

  20. A Replication to Increase Happiness Indices among Some People with Profound Multiple Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Martin T.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The happiness indices in a Fun Time activity were systematically increased for three of four people with profound multiple disabilities by providing their preferred stimuli. The fourth showed decreased unhappiness. However, three people with profound disabilities and minimal movement failed to show any indices of happiness or unhappiness.…

  1. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of…

  2. Experimental densities, refractive indices, and speeds of sound of 12 binary mixtures containing alkanes and aromatic compounds at T = 313.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, Noelia; Gomez, Elena; Gonzalez, Begona; Dominguez, Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Densities, speeds of sound, and refractive indices of 12 binary systems of alkanes (hexane, heptane, octane, and nonane) with aromatics (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene) at T = 313.15 K and at atmospheric pressure were determined over the whole composition range, and are presented in this paper. From the experimental results, the derived and excess properties (isentropic compressibility, excess molar volumes, and excess molar isentropic compressibility) at T = 313.15 K were calculated and satisfactorily fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation.

  3. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Lafranca

    Full Text Available Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate.Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n = 951 was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied.In 237 out of 951 donors (25%, vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins. Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%. Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes, higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9% and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9% in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy.We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

  4. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranca, Jeffrey A; van Bruggen, Mark; Kimenai, Hendrikus J A N; Tran, Thi C K; Terkivatan, Türkan; Betjes, Michiel G H; IJzermans, Jan N M; Dor, Frank J M F

    2016-01-01

    Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n = 951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. In 237 out of 951 donors (25%), vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT) and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM) was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins). Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%). Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes), higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9%) and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9%) in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy. We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

  6. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen, Sara Tangmose

    2016-01-01

    When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical regres...... the need for interval estimation. To illustrate and evaluate the method, Köhler et al. (1995) third molar scores are used to estimate the age in a dataset of 3200 male subjects in the juvenile age range.......When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical...... regression models but becomes less trivial as soon as the number of indicators increases. Each of the age indicators can lead to a different point estimate ("the most plausible value for age") and a prediction interval ("the range of possible values"). The major challenge in the combination of multiple...

  7. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  8. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals.

  9. Densities, excess molar volumes, and refractive indices of 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane and 1-alkanols binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hayan, M.N.M.; Al-Bader, Maher A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Densities, excess molar volumes, refractive indices, and changes in refractive index on mixing for (1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane + 1-pentanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol) have been determined at T = 293.15 K and at T = 303.15 K. The excess molar volumes and changes in refractive index have been fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomials. The effect of the chain length of the 1-alkanol on the excess molar volume and the change in the refractive index of its mixtures with 1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane are discussed. In addition, the refractive indices are compared with calculated values using mixing rules proposed by several authors, and a good agreement is obtained

  10. Densities, excess molar volumes, and refractive indices of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and 1-alkanols binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hayan, M.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Densities, excess molar volumes, refractive indices, and changes in refractive index on mixing for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane + 1-pentanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol have been determined at T = (293.15 and 303.15) K. The excess molar volumes and changes in refractive index have been fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomials. The effect of the chain length of the 1-alkanol on the excess molar volume and the change in the refractive index of its mixtures with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was discussed. In addition, the refractive indices were compared with calculated values using mixing rules proposed by several authors, and a very good agreement was obtained

  11. Large-scale diversity of slope fishes: pattern inconsistency between multiple diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Maiorano, Porzia; Mérigot, Bastien; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3'- 45°7' N; 5°3'W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness.

  12. Secular dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binaries, with an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure - II. External perturbations: flybys and supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.

    2018-05-01

    We extend the formalism of a previous paper to include the effects of flybys and instantaneous perturbations such as supernovae on the long-term secular evolution of hierarchical multiple systems with an arbitrary number of bodies and hierarchy, provided that the system is composed of nested binary orbits. To model secular encounters, we expand the Hamiltonian in terms of the ratio of the separation of the perturber with respect to the barycentre of the multiple system, to the separation of the widest orbit. Subsequently, we integrate over the perturber orbit numerically or analytically. We verify our method for secular encounters and illustrate it with an example. Furthermore, we describe a method to compute instantaneous orbital changes to multiple systems, such as asymmetric supernovae and impulsive encounters. The secular code, with implementation of the extensions described in this paper, is publicly available within AMUSE, and we provide a number of simple example scripts to illustrate its usage for secular and impulsive encounters and asymmetric supernovae. The extensions presented in this paper are a next step towards efficiently modelling the evolution of complex multiple systems embedded in star clusters.

  13. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  14. Evaluation of multiple water quality indices for drinking and irrigation purposes for the Karoon river, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiyan, Milad Mirzaei; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline; Aminiyan, Farzad Mirzaei

    2018-06-16

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Karoon river, which is a main river in Iran country. For this purpose, hydrochemical analyses of a database that maintained by the Water Resources Authority of Khuzestan Province, Iran's Ministry of Energy, were carried out. These data were compared with the maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization water standards for drinking and agricultural purposes, respectively. Also in this regard, multiple indices of water quality were utilized. However, not all indices gave similar rankings for water quality. According to the USSL diagram and Kelly ratio, Karoon's water quality is not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity and moderate alkalinity. However, the results of the magnesium hazard analysis suggested that water quality for irrigation is acceptable. A Piper diagram illustrated that the most dominant water types during the 15 years of the study were Na-Cl and Na-SO 4 . The mineral saturation index also indicated that Na-Cl is the dominant water type. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using a Schoeller diagram and water quality index (WQI). According to the computed WQI ranging from 111.9 to 194.0, the Karoon's water in the Khuzestan plain can be categorized as "poor water" for drinking purposes. Based on hydrochemical characteristics, years 2000-2007 and 2008-2014 were categorized into two clusters illustrating a decline in water quality between the two time periods.

  15. What fraction of white dwarfs are members of binary systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holberg, J B

    2009-01-01

    White dwarfs were originally discovered as the subordinate faint companions of bright nearby stars (i.e. Sirius B and 40 Eri B). Several general categories of binary systems involving white dwarfs are recognized: Sirius-like systems, where the white dwarf may be difficult to detect, binary systems containing white dwarfs and low mass stars, where the white dwarf is often readily discerned; and double degenerate systems. Different modes of white dwarf discovery influence our perception of both the overall binary fraction and the nature of these systems; proper motion surveys emphasize resolved systems, while photometric surveys emphasize unresolved systems containing relatively hot white dwarfs. Recent studies of the local white dwarf population offer some hope of achieving realistic estimates of the relative number of binary systems containing white dwarfs. A sample of 132 white dwarfs within 20 pc indicates that an individual white dwarf has a probability of 32 ± 8% of occurring within a binary or multiple star system.

  16. Formation of multiple stoichiometric phases in binary systems by combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion: Experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.; Schillinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic extremal principle has been used by the authors to treat the evolution of binary and multicomponent systems under the assumption that all phases are nearly stoichiometric. Up to now only bulk diffusion has been taken into account. The concept is now extended to combined bulk and grain boundary diffusion possible in each newly formed phase. The grains are approximated by cylinders allowing interface diffusion along the top and bottom of the grains and grain boundary diffusion along the mantle with different interface/grain boundary diffusion coefficients. A consistent analysis yields an effective diffusion coefficient taking into account the combined interface/grain boundary and bulk diffusion of each individual component. The current concept is applied to the Cu–Sn couple which has been studied by a number of researchers. The results of simulations are compared with experiments at 200 °C on solid systems reported in the literature as well as with our experiments at 250 °C with liquid Sn.

  17. Comparison of Multiple Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Indices in Chinese COPD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinsong; Miller, Anastasia; Li, Yongxia; Lan, Qinqin; Zhang, Ning; Chai, Yanling; Hai, Bing

    2018-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious chronic condition with a global impact. Symptoms of COPD include progressive dyspnea, breathlessness, cough, and sputum production, which have a considerable impact on the lives of patients. In addition to the human cost of living with COPD and the resulting death, COPD entails a huge economic burden on the Chinese population, with patients spending up to one-third of the average family income on COPD management in some regions is clinically beneficial to adopt preventable measures via prudent COPD care utilization, monetary costs, and hospitalizations. Toward this end, this study compared the relative effectiveness of six indices in predicting patient healthcare utilization, cost of care, and patient health outcome. The six assessment systems evaluated included the three multidimensional Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise capacity index, Dyspnea, Obstruction, Smoking, Exacerbation (DOSE) index, and COPD Assessment Test index, or the unidimensional measures that best predict the future of patient healthcare utilization, cost of care, and patient health outcome among Chinese COPD patients. Multiple linear regression models were created for each healthcare utilization, cost, and outcome including a single COPD index and the same group of demographic variables for each of the outcomes. We conclude that the DOSE index facilitates the prediction of patient healthcare utilization, disease expenditure, and negative clinical outcomes. Our study indicates that the DOSE index has a potential role beyond clinical predictions. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  18. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  19. ALICE measurements in p–Pb collisions: Charged particle multiplicity, centrality determination and implications for binary scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toia, Alberica, E-mail: alberica.toia@cern.ch [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Measurements of particle production in proton–nucleus collisions provide a reference to disentangle final state effects, i.e. signatures of the formation of a deconfined hot medium, from initial state effects, already present in cold nuclear matter. Since many initial state effects are expected to vary as function of the number of collisions suffered by the incoming proton, it is crucial to estimate the centrality of the collision. In p-Pb collisions categorization of events into different centrality classes using a particle multiplicity distribution is complicated by the low particle multiplicities and the large multiplicity fluctuations. We present ALICE measurements of particle production in p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV, including the pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum dependence, and we discuss the event classification in centrality classes and its implications for the measurements of nuclear modification factors.

  20. Stability indicating HPLC-DAD method for analysis of Ketorolac binary and ternary mixtures in eye drops: Quantitative analysis in rabbit aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazbi, Fawzy A; Hassan, Ekram M; Khamis, Essam F; Ragab, Marwa A A; Hamdy, Mohamed M A

    2017-11-15

    Ketorolac tromethamine (KTC) with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) binary mixture (mixture 1) and their ternary mixture with chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) (mixture 2) were analyzed using a validated HPLC-DAD method. The developed method was suitable for the in vitro as well as quantitative analysis of the targeted mixtures in rabbit aqueous humor. The analysis in dosage form (eye drops) was a stability indicating one at which drugs were separated from possible degradation products arising from different stress conditions (in vitro analysis). For analysis in aqueous humor, Guaifenesin (GUF) was used as internal standard and the method was validated according to FDA regulation for analysis in biological fluids. Agilent 5 HC-C18(2) 150×4.6mm was used as stationary phase with a gradient eluting solvent of 20mM phosphate buffer pH 4.6 containing 0.2% triethylamine and acetonitrile. The drugs were resolved with retention times of 2.41, 5.26, 7.92 and 9.64min for PHE, GUF, KTC and CPM, respectively. The method was sensitive and selective to analyze simultaneously the three drugs in presence of possible forced degradation products and dosage form excipients (in vitro analysis) and also with the internal standard, in presence of aqueous humor interferences (analysis in biological fluid), at a single wavelength (261nm). No extraction procedure was required for analysis in aqueous humor. The simplicity of the method emphasizes its capability to analyze the drugs in vivo (in rabbit aqueous humor) and in vitro (in pharmaceutical formulations). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  2. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  3. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies.

  4. A Comparative Study of Multiple Object Detection Using Haar-Like Feature Selection and Local Binary Patterns in Several Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhail Guennouni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Object detection has been attracting much interest due to the wide spectrum of applications that use it. It has been driven by an increasing processing power available in software and hardware platforms. In this work we present a developed application for multiple objects detection based on OpenCV libraries. The complexity-related aspects that were considered in the object detection using cascade classifier are described. Furthermore, we discuss the profiling and porting of the application into an embedded platform and compare the results with those obtained on traditional platforms. The proposed application deals with real-time systems implementation and the results give a metric able to select where the cases of object detection applications may be more complex and where it may be simpler.

  5. Excess molar volumes and refractive indices of (methoxybenzene+benzene, or toluene, or o-xylene, or m-xylene, or p-xylene, or mesitylene) binary mixtures between T=(288.15 to 303.15)K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kandary, Jasem A.; Al-Jimaz, Adel S.; Abdul-Latif, Abdul-Haq M.

    2006-01-01

    Densities ρ and refractive indices n D for (anisole+benzene, or toluene, or o-xylene, or m-xylene or p-xylene or mesitylene) binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fraction, at temperatures (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15)K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured. The excess molar volume V E and molar refraction deviation ΔR m , have been calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial relation to estimate the binary coefficients and standard errors. The excess molar volumes are positive for (anisole+mesitylene) binary mixtures and negative for (anisole+benzene, or toluene, or xylene isomers) binary mixtures at various temperatures. Partial molar volumes V-bar i and partial excess molar volumes V-bar i E have been also derived from the experimental data. The calculated values have been used to explain the dependency of intermolecular interaction between the mixing components on the alkyl substitution on benzene ring

  6. Non-ergodicity transition and multiple glasses in binary mixtures: on the accuracy of the input static structure in the mode coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchangnwa Nya, F; Ayadim, A; Germain, Ph; Amokrane, S

    2012-01-01

    We examine the question of the accuracy of the static correlation functions used as input in the mode coupling theory (MCT) of non-ergodic states in binary mixtures. We first consider hard-sphere mixtures and compute the static pair structure from the Ornstein-Zernike equations with the Percus-Yevick closure and more accurate ones that use bridge functions deduced from Rosenfeld’s fundamental measures functional. The corresponding MCT predictions for the non-ergodicity lines and the transitions between multiple glassy states are determined from the long-time limit of the density autocorrelation functions. We find that while the non-ergodicity transition line is not very sensitive to the input static structure, up to diameter ratios D 2 /D 1 = 10, quantitative differences exist for the transitions between different glasses. The discrepancies with the more accurate closures become even qualitative for sufficiently asymmetric mixtures. They are correlated with the incorrect behavior of the PY structure at high size asymmetry. From the example of ultra-soft potential it is argued that this issue is of general relevance beyond the hard-sphere model. (paper)

  7. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  8. Vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-Indication for live kidney donation and transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lafranca (Jeffrey); M.V. Bruggen (Mark Van); H.J.A.N. Kimenai (Hendrikus); T.C.K. Tran (Thi C. K.); T. Terkivatan (Türkan); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); J.N.M.I. Jzermans (Jan N. M.I.); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Methods: Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n=951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or

  9. Development of multiple performance indices and system parameter study for the design of a MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2012-01-01

    For the design of a MEMS accelerometer, proper performance indices should be defined and employed. Performance indices are obtained using either an experimental method or a numerical method. In the present study, a vibration analysis model of a MEMS accelerometer is introduced to calculate three performance indices: sensitivity, measurable acceleration range, and measurable frequency range. The accuracy of the vibration analysis model is first validated by comparing its modal and transient results with those of a commercial finite element code. Measurable acceleration and frequency ranges versus allowable errors for electrical and mechanical sensitivities are obtained and the effects of system parameter variations on the three performance indices are investigated

  10. Capturing pan-Canadian Primary Health Care indicator data using multiple approaches for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vicky; Sullivan-Taylor, Patricia; Webster, Greg; Macphail, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), in collaboration with diverse stakeholders, led the development of pan-Canadian indicators to measure primary health care. In 2006, CIHI released a set of 105 pan-Canadian Primary Health Care (PHC) indicators that were developed with the assistance of national, provincial and territorial representatives, clinicians and researchers. Additionally, data gaps were identified in a series of reports. In 2006 and 2007, CIHI assessed options for closing the data gaps so that the indicators could be measured and reported. CIHI then began a program to build the data infrastructure needed for the PHC indicators. The program included the development of content standards for electronic medical records, a prototype of a voluntary reporting system, enhancements to surveys, and the development of reports. In 2006, fewer than 10% of the 105 indicators could be calculated with existing data sources. Now, four projects have begun and over 50% of the indicators are being captured. Important relationships have been established with key collaborators. These relationships will lead to the development of a reporting system prototype and to the refinement of PHC indicators and electronic medical record (EMR) content standards. The project for pan-Canadian PHC indicators has encouraged consultation and synergy. It has motivated CIHI to establish an information program to fill data gaps and to make PHC indicators available.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lantana camara in India indicates multiple introductions and gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A; Quader, S

    2014-05-01

    Lantana camara is a highly invasive plant, which has spread over 60 countries and island groups of Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, it was introduced in the early nineteenth century, since when it has expanded and gradually established itself in almost every available ecosystem. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of this plant in India in order to understand its introduction, subsequent range expansion and gene flow. A total of 179 individuals were sequenced at three chloroplast loci and 218 individuals were genotyped for six nuclear microsatellites. Both chloroplasts (nine haplotypes) and microsatellites (83 alleles) showed high genetic diversity. Besides, each type of marker confirmed the presence of private polymorphism. We uncovered low to medium population structure in both markers, and found a faint signal of isolation by distance with microsatellites. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed multiple divergent genetic clusters. Taken together, these findings (i.e. high genetic diversity with private alleles and multiple genetic clusters) suggest that Lantana was introduced multiple times and gradually underwent spatial expansion with recurrent gene flow. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Binary aspects and particle multiplicities of the fragments from sup(nat)Ag+340 MeV 40Ar deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Jared, R.C.; Russo, P.; Schmitt, R.P.; Babinet, R.; Moretto, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Deep inelastic fragments from the reaction sup(nat)Ag+340MeV 40 Ar have been studied in coincidence. Charged particles (10<=Z<=32) were detected and indentified in Z by means of a ΔE-E telescope, while the complementary fragments were detected in a one-dimensional solid-state position-sensitive detector. Both in-plane and out-of-plane correlations were measured. The results confirm the binary nature of the deep inelastic process for this reaction. From the measured energies and angles of the fragments and the atomic number of one of the fragments, it was possible to determine the total mass loss due to the de-excitation of the fragments as well as the total evaporated charge at symmetry. An iterative procedure is discussed which enables one to determine the masses and kinetic energies of the fragments before evaporation, as well as the total number of particles evaporated by each fragment. The widths of the in-plane and out-of-plane correlations agree with the results of the iterative calculations, as do evaporation calculations which are based on the charge equilibrium model. The experimental results support the charge equilibrium model and indicate that thermal equilibrium is achieved between the fragments at fixed mass asymmetry. (Auth.)

  13. Support vector data description for fusion of multiple health indicators for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W; Guo, Wei; Miao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis is developed by fusion of multiple health indicators through support vector data description. First, the Comblet transform is used to identify gear residual error signals from the raw signal. Second, based on the observation of gear residual error signals, a total of 11 gear health indicators are identified, and are categorized into two types of indicators. The first and second types of indicators are for fault diagnosis and prognosis, respectively. The first type has six indicators, which are sensitive to impulsive signals triggered by anomalous impacts. The second type has five indicators, which are suitable for tracking degradation of faults. Third, through the support vector data description, the first six health indicators are fused into type one indicators for fault diagnosis. The remaining five indicators are fused into type two indicators for fault prognosis. Finally, a Gaussian kernel is designed to enhance the performance of type one and two indicators by optimal range of width size. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through experiments. The new method has been proven to be superior to methods that use unfused indicators individually

  14. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  15. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  16. Extreme Value Theory Approach to Simultaneous Monitoring and Thresholding of Multiple Risk Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Li, J.; Liu, R.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessments often encounter extreme settings with very few or no occurrences in reality.Inferences about risk indicators in such settings face the problem of insufficient data.Extreme value theory is particularly well suited for handling this type of problems.This paper uses a multivariate

  17. The measurement of multiple chronic diseases--a systematic review on existing multimorbidity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Claudia; Berger, Klaus; Bartels, Dorothee B

    2011-03-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the coexistence of 2 or more chronic diseases, is a common phenomenon especially in older people. Numerous efforts to establish a standardized instrument to assess the level of multimorbidity have failed until now, and indices are primarily characterized by their high heterogeneity. Thus, the objective is to provide a comprehensive overview on existing instruments on the basis of a systematic literature review. The review was performed in MedLine. All articles published between January 1, 1960 and August 31, 2009 in German or English language, with the primary focus either on the development of a weighted index or on the effect of multimorbidity on different outcomes, were identified. A total of 39 articles met the inclusion criteria. In the majority of studies (59.0%), the list of included diseases was presented without any selection criteria. Only the high prevalence of diseases (17.9%), their impact on mortality, function, and health status served as a point of reference. Information on the prevalence of chronic conditions mostly rely on self-reports. On average, the 39 indices included 18.5 diseases, ranging between 4 and 102 different conditions. Most frequently mentioned diseases were diabetes mellitus (in 97.5% of indices), followed by stroke (89.7%), hypertension, and cancer (each 84.6%). Overall, three different weighting methods could be distinguished. The systematic literature further emphasis the heterogeneity of existing multimorbidity indices. However, one important similarity is that the focus is on diseases with a high prevalence and a severe impact on affected individuals.

  18. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  19. Gender as a differential indicator of the employment discrimination experiences of Americans with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrill, Phillip D; Roessler, Richard T; McMahon, Brian T; Hennessey, Mary L; Neath, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Information from the Integrated Mission System of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was used to investigate the employment discrimination experiences of women and men with multiple sclerosis (MS). Spanning the years 1992 to 2003, the EEOC database included 3,663 allegations of discrimination filed by 2,167 adults with MS. With respect to women and men with MS, the researchers examined the comparability of a) demographic characteristics; b) industry designations, locations, and size of employers; c) the nature of discrimination alleged; and d) the legal outcome or resolution of those allegations. On average, women and men with MS were in their early forties, with the majority of both groups being Caucasian. Both women and men were most likely to allege discrimination related to discharge and reasonable accommodations, although women were more likely to file harassment charges than men. Men with MS were more likely to allege discrimination regarding hiring and reinstatement. Women with MS were more likely to file allegations against employers in the service industries, and men were more likely to file allegations against employers in the construction, manufacturing, and wholesale industries. No gender differences were found in the geographic distribution of allegations. Both groups had comparable rates of merit closures (23% vs. 27%) as a result of the EEOC's investigatory process. Implications for rehabilitation counseling and employer-oriented interventions are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  1. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  2. The New Zealand Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): A new suite of indicators for social and health research in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel John; Zhao, Jinfeng; Crengle, Sue; Lee, Arier; Browne, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep) has been the universal measure of area-based social circumstances for New Zealand (NZ) and often the key social determinant used in population health and social research. This paper presents the first theoretical and methodological shift in the measurement of area deprivation in New Zealand since the 1990s and describes the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We briefly describe the development of Data Zones, an intermediary geographical scale, before outlining the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which uses routine datasets and methods comparable to current international deprivation indices. We identified 28 indicators of deprivation from national health, social development, taxation, education, police databases, geospatial data providers and the 2013 Census, all of which represented seven Domains of deprivation: Employment; Income; Crime; Housing; Health; Education; and Geographical Access. The IMD is the combination of these seven Domains. The Domains may be used individually or in combination, to explore the geography of deprivation and its association with a given health or social outcome. Geographic variations in the distribution of the IMD and its Domains were found among the District Health Boards in NZ, suggesting that factors underpinning overall deprivation are inconsistent across the country. With the exception of the Access Domain, the IMD and its Domains were statistically and moderately-to-strongly associated with both smoking rates and household poverty. The IMD provides a more nuanced view of area deprivation circumstances in Aotearoa NZ. Our vision is for the IMD and the Data Zones to be widely used to inform research, policy and resource allocation projects, providing a better measurement of area deprivation in NZ, improved outcomes for Māori, and a more consistent approach to reporting and monitoring the social

  3. Evaluation of ecological instream flow using multiple ecological indicators with consideration of hydrological alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Dam-induced hydrological alterations and related ecological problems have been arousing considerable concern from hydrologists, ecologists, and policy-makers. The East River basin in China is the major provider of water resources for mega-cities within the Pearl River Delta and meets 80% of annual water demand of Hong Kong. In this study, ecodeficit and ecosurplus were analyzed to determine the ecological impact of water impoundments. Also, Do and DHRAM were employed to evaluate the degree of alteration of hydrological regimes, and ERHIs were analyzed to evaluate the influence of hydrological alterations on ecological diversity. Results indicate that: (1) the magnitude and frequency of high flows decrease and those of low flows increase due to the regulation of reservoirs; (2) variations of annual ecosurplus are mainly the result of precipitation changes and the annual ecodeficit is significantly influenced by reservoirs. However, ecodeficit and ecosurplus in other seasons, particularly autumn and winter, are more influenced by reservoir regulation; (3) impacts of reservoirs on hydrological regimes and eco-flow regimes are different from one station to another due to different degrees of influence of reservoirs on hydrological processes at different stations. The longer the distance between a reservoir and a hydrological station is, the weaker the influence the water reservoir has on the hydrological processes; (4) ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be accepted in the evaluation of alterations of hydrological processes at annual and seasonal time scales. Results of Shannon Index indicate decreasing biological diversity after the construction of water reservoirs, implying negative impacts of water reservoirs on biological diversity of a river basin and this should arouse considerable human concerns. This study provides a theoretical background for water resources management with consideration of eco-flow variations due to reservoir regulation in other highly

  4. Suicidality and divalproex sodium: analysis of controlled studies in multiple indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Xenia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses of antiepileptic drugs have indicated an increase in the risk of suicidality. The objective of this report was to provide clinical information and an independent meta-analysis of divalproex sodium and suicidality events by analyzing data from 13 placebo-controlled studies and 1 low-dose controlled study. Methods Adverse events considered to be possibly suicide related were identified using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA methodology. Indications included epilepsy, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, impulsive aggression, and dementia. Narratives were produced for every event, and suicidality event ratings were performed by a third party blinded to treatment assignment. Statistical analyses were conducted using methodology similar to that reported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Results Suicidality events were identified in 5 of the 13 placebo-controlled studies. Of the 1,327 (0.83% subjects taking divalproex sodium, 11 had suicidality events: 2 suicide attempts and 9 suicidal ideation. Of 992 (0.91% subjects taking placebo, 9 had suicidality events: 1 preparatory act toward suicide, 2 suicide attempts, and 6 suicidal ideation. Across placebo-controlled studies, the overall estimated odds ratio (OR of suicidal behavior or ideation was 0.72 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.84. The OR for suicidal behavior was 0.37 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.58, and the OR for suicidal ideation was 0.90 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.79. Conclusions In this meta-analysis, divalproex sodium does not appear to increase the risk of suicide-related adverse events relative to placebo in the populations studied. Clinicians should nonetheless remain vigilant in assessing suicidality, not only in patients treated for mental disorders with inherently high suicide risk, but also in patients taking antiepileptic medications.

  5. Genetic structure of Phytophthora infestans populations in China indicates multiple migration events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liyun; Zhu, Xiao-Qiong; Hu, Chia-Hui; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2010-10-01

    One hundred isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected from 10 provinces in China between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed for mating type, metalaxyl resistance, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, allozyme genotype, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the RG-57 probe. In addition, herbarium samples collected in China, Russia, Australia, and other Asian countries were also typed for mtDNA haplotype. The Ia haplotype was found during the first outbreaks of the disease in China (1938 and 1940), Japan (1901, 1930, and 1931), India (1913), Peninsular Malaysia (1950), Nepal (1954), The Philippines (1910), Australia (1917), Russia (1917), and Latvia (1935). In contrast, the Ib haplotype was found after 1950 in China on both potato and tomato (1952, 1954, 1956, and 1982) and in India (1968 and 1974). Another migration of a genotype found in Siberia called SIB-1 (Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [Gpi] 100/100, Peptidase [Pep] 100/100, IIa mtDNA haplotype) was identified using RFLP fingerprints among 72% of the isolates and was widely distributed in the north and south of China and has also been reported in Japan. A new genotype named CN-11 (Gpi 100/111, Pep 100/100, IIb mtDNA haplotype), found only in the south of China, and two additional genotypes (Gpi 100/100, Pep 100/100, Ia mtDNA haplotype) named CN-9 and CN-10 were identified. There were more diverse genotypes among isolates from Yunnan province than elsewhere. The SIB-1 (IIa) genotype is identical to those from Siberia, suggesting later migration of this genotype from either Russia or Japan into China. The widespread predominance of SIB-1 suggests that this genotype has enhanced fitness compared with other genotypes found. Movement of the pathogen into China via infected seed from several sources most likely accounts for the distribution of pathogen genotypes observed. MtDNA haplotype evidence and RFLP data suggest multiple migrations of the pathogen into China after the initial introduction of the

  6. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  7. 99M-TC MIBI-an indicator of active disease in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raluca Mititelu; Serban Ghita; Catalin Mazilu; George Marinescu

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the role of 99mTc-MIBI in the assessment of bone marrow involvement in patients with multiple myeloma and to demonstrate how different patterns of 99mTc-MIBI uptake are reflecting the activity of the disease. Material and method: 27 patients with documented MM were studied, 14M, 13 F, median age 62 years, range 31 - 78. 7 MPI (myocardial perfusion imaging) patients served as controle. Diagnosis and staging of the disease were based on standard criteria: 5 patients in stage I, 7 in stage II, 15 in stage III. The disease activity was determined by clinical and biological assessment and the aspect of bone marrow biopsy. 17 patients had active disease (2 patients in stage I, 4 in stage II, 11 in stage III), 10 patients had not' clinical and biological criteria of active disease. All patients included in the group of active disease underwent radiological examination, 99mTc-MDP whole-body scan and 99mTc-MIBI whole-body scan. MRI was performed in 5 patients with active disease (2 in stage I, 1 in stage II, 2 in stage lib - for evaluation of spine involvement. In the other group (patients with clinical and biological criteria of non-active disease), due to high cost of investigations, we performed whole-body 99mTc-MIBI scan, as the oncologist referred us the patient for monitoring therapeutic response. Whole-body 99mTc-MIBI scans were obtained 20 rain after iv injection of 740 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, in anterior and posterior views, with a dual-head gamma camera Philips -Axis. Results: In the group of patients with active disease (17 patients) we found three different patterns of pathologic 99mTc-MIBI uptake: focal uptake in different sites in 9 patients, diffuse uptake in 4, both focal and diffuse uptake in 3; no pathologic uptake was seen in 1 patient (probably due to overexpression of Pglycoprotein). In the other group, with non-active disease criteria (10 patients), we found normal aspect of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in 8 patients; 2 patients had diffuse increased

  8. Determination of Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures in Buildings with the Aid of Multiple Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy refurbishments of buildings can substantially contribute to economy-wide energy efficiency improvements, leading to decarbonisation and additional sustainability benefits. Prioritising the most economically promising investments is not straightforward because apart from cost-effectiveness calculations, several real-world constraints have to be taken into account. This paper describes an approach to assess the economically viable energy efficiency potential in the building sector of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, with a combination of detailed engineering modelling, cost-effectiveness calculations and real-world considerations of budgetary, technical, behavioural and market constraints. We examine diverse cost-effectiveness indices and come up with a proposal for prioritising specific energy investments such as the installation of heat pumps, insulation of roofs, and replacement of lighting and electronic equipment—without however ignoring other measures that may be economically less favourable but can realistically be implemented in a limited number of buildings. Finally we address the governance of energy efficiency policies, focusing on weaknesses of the current regulatory environment in Cyprus, which can be generalised for many other countries facing similar dilemmas.

  9. Minimising farm crop protection pressure supported by the multiple functionalities of the DISCUSS indicator set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wustenberghs, Hilde; Fevery, Davina; Lauwers, Ludwig; Marchand, Fleur; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2018-03-15

    Sustainable crop protection (SCP) has many facets. Farmers may therefore perceive transition to SCP as very complex. The Dual Indicator Set for Crop Protection Sustainability (DISCUSS) can handle this complexity. To provide targeted support throughout the transition to SCP, complexity capture must be synchronised with the time course of on-farm decision-making. Tool use must be tuned to farmer awareness and appropriate level of data in consecutive stages. This paper thus explores the potential functionalities of DISCUSS in relation to both complexity and time. Results from apple and potato crop protection show three potential functions: DISCUSS can be used as (1) a simulation tool for communication and decision support, (2) an assessment and monitoring tool, and (3) a discussion support tool for farmer groups. Analysis of these functionalities using a framework for guiding on-farm sustainability assessment and strategic decision-making shows how each functionality can support the consecutive steps of transition to SCP, i.e. using the right tool functionality at the right time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    15,894 at 100 Myr (∼8%). The total binary fraction among freefloating BDs is 0.43, higher than indicated by current observations, which, however, are still incomplete. Also, the gradual breakup of higher-order multiples leads to many more singles, thus lowering the binary fraction. The main threat to newly born triple systems is internal instabilities, not external perturbations. At 1 Myr there are 1325 BD binaries still bound to a star, corresponding to 0.66% of the simulations, but only 253 (0.13%) are stable on timescales >100 Myr. These simulations indicate that dynamical interactions in newborn triple systems of stellar embryos embedded in and accreting from a cloud core naturally form a population of freefloating BD binaries, and this mechanism may constitute a significant pathway for the formation of BD binaries

  11. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    15,894 at 100 Myr (∼8%). The total binary fraction among freefloating BDs is 0.43, higher than indicated by current observations, which, however, are still incomplete. Also, the gradual breakup of higher-order multiples leads to many more singles, thus lowering the binary fraction. The main threat to newly born triple systems is internal instabilities, not external perturbations. At 1 Myr there are 1325 BD binaries still bound to a star, corresponding to 0.66% of the simulations, but only 253 (0.13%) are stable on timescales >100 Myr. These simulations indicate that dynamical interactions in newborn triple systems of stellar embryos embedded in and accreting from a cloud core naturally form a population of freefloating BD binaries, and this mechanism may constitute a significant pathway for the formation of BD binaries.

  12. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part I. The indicator of correlation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents two criteria for correlating measured frequency responses from multiple sensors and proposes to use them as indicators for structural damage detection. The first criterion is a global shape correlation (GSC) function that is sensitive to mode shape differences but not to relative scales. The second criterion, a global amplitude correlation (GAC) function, is based on actual response amplitudes. Both correlation criteria are a function of frequency and uniquely map a set of complex responses to a real scalar between zero and unity. The averaged integrations of GSC and GAC functions along the frequency points over the measurement range, also called damage indicators, are used to describe the correlation between two sets of vibration data. When a structure state remains unchanged, both correlation criteria are as close to unity simultaneously. Otherwise, the correlation with the reference data will be decreased with changes of structure states. Using GSC and GAC functions has the advantage of being able to deal with incomplete measurements. Also, all available response data are used and hence there is no critical selection of frequency points for damage detection. The above correlation criteria were applied to a bookshelf structure and various cases such as undamaged states, damage locations (single and multiple), damage levels, as well as environmental variability are discussed. As expected, it was found that indicators of correlation criteria were able to identify all various cases correctly. (orig.)

  13. Quantification of carotid artery plaque stability with multiple region of interest based ultrasound strain indices and relationship with cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. H.; Varghese, T.; Mitchell, C. C.; Jackson, D. C.; Wilbrand, S. M.; Hermann, B. P.; Dempsey, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability and instability in carotid artery plaque has been assessed based on strain variations using noninvasive ultrasound imaging. We previously demonstrated that carotid plaques with higher strain indices in a region of interest (ROI) correlated to patients with lower cognition, probably due to cerebrovascular emboli arising from these unstable plaques. This work attempts to characterize the strain distribution throughout the entire plaque region instead of being restricted to a single localized ROI. Multiple ROIs are selected within the entire plaque region, based on thresholds determined by the maximum and average strains in the entire plaque, enabling generation of additional relevant strain indices. Ultrasound strain imaging of carotid plaques, was performed on 60 human patients using an 18L6 transducer coupled to a Siemens Acuson S2000 system to acquire radiofrequency data over several cardiac cycles. Patients also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests under a protocol based on National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network guidelines. Correlation of strain indices with composite cognitive index of executive function revealed a negative association relating high strain to poor cognition. Patients grouped into high and low cognition groups were then classified using these additional strain indices. One of our newer indices, namely the average L  -  1 norm with plaque (AL1NWP) presented with significantly improved correlation with executive function when compared to our previously reported maximum accumulated strain indices. An optimal combination of three of the new indices generated classifiers of patient cognition with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.880, 0.921 and 0.905 for all (n  =  60), symptomatic (n  =  33) and asymptomatic patients (n  =  27) whereas classifiers using maximum accumulated strain indices alone provided AUC values of 0.817, 0.815 and 0

  14. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age......Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual...... agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action...

  15. Is the Urban Child Health Advantage Declining in Malawi?: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health

  16. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  17. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  18. Temporal variation (seasonal and interannual) of vegetation indices of maize and soybeans across multiple years in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Remotely sensed reflectance parameters from corn and soybean surfaces can be correlated to crop production. Surface reflectance of a typical Upper Midwest corn /soybean region in central Iowa across multiple years reveal subtle dynamics in vegetative surface response to a continually varying climate. From 2006 through 2014 remotely sensed data have been acquired over production fields of corn and soybeans in central IA, U.S.A. with the fields alternating between corn and soybeans. The data have been acquired using ground-based radiometers with 16 wavebands covering the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared wavebands and combined into a series of vegetative indices. These data were collected on clear days with the goal of collecting data at a minimum of once per week from prior to planting until after fall tillage operations. Within each field, five sites were established and sampled during the year to reduce spatial variation and allow for an assessment of changes in the vegetative indices throughout the growing season. Ancillary data collected for each crop included the phenological stage at each sampling date along with biomass sampled at the onset of the reproductive stage and at physiological maturity. Evaluation of the vegetative indices for the different years revealed that patterns were related to weather effects on corn and soybean growth. Remote sensing provides a method to evaluate changes within and among growing seasons to assess crop growth and development as affected by differences in weather variability.

  19. Improving Healthcare in Pediatric Oncology: Development and Testing of Multiple Indicators to Evaluate a Hub-And-Spoke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Angelastro, Angela; Gianino, Paola; Bona, Gianni; Barbara, Affif; Besenzon, Luigi; Brach Del Prever, Adalberto; Pesce, Fernando; Nangeroni, Marco; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Purpose The hub-and-spoke is a new innovation model in healthcare that has been adopted in some countries to manage rare pathologies. We developed a set of indicators to assess current quality practices of the hub-and-spoke model adopted in the Interregional Pediatric Oncology Network in Northwest Italy and to promote patient, family, and professional healthcare empowerment. Methods Literature and evidence-based clinical guidelines were reviewed and multiprofessional team workshops were carried out to highlight some important issues on healthcare in pediatric oncology and to translate them into a set of multiple indicators. For each indicator, specific questions were formulated and tested through a series of questionnaires completed by 80 healthcare professionals and 50 pediatric patients and their parents. Results The results highlighted a positive perception of healthcare delivered by the hub-and-spoke model (M HP = 156, M Pat = 93, M Par = 104). Based on the participants' suggestions, some quality improvements have been implemented. Conclusions This study represents the first attempt to examine this new model of pediatric oncology care through the active involvement of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Suggestions for adopting a hub-and-spoke model in pediatric oncology in other regions and countries are also highlighted.

  20. Evaluation of efficacy and indications of surgical fixation for multiple rib fractures: a propensity-score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Nishimura, T; Takesada, H; Morioka, T; Hagawa, N; Yamamoto, T; Kaga, S; Terada, T; Shinyama, N; Yamamoto, H; Mizobata, Y

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of recent surgical rib fixation and establish its indications not only for flail chest but also for multiple rib fractures. Between 2007 and 2015, 187 patients were diagnosed as having multiple rib fractures in our institution. After the propensity score matching was performed, ten patients who had performed surgical rib fixation and ten patients who had treated with non-operative management were included. Categorical variables were analyzed with Fischer's exact test and non-parametric numerical data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for comparison of pre- and postoperative variables. All statistical data are presented as median (25-75 % interquartile range [IQR]) or number. The surgically treated patients extubated significantly earlier than non-operative management patients (5.5 [1-8] vs 9 [7-12] days: p = 0.019). The duration of continuous intravenous narcotic agents infusion days (4.5 [3-6] vs 12 [9-14] days: p = 0.002) and the duration of intensive care unit stay (6.5 [3-9] vs 12 [8-14] days: p = 0.008) were also significantly shorter in surgically treated patients. Under the same ventilating conditions, the postoperative values of tidal volume and respiratory rate improved significantly compared to those values measured just before the surgery. The incidence of pneumonia as a complication was significantly higher in non-operative management group (p = 0.05). From the viewpoints of early respiratory stabilization and intensive care unit disposition without any complications, surgical rib fixation is a sufficiently acceptable procedure not only for flail chest but also for repair of severe multiple rib fractures.

  1. Robust heart rate estimation from multiple asynchronous noisy sources using signal quality indices and a Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q; Mark, R G; Clifford, G D

    2008-01-01

    Physiological signals such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often severely corrupted by noise, artifact and missing data, which lead to large errors in the estimation of the heart rate (HR) and ABP. A robust HR estimation method is described that compensates for these problems. The method is based upon the concept of fusing multiple signal quality indices (SQIs) and HR estimates derived from multiple electrocardiogram (ECG) leads and an invasive ABP waveform recorded from ICU patients. Physiological SQIs were obtained by analyzing the statistical characteristics of each waveform and their relationships to each other. HR estimates from the ECG and ABP are tracked with separate Kalman filters, using a modified update sequence based upon the individual SQIs. Data fusion of each HR estimate was then performed by weighting each estimate by the Kalman filters' SQI-modified innovations. This method was evaluated on over 6000 h of simultaneously acquired ECG and ABP from a 437 patient subset of ICU data by adding real ECG and realistic artificial ABP noise. The method provides an accurate HR estimate even in the presence of high levels of persistent noise and artifact, and during episodes of extreme bradycardia and tachycardia

  2. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  3. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011 describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results: There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5 to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60

  4. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8-60.0). More efforts are required to increase household access to

  5. Stability-indicating HPLC-DAD methods for determination of two binary mixtures: Rabeprazole sodium-mosapride citrate and rabeprazole sodium-itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fatatry, Hamed M; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; Hewala, Ismail I; Emam, Ehab H

    2014-08-01

    Two selective stability-indicating HPLC methods are described for determination of rabeprazole sodium (RZ)-mosapride citrate (MR) and RZ-itopride hydrochloride (IO) mixtures in the presence of their ICH-stress formed degradation products. Separations were achieved on X-Bridge C18 column using two mobile phases: the first for RZ-MR mixture consisted of acetonitrile: 0.025 M KH 2 PO 4 solution: TEA (30:69:1 v/v; pH 7.0); the second for RZ-IO mixture was at ratio of 25:74:1 (v/v; pH 9.25). The detection wavelength was 283 nm. The two methods were validated and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. Peak purity testing using contrast angle theory, relative absorbance and log  A versus the wavelengths plots were presented. The % recoveries of the intact drugs were between 99.1% and 102.2% with RSD% values less than 1.6%. Application of the proposed HPLC methods indicated that the methods could be adopted to follow the stability of their formulations.

  6. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  7. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  8. Evolution of binaries with compact objects in globular clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Dynamical interactions that take place between objects in dense stellar systems lead to frequent formation of exotic stellar objects, unusual binaries, and systems of higher multiplicity. They are most important for the formation of binaries with neutron stars and black holes, which are usually observationally revealed in mass-transferring binaries. Here we review the current understanding of compact object's retention, of the metallicity dependence on the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries...

  9. Determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal: Results from the 2014 Nepal multiple indicator cluster survey (the 2014 NMICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Ebrahim, Nasser B; Gnawali, Shreejana

    2018-02-01

    We examined the prevalence of child maltreatment as measured by the level of physical (moderate to severe) and emotional abuse and child labor, and the associated household level determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal. We used a nationally representative data set from the fifth round of the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (the 2014 NMICS). The main independent variables were household level characteristics. Dependent variables included child experience of moderate to severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, and child labor (domestic work and economic activities). Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between independent and dependent variables. The results showed that nearly half of the children (49.8%) had experienced moderate physical abuse, 21.5% experienced severe physical abuse, and 77.3% experienced emotional abuse. About 27% of the children had engaged in domestic work and 46.7% in various economic activities. At bivariate level, educational level of household's head and household wealth status had shown significant statistical association with child maltreatment (pchild labor. In general, child maltreatment is a neglected social issue in Nepal and the high rates of child maltreatment calls for mass awareness programs focusing on parents, and involving all stakeholders including governments, local, and international organizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iulian Iancu,* Nimrod Pick,* Orit Seener-Lorsh, Pinhas Dannon Be’er Ya’akov Mental Health Center, affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel *These authors share first authorship of this paper Background: While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years with schizophrenia (n=16 or schizoaffective disorder (n=4 who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised.Results: Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment. We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant.Conclusion: C/M-ECT is safe and effective for

  11. Socioeconomic Inequality in Malnutrition in Under-5 Children in Iran: Evidence From the Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasian Kia, Abdollah; Rezapour, Aziz; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Afzali Abarghouei, Vajiheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in under-5 children in Iran in order to help policymakers reduce such inequality. Data on 8443 under-5 children were extracted from the Iran Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. The wealth index was used as proxy for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting was calculated using the concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for subcategories defined in terms of categories such as area of residence (urban and rural) and the sex of children. Stunting was observed to be more prevalent than underweight or wasting. The results of the concentration index at the national level, as well as in rural and urban areas and in terms of children's sex, showed that inequality in stunting and underweight was statistically significant and that children in the lower quintiles were more malnourished. The wasting index was not sensitive to socioeconomic status, and its concentration index value was not statistically significant. This study showed that it can be misleading to assess the mean levels of malnutrition at the national level without knowledge of the distribution of malnutrition among socioeconomic groups. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and underweight were observed at the national level and in both urban and rural areas. Regarding the influence of nutrition on the health and economic well-being of preschool-aged children, it is necessary for the government to focus on taking targeted measures to reduce malnutrition and to focus on poorer groups within society who bear a greater burden of malnutrition.

  12. Socioeconomic Inequality in Malnutrition in Under-5 Children in Iran: Evidence From the Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Almasian Kia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in under-5 children in Iran in order to help policymakers reduce such inequality. Methods Data on 8443 under-5 children were extracted from the Iran Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. The wealth index was used as proxy for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting was calculated using the concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for subcategories defined in terms of categories such as area of residence (urban and rural and the sex of children. Results Stunting was observed to be more prevalent than underweight or wasting. The results of the concentration index at the national level, as well as in rural and urban areas and in terms of children’s sex, showed that inequality in stunting and underweight was statistically significant and that children in the lower quintiles were more malnourished. The wasting index was not sensitive to socioeconomic status, and its concentration index value was not statistically significant. Conclusions This study showed that it can be misleading to assess the mean levels of malnutrition at the national level without knowledge of the distribution of malnutrition among socioeconomic groups. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and underweight were observed at the national level and in both urban and rural areas. Regarding the influence of nutrition on the health and economic well-being of preschool-aged children, it is necessary for the government to focus on taking targeted measures to reduce malnutrition and to focus on poorer groups within society who bear a greater burden of malnutrition.

  13. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  14. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition. PMID:26950558

  15. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sekine

    Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.

  16. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition.

  17. SpeX spectroscopy of unresolved very low mass binaries. II. Identification of 14 candidate binaries with late-M/early-L and T dwarf components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle; West, Andrew A.; Gizis, John E.; Metchev, Stanimir

    2014-01-01

    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  18. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zeis, T.; Allaman, I.; Gentner, M.; Schroder, K.; Tschopp, J.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Schaeren-Wiemers, N.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction

  19. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zeis, T.

    2015-04-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate–glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1β signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1β and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others

  20. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  1. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  2. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE BINARY FRACTION IN DENSE STELLAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2009-01-01

    Using our recently improved Monte Carlo evolution code, we study the evolution of the binary fraction in globular clusters. In agreement with previous N-body simulations, we find generally that the hard binary fraction in the core tends to increase with time over a range of initial cluster central densities for initial binary fractions ∼<90%. The dominant processes driving the evolution of the core binary fraction are mass segregation of binaries into the cluster core and preferential destruction of binaries there. On a global scale, these effects and the preferential tidal stripping of single stars tend to roughly balance, leading to overall cluster binary fractions that are roughly constant with time. Our findings suggest that the current hard binary fraction near the half-mass radius is a good indicator of the hard primordial binary fraction. However, the relationship between the true binary fraction and the fraction of main-sequence stars in binaries (which is typically what observers measure) is nonlinear and rather complicated. We also consider the importance of soft binaries, which not only modify the evolution of the binary fraction, but can also drastically change the evolution of the cluster as a whole. Finally, we briefly describe the recent addition of single and binary stellar evolution to our cluster evolution code.

  4. Measurement with multiple indicators and psychophysical scaling in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Saris, W.E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the theory of reasoned action of Fishbein and Ajzen. The measurements were done using two category scales and two psychophysical scales. No consistent difference in results was found between the four modalities. However, if the latter were used as multiple

  5. A SEARCH FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM COLLIDING MAGNETOSPHERES IN YOUNG ECCENTRIC STELLAR BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kóspál, Ágnes [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Salter, Demerese M. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Among young binary stars whose magnetospheres are expected to collide, only two systems have been observed near periastron in the X-ray band: the low-mass DQ Tau and the older and more massive HD 152404. Both exhibit elevated levels of X-ray emission at periastron. Our goal is to determine whether colliding magnetospheres in young high-eccentricity binaries commonly produce elevated average levels of X-ray activity. This work is based on Chandra snapshots of multiple periastron and non-periastron passages in four nearby young eccentric binaries (Parenago 523, RX J1622.7-2325 Nw, UZ Tau E, and HD 152404). We find that for the merged sample of all four binaries the current X-ray data show an increasing average X-ray flux near periastron (at a ∼2.5-sigma level). Further comparison of these data with the X-ray properties of hundreds of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, produced by the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), indicates that the X-ray emission from the merged sample of our binaries cannot be explained within the framework of the COUP-like X-ray activity. However, due to the inhomogeneities of the merged binary sample and the relatively low statistical significance of the detected flux increase, these findings are regarded as tentative only. More data are needed to prove that the flux increase is real and is related to the processes of colliding magnetospheres.

  6. Constructing and Validating a Multiple-Indicator Construct of Economic Hardship in a National Sample of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…

  7. Sequential hemi-body radiotherapy in advanced multiple myeloma. [Side effects of indicated x-ray therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, J.P.; Bosch, A.; Raich, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven patients with advanced multiple myeloma refractory to standard chemotherapy were treated with a regimen of sequential hemi-body radiotherapy consisting of 800 rad midplane in a single dose to each half. 9/10 patients experienced significant relief of skeletal pain and there were 5/11 objective tumor responses with one complete remission. Treatment-related morbidity was significant and consisted primarily of nausea and emesis, bone marrow suppression, and pneumonitis. This therapy is helpful in the management of advanced myeloma, and should be studied earlier in the course of the disease.

  8. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  9. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  10. Coupled binary embedding for large-scale image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Visual matching is a crucial step in image retrieval based on the bag-of-words (BoW) model. In the baseline method, two keypoints are considered as a matching pair if their SIFT descriptors are quantized to the same visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has two limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power during quantization. Second, SIFT only describes the local texture feature. Both drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the BoW model and lead to false positive matches. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to embed multiple binary features at indexing level. To model correlation between features, a multi-IDF scheme is introduced, through which different binary features are coupled into the inverted file. We show that matching verification methods based on binary features, such as Hamming embedding, can be effectively incorporated in our framework. As an extension, we explore the fusion of binary color feature into image retrieval. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary features greatly enhances the precision of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets (Ukbench, Holidays, DupImage, and MIR Flickr 1M). We show that our method significantly improves the baseline approach. In addition, large-scale experiments indicate that the proposed method requires acceptable memory usage and query time compared with other approaches. Further, when global color feature is integrated, our method yields competitive performance with the state-of-the-arts.

  11. Comparison of heavy metal contamination during the last decade along the coastal sediment of Pakistan: Multiple pollution indices approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Noor Us; Siddiqui, Asmat Saleem

    2016-04-15

    Heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and Cd) were scrutinized during two monitoring years (2001 and 2011) in the coastal sediment of Pakistan. The status of metal contamination in coastal sediment was interpreted using sediment quality guidelines, and single and combined metal pollution indices. Ni, Cr, and Cd were recognized for their significant (p<0.05) intensification in the sediment during the last decade. Sediment quality guidelines recognized the frequent adverse biological effect of Ni and the occasional adverse biological effect of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd. Single metal pollution indices (Igeo, EF, CF, and ER) revealed that sediment pollution is predominantly caused by Pb and Cd. Low to moderate contamination was appraised along the coast by multi-metal pollution indices (CD and PERI). Correlation study specifies that heavy metals were presented diverse affiliations and carriers for distribution in the sediment during the last decade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The importance of determining surgical indications in cases of lung cancer and interstitial pneumonia with multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakajima

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The greatest problem in treating pulmonary cancer complicated with interstitial pneumonia is acute exacerbation, wherein, in the absence of any surgical indications, alternative treatment is limited. Thus, contra-indicating surgery for a patient due to a diagnosis of metastasis within the lungs, based only on nodule images, should be avoided. If nodules are noted in the area of the pleura, the possibility exists that these could be intrapulmonary lymph nodes, along with metastasis within the lung, and thoracoscopic surgery should be implemented proactively while keeping these in mind.

  13. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García-Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient’s fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment. TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

  14. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  15. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  16. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  17. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  18. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  19. Comparison of multiple obesity indices for cardiovascular disease risk classification in South Asian adults: The CARRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani A Patel

    Full Text Available We comparatively assessed the performance of six simple obesity indices to identify adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a diverse and contemporary South Asian population.8,892 participants aged 20-60 years in 2010-2011 were analyzed. Six obesity indices were examined: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-height ratio (WHtR, waist-hip ratio (WHR, log of the sum of triceps and subscapular skin fold thickness (LTS, and percent body fat derived from bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. We estimated models with obesity indices specified as deciles and as continuous linear variables to predict prevalent hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol and report associations (prevalence ratios, PRs, discrimination (area-under-the-curve, AUCs, and calibration (index χ2. We also examined a composite unhealthy cardiovascular profile score summarizing glucose, lipids, and blood pressure.No single obesity index consistently performed statistically significantly better than the others across the outcome models. Based on point estimates, WHtR trended towards best performance in classifying diabetes (PR = 1.58 [1.45-1.72], AUC = 0.77, men; PR = 1.59 [1.47-1.71], AUC = 0.80, women and hypertension (PR = 1.34 [1.26,1.42], AUC = 0.70, men; PR = 1.41 [1.33,1.50], AUC = 0.78, women. WC (mean difference = 0.24 SD [0.21-0.27] and WHtR (mean difference = 0.24 SD [0.21,0.28] had the strongest associations with the composite unhealthy cardiovascular profile score in women but not in men.WC and WHtR were the most useful indices for identifying South Asian adults with prevalent diabetes and hypertension. Collection of waist circumference data in South Asian health surveys will be informative for population-based CVD surveillance efforts.

  20. Gas dynamics of semidetached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubow, S.H.; Shu, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    We analyze the gas dynamics of semidetached binary systems within the context of the Rohce model. With the adoption of the assumptions that the contact component rotates synchronously and that the flow occurs isothermally with the thermal speed being a small fraction epsilon of the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the two stars, we show that the steady flow can be formulated in terms of a problem with multiple length scales. Using this concept, we demonstrate the following by semianalytical methods. (1) The escape of material from the surface of the contact component is accomplished by a highly nonisotropic stellar wind which reaches sonic velocities in a neighborhood of the inner Lagrangian point, L1, of size epsilon in comparison with the orbit separation d. (2) This wind throttles into a narrow stram of material which makes a prescribed angle with respect to the line joining the stellar centers ranging from 19 0 5 to 28 0 4 for the full range of possible stellar mass ratios. (3) The width of the stream scales epsilond while its density scales with epsilon -2 M-dot/Ωd 3 , where M-dot is the mass transfer rate. (4) The stream width remains nearly constant over the part of the stream which is nearly straight, and narrows somewhat as the stream curves toward the detached component. (5) If the detached component is smaller than a certain specified size, the stream results in the formation of a disk of material of prescribed size orbiting the detached component in a direct sense. A subsidi []ry issue examined briefly in this paper is the flow mechanism responsible for moving material to the equator of the contact component, and from there to the L1 region where it is lost by the directed stellar wind. Comparisons of our work are made with previous theoretical studies, and some applications are indicated

  1. Progression of a fracture site impaction as a prognostic indicator of impacted femoral neck fracture treated with multiple pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant.

  2. Optical coherence tomography angiography indicates associations of the retinal vascular network and disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Nikolaus; Maier, Mathias; Lepennetier, Gildas; Pettenkofer, Moritz; Wetzlmair, Carmen; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Scherm, Pauline; Zimmer, Claus; Hoshi, Muna-Miriam; Hemmer, Bernhard; Korn, Thomas; Knier, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) may show alterations of retinal layer architecture as measured by optical coherence tomography. Little is known about changes in the retinal vascular network during MS. To characterize retinal vessel structures in patients with MS and CIS and to test for associations with MS disease activity. In all, 42 patients with MS or CIS and 50 healthy controls underwent retinal optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) with analysis of the superficial and deep vascular plexuses and the choriocapillaries. We tested OCT-A parameters for associations with retinal layer volumes, history of optic neuritis (ON), and the retrospective disease activity. Inner retinal layer volumes correlated positively with the density of both the superficial and deep vascular plexuses. Eyes of MS/CIS patients with a history of ON revealed reduced vessel densities of the superficial and deep vascular plexuses as compared to healthy controls. Higher choriocapillary vessel densities were associated with ongoing inflammatory disease activity during 24 months prior to OCT-A examination in MS and CIS patients. Optic neuritis is associated with rarefaction of the superficial and deep retinal vessels. Alterations of the choriocapillaries might be linked to disease activity in MS.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia indicates multiple genetic risk factors for schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Tang; Fan He; Fengyu Zhang; Yin Yao Shugart; Chunyu Liu; Yanqing Tang; Raymond C.K.Chan; Chuan-Yue Wang; Yong-Gang Yao; Xiaogang Chen; Yu Fan; Hong Li; Qun Xiang; Deng-Feng Zhang; Zongchang Li; Ying He; Yanhui Liao; Ya Wang

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a high heritability,but its genetic architecture is still elusive.We implemented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 8 families with monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia to assess potential association of de novo mutations (DNMs) or inherited variants with susceptibility to schizophrenia.Eight non-synonymous DNMs (including one splicing site) were identified and shared by twins,which were either located in previously reported schizophrenia risk genes (p.V24689I mutation in TTN,p.S2506T mutation in GCN1L1,IVS3+1G > T in DOCK1) or had a benign to damaging effect according to in silico prediction analysis.By searching the inherited rare damaging or loss-of-function (LOF) variants and common susceptible alleles from three classes of schizophrenia candidate genes,we were able to distill genetic alterations in several schizophrenia risk genes,including GAD1,PLXNA2,RELN and FEZ1.Four inherited copy number variations (CNVs;including a large deletion at 16p13.11) implicated for schizophrenia were identified in four families,respectively.Most of families carried both missense DNMs and inherited risk variants,which might suggest that DNMs,inherited rare damaging variants and common risk alleles together conferred to schizophrenia susceptibility.Our results support that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of multiple genetic factors,with each DNM/variant showing a relatively small effect size.

  4. Whole-genome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia indicates multiple genetic risk factors for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinsong; Fan, Yu; Li, Hong; Xiang, Qun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Zongchang; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Wang, Ya; He, Fan; Zhang, Fengyu; Shugart, Yin Yao; Liu, Chunyu; Tang, Yanqing; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Yao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiaogang

    2017-06-20

    Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a high heritability, but its genetic architecture is still elusive. We implemented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 8 families with monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia to assess potential association of de novo mutations (DNMs) or inherited variants with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Eight non-synonymous DNMs (including one splicing site) were identified and shared by twins, which were either located in previously reported schizophrenia risk genes (p.V24689I mutation in TTN, p.S2506T mutation in GCN1L1, IVS3+1G > T in DOCK1) or had a benign to damaging effect according to in silico prediction analysis. By searching the inherited rare damaging or loss-of-function (LOF) variants and common susceptible alleles from three classes of schizophrenia candidate genes, we were able to distill genetic alterations in several schizophrenia risk genes, including GAD1, PLXNA2, RELN and FEZ1. Four inherited copy number variations (CNVs; including a large deletion at 16p13.11) implicated for schizophrenia were identified in four families, respectively. Most of families carried both missense DNMs and inherited risk variants, which might suggest that DNMs, inherited rare damaging variants and common risk alleles together conferred to schizophrenia susceptibility. Our results support that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of multiple genetic factors, with each DNM/variant showing a relatively small effect size. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelya F C Klütsch

    Full Text Available Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou.

  6. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  7. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  8. Dynamic determination of kinetic parameters for the interaction between polypeptide hormones and cell-surface receptors in the perfused rat liver by the multiple-indicator dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Sakamoto, S.; Fuwa, T.; Hanano, M.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatic elimination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) via receptor-mediated endocytosis was studied by a multiple-indicator dilution method in the isolated perfused rat liver, in which cell polarity and spatial organization are maintained. In this method EGF was given with inulin, an extracellular reference, as a bolus into the portal vein, and dilution curves of both compounds in the hepatic vein effluent were analyzed. Analysis of the dilution curve for EGF, compared with that for somatostatin, which showed no specific binding to isolated liver plasma membranes, resulted as follows: (i) both extraction ratio and distribution volume of 125 I-labeled EGF decreased as the injected amount of unlabeled EGF increased; (ii) the ratio plot of the dilution curve for EGF exhibited an upward straight line initially for a short period of time, whereas the ratio plot of somatostatin gradually decreased. The multiple-indicator dilution method was used for other peptides also. Insulin and glucagon, known to have hepatocyte receptors, behaved similarly to EGF in shape of their ratio plots. The kinetic parameters calculated by this analysis were comparable with reported values obtained by in vitro direct binding measurements at equilibrium using liver homogenates. They conclude that the multiple-indicator dilution method is a good tool for analyzing the dynamics of peptide hormones-cell-surface receptor interaction under a condition in which spatial architecture of the liver is maintained

  9. Ecological water quality assessment in the Guapiaçu-Macacu hydrographic complex (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using multiple indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A quick diagnosis of the ecological quality of five sections of the Macacu-Guapiaçu hydrographic complex was performed using visual assessment protocol (VAP, conventional analysis, composition and structure of ciliates and the occurrence of benthic macro invertebrates. Water samples were collected from five sampling stations (A-E in July of 2010. Protists were sampled with aid of artificial substrates, and macro invertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method. A total of 22 taxa of protozoa and 51 taxa of macro invertebrates was registered at the five stations. Reference station (A showed greater protist diversity and higher values of BMWP-CETEC and IBE-IOC indices relating to macro invertebrates. The impacted stations (B and E presented lower diversity and higher abundance of protozoa, as well as the lowest values for the rates. The four methods used were convergent to diagnose reference station (A, the impacted stations (B and E and those in intermediate conditions (C and D. Thus, the methods were complementary, as the conventional parameters and ciliate assembly were more sensitive to detecting the increase in organic pollution and VAP and macro invertebrate assembly detected changes in geomorphology and habitat degradation.

  10. Controlling total spot power from holographic laser by superimposing a binary phase grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Gan, Yu; Wu, Liying

    2011-04-25

    By superimposing a tunable binary phase grating with a conventional computer-generated hologram, the total power of multiple holographic 3D spots can be easily controlled by changing the phase depth of grating with high accuracy to a random power value for real-time optical manipulation without extra power loss. Simulation and experiment results indicate that a resolution of 0.002 can be achieved at a lower time cost for normalized total spot power.

  11. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  12. Development of multiple linear regression models as predictive tools for fecal indicator concentrations in a stretch of the lower Lahn River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrig, Ilona M; Böer, Simone I; Brennholt, Nicole; Manz, Werner

    2015-11-15

    Since rivers are typically subject to rapid changes in microbiological water quality, tools are needed to allow timely water quality assessment. A promising approach is the application of predictive models. In our study, we developed multiple linear regression (MLR) models in order to predict the abundance of the fecal indicator organisms Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC) in the Lahn River, Germany. The models were developed on the basis of an extensive set of environmental parameters collected during a 12-months monitoring period. Two models were developed for each type of indicator: 1) an extended model including the maximum number of variables significantly explaining variations in indicator abundance and 2) a simplified model reduced to the three most influential explanatory variables, thus obtaining a model which is less resource-intensive with regard to required data. Both approaches have the ability to model multiple sites within one river stretch. The three most important predictive variables in the optimized models for the bacterial indicators were NH4-N, turbidity and global solar irradiance, whereas chlorophyll a content, discharge and NH4-N were reliable model variables for somatic coliphages. Depending on indicator type, the extended mode models also included the additional variables rainfall, O2 content, pH and chlorophyll a. The extended mode models could explain 69% (EC), 74% (IE) and 72% (SC) of the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations. The optimized models explained the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations to 65% (EC), 70% (IE) and 68% (SC). Site-specific efficiencies ranged up to 82% (EC) and 81% (IE, SC). Our results suggest that MLR models are a promising tool for a timely water quality assessment in the Lahn area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microlensing discovery of a population of very tight, very low mass binary brown dwarfs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.

    2013-01-01

    the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M ☉ and 0.034 M ☉, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known....... The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of ~0.02 M ☉. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries....

  14. Toward Complete Statistics of Massive Binary Stars: Penultimate Results from the Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, Daniel C.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Alvarez, Carlos A. Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P 45 d, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary p...

  15. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  16. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  17. Binary spectral minutiae representation with multi-sample fusion for fingerprint recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Biometric fusion is the approach to improve the biometric system performance by combining multiple sources of biometric information. The binary spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a fingerprint minutiae set as a fixed-length binary string. This binary representation has the

  18. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  19. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  20. Binary Logistic Regression Versus Boosted Regression Trees in Assessing Landslide Susceptibility for Multiple-Occurring Regional Landslide Events: Application to the 2009 Storm Event in Messina (Sicily, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, L.; Cama, M.; Maerker, M.; Parisi, L.; Rotigliano, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events within the Mediterranean region. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), corresponding to the catchments of the Briga and the Giampilieri streams both stretching for few kilometres from the Peloritan ridge (eastern Sicily, Italy) to the Ionian sea. This area was struck on the 1st October 2009 by an extreme climatic event resulting in thousands of rapid shallow landslides, mainly of debris flows and debris avalanches types involving the weathered layer of a low to high grade metamorphic bedrock. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 landslide archive, BLR- and BRT-based susceptibility models were obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation; besides, the models trained in one of the two catchments (Briga) were tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the other (Giampilieri), adopting a spatial partition (SP) based validation procedure. All the validation procedures were based on multi-folds tests so to evaluate and compare the reliability of the fitting, the prediction skill, the coherence in the predictor selection and the precision of the susceptibility estimates. All the obtained models for the two methods produced very high predictive performances, with a general congruence between BLR and BRT in the predictor importance. In particular, the research highlighted that BRT-models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR-models, for RP based modelling, whilst for the SP-based models the difference in predictive skills between the two methods dropped drastically, converging to an analogous excellent performance. However, when looking at the precision of the probability estimates, BLR demonstrated to produce more robust

  1. Integrating multiple vegetation indices via an artificial neural network model for estimating the leaf chlorophyll content of Spartina alterniflora under interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Yuyan; Wang, Jiapeng; Tao, Zhu; Gao, Wei

    2017-10-31

    The invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native species Phragmites australis display a significant co-occurrence zonation pattern and this co-exist region exerts most competitive situations between these two species, competing for the limited space, directly influencing the co-exist distribution in the future. However, these two species have different growth ratios in this area, which increase the difficulty to detect the distribution situation directly by remote sensing. As chlorophyll content is a key indicator of plant growth and physiological status, the objective of this study was to reduce the effect of interspecies competition when estimating Cab content; we evaluated 79 published representative indices to determine the optimal indices for estimating the chlorophyll a and b (Cab) content. After performing a sensitivity analysis for all 79 spectral indices, five spectral indices were selected and integrated using an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the Cab content of different competition ratios: the Gitelson ratio green index, the transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index/optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index, the modified normalized difference vegetation index, the chlorophyll fluorescence index, and the Vogelmann chlorophyll index. The ANN method yielded better results (R 2  = 0.7110 and RMSE = 8.3829 μg cm -2 ) on average than the best single spectral index (R 2  = 0.6319 and RMSE = 9.3535 μg cm -2 ), representing an increase of 10.78% in R 2 and a decrease of 10.38% in RMSE. Our results indicated that integrating multiple vegetation indices with an ANN can alleviate the impact of interspecies competition and achieve higher estimation accuracy than the traditional approach using a single index.

  2. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15-49 years. Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30-34 years (reference 15-19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area.

  3. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  4. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  5. RADIAL VELOCITY STUDIES OF CLOSE BINARY STARS. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek M.; DeBond, Heide; De Ridder, Archie; Karmo, Toomas; Thomson, J. R.; Croll, Bryce; Ogloza, Waldemar; Pilecki, Bogumil; Siwak, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) measurements and sine curve fits to the orbital RV variations are presented for 10 close binary systems: TZ Boo, VW Boo, EL Boo, VZ CVn, GK Cep, RW Com, V2610 Oph, V1387 Ori, AU Ser, and FT UMa. Our spectroscopy revealed two quadruple systems, TZ Boo and V2610 Oph, while three stars showing small photometric amplitudes, EL Boo, V1387 Ori, and FT UMa, were found to be triple systems. GK Cep is a close binary with a faint third component. While most of the studied eclipsing systems are contact binaries, VZ CVn and GK Cep are detached or semidetached double-lined binaries, and EL Boo, V1387 Ori, and FT UMa are close binaries of uncertain binary type. The large fraction of triple and quadruple systems found in this sample supports the hypothesis of formation of close binaries in multiple stellar systems; it also demonstrates that low photometric amplitude binaries are a fertile ground for further discoveries of multiple systems.

  6. THE ROLE OF MULTIPLICITY IN DISK EVOLUTION AND PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martinache, Frantz [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    The past decade has seen a revolution in our understanding of protoplanetary disk evolution and planet formation in single-star systems. However, the majority of solar-type stars form in binary systems, so the impact of binary companions on protoplanetary disks is an important element in our understanding of planet formation. We have compiled a combined multiplicity/disk census of Taurus-Auriga, plus a restricted sample of close binaries in other regions, in order to explore the role of multiplicity in disk evolution. Our results imply that the tidal influence of a close ({approx}<40 AU) binary companion significantly hastens the process of protoplanetary disk dispersal, as {approx}2/3 of all close binaries promptly disperse their disks within {approx}<1 Myr after formation. However, prompt disk dispersal only occurs for a small fraction of wide binaries and single stars, with {approx}80%-90% retaining their disks for at least {approx}2-3 Myr (but rarely for more than {approx}5 Myr). Our new constraints on the disk clearing timescale have significant implications for giant planet formation; most single stars have 3-5 Myr within which to form giant planets, whereas most close binary systems would have to form giant planets within {approx}<1 Myr. If core accretion is the primary mode for giant planet formation, then gas giants in close binaries should be rare. Conversely, since almost all single stars have a similar period of time within which to form gas giants, their relative rarity in radial velocity (RV) surveys indicates either that the giant planet formation timescale is very well matched to the disk dispersal timescale or that features beyond the disk lifetime set the likelihood of giant planet formation.

  7. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  8. Anomalies in the Spectra of the Uncorrelated Components of the Electric Field of the Earth at Frequencies that are Multiples of the Frequencies of Rotation of Relativistic Binary Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunskaya, L. V.; Isakevich, V. V.; Isakevich, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    A system is constructed, which, on the basis of extensive experimental material and the use of eigenoscopy, has allowed us to detect anomalies in the spectra of uncorrelated components localized near the rotation frequencies and twice the rotation frequencies of relativistic binary star systems with vanishingly low probability of false alarm, not exceeding 10-17.

  9. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  10. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886

  11. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  12. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  13. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  14. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  15. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010–2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea. PMID:28722572

  16. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010-2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea.

  17. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  18. Development of the policy indicator checklist: a tool to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Hallett, Allen M; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies.

  19. Aging influences multiple indices of oxidative stress in the heart of the Fischer 344/NNia x Brown Norway/BiNia rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shinichi; Rice, Kevin M; Kakarla, Sunil; Katta, Anjaiah; Desai, Devashish H; Walker, Ernest M; Wehner, Paulette; Blough, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P lead to age-associated alterations in cardiac oxidative stress.

  20. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  1. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  2. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  3. Linking bedrock exhumation, fluvial terraces, and geomorphic indices to constrain deformation rates at multiple timescales across the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline, and displays no major emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the Suruin-Mastargh anticline hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study combines bedrock exhumation, folded fluvial terraces, long-river profiles and river incision (specific stream power) analyses across the deformation front. At the core of the frontal fold, Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages of detrital grains from the Siwalik foreland sediments indicate significant resetting. AHe data and thermal modeling reveal rapid cooling and exhumation initiated ca. 4 Ma for the deformation front, at least 3 Ma earlier than is indicated from previously available data. Exhumation rates over the last 1 m.y. and 4 m.y. range from 0.5 - 2.4 mm/yr, and 0.5 - 1 mm/yr, respectively. Four fluvial terraces yield multiple OSL and depth profiles Be10 TCN ages between 53 ka and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles, calculated specific stream power values, bedrock dip data, and stratigraphic thickness indicate a deformation pattern controlled by a duplex structure emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and foreland strata into a detachment-like fold. Dated terraces across the frontal fold yield rock uplift and shortening rates that range between 1.8-2.5 mm/yr, and 3.8-5.4 mm/yr, respectively, since 53 ka. Similarly, a balanced cross section yields a long-term shortening rate of 5mm mm/yr since 4 Ma. Geodetic data indicate that an 11-12 mm/yr arc-normal shortening rate characterizes the interseismic strain accumulation across the plate boundary due to India-Tibet convergence. These data combined with rates of other active internal faults in the Kashmir Himalaya indicate that shortening occurs roughly at an equal rate between folding at

  4. Characterization of IGH locus breakpoints in multiple myeloma indicates a subset of translocations appear to occur in pregerminal center B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Johnson, David C; Kaiser, Martin F; Begum, Dil B; Dahir, Nasrin B; Ross, Fiona M; Davies, Faith E; Gonzalez, David; Morgan, Gareth J

    2013-04-25

    Translocations in myeloma are thought to occur solely in mature B cells in the germinal center through class switch recombination (CSR). We used a targeted captured technique followed by massively parallel sequencing to determine the exact breakpoints in both the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus and the partner chromosome in 61 presentation multiple myeloma samples. The majority of samples (62%) have a breakpoint within the switch regions upstream of the IGH constant genes and are generated through CSR in a mature B cell. However, the proportion of CSR translocations is not consistent between cytogenetic subgroups. We find that 100% of t(4;14) are CSR-mediated; however, 21% of t(11;14) and 25% of t(14;20) are generated through DH-JH recombination activation gene-mediated mechanisms, indicating they occur earlier in B-cell development at the pro-B-cell stage in the bone marrow. These 2 groups also generate translocations through receptor revision, as determined by the breakpoints and mutation status of the segments used in 10% and 50% of t(11;14) and t(14;20) samples, respectively. The study indicates that in a significant number of cases the translocation-based etiological events underlying myeloma may arise at the pro-B-cell hematological progenitor cell level, much earlier in B-cell development than was previously thought.

  5. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  6. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  7. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  8. Managing serious clinical deterioration in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong: from indicators development to multiple measures in reducing the rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jasperine Ka Yee; Lee, Quinnie; Lam, Jaden Chun Ho; Tang, Kam Shing

    2017-06-01

    Timely detection and management of acutely deteriorating patients can save lives. Tuen Mun Hospital (TMH), a 1800-bed acute tertiary hospital serving more than 1.06 million populations in Hong Kong, is exploring to quantitatively monitor serious clinical deterioration (SCD) and uses it to guide patient care improvement initiatives. Literature review on definition and measurement of SCD was conducted. Monthly SCD rates of TMH were first calculated according to the published methodology and benchmarked against those of international centres. A refined composite clinical indicator good for local use was compiled. In the second phase, p-control charts of SCD have been plotted based on cumulative data. TMH's performance was comparable with that of international centres. SCD on p-control charts has been plotting since January 2013. There were peaks in all 4 SCD rates during the winter surge period in 2013-2014. In the third phase, multiple measures have been taking to reduce the SCD rates including targeting the 3 main factors of winter surge situation. We are delighted to observe that the pattern did not repeat in the rate of cardiac arrest without do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DNACPR) and rate of death without DNACPR in the same period in 2014-2015. SCD becomes a clinical governance tool to monitor the performance of clinical teams in treating acutely deteriorating patients in TMH. Any abnormal patterns or indications of special cause variations in the control charts would alert leaders to look for root causes of special cause variations and manage accordingly. We hope that this project will extend to corporate level and become a sustainable clinical indicator to guide audits, quality improvement initiatives and strategic planning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Heavy metals in soils of Hechuan County in the upper Yangtze (SW China): Comparative pollution assessment using multiple indices with high-spatial-resolution sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Maofei; Mao, Rong; Jia, Zhongmin; Dong, Ruozhu; Li, Siyue

    2018-02-01

    In order to assess heavy metals (HMs) in soils of the upper Yangtze Basin, a very high-spatial-resolution sampling (582 soil samples) was conducted from Hechuan County, an important agricultural practice area in the Southwest China. Multiple indices including geoaccumulation index (I geo ), enrichment factor (EF), sediment pollution index (SPI) and risk index (RI), as well as multivariate statistics were employed for pollution assessment and source identification of HMs in soils. Our results demonstrated that the averages of eight HMs decreased in the following order: Zn (82.8 ± 15.9) > Cr (71.6 ± 12.2) > Ni (32.1 ± 9.89) > Pb (27.6 ± 13.8) > Cu (25.9 ± 11.8) > As (5.48 ± 3.42) > Cd (0.30 ± 0.077) > Hg (0.082 ± 0.092). Averages of HMs except Cd were lower than threshold value of Environmental Quality Standard for Soils, while 43% of total samples had Cd concentration exceeding the national standard, 1% of samples for Hg and 5% samples for Ni, moreover, Cd and Hg averages were much higher than their background levels. I geo and EF indicated that their levels decreased as follows: Cd > Hg > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > As, with moderate enrichments of Cd and Hg. RI indicated that 61.7% of all samples showed moderate risk, while 6.5% of samples with greater than considerable risk due to human activities should be paid more attention. Multivariate analysis showed lithogenic source of Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn, while Cd and Hg were largely contributed by anthropogenic activities such as agricultural practices. Our study would be helpful for improving soil environmental quality in SW, China, as well as supplying modern approaches for other areas with soil HM pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  11. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR, a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1 in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  12. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  13. Increased dependence of leucine in posttraumatic sepsis: leucine/tyrosine clearance ratio as an indicator of hepatic impairment in septic multiple organ failure syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Belzberg, H; Wedel, S; Placko, R

    1985-09-01

    The body clearance of 10 plasma amino acids (AA) was determined from the rate of compared muscle-released AA and AA administered by infusion of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compared to their estimated extracellular (ECW) pool in patients with multiple trauma with (n = 10) or without (n = 16) sepsis at 8-hour intervals. In both nonseptic and septic trauma, increasing TPN increased the mean clearance rate of all infused AA. When the individual AA clearance rates were normalized by the total AA infusion rate, regression-covariance analysis revealed that patients with sepsis had relatively impaired clearances of alanine (p less than 0.01) and methionine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine p less than 0.05 for all). In contrast, the clearances of branched-chain AA (BCAA) valine and isoleucine were maintained, and the clearance of leucine was higher (p less than 0.05) in trauma patients with sepsis than in those without. At any AA infusion rate, compared with surviving patients with sepsis (p less than 0.05), patients who developed fatal multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) showed increased clearances of all BCAA with further impaired clearance of tyrosine. The clearance ratio of leucine/tyrosine was increased in MOFS at any AA infusion rate (p less than 0.0001), was an indicator of severity, and, if persistent, was a manifestation of a fatal outcome. Because tyrosine metabolism occurs almost entirely in the liver while leucine can be utilized by viscera and muscle, these data suggest early and progressive septic impairment of the pattern of hepatic uptake and oxidation of AA with a greater body dependence on BCAA, especially leucine, as septic MOFS develops.

  14. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF SECONDARY COMPONENTS IN NEARBY VISUAL BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Horch, Elliott P.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical characterization of secondary subsystems in binaries helps to distinguish between various scenarios of multiple-star formation. The Differential Speckle Survey Instrument was used at the Gemini-N telescope for several hours in 2015 July to probe the binarity of 25 secondary components in nearby solar-type binaries. Six new subsystems were resolved, with meaningful detection limits for the remaining targets. The large incidence of secondary subsystems agrees with other similar studies. The newly resolved subsystem HIP 115417 Ba,Bb causes deviations in the observed motion of the outer binary from which an astrometric orbit of Ba,Bb with a period of 117 years is deduced.

  16. Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. K.; Reitebuch, U.; Polthier, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tensor multiplication based smoothing algorithm that follows a two step denoising method. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stoc...

  17. Speeds of Sound, Isentropic Compressibilities and Refractive Indices for Some Binary Mixtures of Nitromethane with Chloroalkane at Temperatures from 298.15 to 318.15 K. Comparison with Theories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dragoescu, D.; Gheorghe, D.; Bendová, Magdalena; Wagner, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 385, JAN 15 (2015), s. 105-109 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : speeds of sound * isentropic comprehenssibilities * refractive indices Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  18. Applying Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator and Akaike Information Criterion Analysis to Find the Best Multiple Linear Regression Models between Climate Indices and Components of Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marami Milani, Mohammad Reza; Hense, Andreas; Rahmani, Elham; Ploeger, Angelika

    2016-07-23

    This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new ), and respiratory rate predictor RRP) with three main components of cow's milk (yield, fat, and protein) for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest number of climate predictors. Uncertainty estimation is employed by applying bootstrapping through resampling. Cross validation is used to avoid over-fitting. Climatic parameters are calculated from the NASA-MERRA global atmospheric reanalysis. Milk data for the months from April to September, 2002 to 2010 are used. The best linear regression models are found in spring between milk yield as the predictand and THI, ESI, ETI, HLI, and RRP as predictors with p -value < 0.001 and R ² (0.50, 0.49) respectively. In summer, milk yield with independent variables of THI, ETI, and ESI show the highest relation ( p -value < 0.001) with R ² (0.69). For fat and protein the results are only marginal. This method is suggested for the impact studies of climate variability/change on agriculture and food science fields when short-time series or data with large uncertainty are available.

  19. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15-49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  20. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  1. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  2. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  3. Constraining the Statistics of Population III Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of approx. 36, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at approx. < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, approx. 50 are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and 50 of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.

  4. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  5. Multiple tectonic mode switches indicate short-duration heat pulses in a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. T.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Wandaman Peninsula is a narrow (2 km) promontory in remote western New Guinea. The peninsula is almost entirely composed of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks considered to be associated with a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex. Previous work has shown that the uplift and exhumation of the core complex has potentially brought some extremely young eclogite to the surface. These might be comparable to the world's youngest (4.3 Ma) eclogites found in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands at the opposite end of New Guinea. We show that tectonic history of this region is complex. This is because the metamorphic sequences in the Wandaman Peninsula record multiple phases of deformation, all within the last few million years. This is demonstrated through methodical collation of cross-cutting relations from field and microstructural studies across the peninsula. The first phase of deformation and metamorphism is associated with crustal extension and partial melting that took place at 5-7 Ma according to new U-Pb data from metamorphic zircons. This extensional phase ceased after a tectonic mode switch and the region was shortened. This is demonstrated by two phases of folding (1. recumbent and 2. open) that overprint the earlier extensional fabrics. All previous structures were later overprinted by brittle extensional faults and uplift. This extensional phase is still taking place today, as is indicated by submerged forests exposed along the coastline associated with recent earthquakes and hot springs. The sequence of metamorphic rocks that are exposed in the Wandaman Peninsula show that stress and thermal conditions can change rapidly. If we consider that the present is a key to the past, then such results can identify the duration of deformation and metamorphic events more accurately than in much older orogenic systems.

  6. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  7. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann J. Ligocki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available * These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS. In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS+ antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS+ rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS+ rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS+ rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS+ antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS+ antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS+ antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients.

  8. Stability-indicating HPLC–DAD methods for determination of two binary mixtures: Rabeprazole sodium–mosapride citrate and rabeprazole sodium–itopride hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed M. El-Fatatry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two selective stability-indicating HPLC methods are described for determination of rabeprazole sodium (RZ–mosapride citrate (MR and RZ–itopride hydrochloride (IO mixtures in the presence of their ICH-stress formed degradation products. Separations were achieved on X-Bridge C18 column using two mobile phases: the first for RZ–MR mixture consisted of acetonitrile: 0.025 M KH2PO4 solution: TEA (30:69:1 v/v; pH 7.0; the second for RZ–IO mixture was at ratio of 25:74:1 (v/v; pH 9.25. The detection wavelength was 283 nm. The two methods were validated and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. Peak purity testing using contrast angle theory, relative absorbance and log A versus the wavelengths plots were presented. The % recoveries of the intact drugs were between 99.1% and 102.2% with RSD% values less than 1.6%. Application of the proposed HPLC methods indicated that the methods could be adopted to follow the stability of their formulations. Keywords: Rabeprazole sodium, Mosapride citrate, Itopride hydrochloride, Stability-indicating HPLC–DAD, Peak purity

  9. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.

  10. Binary versus non-binary information in real time series: empirical results and maximum-entropy matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information. (paper)

  11. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  12. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  13. Spectroscopic and DFT study of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of sulfamethoxazole in neat and binary solvent mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M. C.; Sancho, M. I.; Blanco, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π*). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture.

  14. Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C

  15. Binary Cepheids: Separations and Mass Ratios in 5 M ⊙ Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Evans; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ~5 M ⊙—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ⊙. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ⊙ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ⊙ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  16. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M ☉ BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M ☉ —are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ☉ . Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ☉ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ☉ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple

  17. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  18. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  19. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  20. Assessment of environmental injustice in Korea using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Giehae; Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of the universal right to a healthy environment, the right is being violated in some populations. The objective of the current study is to verify environmental discrimination associated with socioeconomic status in Korea, using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status. The concentrations of NO₂(nitrogen dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), SO₂(sulfur dioxide), PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Socioeconomic status was measured at individual level (income, education, number of household members, occupation, and National Basic Livelihood status) and area level (neighborhood index). The neighborhood index was calculated in the finest administrative unit (municipality) by performing standardization and integration of municipality-level data of the following: number of families receiving National Basic Livelihood, proportion of people engaged in an elementary occupation, population density, and number of service industries. Each study participant was assigned a neighborhood index value of the municipality in which they reside. Six regression models were generated to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and overall air pollution. All models were adjusted with sex, age, and smoking status. Stratification was conducted by residency (urban/rural). Moran's I was calculated to identify spatial clusters, and adjusted regression analysis was conducted to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results showed that people with higher neighborhood index, people living with smaller number of family members, and people with no education lived in municipalities with better overall air quality. The association differed by residency in some cases, and consideration of spatial autocorrelation altered the association. This study gives strength to the idea that environmental discrimination exists in some socioeconomic groups in Korea, and that residency and spatial autocorrelation must be considered

  1. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  2. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    As of today, over 500 exoplanets have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered around a solar-like star in 1995. The planets in binaries could be common as stars are usually born in binary or multiple star systems. Although current observations show that the planet host rate in multiple star systems is around 17%, this fraction should be considered as a lower limit because of noticeable selection effects against binaries in planet searches. Most of the current known planet-bearing binary systems are S-types, meaning the companion star acts as a distant satellite, typically orbiting the inner star-planet system over 100 AU away. Nevertheless, there are four systems with a smaller separation of 20 AU, including the Gamma Cephei, GJ 86, HD 41004, and HD 196885. In addition to the planets in circumprimary (S-type) orbits discussed above, planets in circumbinary (P-type) orbits have been found in only two systems. In this thesis, we mainly study the planet formation in the S-type binary systems. In chapter 1, we first summarize current observational facts of exoplanets both in single-star and binary systems, then review the theoretical models of planet formation, with special attention to the application in binary systems. Perturbative effects from stellar companions render the planet formation process in binary systems even more complex than that in single-star systems. The perturbations from a binary companion can excite planetesimal orbits, and increase their mutual impact velocities to the values that might exceed their escape velocity or even the critical velocity for the onset of eroding collisions. The intermediate stage of the formation process---from planetesimals to planetary embryos---is thus the most problematic. In the following chapters, we investigate whether and how the planet formation goes through such a problematic stage. In chapter 2, we study the effects of gas dissipation on the planetesimals' mutual accretion. We find that in a

  3. Observational properties of models of semidetached close binaries. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, P.; Giannuzzi, M.A.; Pucillo, M.

    1975-01-01

    Binaries of Cases A and B with intermediate and small masses have been studied. Synthetic light curves are shown to be affected mainly by the assumption concerning the shape of the components. The comparison between synthetic light curves and observed data can give further information on the reliability of the hypotheses assumed in the computations of binary star evolution. The calculated properties lead to useful indications about the evolutionary stages of observed binaries. The detection of systems evolving according to Case A appears to be favoured in comparison with that of systems of Case B. Systems with undersize subgiants result comparatively difficult to observe. (orig./BJ) [de

  4. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  5. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  6. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  7. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  8. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  9. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  10. THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Benjamin M.; Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for ∼17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.

  11. THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Benjamin M. [Penn Manor High School, 100 East Cottage Avenue, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States); Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R. [Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for {approx}17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.

  12. EXOSAT and IUE observations of contact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhu, O.; Heise, J.; Laboratorium voor Ruimteonderzoek, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1986-01-01

    EXOSAT observations are reported of the contact binaries W UMa, VW Cep, 44t Boo, XY Leo, and V566 Oph and the detached short-period RS CVn stars ER Vul and HD 209943. Complete X-ray light curves were obtained for W UMa, VW Cep and 44t Boo. Nearly simultaneous IUE observations of VW Cep provide important comparisons of the Mg II emission, the UV continuum, and the FES light curve, pointing to extra hot gas at phase 0.75. The observations indicate that contact binaries have highly structured (in temperature and geometry) and highly variable coronae, not preferentially connected with either of the component stars. The observed dips can be interpreted as due to cool absorbing clouds above localized X-ray emitting regions. For VW Cep, 44t Boo, and XY Leo there is evidence that the neck regions are sites for X-ray-emitting hot gas. 66 references

  13. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand adherence to multiple evidence-based indicators in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; Heyhoe, Jane; Louch, Gemma; Ingleson, Emma; Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Foy, Robbie

    2016-08-08

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting posing particular implementation challenges. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high-impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. Here, we explore health professionals' perceived determinants of adherence to these indicators, examining the degree to which determinants were indicator-specific or potentially generalisable across indicators. We interviewed 60 general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers in West Yorkshire, the UK, about adherence to four indicators: avoidance of risky prescribing; treatment targets in type 2 diabetes; blood pressure targets in treated hypertension; and anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Interview questions drew upon the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using framework analysis. Professional role and identity and environmental context and resources featured prominently across all indicators whilst the importance of other domains, for example, beliefs about consequences, social influences and knowledge varied across indicators. We identified five meta-themes representing more general organisational and contextual factors common to all indicators. The TDF helped elicit a wide range of reported determinants of adherence to 'high-impact' indicators in primary care. It was more difficult to pinpoint which determinants, if targeted by an implementation strategy, would maximise change. The meta-themes broadly underline the need to align the design of interventions targeting general practices with higher level supports and broader contextual considerations. However, our findings suggest that it is feasible to develop interventions to promote the uptake of different evidence-based indicators which share common features whilst also including

  14. Merger rate of primordial black-hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been a candidate for the elusive dark matter (DM), and remain poorly constrained in the ˜20 - 100 M⊙ mass range. PBH binaries were recently suggested as the possible source of LIGO's first detections. In this paper, we thoroughly revisit existing estimates of the merger rate of PBH binaries. We compute the probability distribution of orbital parameters for PBH binaries formed in the early Universe, accounting for tidal torquing by all other PBHs, as well as standard large-scale adiabatic perturbations. We then check whether the orbital parameters of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe can be significantly affected between formation and merger. Our analytic estimates indicate that the tidal field of halos and interactions with other PBHs, as well as dynamical friction by unbound standard DM particles, do not do significant work on nor torque PBH binaries. We estimate the torque due to baryon accretion to be much weaker than previous calculations, albeit possibly large enough to significantly affect the eccentricity of typical PBH binaries. We also revisit the PBH-binary merger rate resulting from gravitational capture in present-day halos, accounting for Poisson fluctuations. If binaries formed in the early Universe survive to the present time, as suggested by our analytic estimates, they dominate the total PBH merger rate. Moreover, this merger rate would be orders of magnitude larger than LIGO's current upper limits if PBHs make a significant fraction of the dark matter. As a consequence, LIGO would constrain ˜10 - 300 M⊙ PBHs to constitute no more than ˜1 % of the dark matter. To make this conclusion fully robust, though, numerical study of several complex astrophysical processes—such as the formation of the first PBH halos and how they may affect PBH binaries, as well as the accretion of gas onto an extremely eccentric binary—is needed.

  15. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  16. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  17. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI, which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS. Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province.

  18. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  19. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  20. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  1. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  2. Toward Customer-Centric Organizational Science: A Common Language Effect Size Indicator for Multiple Linear Regressions and Regressions With Higher-Order Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasikova, Dina V; Le, Huy; Bachura, Eric

    2018-01-22

    To address a long-standing concern regarding a gap between organizational science and practice, scholars called for more intuitive and meaningful ways of communicating research results to users of academic research. In this article, we develop a common language effect size index (CLβ) that can help translate research results to practice. We demonstrate how CLβ can be computed and used to interpret the effects of continuous and categorical predictors in multiple linear regression models. We also elaborate on how the proposed CLβ index is computed and used to interpret interactions and nonlinear effects in regression models. In addition, we test the robustness of the proposed index to violations of normality and provide means for computing standard errors and constructing confidence intervals around its estimates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Thirty New Low-mass Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Hebb, Leslie; Liu, Michael C.; Reid, I. Neill; Collier Cameron, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    As part of our search for young M dwarfs within 25 pc, we acquired high-resolution spectra of 185 low-mass stars compiled by the NStars project that have strong X-ray emission. By cross-correlating these spectra with radial velocity standard stars, we are sensitive to finding multi-lined spectroscopic binaries. We find a low-mass spectroscopic binary fraction of 16% consisting of 27 SB2s, 2 SB3s, and 1 SB4, increasing the number of known low-mass spectroscopic binaries (SBs) by 50% and proving that strong X-ray emission is an extremely efficient way to find M-dwarf SBs. WASP photometry of 23 of these systems revealed two low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBs), bringing the count of known M-dwarf EBs to 15. BD-22 5866, the ESB4, was fully described in 2008 by Shkolnik et al. and CCDM J04404+3127 B consists of two mid-M stars orbiting each other every 2.048 days. WASP also provided rotation periods for 12 systems, and in the cases where the synchronization time scales are short, we used P rot to determine the true orbital parameters. For those with no P rot, we used differential radial velocities to set upper limits on orbital periods and semimajor axes. More than half of our sample has near-equal-mass components (q > 0.8). This is expected since our sample is biased toward tight orbits where saturated X-ray emission is due to tidal spin-up rather than stellar youth. Increasing the samples of M-dwarf SBs and EBs is extremely valuable in setting constraints on current theories of stellar multiplicity and evolution scenarios for low-mass multiple systems. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and by the WASP Consortium. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada

  4. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  5. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Ultra-wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav, E-mail: ryan.j.oelkers@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10{sup 3} au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 5.5} au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.

  7. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Ultra-wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav

    2017-01-01

    The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10 3 au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10 3 and 10 5.5 au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.

  8. Clustering of multiple energy balance related behaviors is associated with body fat composition indicators in adolescents: Results from the HELENA and ELANA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba María; Androutsos, Odysseas; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; de Moraes, Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos; Van den Bussche, Karen; Censi, Laura; González-Gross, Marcela; Cañada, David; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Marcos, Ascensión; Widhalm, Kurt; Mólnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify clustering patterns of four energy balance-related behaviors (EBRB): television (TV) watching, moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), among European and Brazilian adolescents. EBRB associations with different body fat composition indicators were then evaluated. Participants included adolescents from eight European countries in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescents) study (n = 2,057, 53.8% female; age: 12.5-17.5 years) and from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil in the ELANA study (the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study) (n = 968, 53.2% female; age: 13.5-19 years). EBRB data allowed for sex- and study-specific clusters. Associations were estimated by ANOVA and odds ratios. Five clustering patterns were identified. Four similar clusters were identified for each sex and study. Among boys, different cluster identified was characterized by high F&V consumption in the HELENA study and high TV watching and high MVPA time in the ELANA study. Among girls, the different clusters identified was characterized by high F&V consumption in both studies and, additionally, high SSB consumption in the ELANA study. Regression analysis showed that clusters characterized by high SSB consumption in European boys; high TV watching, and high TV watching plus high MVPA in Brazilian boys; and high MVPA, and high SSB and F&V consumption in Brazilian girls, were positively associated with different body fat composition indicators. Common clusters were observed in adolescents from Europe and Brazil, however, no cluster was identified as being completely healthy or unhealthy. Each cluster seems to impact on body composition indicators, depending on the group. Public health actions should aim to promote adequate practices of EBRB. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  10. The nebular spectra of the transitional Type Ia Supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: broad, multiple components indicate aspherical explosion cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Ashall, C.; Pian, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Gall, C.; Phillips, M. M.; Höflich, P.; Hsiao, E.

    2018-05-01

    The nebular-epoch spectrum of the rapidly declining, `transitional' Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007on showed double emission peaks, which have been interpreted as indicating that the SN was the result of the direct collision of two white dwarfs. The spectrum can be reproduced using two distinct emission components, one redshifted and one blueshifted. These components are similar in mass but have slightly different degrees of ionization. They recede from one another at a line-of-sight speed larger than the sum of the combined expansion velocities of their emitting cores, thereby acting as two independent nebulae. While this configuration appears to be consistent with the scenario of two white dwarfs colliding, it may also indicate an off-centre delayed detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. In either case, broad emission line widths and a rapidly evolving light curve can be expected for the bolometric luminosity of the SN. This is the case for both SNe 2007on and 2011iv, also a transitional SN Ia that exploded in the same elliptical galaxy, NGC 1404. Although SN 2011iv does not show double-peaked emission line profiles, the width of its emission lines is such that a two-component model yields somewhat better results than a single-component model. Most of the mass ejected is in one component, however, which suggests that SN 2011iv was the result of the off-centre ignition of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf.

  11. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M sun . The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at ∼ sun . We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses ∼ sun appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  13. Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Poryadin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system

  14. RAPID ORBITAL DECAY IN THE 12.75-MINUTE BINARY WHITE DWARF J0651+2844

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mukadam, Anjum S., E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We report the detection of orbital decay in the 12.75-minute, detached binary white dwarf (WD) SDSS J065133.338+284423.37 (hereafter J0651). Our photometric observations over a 13 month baseline constrain the orbital period to 765.206543(55) s and indicate that the orbit is decreasing at a rate of (- 9.8 {+-} 2.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s s{sup -1} (or -0.31 {+-} 0.09 ms yr{sup -1}). We revise the system parameters based on our new photometric and spectroscopic observations: J0651 contains two WDs with M{sub 1} = 0.26 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 2} = 0.50 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }. General relativity predicts orbital decay due to gravitational wave radiation of (- 8.2 {+-} 1.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s s{sup -1} (or -0.26 {+-} 0.05 ms yr{sup -1}). Our observed rate of orbital decay is consistent with this expectation. J0651 is currently the second-loudest gravitational wave source known in the milli-Hertz range and the loudest non-interacting binary, which makes it an excellent verification source for future missions aimed at directly detecting gravitational waves. Our work establishes the feasibility of monitoring this system's orbital period decay at optical wavelengths.

  15. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  16. Prediction of retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils using multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Huang, Jian-Hua; He, Min; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yang, Rui; Kong, Bo; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils on three different stationary phases were investigated. Multivariate linear regression, partial least squares, and support vector machine combined with a new variable selection approach called random-frog recently proposed by our group, were employed to model quantitative structure-retention relationships. Internal and external validations were performed to ensure the stability and predictive ability. All the three methods could obtain an acceptable model, and the optimal results by support vector machine based on a small number of informative descriptors with the square of correlation coefficient for cross validation, values of 0.9726, 0.9759, and 0.9331 on the dimethylsilicone stationary phase, the dimethylsilicone phase with 5% phenyl groups, and the PEG stationary phase, respectively. The performances of two variable selection approaches, random-frog and genetic algorithm, are compared. The importance of the variables was found to be consistent when estimated from correlation coefficients in multivariate linear regression equations and selection probability in model spaces. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Proteomics-based investigation of multiple stages of OSCC development indicates that the inhibition of Trx-1 delays oral malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xijuan; Hu, Qinchao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Chunyang; Xia, Juan; Yang, Linglan; Cheng, Bin; Chen, Xiaobing

    2018-03-01

    The majority of cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develop from oral potentially malignant disorders, which have been confirmed to be involved in chronic oxidative stimulation. However, no effective treatment approaches have been used to prevent the development of dysplasia into cancerous lesions thus far. In the present study, a well-established OSCC model was used to detect proteomics profiles at different stages during oral malignant transformation. Of the 15 proteins that were found to be upregulated in both the dysplasia and carcinoma stages, the oxidative stress-associated proteins, thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), glutaredoxin-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 were note as the proteins with significant changes in expression Trx-1 was identified to be the most significantly upregulated protein in the precancerous stage. Validation experiments confirmed that Trx-1 was overexpressed both in dysplasia and cancerous tissue samples, and the inhibition of Trx-1 was able to promote the apoptosis of OSCC cells under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the experimental application of a Trx-1-specific inhibitory agent in an animal model led to a lower cancerization rate and a delay in tumor formation. The possible mechanisms were associated with the increased apoptosis via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that Trx-1 may be an important target for delaying oral malignant transformation, which provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of OSCC.

  18. Evaluation of Multiple Diagnostic Indicators in Comparison to the Intestinal Biopsy as the Golden Standard in Diagnosing Celiac Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Hollén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a chronic small intestinal enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The susceptibility is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA-genes, but efforts are being made in trying to find non-HLA genes that are predictive for the disease. The criteria for diagnosing CD were previously based primarily on histologic evaluation of small intestinal biopsies, but nowadays are often based only on blood tests and symptoms. In this context, we elucidated the accuracy of three diagnostic indicators for CD, alone or in combination. Genetic analyses of HLA-type and nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to be associated with CD were performed in 177 children previously investigated for the suspicion of CD. CD was confirmed in 109 children, while 68 were considered non-celiacs. The antibodies and urinary nitrite/nitrate concentrations of all of them were measured. The combinations of all the variables used in the study would classify 93% of the study population in the correct diagnostic group. The single best predictors were antibodies (i.e., anti-endomysium immunoglobulin A (IgA (EMA and transglutaminase IgA (TGA, followed by HLA-type and nitric oxide (NO-metabolites. The nine SNPs used did not contribute to the right diagnoses. Although our control group consisted of children with mostly gastrointestinal symptoms, the presented methodology predicted a correct classification in more than 90% of the cases.

  19. The Effect of Novel Binary Accelerator System on Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Kamoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties, curing characteristics, and swelling behaviour of vulcanized natural rubber with a novel binary accelerator system are investigated. Results indicate that the mechanical properties were improved. Crosslinking density of vulcanized natural rubber was measured by equilibrium swelling method. As a result, the new binary accelerator was found to be able to improve both cure rate and crosslinking density. Using the numerical analysis of test interaction between binary accelerator and operational modelling of vulcanization-factors experiments, it can be concluded that the interaction (Cystine, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide was significant and the optimum value of binary accelerator was suggested, respectively, at levels 0 and +1.

  20. Relação de risco como indicador do número de animais necessário no mapeamento genético de características binárias complexas em bovinos Risk ratio as indicator of the number of animals necessary for genetic mapping of complex binary traits in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thaler Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de simulação de dados objetiva avaliar a relação de risco (lambda R como indicador do número de animais genotipados necessário para o mapeamento genético de características binárias, tais como a mastite bovina. Dados foram simulados para diferentes prevalências, modelos genéticos e seus parâmetros, em famílias com aproximadamente cinco meios-irmãos afetados. Analisaram os dados gerados em pares de meios-irmãos afetados ("affected sib pairs analysis". O número necessário de famílias genotipadas aumenta com a prevalência, enquanto os valores de lambda R decrescem, validando lambdaR como indicador do número de animais necessário para o mapeamento para diferentes prevalências. São necessárias mais famílias para características dominantes em relação às recessivas. Penetrância incompleta exerce pouca influência, enquanto fenocópias aumentam o número necessário de animais. Um segundo locus diminui o poder de detecção de genes, especialmente em modelos com heterogeneidade de locus. Pode-se concluir que lambda R é indicador útil para determinar o número de animais necessários em experimentos de mapeamento genético com famílias de meios-irmãos.The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the suitability of risk ratio (lambda R as indicator of the number of genotyped animals necessary for mapping genes for binary traits, such as mastitis in cattle. Data were simulated for different prevalences, genetic models and parameters of these, in families with five affected halfsibs in average. The data were analyzed with methodology of "affected sib pairs". The number of genotyped halfsib families needed increase with the prevalence. As risk ratio is lower with higher prevalences, lambda R is an adequate indicator for comparing power for traits with different prevalences. The number of animals needed was substantially higher for dominant as for recessive traits. Incomplete penetrance had little

  1. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  2. Relationship between surface tension and refractive index in binary non-electrolyte mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, I.L.; Pedrosa, G.C.; Katz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Lorentz-Lorenz equation for molecular refraction has been combined with Sugden's parachor equation for binary non-electrolyte mixtures at 298.15 K. The obtained equation has been shown successful in calculating values of surface tensions, by measuring refractive indices of the binary mixtures at the same mole fractions. The estimated error decreases when the mixtures present possible isorefractives. (Author) [es

  3. Control of broadband optically generated ultrasound pulses using binary amplitude holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael D; Jaros, Jiri; Cox, Ben T; Treeby, Bradley E

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the use of binary amplitude holography is investigated as a mechanism to focus broadband acoustic pulses generated by high peak-power pulsed lasers. Two algorithms are described for the calculation of the binary holograms; one using ray-tracing, and one using an optimization based on direct binary search. It is shown using numerical simulations that when a binary amplitude hologram is excited by a train of laser pulses at its design frequency, the acoustic field can be focused at a pre-determined distribution of points, including single and multiple focal points, and line and square foci. The numerical results are validated by acoustic field measurements from binary amplitude holograms, excited by a high peak-power laser.

  4. The cool surfaces of binary near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, Kevin; Mueller, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Howell, Ellen S.

    2011-03-01

    Here we show results from thermal-infrared observations of km-sized binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). We combine previously published thermal properties for NEAs with newly derived values for three binary NEAs. The η value derived from the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) for each object is then used to estimate an average thermal inertia for the population of binary NEAs and compared against similar estimates for the population of non-binaries. We find that these objects have, in general, surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs as suggested by elevated η values. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. This latter physical parameter is a sensitive indicator of the presence or absence of regolith: bodies covered with fine regolith, such as the Earth’s moon, have low thermal inertia, whereas a surface with little or no regolith displays high thermal inertia. Our results are suggestive of a binary formation mechanism capable of altering surface properties, possibly removing regolith: an obvious candidate is the YORP effect. We present also newly determined sizes and geometric visible albedos derived from thermal-infrared observations of three binary NEAs: (5381) Sekhmet, (153591) 2001 SN263, and (164121) 2003 YT1. The diameters of these asteroids are 1.41 ± 0.21 km, 1.56 ± 0.31 km, and 2.63 ± 0.40 km, respectively. Their albedos are 0.23 ± 0.13, 0.24 ± 0.16, and 0.048 ± 0.015, respectively.

  5. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  6. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  7. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  8. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  9. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  10. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  11. Radio emission from symbiotic stars: a binary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.R.; Seaquist, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examine a binary model for symbiotic stars to account for their radio properties. The system is comprised of a cool, mass-losing star and a hot companion. Radio emission arises in the portion of the stellar wind photo-ionized by the hot star. Computer simulations for the case of uniform mass loss at constant velocity show that when less than half the wind is ionized, optically thick spectral indices greater than +0.6 are produced. Model fits to radio spectra allow the binary separation, wind density and ionizing photon luminosity to be calculated. They apply the model to the symbiotic star H1-36. (orig.)

  12. The Fate of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba, E-mail: piro@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Following merger, a neutron star (NS) binary can produce roughly one of three different outcomes: (1) a stable NS, (2) a black hole (BH), or (3) a supramassive, rotationally supported NS, which then collapses to a BH following angular momentum losses. Which of these fates occur and in what proportion has important implications for the electromagnetic transient associated with the mergers and the expected gravitational wave (GW) signatures, which in turn depend on the high density equation of state (EOS). Here we combine relativistic calculations of NS masses using realistic EOSs with Monte Carlo population synthesis based on the mass distribution of NS binaries in our Galaxy to predict the distribution of fates expected. For many EOSs, a significant fraction of the remnants are NSs or supramassive NSs. This lends support to scenarios in which a quickly spinning, highly magnetized NS may be powering an electromagnetic transient. This also indicates that it will be important for future GW observatories to focus on high frequencies to study the post-merger GW emission. Even in cases where individual GW events are too low in signal to noise to study the post merger signature in detail, the statistics of how many mergers produce NSs versus BHs can be compared with our work to constrain the EOS. To match short gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) X-ray afterglow statistics, we find that the stiffest EOSs are ruled out. Furthermore, many popular EOSs require a significant fraction of ∼60%–70% of SGRBs to be from NS–BH mergers rather than just binary NSs.

  13. A binary plasmid system for shuffling combinatorial antibody libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    Collet, T A; Roben, P; O'Kennedy, R; Barbas, C F; Burton, D R; Lerner, R A

    1992-01-01

    We have used a binary system of replicon-compatible plasmids to test the potential for promiscuous recombination of heavy and light chains within sets of human Fab fragments isolated from combinatorial antibody libraries. Antibody molecules showed a surprising amount of promiscuity in that a particular heavy chain could recombine with multiple light chains with retention of binding to a protein antigen. The degree to which a given heavy chain productively paired with any light chain to bind a...

  14. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  15. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  16. PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ASTEROSEISMIC BINARIES IN KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Farmer, R.; Kolb, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Girardi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Université Paris XI, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-03-20

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single light curve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ''asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution (IMRD) of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibration of the much debated IMRD near mass ratio unity.

  17. Presence of mixed modes in red giants in binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themeßl Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequencies of oscillation modes in stars contain valueable information about the stellar properties. In red giants the frequency spectrum also contains mixed modes, with both pressure (p and gravity (g as restoring force, which are key to understanding the physical conditions in the stellar core. We observe a high fraction of red giants in binary systems, for which g-dominated mixed modes are not pronounced. This trend leads us to investigate whether this is specific for binary systems or a more general feature. We do so by comparing the fraction of stars with only p-dominated mixed modes in binaries and in a larger set of stars from the APOKASC sample. We find only p-dominated mixed modes in about 50% of red giants in detached eclipsing binaries compared to about 4% in the large sample. This could indicate that this phenomenon is tightly related to binarity and that the binary fraction in the APOKASC sample is about 8%.

  18. A Fast Optimization Method for General Binary Code Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fumin; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Yang; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-09-22

    Hashing or binary code learning has been recognized to accomplish efficient near neighbor search, and has thus attracted broad interests in recent retrieval, vision and learning studies. One main challenge of learning to hash arises from the involvement of discrete variables in binary code optimization. While the widely-used continuous relaxation may achieve high learning efficiency, the pursued codes are typically less effective due to accumulated quantization error. In this work, we propose a novel binary code optimization method, dubbed Discrete Proximal Linearized Minimization (DPLM), which directly handles the discrete constraints during the learning process. Specifically, the discrete (thus nonsmooth nonconvex) problem is reformulated as minimizing the sum of a smooth loss term with a nonsmooth indicator function. The obtained problem is then efficiently solved by an iterative procedure with each iteration admitting an analytical discrete solution, which is thus shown to converge very fast. In addition, the proposed method supports a large family of empirical loss functions, which is particularly instantiated in this work by both a supervised and an unsupervised hashing losses, together with the bits uncorrelation and balance constraints. In particular, the proposed DPLM with a supervised `2 loss encodes the whole NUS-WIDE database into 64-bit binary codes within 10 seconds on a standard desktop computer. The proposed approach is extensively evaluated on several large-scale datasets and the generated binary codes are shown to achieve very promising results on both retrieval and classification tasks.

  19. Evolution of close binaries and the formation of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The various ways in which compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) may be formed in interacting binary systems are examined. Attention is given to the final evolution of the primary star in a close binary system as a function of the time of Roche-lobe overflow relative to the onset of helium burning, and conditions on primary mass and orbital period leading to the appearance of a compact remnant are noted. Consideration of the fate of the stellar envelope in stars that directly evolve to core collapse indicates that binaries that evolve with conservation of total mass and orbital angular momentum will eventually become systems of two runaway pulsars. In cases of nonconservative evolution, the final state is expected to be a young runaway pulsar with a low- or moderate mass runaway star companion, or a low-mass population I X-ray binary with high space velocity. Compact objects may also be formed when a white dwarf of suitable chemical composition is driven over the Chandrasehkar limit by accretion, resulting in a low-mass X-ray binary

  20. A parallel algorithm for filtering gravitational waves from coalescing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Dhurandhar, S.V.

    1992-10-01

    Coalescing binary stars are perhaps the most promising sources for the observation of gravitational waves with laser interferometric gravity wave detectors. The waveform from these sources can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for matched filtering techniques to be applied. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for detecting signals from coalescing compact binaries by the method of matched filtering. We also report the details of its implementation on a 256-node connection machine consisting of a network of transputers. The results of our analysis indicate that parallel processing is a promising approach to on-line analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors to filter out coalescing binary signals. The algorithm described is quite general in that the kernel of the algorithm is applicable to any set of matched filters. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  1. Evolutionary models of early-type contact binary SV Centauri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y; Saio, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sugimoto, Daiichiro

    1978-12-01

    Models of the early-type contact binary system SV Centauri are computed with a binary-star evolution program. The effects of mass exchange, i.e., the effects of mass acceptance as well as mass loss, are properly included. With the initial masses of the component stars as 12.4 and 8.0 M sub(solar mass), the following observed configurations are well reproduced; the component stars are definitely in contact and the rate of mass exchange is 4 x 10/sup -4/ M sub(solar mass)yr/sup -1/. The more massive component is less luminous and has a lower effective temperature. Such features are also reproduced quantitatively. Agreement of the computed models with observation indicates that the binary system SV Cen is actually in the phase of rapid mass exchange preceding the mass-ratio reversal.

  2. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... 199 active compounds, followed by methanol (189) and hexane (73). This difference is apparently not related to the sectional division of the species (Carr, 1988). Comparison of eluent systems. Lastly we determined which TLC solvent system separa- ted the highest number of active compounds (Table 27).

  3. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...

  4. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  5. Binary operators and their Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheff, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three topics are considered. First, the Langevin approach to neutron noise is used as a basis and guide to develop solutions and solution techniques for the ChapmanKolmogorov forward equation approach to neutron noise. The approach followed throughout this first part is that of solution by means of Green's functions. A particular form for the binary operator Green's function was picked on the basis of the Langevin method. Second, the basic solution technique using the particular Green's function form mentioned above is proven to be a correct and a general result. It is proven that the binary operator is always separable and that the Green's function could be written as the product of two single operator Green's functions. This is a new result. Third and finally, the forward equation approach of Chapman-Kolmogorov is generalized to include time allowing differential equations for second and higher order correlation functions to be developed directly. The principal result of the last section, the differential equation for correlation function of the neutron density, is new. Its derivation is really outside of or broader than the scope indicated by the title of the paper

  6. Gravitational redshift from a binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steklain, Andre [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this work we study the gravitational redshift of a binary system in general relativity. We employ a mixed metric obtained from the matching of a 1PN metric with two perturbed Schwarzschild metrics, based on previous works [Alvi, Phys. Rev. D, 61, 124013 (2000)]. This metric is well known, and has been considered for several applications [Steklain et al, Phys. Lett. A, 373, 188, (2009)]. We consider a massless observer in a timelike geodesic of this metric measuring the redshift of the system. The observer concentrates the redshift measurements in one of the massive bodies and is influenced by the mass of the second body. We find that there is a substantial contribution of the second mass in some cases. We compare with experimental data obtained for real binary systems of white dwarfs [Vennes et al, Astroph. J., L37 (1991)]. We also discuss these results for more massive systems, and make some predictions for very massive systems, like black holes, although it extrapolates the limit of the 1PN approximation used. Is well known that the major contribution of the observed redshift is from the universe expansion, but these results indicate that the influence of the gravitational redshift may be underestimated at some systems. (author)

  7. Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.

  8. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  9. Numerical relativity simulations of precessing binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Tim; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brügmann, Bernd; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    We present the first set of numerical relativity simulations of binary neutron mergers that include spin precession effects and are evolved with multiple resolutions. Our simulations employ consistent initial data in general relativity with different spin configurations and dimensionless spin magnitudes ˜0.1 . They start at a gravitational-wave frequency of ˜392 Hz and cover more than 1 precession period and about 15 orbits up to merger. We discuss the spin precession dynamics by analyzing coordinate trajectories, quasilocal spin measurements, and energetics, by comparing spin aligned, antialigned, and irrotational configurations. Gravitational waveforms from different spin configuration are compared by calculating the mismatch between pairs of waveforms in the late inspiral. We find that precession effects are not distinguishable from nonprecessing configurations with aligned spins for approximately face-on binaries, while the latter are distinguishable from nonspinning configurations. Spin precession effects are instead clearly visible for approximately edge-on binaries. For the parameters considered here, precession does not significantly affect the characteristic postmerger gravitational-wave frequencies nor the mass ejection. Our results pave the way for the modeling of spin precession effects in the gravitational waveform from binary neutron star events.

  10. A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.

  11. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  12. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  13. TOWARD COMPLETE STATISTICS OF MASSIVE BINARY STARS: PENULTIMATE RESULTS FROM THE CYGNUS OB2 RADIAL VELOCITY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Álvarez, Carlos A. Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Kiminki, Daniel C., E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu, E-mail: jburke2@swarthmore.edu, E-mail: jc6380@mcla.edu, E-mail: kelle22e@mtholyoke.edu, E-mail: kvl214@lehigh.edu, E-mail: emily.k.rolen@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: topel@stolaf.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P < 45 days, but it is not scale-free. Inflections in the cumulative distribution near 6 days, 14 days, and 45 days suggest key physical scales of ≅0.2, ≅0.4, and ≅1 A.U. where yet-to-be-identified phenomena create distinct features. No single power law provides a statistically compelling prescription, but if features are ignored, a power law with exponent β ≅ –0.22 provides a crude approximation over P = 1.4-2000 days, as does a piece-wise linear function with a break near 45 days. The cumulative period distribution flattens at P > 45 days, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary properties at P ≲ 25 days are determined by local physics of disk/clump fragmentation and are relatively insensitive to environmental and evolutionary factors. Fully 30% of the unbiased parent sample is a binary with period P < 45 days. Completeness corrections imply a binary fraction near 55% for P < 5000 days. The observed distribution of mass ratios 0.2 < q < 1 is consistent with uniform, while the observed distribution of eccentricities 0.1 < e < 0.6 is consistent with uniform plus an excess of e ≅ 0 systems. We identify six stars, all supergiants, that exhibit aperiodic velocity variations of ∼30 km s{sup –1} attributed to atmospheric fluctuations.

  14. Polarimetry and spectrophotometry of the massive close binary DH Cephei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    DH Cep is a massive and close binary and a member of the young open cluster NGC 7380. Spectroscopically, this system is double-lined, classified as type O6 + O6. Photometrically, the system has been known to show small light variations phase-locked to the radial-velocity variations; these light variations characterize the star as an ellipsoidal variable. Four-color linear polarimetry, archival UV spectra taken by IUE and x-ray measures obtained by the Einstein satellite provide the first detailed analysis of this important system. Polarization measures demonstrate the (largely non-phase locked) variability of the circum-binary scattering environment, identify the scattering medium as electrons and indicate a large-scale change in the intrinsic polarization of the system. UV spectral analysis is used to determine the composite photospheric temperature, the component masses and spectral classifications, the degree of mass loss, and the distribution of interstellar matter along the line of sight to the binary. Measures obtained by the Einstein satellite of the x-ray emission from the system indicate that DH Cep is a strong source of hard x-rays. A model of the binary is developed

  15. Gas flows in S-E binary systems of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, N. YA.

    1990-01-01

    Tidal interaction between the galaxies in binary systems leads to important consequences. Some peculiarities in galactic morphology as well as the transfer of matter from one galaxy to another may be due to this factor. In particular, gas flows in intergalactic space may be formed. Such flows enriching one component with gas from the other may play a substantial role in the evolution of mixed (S-E) pairs. One can mention several facts corroborating the possibility of the gas transfer from the spiral to the elliptical galaxy. High HI content (10(exp 7) to 10(exp 9) solar mass) is detected in nearly 40 E galaxies (Bottinelli and Gougenheim, 1979; Knapp et al., 1985). Such galaxies are often members of pairs or of multiple systems including an S galaxy, which may be the source of gas (Smirnov and Komberg, 1980). Moreover, the gas kinematics and its distribution also indicate an external origin for this gas (Knapp et al., 1985). In many cases there is an outer gaseous disk. The directions of the disk and of stellar rotation don't always coincide (van Gorkom et al., 1985; Varnas et al., 1987). The galaxy colors in S-E pairs are correlated (the Holmberg effect): bluer ellipticals have spiral components that are usually bluer (Demin et al., 1984). The fraction of E galaxies with emission lines (N sub em) in S-E pairs showing traces of tidal interaction is twice as large (N sub em approx. equals 0.24) as in pairs without interaction (N sub em approx. equals 0.12) (Sotnikova, 1988b). Since the presence of emission lines in a galaxy spectrum strongly depends on gas content, this fact also leads to the conclusion that ellipticals in interacting S-E pairs are enriched with gas. These facts may be considered as a serious indication of the existence of gas transfer. Hence, investigation of this process is of interest.

  16. Wide- and contact-binary formation in substructured young stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, J.; Boily, C. M.; Moraux, E.; Roos, O.

    2017-02-01

    We explore with collisional gravitational N-body models the evolution of binary stars in initially fragmented and globally subvirial clusters of stars. Binaries are inserted in the (initially) clumpy configurations so as to match the observed distributions of the field-binary-stars' semimajor axes a and binary fraction versus primary mass. The dissolution rate of wide binaries is very high at the start of the simulations, and is much reduced once the clumps are eroded by the global infall. The transition between the two regimes is sharper as the number of stars N is increased, from N = 1.5 k up to 80 k. The fraction of dissolved binary stars increases only mildly with N, from ≈15 per cent to ≈25 per cent for the same range in N. We repeated the calculation for two initial system mean number densities of 6 per pc3 (low) and 400 per pc3 (high). We found that the longer free-fall time of the low-density runs allows for prolonged binary-binary interactions inside clumps and the formation of very tight (a ≈ 0.01 au) binaries by exchange collisions. This is an indication that the statistics of such compact binaries bear a direct link to their environment at birth. We also explore the formation of wide (a ≳ 5 × 104 au) binaries and find a low (≈0.01 per cent) fraction mildly bound to the central star cluster. The high-precision astrometric mission Gaia could identify them as outflowing shells or streams.

  17. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  18. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy

  19. On Utmost Multiplicity of Hierarchical Stellar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrehiwot Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to theoretical considerations, multiplicity of hierarchical stellar systems can reach, depending on masses and orbital parameters, several hundred, while observational data confirm the existence of at most septuple (seven-component systems. In this study, we cross-match the stellar systems of very high multiplicity (six and more components in modern catalogues of visual double and multiple stars to find among them the candidates to hierarchical systems. After cross-matching the catalogues of closer binaries (eclipsing, spectroscopic, etc., some of their components were found to be binary/multiple themselves, what increases the system's degree of multiplicity. Optical pairs, known from literature or filtered by the authors, were flagged and excluded from the statistics. We compiled a list of hierarchical systems with potentially very high multiplicity that contains ten objects. Their multiplicity does not exceed 12, and we discuss a number of ways to explain the lack of extremely high multiplicity systems.

  20. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  1. LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    of the components have all been estimated at 20 solar masses or more. This has made it difficult to compare these black holes to those detected by electromagnetic means which are mostly under 10 solar masses in size.GW170608 is the lowest-mass of the LIGO/Virgo black-hole mergers shown in blue. The primary mass is comparable to the masses of black holes we have measured by electromagnetic means (purple detections). [LIGO-Virgo/Frank Elavsky/Northwestern]One type of electromagnetically detected black hole are those in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). LMXBs consist of a black hole and a non-compact companion: a low-mass donor star that overflows its Roche lobe, feeding material onto the black hole. It is thought that these black holes form without significant spin, and are later spun up as a result of the mass accretion. Before LIGO, however, we didnt have any non-accreting black holes of this size to observe for comparison.Now, detections like GW170608 and the Boxing Day event (which was also on the low end of the mass scale) are allowing us to start exploring spin distributions of non-accreting black holes to determine if were right in our understanding of black-hole spins. We dont yet have a large enough comparison sample to make a definitive statement, but GW170608 is indicative of a wealth of more discoveries we can hope to find in LIGOs next observing run, after a series of further design upgrades scheduled to conclude in 2018. The future of gravitational wave astronomy continues to look promising!CitationLIGO collaboration, submitted to ApJL. https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.05578

  2. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  3. The Mass-to-Light Ratios of the Draco and Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies. II. The Binary Population and Its Effect in the Measured Velocity Dispersions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, E.; Pryor, C.; Armandroff, T.

    1995-01-01

    We use a large set of radial velocities in the Ursa Minor and Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxies to search for binary stars and to infer the binary frequency. Of the 118 stars in our sample with multiple observations, six are velocity variables with $\\chi^2$ probabilities below 0.001. We use Monte Carlo simulations that mimic our observations to determine the efficiency with which our observations find binary stars. Our best, though significantly uncertain, estimate of the binary frequency for s...

  4. Be discs in coplanar circular binaries: Phase-locked variations of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoglou, Despina; Faes, Daniel M.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Baade, Dietrich; Rivinius, Thomas; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results of radiative transfer calculations on decretion discs of binary Be stars. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics code computes the structure of Be discs in coplanar circular binary systems for a range of orbital and disc parameters. The resulting disc configuration consists of two spiral arms, and this can be given as input into a Monte Carlo code, which calculates the radiative transfer along the line of sight for various observational coordinates. Making use of the property of steady disc structure in coplanar circular binaries, observables are computed as functions of the orbital phase. Some orbital-phase series of line profiles are given for selected parameter sets under various viewing angles, to allow comparison with observations. Flat-topped profiles with and without superimposed multiple structures are reproduced, showing, for example, that triple-peaked profiles do not have to be necessarily associated with warped discs and misaligned binaries. It is demonstrated that binary tidal effects give rise to phase-locked variability of the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of hydrogen emission lines. The V/R ratio exhibits two maxima per cycle; in certain cases those maxima are equal, leading to a clear new V/R cycle every half orbital period. This study opens a way to identifying binaries and to constraining the parameters of binary systems that exhibit phase-locked variations induced by tidal interaction with a companion star.

  5. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  6. Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.

  7. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  8. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  9. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  10. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  11. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  12. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  13. Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeas, K.

    2015-07-01

    Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.

  14. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  15. Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias

    2016-11-11

    Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.

  16. Generation of binary holograms for deep scenes captured with a camera and a depth sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-01-01

    This work presents binary hologram generation from images of a real object acquired from a Kinect sensor. Since hologram calculation from a point-cloud or polygon model presents a heavy computational burden, we adopted a depth-layer approach to generate the holograms. This method enables us to obtain holographic data of large scenes quickly. Our investigations focus on the performance of different methods, iterative and noniterative, to convert complex holograms into binary format. Comparisons were performed to examine the reconstruction of the binary holograms at different depths. We also propose to modify the direct binary search algorithm to take into account several reference image planes. Then, deep scenes featuring multiple planes of interest can be reconstructed with better efficiency.

  17. A binary origin for 'blue stragglers' in globular clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Christian; Leigh, Nathan; Sills, Alison

    2009-01-15

    Blue stragglers in globular clusters are abnormally massive stars that should have evolved off the stellar main sequence long ago. There are two known processes that can create these objects: direct stellar collisions and binary evolution. However, the relative importance of these processes has remained unclear. In particular, the total number of blue stragglers found in a given cluster does not seem to correlate with the predicted collision rate, providing indirect support for the binary-evolution model. Yet the radial distributions of blue stragglers in many clusters are bimodal, with a dominant central peak: this has been interpreted as an indication that collisions do dominate blue straggler production, at least in the high-density cluster cores. Here we report that there is a clear, but sublinear, correlation between the number of blue stragglers found in a cluster core and the total stellar mass contained within it. From this we conclude that most blue stragglers, even those found in cluster cores, come from binary systems. The parent binaries, however, may themselves have been affected by dynamical encounters. This may be the key to reconciling all of the seemingly conflicting results found to date.

  18. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  19. SLoWPoKES-II: 100,000 WIDE BINARIES IDENTIFIED IN SDSS WITHOUT PROPER MOTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhital, Saurav [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); West, Andrew A.; Schluns, Kyle J.; Massey, Angela P. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: dhitals@erau.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We present the Sloan Low-mass Wide Pairs of Kinematically Equivalent Stars (SLoWPoKES)-II catalog of low-mass visual binaries identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by matching photometric distances. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar information. The candidate pairs are vetted by comparing the stellar density at their respective Galactic positions to Monte Carlo realizations of a simulated Milky Way. In this way, we are able to identify large numbers of bona fide wide binaries without the need for proper motions. Here, 105,537 visual binaries with angular separations of ∼1–20″ were identified, each with a probability of chance alignment of ≤5%. This is the largest catalog of bona fide wide binaries to date, and it contains a diversity of systems—in mass, mass ratios, binary separations, metallicity, and evolutionary states—that should facilitate follow-up studies to characterize the properties of M dwarfs and white dwarfs. There is a subtle but definitive suggestion of multiple populations in the physical separation distribution, supporting earlier findings. We suggest that wide binaries are composed of multiple populations, most likely representing different formation modes. There are 141 M7 or later wide binary candidates, representing a seven-fold increase over the number currently known. These binaries are too wide to have been formed via the ejection mechanism. Finally, we found that 6% of spectroscopically confirmed M dwarfs are not included in the SDSS STAR catalog; they are misclassified as extended sources due to the presence of a nearby or partially resolved companion. The SLoWPoKES-II catalog is publicly available to the entire community on the World Wide Web via the Filtergraph data visualization portal.

  20. Preliminary study of light variations of the eclipsing binary AB Cassiopeiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, H.; Manchester Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary study of the eclipsing binary AB Cas is presented here by using the photometric observational data. The primary component is one of the delta Sct variables with period of 0.sup(d)054, and whether the oscillation is of a radial mode or of a non-radial one is discussed. Two colour indices (B - V and U - B) data and the light curve analysis suggest that this binary system is a typical Algol type binary system, in which the primary component is near the ZAMS with about 2.3 Msub(sun) and the secondary one is a subgiant star with about 0.5 Msub(sun). (orig.)

  1. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  2. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  3. Study of the mass-luminosity in binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, A.; Zamorano, J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study of the mass-luminosity relation for main-sequence stars are presented as obtained from the latest data provided by the analysis of eclipsing and visual binary systems. The derived numerical values are discussed in light of their practical use and possible parametrizations indicated by internal structure homologous models. Finally, the astrophysical significance of our results is evaluated and they are compared to available theoretical models. (author)

  4. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  6. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  7. BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.

  8. Main Memory Implementations for Binary Grouping

    OpenAIRE

    May, Norman; Moerkotte, Guido

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of applications depend on efficient storage and analysis features for XML data. Hence, query optimization and efficient evaluation techniques for the emerging XQuery standard become more and more important. Many XQuery queries require nested expressions. Unnesting them often introduces binary grouping. We introduce several algorithms implementing binary grouping and analyze their time and space complexity. Experiments demonstrate their performance.

  9. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  10. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  12. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  13. Algorithms for MDC-based multi-locus phylogeny inference: beyond rooted binary gene trees on single alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Warnow, Tandy; Nakhleh, Luay

    2011-11-01

    One of the criteria for inferring a species tree from a collection of gene trees, when gene tree incongruence is assumed to be due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), is Minimize Deep Coalescence (MDC). Exact algorithms for inferring the species tree from rooted, binary trees under MDC were recently introduced. Nevertheless, in phylogenetic analyses of biological data sets, estimated gene trees may differ from true gene trees, be incompletely resolved, and not necessarily rooted. In this article, we propose new MDC formulations for the cases where the gene trees are unrooted/binary, rooted/non-binary, and unrooted/non-binary. Further, we prove structural theorems that allow us to extend the algorithms for the rooted/binary gene tree case to these cases in a straightforward manner. In addition, we devise MDC-based algorithms for cases when multiple alleles per species may be sampled. We study the performance of these methods in coalescent-based computer simulations.

  14. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  15. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib

    2009-01-01

    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  16. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  17. TIDALLY INDUCED PULSATIONS IN KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY KIC 3230227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Fuller, Jim, E-mail: guo@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jfuller@caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P  ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit ( e  = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M {sub 1} = 1.84 ± 0.18  M {sub ⊙}, M {sub 2} = 1.73 ± 0.17  M {sub ⊙} and radii of R {sub 1} = 2.01 ± 0.09  R {sub ⊙}, R {sub 2} = 1.68 ± 0.08 R {sub ⊙} for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l  = 2, m  = −2 prograde modes.

  18. TIDALLY INDUCED PULSATIONS IN KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY KIC 3230227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R.; Fuller, Jim

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P  ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit ( e  = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M 1  = 1.84 ± 0.18  M ⊙ , M 2  = 1.73 ± 0.17  M ⊙ and radii of R 1  = 2.01 ± 0.09  R ⊙ , R 2  = 1.68 ± 0.08 R ⊙ for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l  = 2, m  = −2 prograde modes.

  19. Inferring Binary and Trinary Stellar Populations in Photometric and Astrometric Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmark, Axel; Leistedt, Boris; Hogg, David W.

    2018-04-01

    Multiple stellar systems are ubiquitous in the Milky Way but are often unresolved and seen as single objects in spectroscopic, photometric, and astrometric surveys. However, modeling them is essential for developing a full understanding of large surveys such as Gaia and connecting them to stellar and Galactic models. In this paper, we address this problem by jointly fitting the Gaia and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric and astrometric data using a data-driven Bayesian hierarchical model that includes populations of binary and trinary systems. This allows us to classify observations into singles, binaries, and trinaries, in a robust and efficient manner, without resorting to external models. We are able to identify multiple systems and, in some cases, make strong predictions for the properties of their unresolved stars. We will be able to compare such predictions with Gaia Data Release 4, which will contain astrometric identification and analysis of binary systems.

  20. Observations of spectroscopic binaries with a solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, F. Jr.; Lacy, C.H.; Tomkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent installation of a solid-state 1024-element silicon photodiode array detector (Reticon) at the coude focus of the 2.7 m McDonald Observatory reflector has greatly extended its limits of observation for binary and multiple systems which have weak and/or broad-lined components. This detector can produce extremely high signal-to-noise ratio observations and has high quantum efficiency over the wavelength region 3000-11000 A. The observational programs of three users of this device are described. (Auth.)

  1. Asymptotic Limits for Transport in Binary Stochastic Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, A. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve stochastic spectral expansion of a random binary mixture of immiscible fluids in planar geometry is used to explore asymptotic limits of radiation transport in such mixtures. Under appropriate scalings of mixing parameters - correlation length, volume fraction, and material cross sections - and employing multiple- scale expansion of the angular flux, previously established atomic mix and diffusion limits are reproduced. When applied to highly contrasting material properties in the small cor- relation length limit, the methodology yields a nonstandard reflective medium transport equation that merits further investigation. Finally, a hybrid closure is proposed that produces both small and large correlation length limits of the closure condition for the material averaged equations.

  2. Si K EDGE STRUCTURE AND VARIABILITY IN GALACTIC X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Corrales, Lia; Canizares, Claude R. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We survey the Si K edge structure in various absorbed Galactic low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to study states of silicon in the inter- and circum-stellar medium. The bulk of these LMXBs lie toward the Galactic bulge region and all have column densities above 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}. The observations were performed using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The Si K edge in all sources appears at an energy value of 1844 ± 0.001 eV. The edge exhibits significant substructure that can be described by a near edge absorption feature at 1849 ± 0.002 eV and a far edge absorption feature at 1865 ± 0.002 eV. Both of these absorption features appear variable with equivalent widths up to several mÅ. We can describe the edge structure using several components: multiple edge functions, near edge absorption excesses from silicates in dust form, signatures from X-ray scattering optical depths, and a variable warm absorber from ionized atomic silicon. The measured optical depths of the edges indicate much higher values than expected from atomic silicon cross sections and interstellar medium abundances, and they appear consistent with predictions from silicate X-ray absorption and scattering. A comparison with models also indicates a preference for larger dust grain sizes. In many cases, we identify Si xiii resonance absorption and determine ionization parameters between log ξ = 1.8 and 2.8 and turbulent velocities between 300 and 1000 km s{sup −1}. This places the warm absorber in close vicinity of the X-ray binaries. In some data, we observe a weak edge at 1.840 keV, potentially from a lesser contribution of neutral atomic silicon.

  3. Prevalence and Characterization of a Binary Toxin (Actin-Specific ADP-Ribosyltransferase) from Clostridium difficile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carina; Decré, Dominique; Barbut, Frédéric; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Petit, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the two large clostridial cytotoxins (TcdA and TcdB), some strains of Clostridium difficile also produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase, called binary toxin CDT. We used a PCR method and Southern blotting for the detection of genes encoding the enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components of the binary toxin in 369 strains isolated from patients with suspected C. difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Twenty-two strains (a prevalence of 6%) harbored both genes. When binary toxin production was assessed by Western blotting, 19 of the 22 strains reacted with antisera against the iota toxin of C. perfringens (anti-Ia and anti-Ib). Additionally, binary toxin activity, detected by the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay, was present in only 17 of the 22 strains. Subsequently, all 22 binary toxin-positive strains were tested for the production of toxins TcdA and TcdB, toxinotyped, and characterized by serogrouping, PCR ribotyping, arbitrarily primed PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All binary toxin-positive strains also produced TcdB and/or TcdA. However, they had significant changes in the tcdA and tcdB genes and belonged to variant toxinotypes III, IV, V, VII, IX, and XIII. We could differentiate 16 profiles by using typing methods, indicating that most of the binary toxin-positive strains were unrelated. PMID:15131151

  4. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  5. Prediction of the GC-MS Retention Indices for a Diverse Set of Terpenes as Constituent Components of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK Mc Vaugh Volatile Oil, Using Particle Swarm Optimization-Multiple Linear Regression (PSO-MLR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A reliable quantitative structure retention relationship (QSRR study has been evaluated to predict the retention indices (RIs of a broad spectrum of compounds, namely 118 non-linear, cyclic and heterocyclic terpenoids (both saturated and unsaturated, on an HP-5MS fused silica column. A principal component analysis showed that seven compounds lay outside of the main cluster. After elimination of the outliers, the data set was divided into training and test sets involving 80 and 28 compounds. The method was tested by application of the particle swarm optimization (PSO method to find the most effective molecular descriptors, followed by multiple linear regressions (MLR. The PSO-MLR model was further confirmed through “leave one out cross validation” (LOO-CV and “leave group out cross validation” (LGO-CV, as well as external validations. The promising statistical figures of merit associated with the proposed model (R2train=0.936, Q2LOO=0.928, Q2LGO=0.921, F=376.4 confirm its high ability to predict RIs with negligible relative errors of predictions (REP train=4.8%, REP test=6.0%.

  6. Equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits in the gravity of binary asteroid systems: (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2018-04-01

    The motion of a massless particle in the gravity of a binary asteroid system, referred as the restricted full three-body problem (RF3BP), is fundamental, not only for the evolution of the binary system, but also for the design of relevant space missions. In this paper, equilibrium points and associated periodic orbit families in the gravity of a binary system are investigated, with the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example. The polyhedron shape model is used to describe irregular shapes and corresponding gravity fields of the primary and secondary of (66391) 1999 KW4, which is more accurate than the ellipsoid shape model in previous studies and provides a high-fidelity representation of the gravitational environment. Both of the synchronous and non-synchronous states of the binary system are considered. For the synchronous binary system, the equilibrium points and their stability are determined, and periodic orbit families emanating from each equilibrium point are generated by using the shooting (multiple shooting) method and the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the circular restricted three-body problem and RF3BP. In the non-synchronous binary system, trajectories of equivalent equilibrium points are calculated, and the associated periodic orbits are obtained by using the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the synchronous and non-synchronous systems. Although only the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 is considered, our methods will also be well applicable to other binary systems with polyhedron shape data. Our results on equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits provide general insights into the dynamical environment and orbital behaviors in proximity of small binary asteroids and enable the trajectory design and mission operations in future binary system explorations.

  7. Manifold corrections on spinning compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuangying; Wu Xin

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with a discussion of three new manifold correction methods and three existing ones, which can numerically preserve or correct all integrals in the conservative post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. Two of them are listed here. One is a new momentum-position scaling scheme for complete consistency of both the total energy and the magnitude of the total angular momentum, and the other is the Nacozy's approach with least-squares correction of the four integrals including the total energy and the total angular momentum vector. The post-Newtonian contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits play an important role in the effectiveness of these six manifold corrections. They are all nearly equivalent to correct the integrals at the level of the machine epsilon for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order post-Newtonian contributions are added to the pure orbital part, three of these corrections have only minor effects on controlling the errors of these integrals. When the spin effects are also included, the effectiveness of the Nacozy's approach becomes further weakened, and even gets useless for the chaotic case. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position scaling scheme always shows the optimal performance. It requires a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist and several time-saving techniques are used. As an interesting case, the efficiency of the correction to chaotic eccentric orbits is generally better than one to quasicircular regular orbits. Besides this, the corrected fast Lyapunov indicators and Lyapunov exponents of chaotic eccentric orbits are large as compared with the uncorrected counterparts. The amplification is a true expression of the original dynamical behavior. With the aid of both the manifold correction added to a certain low-order integration algorithm as a fast and high-precision device and the fast Lyapunov

  8. Accuracy requirements for the calculation of gravitational waveforms from coalescing compact binaries in numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mark

    2005-01-01

    I discuss the accuracy requirements on numerical relativity calculations of inspiraling compact object binaries whose extracted gravitational waveforms are to be used as templates for matched filtering signal extraction and physical parameter estimation in modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Using a post-Newtonian point particle model for the premerger phase of the binary inspiral, I calculate the maximum allowable errors for the mass and relative velocity and positions of the binary during numerical simulations of the binary inspiral. These maximum allowable errors are compared to the errors of state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multiple-orbit binary neutron star calculations in full general relativity, and are found to be smaller by several orders of magnitude. A post-Newtonian model for the error of these numerical simulations suggests that adaptive mesh refinement coupled with second-order accurate finite difference codes will not be able to robustly obtain the accuracy required for reliable gravitational wave extraction on Terabyte-scale computers. I conclude that higher-order methods (higher-order finite difference methods and/or spectral methods) combined with adaptive mesh refinement and/or multipatch technology will be needed for robustly accurate gravitational wave extraction from numerical relativity calculations of binary coalescence scenarios

  9. Age and helium content of the eclipsing binary AI Phoenicis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandenBerg, D.A.; Hrivnak, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of new theoretical isochrones for heavy-element abundances Z = 0.0169 (solar) and Z = 0.04 with recently published parameters of AI Phoenicis suggest that this system has an age of approximately (3.6 +- 0.7) x 10 9 yr and a helium content of Y = 0.38 +- 0.05. The indicated uncertainty is largely due to the lack of precise knowledge about the metallicity of the binary, since the fits to the data by both sets of isochrones are exceedingly good. The high helium content, which is required in order to reproduce the observed mass-luminosity relation, is suggested to be comparable with the values generally derived for binaries if the latter are adjusted to take into account the effect of the new Los Alamos opacities

  10. Evaluation of self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, T.L.

    1977-10-01

    The feasibility of calculating Wagner self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams was examined. The self-interaction parameters of 22 non-ferrous liquid solutions were calculated utilizing an equation based on the equality of the chemical potentials of a component in two equilibrium phases. Utilization of the equation requires the evaluation of the first and second derivatives of various liquidus and solidus data at infinite dilution of the solute component. Several numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of tabular data were examined. A method involving power series curve fitting and subsequent differentiation of the power series was found to be the most suitable for the interaction parameter calculations. Comparison of the calculated self-interaction parameters with values obtained from thermodynamic measurements indicates that the Wagner self-interaction parameter can be successfully calculated from binary phase diagrams

  11. Binary Options as a Modern Fenomenon of Financial Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolková Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary options are a new instrument of the financial market. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of binary options with trading and to illustrate this on the practical example of trades based on Bollinger bands indicator. Currency pair EUR/USD and 6912 time series values of this instrument will be put to analysis. The contribution will be evaluated 8 strategies based on Bollinger Bands. There will be used a backtesting method. From the results follows the most trades could have been realized with the use of Bollinger bands with a double deviation. This strategy, however, also showed the greatest percentage of failed trades. On the contrary the fewest transactions could have been carried out with Bollinger bands with a triple deviation and the MACD filter.

  12. Influence of binary mask estimation errors on robust speaker identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Missing-data strategies have been developed to improve the noise-robustness of automatic speech recognition systems in adverse acoustic conditions. This is achieved by classifying time-frequency (T-F) units into reliable and unreliable components, as indicated by a so-called binary mask. Different...... approaches have been proposed to handle unreliable feature components, each with distinct advantages. The direct masking (DM) approach attenuates unreliable T-F units in the spectral domain, which allows the extraction of conventionally used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). Instead of attenuating....... Since each of these approaches utilizes the knowledge about reliable and unreliable feature components in a different way, they will respond differently to estimation errors in the binary mask. The goal of this study was to identify the most effective strategy to exploit knowledge about reliable...

  13. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  14. Topological and categorical properties of binary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pajoohesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.

  15. ON THE APPARENT LACK OF Be X-RAY BINARIES WITH BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Ziolkowski, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    In our Galaxy there are 64 Be X-ray binaries known to date. Out of these, 42 host a neutron star (NS), and for the remainder the nature of the companion is unknown. None, so far, are known to host a black hole (BH). There seems to be no apparent mechanism that would prevent formation or detection of Be stars with BHs. This disparity is referred to as a missing Be-BH X-ray binary problem. We point out that current evolutionary scenarios that lead to the formation of Be X-ray binaries predict that the ratio of binaries with NSs to the ones with BHs is rather high, F NStoBH ∼ 10-50, with the more likely formation models providing the values at the high end. The ratio is a natural outcome of (1) the stellar initial mass function that produces more NSs than BHs and (2) common envelope evolution (i.e., a major mechanism involved in the formation of interacting binaries) that naturally selects progenitors of Be X-ray binaries with NSs (binaries with comparable mass components have more likely survival probabilities) over ones with BHs (which are much more likely to be common envelope mergers). A comparison of this ratio (i.e., F NStoBH ∼ 30) with the number of confirmed Be-NS X-ray binaries (42) indicates that the expected number of Be-BH X-ray binaries is of the order of only ∼0-2. This is entirely consistent with the observed Galactic sample.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DETACHED ECLIPSING BINARIES NEAR THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Serio, Andrew W.; Orosz, Jerome [San Diego State University, Department of Astronomy, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew, E-mail: esandquist@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: aserio@gemini.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.edu [University of Texas, McDonald Observatory, HC75 Box 1337-L Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We analyze extensive BVR{sub C}I{sub C} photometry and radial velocity measurements for three double-lined deeply eclipsing binary stars in the field of the old open cluster NGC 7142. The short period (P = 1.9096825 days) detached binary V375 Cep is a high probability cluster member, and has a total eclipse of the secondary star. The characteristics of the primary star (M = 1.288 {+-} 0.017 M{sub Sun }) at the cluster turnoff indicate an age of 3.6 Gyr (with a random uncertainty of 0.25 Gyr), consistent with earlier analysis of the color-magnitude diagram. The secondary star (M = 0.871 {+-} 0.008 M{sub Sun }) is not expected to have evolved significantly, but its radius is more than 10% larger than predicted by models. Because this binary system has a known age, it is useful for testing the idea that radius inflation can occur in short period binaries for stars with significant convective envelopes due to the inhibition of energy transport by magnetic fields. The brighter star in the binary also produces a precision estimate of the distance modulus, independent of reddening estimates: (m - M){sub V} = 12.86 {+-} 0.07. The other two eclipsing binary systems are not cluster members, although one of the systems (V2) could only be conclusively ruled out as a present or former member once the stellar characteristics were determined. That binary is within 0. Degree-Sign 5 of edge-on, is in a fairly long-period eccentric binary, and contains two almost indistinguishable stars. The other binary (V1) has a small but nonzero eccentricity (e = 0.038) in spite of having an orbital period under 5 days.

  17. Long-term captures of low-mass intruders by binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Intensive computer simulations were made of three families of encounters between a binary star and a low-mass intruder which previous work indicated have a high probability of producing long-lived triple-star systems. For comparison, a fourth family which produces few long-lived trinaries was also studied. In the first two families, the binary components are equally massive and the closest approach of the intruder to the center of mass of the binary is about two times its semimajor axis, a 0 . In Family 1, the orbit of the original binary is circular, e = 0, while in Family 2, e 0 = 0.95. In Family 3 one binary component is 100 times as massive as the other, the orbit is circular, and the low-mass intruder enters the binary at nearly zero impact parameter. The probability that the intruder is trapped for at least one revolution around the binary is 0.24, 0.46, and 0.51, respectively, for these three families of encounters. The fraction of the intruders surviving successive revolutions drops rapidly. However, one encounter in Family 1 and two in Family 3 resulted in the intruder making more than 300 revolutions around the inner binary before escaping. Some intruders remained bound for more than 20 000 revolutions of the inner binary. The longest duration captures occur when the intruder is thrown into an orbit with a very large semimajor axis. About 20% of the encounters in the three families result in the intruder being thrown into an orbit with a semimajor axis a>100 a 0 , while about 2% result in the intruder going into an orbit with a>1000 a 0 . Intruders thrown into these large semimajor axis orbits have the best chance of having their orbits stabilized by passing stars

  18. Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischler, Johann Sebastian

    This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.

  19. SMA OBSERVATIONS OF CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS: A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF PROTOSTELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Jorgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Lee, Chin-Fei [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Foster, Jonathan B. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Pineda, Jaime E., E-mail: xpchen@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2013-05-10

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 {mu}m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 {+-} 0.08 and 0.91 {+-} 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 {+-} 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 {+-} 0.07) and main-sequence stars ({<=}0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% {+-} 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this

  20. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  1. Variance in binary stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2016-03-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  2. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  3. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  4. On the rarity of X-ray binaries with Wolf-Rayet donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, T. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Valsecchi, F. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Kalogera, V. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2012-03-14

    The paucity of High mass X-Ray binaries (HMXB) consisting of a neutron star (NS) accretor and Wolf-Rayet (WR) donor has long been at odds with expectations from population synthesis studies indicating that these systems should survive as the evolved offspring of the observed HMXB population. This tension is particularly troubling in light of recent observations uncovering a preponderance of HMXBs containing loosely bound Be donors which would be expected to naturally evolve into WR-HMXBs. Reconciling the unexpectedly large population of Be-HMXBs with the lack of observed WR-HMXB sources thus serves to isolate the dynamics of CE physics from other binary evolution parameters. We find that binary mergers during CE events must be common in order to resolve tension between these observed populations. Furthermore, future observations which better constrain the background population of loosely bound O/B-NS binaries are likely to place significant constraints on the efficiency of CE removal.

  5. Aligning Metabolic Pathways Exploiting Binary Relation of Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Huang

    Full Text Available Metabolic pathway alignment has been widely used to find one-to-one and/or one-to-many reaction mappings to identify the alternative pathways that have similar functions through different sets of reactions, which has important applications in reconstructing phylogeny and understanding metabolic functions. The existing alignment methods exhaustively search reaction sets, which may become infeasible for large pathways. To address this problem, we present an effective alignment method for accurately extracting reaction mappings between two metabolic pathways. We show that connected relation between reactions can be formalized as binary relation of reactions in metabolic pathways, and the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relations of reactions can be accomplished in finite steps. By utilizing the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relation of reactions, we efficiently obtain reaction sets in a small number of steps without exhaustive search, and accurately uncover biologically relevant reaction mappings. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of topological similarity of nodes (reactions by comparing the structural similarity of the k-neighborhood subgraphs of the nodes in aligning metabolic pathways. We employ this similarity metric to improve the accuracy of the alignments. The experimental results on the KEGG database show that when compared with other state-of-the-art methods, in most cases, our method obtains better performance in the node correctness and edge correctness, and the number of the edges of the largest common connected subgraph for one-to-one reaction mappings, and the number of correct one-to-many reaction mappings. Our method is scalable in finding more reaction mappings with better biological relevance in large metabolic pathways.

  6. Surface characterization on binary nano/micro-domain composed of alkyl- and amino-terminated self-assembled monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H. [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Ishizaki, T. [Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Saito, N. [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagano 464-8603 (Japan)], E-mail: hiro@eco-t.esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Takai, O. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    The binary alkyl- and amino-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) composed of nano/micro-sized domains was prepared though a self-assembly technique. In addition, the wetting and electrostatic property of the binary SAMs was investigated by the analysis of the static and dynamic water contact angle and zeta-potentials measurement. The binary SAMs were also characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The domains on the binary SAMs were observed in topographic and surface potential images. The height of domain and the surface potential between octadecyltrichlorosilanes (OTS)-domain and n-(6-aminohexl)aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-SAM were about 1.1 nm and -30 mV. These differences of height and surface potential correspond to the ones between OTS and AHAPS. In XPS N 1s spectra, we confirmed the formation of binary SAMs by an amino peak observed at 399.15 eV. The dynamic and the static water contact angles indicated that the wetting property of the binary SAMs was depended on the OTS domain size. In addition, static water contact angles were measured under the conditions of different pH water and zeta-potential also indicated that the electrostatic property of the binary SAMs depended on OTS domain size. Thus, these results showed that the wetting and electrostatic property on the binary SAMs could be regulated by controlling the domain size.

  7. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  8. The symbiotics as binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The author envisages at least three models that can give a symbiotic object: He has called them, respectively, the PN symbiotic, the Algol symbiotic, and the novalike symbiotic. Their properties are briefly discussed. The most promising model is one of a binary system in the second stage of mass transfer, actually at the beginning of it: The cool component is a red giant ascending the asymptotic branch, expanding but not yet filling its critical lobe. The hot star is a subdwarf located in the same region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as the central stars of planetary nebulae. It may be closely related to them, or it may be a helium star, actually a remnant of an Algol primary which underwent the first stage of mass transfer. In these cases, accretion on this star may not play a significant role (PN symbiotic). Perhaps more often, the subdwarf is a ''rejuvenated'' degenerate dwarf whose nuclear burning shells were ignited and are maintained by accretion of material coming from the red giant in the form of a stellar wind. Eruptions are often inevitable: this is the novalike symbiotic. A third alternative is a system in the first stage of mass transfer, where the photons needed for ionization of the nebula come from an accretion disk surrounding a main sequence star: an Algol symbiotic. In spite of considerable observational effort, the symbiotics are known so poorly that it is hard to decide between the models, or even decide if all three can actually exist. (Auth.)

  9. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Huy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Design: Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Results: Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively. Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively. Conclusions: This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control

  10. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  11. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  12. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  13. Formation and evolution of tidal binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmillan, S.L.W.; Mcdermott, P.N.; Taam, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Cross sections for the tidal capture binary formation process are calculated for a variety of stellar models. The formalism used in the determination of the energy dissipated by a close encounter between two unbound stars and the associated capture cross sections are reviewed. The case of an n = 3/2 polytropic structure is calculated with the formalism, and the behavior of realistic stellar models is considered, including Population II main-sequence stars with masses of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.5 solar. The calculation is repeated for a slightly evolved 0.8 solar mass star just as it begins to leave the main sequence, and the behavior of more evolved stars is discussed. A quasi-adiabatic analysis is used to estimate the time scale on which the pulsation energy is actually dissipated internally or radiated away. This analysis also indicates where in the star most of the dissipation takes place, allowing the stellar response to be estimated by including the heating in the equations of stellar structure. 41 references

  14. Neutral hydrogen observations of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorsel, G.A. van.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation concerns a detailed neutral hydrogen study of a carefully selected sample of 16 double spiral galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The observational data provide useful material for a number of questions concerning the dynamics of double galaxies, in particular the question of the mass distribution. In Chapter 2 the criteria used to select a sample of double galaxies for observation with the WSRT are discussed. Observing techniques and the reduction of the data using the GIPSY system are described in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 through 7 contain the observational results. In Chapter 8 the method of analysis is described. Masses for the individual galaxies derived from rotation curves are compared with the ''total'' masses estimated from the orbital motion. In this fashion a direct estimate of the amount of dark matter is obtained that avoids the use of mean M/L values. In Chapter 9 a mass estimator for groups is developed in a way analogous to the binary galaxy mass estimator described in Chapter 8. The question of selection effects and the bias of the mass estimator for the point mass model are discussed extensively in Chapter 10. The final results are discussed in Chapter 11. It is shown that the orbital mass exceeds the sum of the individual masses by a large factor for several pairs, indicating either that there is a large amount of dark matter or that something is amiss with the concept of a physical pair. (Auth.)

  15. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  16. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  17. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  18. Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemela, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)

  19. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  20. An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1996-01-01

    This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....

  1. Numerical modeling of two-phase binary fluid mixing using mixed finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu

    2012-07-27

    Diffusion coefficients of dense gases in liquids can be measured by considering two-phase binary nonequilibrium fluid mixing in a closed cell with a fixed volume. This process is based on convection and diffusion in each phase. Numerical simulation of the mixing often requires accurate algorithms. In this paper, we design two efficient numerical methods for simulating the mixing of two-phase binary fluids in one-dimensional, highly permeable media. Mathematical model for isothermal compositional two-phase flow in porous media is established based on Darcy\\'s law, material balance, local thermodynamic equilibrium for the phases, and diffusion across the phases. The time-lag and operator-splitting techniques are used to decompose each convection-diffusion equation into two steps: diffusion step and convection step. The Mixed finite element (MFE) method is used for diffusion equation because it can achieve a high-order and stable approximation of both the scalar variable and the diffusive fluxes across grid-cell interfaces. We employ the characteristic finite element method with moving mesh to track the liquid-gas interface. Based on the above schemes, we propose two methods: single-domain and two-domain methods. The main difference between two methods is that the two-domain method utilizes the assumption of sharp interface between two fluid phases, while the single-domain method allows fractional saturation level. Two-domain method treats the gas domain and the liquid domain separately. Because liquid-gas interface moves with time, the two-domain method needs work with a moving mesh. On the other hand, the single-domain method allows the use of a fixed mesh. We derive the formulas to compute the diffusive flux for MFE in both methods. The single-domain method is extended to multiple dimensions. Numerical results indicate that both methods can accurately describe the evolution of the pressure and liquid level. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Extreme gravity tests with gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences: (II) ringdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan; Yunes, Nicolás

    2018-05-01

    The LIGO/Virgo detections of binary black hole mergers marked a watershed moment in astronomy, ushering in the era of precision tests of Kerr dynamics. We review theoretical and experimental challenges that must be overcome to carry out black hole spectroscopy with present and future gravitational wave detectors. Among other topics, we discuss quasinormal mode excitation in binary mergers, astrophysical event rates, tests of black hole dynamics in modified theories of gravity, parameterized "post-Kerr" ringdown tests, exotic compact objects, and proposed data analysis methods to improve spectroscopic tests of Kerr dynamics by stacking multiple events.

  3. Gravitational-Wave Luminosity of Binary Neutron Stars Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Francesco; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Dietrich, Tim

    2018-03-01

    We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have the largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant. We quantify the gravitational-wave luminosity of binary neutron star merger events, and set upper limits on the radiated energy and the remnant angular momentum from these events. We find that there is an empirical universal relation connecting the total gravitational radiation and the angular momentum of the remnant. Our results constrain the final spin of the remnant black hole and also indicate that stable neutron star remnant forms with super-Keplerian angular momentum.

  4. Gravitational-Wave Luminosity of Binary Neutron Stars Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Francesco; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Dietrich, Tim

    2018-03-16

    We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have the largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant. We quantify the gravitational-wave luminosity of binary neutron star merger events, and set upper limits on the radiated energy and the remnant angular momentum from these events. We find that there is an empirical universal relation connecting the total gravitational radiation and the angular momentum of the remnant. Our results constrain the final spin of the remnant black hole and also indicate that stable neutron star remnant forms with super-Keplerian angular momentum.

  5. Mutual information against correlations in binary communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregowska, Agnieszka; Szczepanski, Janusz; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2015-05-19

    Explaining how the brain processing is so fast remains an open problem (van Hemmen JL, Sejnowski T., 2004). Thus, the analysis of neural transmission (Shannon CE, Weaver W., 1963) processes basically focuses on searching for effective encoding and decoding schemes. According to the Shannon fundamental theorem, mutual information plays a crucial role in characterizing the efficiency of communication channels. It is well known that this efficiency is determined by the channel capacity that is already the maximal mutual information between input and output signals. On the other hand, intuitively speaking, when input and output signals are more correlated, the transmission should be more efficient. A natural question arises about the relation between mutual information and correlation. We analyze the relation between these quantities using the binary representation of signals, which is the most common approach taken in studying neuronal processes of the brain. We present binary communication channels for which mutual information and correlation coefficients behave differently both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite this difference in behavior, we show that the noncorrelation of binary signals implies their independence, in contrast to the case for general types of signals. Our research shows that the mutual information cannot be replaced by sheer correlations. Our results indicate that neuronal encoding has more complicated nature which cannot be captured by straightforward correlations between input and output signals once the mutual information takes into account the structure and patterns of the signals.

  6. Photometric Study of Fourteen Low-mass Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korda, D.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J.; Hoňková, K.

    2017-01-01

    New CCD photometric observations of fourteen short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMBs) in the photometric filters I, R, and V were used for a light curve analysis. A discrepancy remains between observed radii and those derived from the theoretical modeling for LMBs, in general. Mass calibration of all observed LMBs was performed using only the photometric indices. The light curve modeling of these selected systems was completed, yielding the new derived masses and radii for both components. We compared these systems with the compilation of other known double-lined LMB systems with uncertainties of masses and radii less then 5%, which includes 66 components of binaries where both spectroscopy and photometry were combined together. All of our systems are circular short-period binaries, and for some of them, the photospheric spots were also used. A purely photometric study of the light curves without spectroscopy seems unable to achieve high enough precision and accuracy in the masses and radii to act as meaningful test of the M–R relation for low-mass stars.

  7. Photometric Study of Fourteen Low-mass Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korda, D.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J. [Astronomical Institute, Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, CZ-180 00, Praha 8, V Holešovičkách 2 (Czech Republic); Hoňková, K., E-mail: korda@sirrah.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of Czech Astronomical Society, Vsetínská 941/78, CZ-757 01, Valašské Meziříčí (Czech Republic)

    2017-07-01

    New CCD photometric observations of fourteen short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMBs) in the photometric filters I, R, and V were used for a light curve analysis. A discrepancy remains between observed radii and those derived from the theoretical modeling for LMBs, in general. Mass calibration of all observed LMBs was performed using only the photometric indices. The light curve modeling of these selected systems was completed, yielding the new derived masses and radii for both components. We compared these systems with the compilation of other known double-lined LMB systems with uncertainties of masses and radii less then 5%, which includes 66 components of binaries where both spectroscopy and photometry were combined together. All of our systems are circular short-period binaries, and for some of them, the photospheric spots were also used. A purely photometric study of the light curves without spectroscopy seems unable to achieve high enough precision and accuracy in the masses and radii to act as meaningful test of the M–R relation for low-mass stars.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of some gallium-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awe, O.E.; Odusote, Y.A.; Akinlade, O.; Hussain, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the concentration dependence of the free energy of mixing, concentration-concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit, the chemical short-range order parameter, the enthalpy and entropy of mixing of Ga-Zn, Ga-Mg and Al-Ga binary alloys at different temperatures using a quasi-chemical approximation for compound forming binary alloys and that for simple regular alloys. From the study of the thermodynamic quantities, we observed that thermodynamic properties of Ga-Zn and Al-Ga exhibit positive deviations from Raoultian behaviour, while Ga-Mg exhibits negative deviation. Hence, this study reveals that both Ga-Zn and Al-Ga are segregating systems, while chemical order exists in Ga-Mg alloy in the whole concentration range. Furthermore, our investigation indicate that Al-Ga binary alloy have a tendency to exhibit ideal mixture behaviour in the concentration range 0≤c Al ≤0.30 and 0.7≤c Al ≤1

  9. Supernova explosions in close binary systems. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of a spherically symmetric explosion on the runaway velocity of a close binary system with an initial circular orbit is considered. It is shown that the runaway velocity is completely determined by the final orbital parameters regardless of the initial condition. The galactic z distribution of the known massive X-ray binaries indicates that the runaway velocities of these systems are very probably smaller than approximately 100 km/s with the most likely values of approximately 25-50 km/s. Such runaway velocities can be obtained if the post-explosion eccentricities are less than approximately 0.25. This then has the concequence that the mass of the exploded star which produced the neutron stars in the massive X-ray binaries can in most cases not have been larger than approximately 7-8 M(S) with the most likely values of approximately 3-4 M(S) if the supergiants in these systems have mass (M 2 ) of approximately 20 M(S). For Cyg X-1, the upper mass limit of the exploded star is found to be approximately 16 M(S). For M 2 = 30 M(S) these upper limit becomes approximately 9-10 M(S) and 19 M(S) respectively. (orig.) [de

  10. DISTANCES TO FOUR SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD ECLIPSING BINARIES FROM ABSOLUTE FLUXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.

    2009-01-01

    Eclipsing binary (EB)-based distances are estimated for four solar neighborhood EBs by means of the Direct Distance Estimation (DDE) algorithm. Results are part of a project to map the solar neighborhood EBs in three dimensions, independently of parallaxes, and provide statistical comparisons between EB and parallax distances. Apart from judgments on adopted temperature and interstellar extinction, DDE's simultaneous light-velocity solutions are essentially objective and work as well for semidetached (SD) and overcontact binaries as for detached systems. Here, we analyze two detached and two SD binaries, all double lined. RS Chamaeleontis is a pre-main-sequence (MS), detached EB with weak δ Scuti variations. WW Aurigae is detached and uncomplicated, except for having high metallicity. RZ Cassiopeiae is SD and has very clear δ Scuti variations and several peculiarities. R Canis Majoris (R CMa) is an apparently simple but historically problematic SD system, also with weak δ Scuti variations. Discussions include solution rules and strategies, weighting, convergence, and third light problems. So far there is no indication of systematic band dependence among the derived distances, so the adopted band-calibration ratios seem consistent. Agreement of EB-based and parallax distances is typically within the overlapped uncertainties, with minor exceptions. We also suggest an explanation for the long-standing undermassiveness problem of R CMa's hotter component, in terms of a fortuitous combination of low metallicity and evolution slightly beyond the MS.

  11. The Binary System Laboratory Activities Based on Students Mental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaiti, A.; Liliasari, S.; Sumarna, O.; Martoprawiro, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Generic science skills (GSS) are required to develop student conception in learning binary system. The aim of this research was to know the improvement of students GSS through the binary system labotoratory activities based on their mental model using hypothetical-deductive learning cycle. It was a mixed methods embedded experimental model research design. This research involved 15 students of a university in Papua, Indonesia. Essay test of 7 items was used to analyze the improvement of students GSS. Each items was designed to interconnect macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Students worksheet was used to explore students mental model during investigation in laboratory. The increase of students GSS could be seen in their N-Gain of each GSS indicators. The results were then analyzed descriptively. Students mental model and GSS have been improved from this study. They were interconnect macroscopic and symbolic levels to explain binary systems phenomena. Furthermore, they reconstructed their mental model with interconnecting the three levels of representation in Physical Chemistry. It necessary to integrate the Physical Chemistry Laboratory into a Physical Chemistry course for effectiveness and efficiency.

  12. Asteroseismology of KIC 7107778: a binary comprising almost identical subgiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaguang; Bedding, Timothy R.; Li, Tanda; Bi, Shaolan; Murphy, Simon J.; Corsaro, Enrico; Chen, Li; Tian, Zhijia

    2018-05-01

    We analyse an asteroseismic binary system: KIC 7107778, a non-eclipsing, unresolved target, with solar-like oscillations in both components. We used Kepler short cadence time series spanning nearly 2 yr to obtain the power spectrum. Oscillation mode parameters were determined using Bayesian inference and a nested sampling Monte Carlo algorithm with the DIAMONDS package. The power profiles of the two components fully overlap, indicating their close similarity. We modelled the two stars with MESA and calculated oscillation frequencies with GYRE. Stellar fundamental parameters (mass, radius, and age) were estimated by grid modelling with atmospheric parameters and the oscillation frequencies of l = 0, 2 modes as constraints. Most l = 1 mixed modes were identified with models searched using a bisection method. Stellar parameters for the two sub-giant stars are MA = 1.42 ± 0.06 M⊙, MB = 1.39 ± 0.03 M⊙, RA = 2.93 ± 0.05 R⊙, RB = 2.76 ± 0.04 R⊙, tA = 3.32 ± 0.54 Gyr and tB = 3.51 ± 0.33 Gyr. The mass difference of the system is ˜1 per cent. The results confirm their simultaneous birth and evolution, as is expected from binary formation. KIC 7107778 comprises almost identical twins, and is the first asteroseismic sub-giant binary to be detected.

  13. Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2013-09-01

    Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.

  14. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  15. Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)

  16. Binary nucleation kinetics. III. Transient behavior and time lags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyslouzil, B.E.; Wilemski, G.

    1996-01-01

    Transient binary nucleation is more complex than unary because of the bidimensionality of the cluster formation kinetics. To investigate this problem qualitatively and quantitatively, we numerically solved the birth-death equations for vapor-to-liquid phase transitions. Our previous work showed that the customary saddle point and growth path approximations are almost always valid in steady state gas phase nucleation and only fail if the nucleated solution phase is significantly nonideal. Now, we demonstrate that in its early transient stages, binary nucleation rarely, if ever, occurs via the saddle point. This affects not only the number of particles forming but their composition and may be important for nucleation in glasses and other condensed mixtures for which time scales are very long. Before reaching the state of saddle point nucleation, most binary systems pass through a temporary stage in which the region of maximum flux extends over a ridge on the free energy surface. When ridge crossing nucleation is the steady state solution, it thus arises quite naturally as an arrested intermediate state that normally occurs in the development of saddle point nucleation. While the time dependent and steady state distributions of the fluxes and concentrations for each binary system are strongly influenced by the gas composition and species impingement rates, the ratio of nonequilibrium to equilibrium concentrations has a quasiuniversal behavior that is determined primarily by the thermodynamic properties of the liquid mixture. To test our quantitive results of the transient behavior, we directly calculated the time lag for the saddle point flux and compared it with the available analytical predictions. Although the analytical results overestimate the time lag by factors of 1.2-5, they should be adequate for purposes of planning experiments. We also found that the behavior of the saddle point time lag can indicate when steady state ridge crossing nucleation will occur

  17. Testing the Binary Hypothesis: Pulsar Timing Constraints on Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, Alberto; Haiman, Zoltán; Kocsis, Bence; Kelley, Luke Zoltan

    2018-03-01

    The advent of time domain astronomy is revolutionizing our understanding of the universe. Programs such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) or the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) surveyed millions of objects for several years, allowing variability studies on large statistical samples. The inspection of ≈250 k quasars in CRTS resulted in a catalog of 111 potentially periodic sources, put forward as supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates. A similar investigation on PTF data yielded 33 candidates from a sample of ≈35 k quasars. Working under the SMBHB hypothesis, we compute the implied SMBHB merger rate and we use it to construct the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) at nano-Hz frequencies, probed by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). After correcting for incompleteness and assuming virial mass estimates, we find that the GWB implied by the CRTS sample exceeds the current most stringent PTA upper limits by almost an order of magnitude. After further correcting for the implicit bias in virial mass measurements, the implied GWB drops significantly but is still in tension with the most stringent PTA upper limits. Similar results hold for the PTF sample. Bayesian model selection shows that the null hypothesis (whereby the candidates are false positives) is preferred over the binary hypothesis at about 2.3σ and 3.6σ for the CRTS and PTF samples respectively. Although not decisive, our analysis highlights the potential of PTAs as astrophysical probes of individual SMBHB candidates and indicates that the CRTS and PTF samples are likely contaminated by several false positives.

  18. Close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, H.E.; Grauer, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of PN central stars identified as binary systems are reviewed. The theoretical significance of binary central stars is discussed, and the characteristics of UU Sge, V 477 Lyr, MT Ser, LSS 2018, VW Pyx, and the central star of HFG 1 are briefly summarized. All of these binaries are shown to have periods less than 1 day, and it is estimated that about 10 percent of all binary central stars are close binaries. 27 references

  19. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, F.; Camp, J. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100M solar mass and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5 alpha over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance, which has a 87 probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9-240 Gpc-3 yr-1. These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates, and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational wave detections.

  20. Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper, we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100M_{⊙} and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational-wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5σ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance and with an 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and we place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations, we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9–240  Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}. These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational-wave detections.

  1. Investigation of the effect of different refrigerants on performances of binary geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basaran, Anil; Ozgener, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Working fluid selection plays a key role on binary cycle performance. • Selected refrigerants were analyzed in the sample cycle under the same working conditions. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of binary cycle were calculated for 8 refrigerants. - Abstract: The paper tries to review the argument of the use of working fluids for binary cycle power plants and has been dedicated to this specific argument with a more general perspective. Binary cycle that allows the production of electricity from geothermal energy sources is one of these systems. In this cycle, thermal energy obtained from geothermal sources is transferred to second working fluid. Therefore, selection of second working fluid plays a key role on the cycle performance. In this study, a sample geothermal binary power cycle was modeled and 12 refrigerants that are HFC, HC, and zoetrope refrigerant mixtures were selected as working fluid. Energy and exergy efficiencies of binary cycle were calculated for 12 refrigerants. Dry type fluids of investigated refrigerants R 236ea, R 600, R 600a, and R 227ea showed higher energy and exergy efficiencies, respectively. On the other hand, R 143a, R 415A, R 290, and R 413A that are wet fluids indicated lower energy and exergy efficiencies, respectively

  2. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maoz, Dan; Badenes, Carles; Bickerton, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample—binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution—using noisy radial velocity data with as few as two, randomly spaced, epochs per object. To do this, we analyze the distribution of ΔRV max , the maximum radial velocity difference between any two epochs for the same object. At low values, the core of this distribution is dominated by measurement errors, but for large enough samples there is a high-velocity tail that can effectively constrain the parameters of the binary population. We discuss our approach for the case of a population of detached white dwarf (WD) binaries with separations that are decaying via gravitational wave emission. We derive analytic expressions for the present-day distribution of separations, integrated over the star formation history of the Galaxy, for parameterized initial WD separation distributions at the end of the common-envelope phase. We use Monte Carlo techniques to produce grids of simulated ΔRV max distributions with specific binary population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as the observations, and we compare them to the real ΔRV max distribution to constrain the properties of the binary population. We illustrate the sensitivity of the method to both the model and observational parameters. In the particular case of binary WDs, every model population predicts a merger rate per star which can easily be compared to specific Type Ia supernova rates. In a companion paper, we apply the method to a sample of ∼4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The binary fractions and separation distribution parameters allowed by the data indicate a rate of WD-WD mergers per unit stellar mass in the Galactic disk, ∼1 × 10 –13 mergers yr –1 M –1 ☉ , remarkably similar to the rate per unit mass of Type Ia supernovae in Milky Way like galaxies.

  3. Rotation, activity, and lithium abundance in cool binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.; Järvinen, S.

    2012-10-01

    We have used two robotic telescopes to obtain time-series high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy and V I and/or by photometry for a sample of 60 active stars, mostly binaries. Orbital solutions are presented for 26 double-lined systems and for 19 single-lined systems, seven of them for the first time but all of them with unprecedented phase coverage and accuracy. Eighteen systems turned out to be single stars. The total of 6609 {R=55 000} échelle spectra are also used to systematically determine effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, rotational velocities, lithium abundances and absolute Hα-core fluxes as a function of time. The photometry is used to infer unspotted brightness, {V-I} and/or b-y colors, spot-induced brightness amplitudes and precise rotation periods. An extra 22 radial-velocity standard stars were monitored throughout the science observations and yield a new barycentric zero point for our STELLA/SES robotic system. Our data are complemented by literature data and are used to determine rotation-temperature-activity relations for active binary components. We also relate lithium abundance to rotation and surface temperature. We find that 74 % of all known rapidly-rotating active binary stars are synchronized and in circular orbits but 26 % (61 systems) are rotating asynchronously of which half have {P_rot>P_orb} and {e>0}. Because rotational synchronization is predicted to occur before orbital circularization active binaries should undergo an extra spin-down besides tidal dissipation. We suspect this to be due to a magnetically channeled wind with its subsequent braking torque. We find a steep increase of rotation period with decreasing effective temperature for active stars, P_rot ∝ T_eff-7, for both single and binaries, main sequence and evolved. For inactive, single giants with {P_rot>100} d, the relation is much weaker, {P_rot ∝ T_eff-1.12}. Our data also indicate a period-activity relation for Hα of the form {R_Hα ∝ P

  4. Binary Tree Pricing to Convertible Bonds with Credit Risk under Stochastic Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The convertible bonds usually have multiple additional provisions that make their pricing problem more difficult than straight bonds and options. This paper uses the binary tree method to model the finance market. As the underlying stock prices and the interest rates are important to the convertible bonds, we describe their dynamic processes by different binary tree. Moreover, we consider the influence of the credit risks on the convertible bonds that is described by the default rate and the recovery rate; then the two-factor binary tree model involving the credit risk is established. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, we make numerical simulation and get the pricing results when the stock prices are CRR model and the interest rates follow the constant volatility and the time-varying volatility, respectively. This model can be extended to other financial derivative instruments.

  5. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: vzabalza@am.ub.es [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  6. Multiple star formation : chemistry, physics and coevality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murillo, Mejias N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stars, that is two or more stars composing a gravitationally bound system, are common in the universe.They are the cause of many interesting phenomena, from supernovae and planetary nebulae, to binary black hole mergers. Observations of main sequence stars, young stars and forming

  7. Massive binary stars and self-enrichment of Massive binary stars and self-enrichment of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izzard, R.G.; de Mink, S.E.; Pols, O.R.; Langer, N.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters contain many stars with surface abundance patterns indicating contributions from hydrogen burning products, as seen in the anti-correlated elemental abundances of e.g. sodium and oxygen, and magnesium and aluminium. Multiple generations of stars can explain this phenomenon, with

  8. Binary multiplexing and the phase-retrieval problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiglia, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A binary-mask multiplexing method is developed that provides a means of recovering phase information unambiguously from measurements of the modulus of masked complex waves in the object and image planes, respectively. The technique is developed from Fourier-transform theory and combinatorial analysis and is derived for both the continuous case (optical-digital-hybrid implementation) and the totally discrete case (digital computer simulation). Computer simulations provide unambiguous recovery of phase information and indicate that the matrix equations are reasonably well conditioned for cases of practical significance

  9. Binary scission configurations in fission of light actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science; Nagame, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Tsukada, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Tanikawa, M.; Zhao, Y.L.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.

    1997-07-01

    Mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments have been accurately measured by a double velocity time-of-flight technique in the 13 MeV proton-induced fissions of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. A binary structure is observed in total kinetic energy distributions in the fragments with mass number around A=130 for both the fissions, indicating that there are at least two kinds of scission configurations. A correlation between the scission configurations and mass yield distributions reveals that elongated scission configurations are associated with the symmetric mass distribution and compact scission configurations with the asymmetric mass distribution. (author)

  10. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Paul A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A. [FACom-Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellin (Colombia); Clark, Joni M. [Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, New Mexico State University-DACC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

  11. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets

  12. Performance Analysis of New Binary User Codes for DS-CDMA Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Kamle; Jaya Sankar, Kottareddygari

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes new binary spreading codes through correlation properties and also presents their performance over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The proposed codes are constructed using gray and inverse gray codes. In this paper, a n-bit gray code appended by its n-bit inverse gray code to construct the 2n-length binary user codes are discussed. Like Walsh codes, these binary user codes are available in sizes of power of two and additionally code sets of length 6 and their even multiples are also available. The simple construction technique and generation of code sets of different sizes are the salient features of the proposed codes. Walsh codes and gold codes are considered for comparison in this paper as these are popularly used for synchronous and asynchronous multi user communications respectively. In the current work the auto and cross correlation properties of the proposed codes are compared with those of Walsh codes and gold codes. Performance of the proposed binary user codes for both synchronous and asynchronous direct sequence CDMA communication over AWGN channel is also discussed in this paper. The proposed binary user codes are found to be suitable for both synchronous and asynchronous DS-CDMA communication.

  13. On the gravitational wave background from black hole binaries after the first LIGO detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholis, Ilias, E-mail: icholis1@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 21218 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary black holes by the LIGO Collaboration has opened a new window to astrophysics. With the sensitivities of ground based detectors in the coming years, we will principally detect local binary black hole mergers. The integrated merger rate can instead be probed by the gravitational-wave background, the incoherent superposition of the released energy in gravitational waves during binary-black-hole coalescence. Through that, the properties of the binary black holes can be studied. In this work we show that by measuring the energy density Ω{sub GW} (in units of the cosmic critical density) of the gravitational-wave background, we can search for the rare ∼ 100 M {sub ⊙} massive black holes formed in the Universe. In addition, we can answer how often the least massive BHs of mass ≳ 3 M {sub ⊙} form. Finally, if there are multiple channels for the formation of binary black holes and if any of them predicts a narrow mass range for the black holes, then the total Ω{sub GW} spectrum may have features that with the future Einstein Telescope can be detected.

  14. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  15. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  16. Beyond binaries : a way forward for comparativeeducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.Los discursos binarios moldean y producen los argumentos que construimos sobre la disciplina de la Educación Comparada. En la primera parte de este artículo, analizo un conjunto de discursos binarios que han caracterizado la investigación en Ciencias Sociales desde la Ilustración, incluyendo la cuantitativa-cualitativa, nomotética-idiográfica, inductivadeductiva, y la práctica-teoría. Podemos pensar sobre cada uno de estos discursos binarios como argumentos en los polos de un conjunto de posibilidades. En la segunda sección del artículo, revelo algunos modos en los que estos discursos binarios han influenciado las formas a través de las cuales escribimos y analizamos la investigación en el ámbito de la Educación Comparada. Analizo la noción de discursos binarios y la capacidad productiva de estos discursos de impactar nuestra ciencia. Seguidamente expongo algunas críticas de estos discursos binarios con el

  17. Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.

  18. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  19. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.

  20. Socioeconomic status indicators and common mental disorders: Evidence from a study of prenatal depression in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Maselko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES, poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context. Prenatal depression is an important public health concern with negative sequela for the mother and her children. We use data on assets, education, food insecurity, debt, and depression symptoms from a sample of 1154 pregnant women residing in rural Pakistan. Women who screened positive for depression participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial of a perinatal depression intervention; all women were interviewed October 2015-February 2016, prior to the start of the intervention. Cluster-specific sampling weights were used to approximate a random sample of pregnant women in the area. Findings indicate that fewer assets, experiencing food insecurity, and having household debt are independently associated with worse depression symptoms. The association with assets is linear with no evidence of a threshold effect, supporting the idea of a gradient in the association between levels of SES and depression symptoms. A gradient was also initially observed with woman’s educational attainment, but this association was attenuated once other SES variables were included in the model. Together, the asset, food insecurity, and debt indicators explain 14% of the variance in depression symptoms, more than has been reported in high income country studies. These findings support the use of multiple SES indicators to better elucidate the complex

  1. Study of intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures of ethanol in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharolkar, Aruna P.; Khirade, P. W.; Murugkar, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    Present paper deals with study of physicochemical properties like viscosity, density and refractive index for the binary mixtures of ethanol and methanol over the entire concentration range were measured at 298.15 K. The experimental data further used to determine the excess properties viz. excess molar volume, excess viscosity, excess molar refraction. The values of excess properties further fitted with Redlich-Kister (R-K Fit) equation to calculate the binary coefficients and standard deviation. The resulting excess parameters are used to indicate the presence of intermolecular interactions and strength of intermolecular interactions between the molecules in the binary mixtures. Excess parameters indicate structure making factor in the mixture predominates in the system.

  2. The massive multiple system HD 64315

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Vilardell, F.; Garcia, M.; Evans, C. J.; Montes, D.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The O6 Vn star HD 64315 is believed to belong to the star-forming region known as NGC 2467, but previous distance estimates do not support this association. Moreover, it has been identified as a spectroscopic binary, but existing data support contradictory values for its orbital period. Aims: We explore the multiple nature of this star with the aim of determining its distance, and understanding its connection to NGC 2467. Methods: A total of 52 high-resolution spectra have been gathered over a decade. We use their analysis, in combination with the photometric data from All Sky Automated Survey and Hipparcos catalogues, to conclude that HD 64315 is composed of at least two spectroscopic binaries, one of which is an eclipsing binary. We have developed our own program to fit four components to the combined line shapes. Once the four radial velocities were derived, we obtained a model to fit the radial-velocity curves using the Spectroscopic Binary Orbit Program (SBOP). We then implemented the radial velocities of the eclipsing binary and the light curves in the Wilson-Devinney code iteratively to derive stellar parameters for its components. We were also able to analyse the non-eclipsing binary, and to derive minimum masses for its components which dominate the system flux. Results: HD 64315 contains two binary systems, one of which is an eclipsing binary. The two binaries are separated by 0.09 arcsec (or 500 AU) if the most likely distance to the system, 5 kpc, is considered. The presence of fainter companions is not excluded by current observations. The non-eclipsing binary (HD 64315 AaAb) has a period of 2.70962901 ± 0.00000021 d. Its components are hotter than those of the eclipsing binary, and dominate the appearance of the system. The eclipsing binary (HD 64315 BaBb) has a shorter period of 1.0189569 ± 0.0000008 d. We derive masses of 14.6 ± 2.3 M⊙ for both components of the BaBb system. They are almost identical; both stars are overfilling their

  3. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  4. Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Babu and Chowdhury [H.M.H. Babu, A.R. Chowdhury, Design of a compact reversible binary coded decimal adder circuit, Journal of Systems Architecture 52 (5) (2006) 272-282] recently proposed, in this journal, a reversible adder for binary-coded decimals. This paper corrects and optimizes...... their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit....... Keywords: Reversible logic circuit; Full-adder; Half-adder; Parallel adder; Binary-coded decimal; Application of reversible logic synthesis...

  5. A binary mixture operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hihara, E.; Saito, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of possible binary mixtures as working fluids in high- temperature heat pump applications. The binary mixtures, which are potential alternatives of fully halogenated hydrocarbons, include HCFC142b/HCFC22, HFC152a/HCFC22, HFC134a/HCFC22. The performance of the mixtures is estimated by a thermodynamic model and a practical model in which the heat transfer is considered in heat exchangers. One of the advantages of binary mixtures is a higher coefficient of performance, which is caused by the small temperature difference between the heat-sink/-source fluid and the refrigerant. The mixture HCFC142b/HCFC22 is promising from the stand point of thermodynamic performance

  6. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong

    2012-01-01

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10 5 -10 6 years.

  7. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  8. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  9. Error Probability of Binary and -ary Signals with Spatial Diversity in Nakagami- (Hoyt Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Trung Q

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the exact average symbol error probability (SEP of binary and -ary signals with spatial diversity in Nakagami- (Hoyt fading channels. The maximal-ratio combining and orthogonal space-time block coding are considered as diversity techniques for single-input multiple-output and multiple-input multiple-output systems, respectively. We obtain the average SEP in terms of the Lauricella multivariate hypergeometric function . The analysis is verified by comparing with Monte Carlo simulations and we further show that our general SEP expressions particularize to the previously known results for Rayleigh ( = 1 and single-input single-output (SISO Nakagami- cases.

  10. Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie

    2008-10-01

    Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.

  11. Near-Infrared Polarimetry of the GG Tauri A Binary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoichi; Oasa, Yumiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; hide

    2014-01-01

    A high angular resolution near-infrared image that shows the intensity of polarization for the GG Tau A binary system was obtained with the Subaru Telescope. The image shows a circumbinary disk scattering the light from the central binary. The azimuthal profile of the intensity of polarization for the circumbinary disk is roughly reproduced by a simple disk model with the Henyey-Greenstein phase function and the Rayleigh function, indicating there are small dust grains at the surface of the disk. Combined with a previous observation of the circumbinary disk, our image indicates that the gap structure in the circumbinary disk orbits counterclockwise, but material in the disk orbits clockwise. We propose that there is a shadow caused by material located between the central binary and the circumbinary disk. The separations and position angles of the stellar components of the binary in the past 20 yr are consistent with the binary orbit with a = 33.4 AU and e = 0.34.

  12. Microlensing Binaries Discovered through High-magnification Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturba......Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010...

  13. Inducing Risk Neutral Preferences with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    validity of any strategic equilibrium behavior, or even the customary independence axiom. We show that subjects sampled from our population are generally risk averse when lotteries are defined over monetary outcomes, and that the binary lottery procedure does indeed induce a statistically significant shift......We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumptions about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed...... toward risk neutrality. This striking result generalizes to the case in which subjects make several lottery choices and one is selected for payment....

  14. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  15. Non-binary or genderqueer genders

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are genderqueer' or non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging ...

  16. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  17. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  18. Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2017-09-01

    We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.

  19. The fate of close encounters between binary stars and binary supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Leigh, Nathan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries that reside in the Galactic Centre can be heavily influenced by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to these perturbative effects, the stellar binaries in dense environments are likely to experience mergers, collisions, or ejections through secular and/or non-secular interactions. More direct interactions with the central SMBH are thought to produce hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and tidal disruption events (TDEs). In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the dynamics of stellar binaries orbiting a central SMBH primary with an outer SMBH secondary orbiting this inner triple. The effects of the secondary SMBH on the event rates of HVSs, TDEs, and stellar mergers are investigated, as a function of the SMBH-SMBH binary mass ratio. Our numerical experiments reveal that, relative to the isolated SMBH case, the TDE and HVS rates are enhanced for, respectively, the smallest and largest mass ratio SMBH-SMBH binaries. This suggests that the observed event rates of TDEs and HVSs have the potential to serve as a diagnostic of the mass ratio of a central SMBH-SMBH binary. The presence of a secondary SMBH also allows for the creation of hypervelocity binaries. Observations of these systems could thus constrain the presence of a secondary SMBH in the Galactic Centre.

  20. On the Binary Nature of Massive Blue Hypergiants: High-resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy Suggests That Cyg OB2 12 is a Colliding Wind Binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W.-R.; Shenar, T.; Sander, A. A. C.; Todt, H.; Hainich, R. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ignace, R., E-mail: lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The blue hypergiant Cyg OB2 12 (B3Ia{sup +}) is a representative member of the class of very massive stars in a poorly understood evolutionary stage. We obtained its high-resolution X-ray spectrum using the Chandra observatory. PoWR model atmospheres were calculated to provide realistic wind opacities and to establish the wind density structure. We find that collisional de-excitation is the dominant mechanism depopulating the metastable upper levels of the forbidden lines of the He-like ions Si xiv and Mg xii. Comparison between the model and observations reveals that X-ray emission is produced in a dense plasma, which could reside only at the photosphere or in a colliding wind zone between binary components. The observed X-ray spectra are well-fitted by thermal plasma models, with average temperatures in excess of 10 MK. The wind speed in Cyg OB2 12 is not high enough to power such high temperatures, but the collision of two winds in a binary system can be sufficient. We used archival data to investigate the X-ray properties of other blue hypergiants. In general, stars of this class are not detected as X-ray sources. We suggest that our new Chandra observations of Cyg OB2 12 can be best explained if Cyg OB2 12 is a colliding wind binary possessing a late O-type companion. This makes Cyg OB2 12 only the second binary system among the 16 known Galactic hypergiants. This low binary fraction indicates that the blue hypergiants are likely products of massive binary evolution during which they either accreted a significant amount of mass or already merged with their companions.

  1. Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A...... Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution....../optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC 4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A...

  2. Helicity coherence in binary neutron star mergers and nonlinear feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Amélie; Volpe, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Neutrino flavor conversion studies based on astrophysical environments usually implement neutrino mixings, neutrino interactions with matter, and neutrino self-interactions. In anisotropic media, the most general mean-field treatment includes neutrino mass contributions as well, which introduce a coupling between neutrinos and antineutrinos termed helicity or spin coherence. We discuss resonance conditions for helicity coherence for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. We explore the role of these mean-field contributions on flavor evolution in the context of a binary neutron star merger remnant. We find that resonance conditions can be satisfied in neutron star merger scenarios while adiabaticity is not sufficient for efficient flavor conversion. We analyze our numerical findings by discussing general conditions to have multiple Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-like resonances, in the presence of nonlinear feedback, in astrophysical environments.

  3. From binary black hole simulation to triple black hole simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Shan; Cao Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang; Yu, Jui-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Black hole systems are among the most promising sources for a gravitational wave detection project. Now, China is planning to construct a space-based laser interferometric detector as a follow-on mission of LISA in the near future. Aiming to provide some theoretical support to this detection project on the numerical relativity side, we focus on black hole systems simulation in this work. Considering the globular galaxy, multiple black hole systems also likely to exist in our universe and play a role as a source for the gravitational wave detector we are considering. We will give a progress report in this paper on our black hole system simulation. More specifically, we will present triple black hole simulation together with binary black hole simulation. On triple black hole simulations, one novel perturbational method is proposed.

  4. Motion of the moonlet in the binary system 243 Ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L.; Ni, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Li, J.

    2018-02-01

    The motion of the moonlet Dactyl in the binary system 243 Ida is investigated in this paper. First, periodic orbits in the vicinity of the primary are calculated, including the orbits around the equilibrium points and large-scale orbits. The Floquet multipliers' topological cases of periodic orbits are calculated to study the orbits' stabilities. During the continuation of the retrograde near-circular orbits near the equatorial plane, two period-doubling bifurcations and one Neimark-Sacker bifurcation occur one by one, leading to two stable regions and two unstable regions. Bifurcations occur at the boundaries of these regions. Periodic orbits in the stable regions are all stable, but in the unstable regions are all unstable. Moreover, many quasi-periodic orbits exist near the equatorial plane. Long-term integration indicates that a particle in a quasi-periodic orbit runs in a space like a tire. Quasi-periodic orbits in different regions have different styles of motion indicated by the Poincare sections. There is the possibility that moonlet Dactyl is in a quasi-periodic orbit near the stable region I, which is enlightening for the stability of the binary system.

  5. Prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation impact on biochemical indicators during pregnancy and postpartum Efecto de la suplementación prenatal con micronutrimentos múltiples en indicadores bioquímicos durante el embarazo y el posparto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando García-Guerra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to test the impact of daily supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MM during pregnancy on Zn, vitamin A and folate status compared to iron only (Fe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out during 1997-2000 in a semi-urban community in Morelos state, Mexico. Women were randomly assigned to MM (n= 249 or Fe (n= 258 and received supplements daily (6 d/wk under supervision by the field team from recruitment (approximately 9 weeks pregnancy until delivery. Blood samples were collected on a sub-sample of women at baseline, 32 weeks pregnancy and one month postpartum (1PP and assessed for serum zinc, retinol and whole blood folate (baseline and 1PP only. A breast milk sample was extracted at 1PP and assessed for retinol content. RESULT: At baseline there was no significant difference between supplementation groups in mean Zn, retinol or folate concentrations or the prevalence of deficiencies (Zn 12.2%, vitamin A 2.8%, folate 5.3%. Mean change in Zn and retinol concentrations from baseline to 32 weeks pregnancy did not differ between groups or between baseline and 1PP for Zn, retinol or folate. At 1PP, there was a tendency (p= 0.09 towards a lower prevalence of folate deficiency/depletion in the MM group (10.0% than the Fe group (18.5%. CONCLUSIONS: MM supplementation during pregnancy did not improve zinc or vitamin A status compared to Fe only. There is some indication that folate status may have improved with MM supplementation despite low prevalence of deficiency. While lack of response in serum retinol may be explained by generally adequate status, the lack of impact on zinc status requires further exploration.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación diaria con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM durante el embarazo en el estado de zinc, vitamina A y folato comparado con la suplementación sólo con hierro (Fe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en una comunidad semiurbana en

  6. On the accuracy of Hipparcos using binary stars as a calibration tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docobo, J. A.; Andrade, M., E-mail: joseangel.docobo@usc.es, E-mail: manuel.andrade@usc.es [R. M. Aller Astronomical Observatory, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela E-15782, Galiza, P.O. Box 197 (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Stellar binary systems, specifically those that present the most accurate available orbital elements, are a reliable tool to test the accuracy of astrometric observations. We selected all 35 binaries with these characteristics. Our objective is to provide standard uncertainties for the positions and parallaxes measured by Hipparcos relative to this trustworthy set, as well as to check supposed correlations between several parameters (measurement residuals, positions, magnitudes, and parallaxes). In addition, using the high-confidence subset of visual–spectroscopic binaries, we implemented a validation test of the Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes of binary systems that allowed the evaluation of their reliability. Standard and non-standard statistical analysis techniques were applied in order to achieve well-founded conclusions. In particular, errors-in-variables models such as the total least-squares method were used to validate Hipparcos parallaxes by comparison with those obtained directly from the orbital elements. Previously, we executed Thompson's τ technique in order to detect suspected outliers in the data. Furthermore, several statistical hypothesis tests were carried out to verify if our results were statistically significant. A statistically significant trend indicating larger Hipparcos angular separations with respect to the reference values in 5.2 ± 1.4 mas was found at the 10{sup −8} significance level. Uncertainties in the polar coordinates θ and ρ of 1.°8 and 6.3 mas, respectively, were estimated for the Hipparcos observations of binary systems. We also verified that the parallaxes of binary systems measured in this mission are absolutely compatible with the set of orbital parallaxes obtained from the most accurate orbits at least at the 95% confidence level. This methodology allows us to better estimate the accuracy of Hipparcos observations of binary systems. Indeed, further application to the data collected by Gaia should yield a

  7. Mesoporous binary metal oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J., E-mail: praveenjella10@gmail.com; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.

    2016-04-15

    Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m{sup 2}/g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO{sub 2}–ZnO and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.

  8. Ultracompact X-ray binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, L.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Ultracompact X-ray binary stars usually consist of a neutron star and a white dwarf, two stars bound together by their strong gravity and orbiting each other very rapidly, completing one orbit in less than one hour. Neutron stars are extremely compact remnants of the collapsed cores of massive stars

  9. Jet precession in binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Zulema

    2018-06-01

    Supermassive binary black holes are thought to lie at the centres of merging galaxies. The blazar OJ 287 is the poster child of such systems, showing strong and periodic variability across the electromagnetic spectrum. A new study questions the physical origin of this variability.

  10. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-01-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute

  11. Smoothed analysis of binary search trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Reischuk, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    Binary search trees are one of the most fundamental data structures. While the height of such a tree may be linear in the worst case, the average height with respect to the uniform distribution is only logarithmic. The exact value is one of the best studied problems in average-case complexity. We

  12. A coinductive calculus of binary trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Silva (Alexandra); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the set T_A of infinite binary trees with nodes labelled in a semiring A from a coalgebraic perspective. We present coinductive definition and proof principles based on the fact that T_A carries a final coalgebra structure. By viewing trees as formal power series, we develop a

  13. Binary palmprint representation for feature template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of biometric template protection comes from the intraclass variations of biometric data. The helper data scheme aims to solve this problem by employing the Error Correction Codes (ECC). However, many reported biometric binary features from the same user reach bit error rate (BER)

  14. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

  15. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  16. Non-binary or genderqueer genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are 'genderqueer' or 'non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage--but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers--of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such--while not being disorders or pathological in themselves--people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.

  17. Some thoughts on interacting binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on the theory and observation of interacting binary systems. The complex physical processes possible in these systems make our present understanding inconclusive. New types of observation (X-ray, EUV, radio) present new challenges to the theoretician. The author discusses those problems which seem to hold the most promise for future progress. (Auth.)

  18. Mass loss from interacting close binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.

  19. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Wei, L.; Poelma, R.H.; Vollebregt, S.; Wei, J.; Urbach, Paul; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material

  20. Flip-flopping binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James

    2015-04-10

    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.

  1. Compiler-Agnostic Function Detection in Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, D.A.; Slowinska, J.M.; Bos, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose Nucleus, a novel function detection algorithm for binaries. In contrast to prior work, Nucleus is compiler-agnostic, and does not require any learning phase or signature information. Instead of scanning for signatures, Nucleus detects functions at the Control Flow Graph-level, making it

  2. Photometric survey of asynchronous binary asteroids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Kotková, Lenka; Mottola, S.; Hahn, G.; Brown, P.; Esquerdo, G.; Kaiser, K.; Krzeminski, Z.; Pray, D. P.; Warner, B. D.; Harris, A. W.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Benner, L. A. M.; Margot, J. L.; Galád, Adrián; Holliday, W.; Hicks, M. D.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Tholen, D.; Whiteley, R.; Marchis, F.; DeGraff, D. R.; Grauer, A.; Larson, S. M.; Velichko, F. P.; Cooney, W.R.; Stephens, R.; Zhu, J.; Kirsch, K.; Dyvig, R.; Snyder, L.; Reddy, V.; Moore, S.; Gajdoš, Š.; Világi, J.; Masi, G.; Higgins, D.; Funkhouser, G. M.; Knight, B.; Slivan, S. M.; Behrend, R.; Grenon, M.; Burki, G.; Roy, R.; Demeautis, C.; Matter, D.; Waelchli, N.; Revaz, Y.; Klotz, A.; Rieugné, M.; Thieri, P.; Cotrez, V.; Brunetto, L.; Kober, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 1 (2006), s. 63-93 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0604; GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * binary * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2006

  3. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  4. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  5. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  6. Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.

  7. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  8. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  9. Gravitational waves from binary black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore ... In the 1916 paper exploring the physical implications of GR, Einstein .... Thus, for a neutron star binary in the Virgo cluster (D = 18 Mpc; 5.6×1020 km) the strain.

  10. The Binary Pulsar: Gravity Waves Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of pulsars generally and the 1974 discovery of the binary pulsar by Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse specifically. Details the data collection and analysis used by Taylor and Hulse. Uses this discussion as support for Albert Einstein's theory of gravitational waves. (CW)

  11. Receptive fields selection for binary feature description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.

  12. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  13. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kresimir

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 On. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low...

  14. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  15. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  16. Combining multiple decisions: applications to bioinformatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukinawa, N; Ishii, S; Takenouchi, T; Oba, S

    2008-01-01

    Multi-class classification is one of the fundamental tasks in bioinformatics and typically arises in cancer diagnosis studies by gene expression profiling. This article reviews two recent approaches to multi-class classification by combining multiple binary classifiers, which are formulated based on a unified framework of error-correcting output coding (ECOC). The first approach is to construct a multi-class classifier in which each binary classifier to be aggregated has a weight value to be optimally tuned based on the observed data. In the second approach, misclassification of each binary classifier is formulated as a bit inversion error with a probabilistic model by making an analogy to the context of information transmission theory. Experimental studies using various real-world datasets including cancer classification problems reveal that both of the new methods are superior or comparable to other multi-class classification methods

  17. Nonclassicality characterization in photon statistics based on binary-response single-photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanqiang; Yang Rongcan; Li Gang; Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Yuchi; Wang Junmin; Zhang Tiancai

    2011-01-01

    By employing multiple conventional single-photon counting modules (SPCMs), which are binary-response detectors, instead of photon number resolving detectors, the nonclassicality criteria are investigated for various quantum states. The bounds of the criteria are derived from a system based on three or four SPCMs. The overall efficiency and background are both taken into account. The results of experiments with thermal and coherent light agree with the theoretical analysis. Compared with photon number resolving detectors, the use of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss-like scheme with multiple SPCMs is even better for revealing the nonclassicality of the fields, and the efficiency requirements are not so stringent. Some proposals are presented which can improve the detection performance with binary-response SPCMs for different quantum states.

  18. PREDICTION OF THE MIXING ENTHALPIES OF BINARY LIQUID ALLOYS BY MOLECULAR INTERACTION VOLUME MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.W.Yang; D.P.Tao; Z.H.Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of 23 binary liquid alloys are calculated by molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), which is a two-parameter model with the partial molar infinite dilute mixing enthalpies. The predicted values are in agreement with the experimental data and then indicate that the model is reliable and convenient.

  19. Mass loss from OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the atmospheres of OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems indicates that when the stellar surface is close enough to the saddle in the gravitational potential to provide a mass transfer rate adequate to power a compact x-ray source, large-amplitude variations in the rate of mass flow occur. 9 references

  20. New inclination changing eclipsing binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juryšek, J.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Skarka, M.; Liška, J.; Janík, J.; Zejda, M.; Kurfürst, P.; Paunzen, E.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Multiple stellar systems are unique laboratories for astrophysics. Analysis of their orbital dynamics, if well characterized from their observations, may reveal invaluable information about the physical properties of the participating stars. Unfortunately, there are only a few known and well described multiple systems, this is even more so for systems located outside the Milky Way galaxy. A particularly interesting situation occurs when the inner binary in a compact triple system is eclipsing. This is because the stellar interaction, typically resulting in precession of orbital planes, may be observable as a variation of depth of the eclipses on a long timescale. Aims: We aim to present a novel method to determine compact triples using publicly available photometric data from large surveys. Here we apply it to eclipsing binaries (EBs) in Magellanic Clouds from OGLE III database. Our tool consists of identifying the cases where the orbital plane of EB evolves in accord with expectations from the interaction with a third star. Methods: We analyzed light curves (LCs) of 26121 LMC and 6138 SMC EBs with the goal to identify those for which the orbital inclination varies in time. Archival LCs of the selected systems, when complemented by our own observations with Danish 1.54-m telescope, were thoroughly analyzed using the PHOEBE program. This provided physical parameters of components of each system. Time dependence of the EB's inclination was described using the theory of orbital-plane precession. By observing the parameter-dependence of the precession rate, we were able to constrain the third companion mass and its orbital period around EB. Results: We identified 58 candidates of new compact triples in Magellanic Clouds. This is the largest published sample of such systems so far. Eight of them were analyzed thoroughly and physical parameters of inner binary were determined together with an estimation of basic characteristics of the third star. Prior to our