WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple attribute tradeoff

  1. Privacy Protection on Multiple Sensitive Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ye, Xiaojun

    In recent years, a privacy model called k-anonymity has gained popularity in the microdata releasing. As the microdata may contain multiple sensitive attributes about an individual, the protection of multiple sensitive attributes has become an important problem. Different from the existing models of single sensitive attribute, extra associations among multiple sensitive attributes should be invested. Two kinds of disclosure scenarios may happen because of logical associations. The Q&S Diversity is checked to prevent the foregoing disclosure risks, with an α Requirement definition used to ensure the diversity requirement. At last, a two-step greedy generalization algorithm is used to carry out the multiple sensitive attributes processing which deal with quasi-identifiers and sensitive attributes respectively. We reduce the overall distortion by the measure of Masking SA.

  2. A matter of tradeoffs: reintroduction as a multiple objective decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Decision making in guidance of reintroduction efforts is made challenging by the substantial scientific uncertainty typically involved. However, a less recognized challenge is that the management objectives are often numerous and complex. Decision makers managing reintroduction efforts are often concerned with more than just how to maximize the probability of reintroduction success from a population perspective. Decision makers are also weighing other concerns such as budget limitations, public support and/or opposition, impacts on the ecosystem, and the need to consider not just a single reintroduction effort, but conservation of the entire species. Multiple objective decision analysis is a powerful tool for formal analysis of such complex decisions. We demonstrate the use of multiple objective decision analysis in the case of the Florida non-migratory whooping crane reintroduction effort. In this case, the State of Florida was considering whether to resume releases of captive-reared crane chicks into the non-migratory whooping crane population in that state. Management objectives under consideration included maximizing the probability of successful population establishment, minimizing costs, maximizing public relations benefits, maximizing the number of birds available for alternative reintroduction efforts, and maximizing learning about the demographic patterns of reintroduced whooping cranes. The State of Florida engaged in a collaborative process with their management partners, first, to evaluate and characterize important uncertainties about system behavior, and next, to formally evaluate the tradeoffs between objectives using the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). The recommendation resulting from this process, to continue releases of cranes at a moderate intensity, was adopted by the State of Florida in late 2008. Although continued releases did not receive support from the International Whooping Crane Recovery Team, this approach does provide

  3. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  4. Variable precision rough set for multiple decision attribute analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai; Kin; Keung

    2008-01-01

    A variable precision rough set (VPRS) model is used to solve the multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem with multiple conflicting decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. By introducing confidence measures and a β-reduct, the VPRS model can rationally solve the conflicting decision analysis problem with multiple decision attributes and multiple condition attributes. For illustration, a medical diagnosis example is utilized to show the feasibility of the VPRS model in solving the MADA...

  5. Co-existence of multiple trade-off currencies shapes evolutionary outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Caroline; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary studies often assume that energy is the primary resource (i.e. “currency”) at the heart of the survival-reproduction trade-off, despite recent evidence to the contrary. The evolutionary consequences of having a single trade-off currency versus multiple competing currencies are unknown. Using simulations, we modeled the evolution of either a single physiological currency between reproduction and survival, or of multiple such currencies. For a wide array of model specifications varying functional forms and strengths of the trade-offs, we show that the presence of multiple currencies (e.g. nutrients, time) generally results in the evolution of higher lifetime reproductive success through partial circumvention of such trade-offs. Evolution of the underlying physiology is also more highly contingent with multiple currencies. These results challenge the paradigm of a single survival-reproduction trade-off as central to life history evolution, suggesting greater roles for physiological constraints and contingency, and implying potential selection for evolution of multiple trade-off currencies. PMID:29216275

  6. Co-existence of multiple trade-off currencies shapes evolutionary outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A Cohen

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies often assume that energy is the primary resource (i.e. "currency" at the heart of the survival-reproduction trade-off, despite recent evidence to the contrary. The evolutionary consequences of having a single trade-off currency versus multiple competing currencies are unknown. Using simulations, we modeled the evolution of either a single physiological currency between reproduction and survival, or of multiple such currencies. For a wide array of model specifications varying functional forms and strengths of the trade-offs, we show that the presence of multiple currencies (e.g. nutrients, time generally results in the evolution of higher lifetime reproductive success through partial circumvention of such trade-offs. Evolution of the underlying physiology is also more highly contingent with multiple currencies. These results challenge the paradigm of a single survival-reproduction trade-off as central to life history evolution, suggesting greater roles for physiological constraints and contingency, and implying potential selection for evolution of multiple trade-off currencies.

  7. Dual worth trade-off method and its application for solving multiple criteria decision making problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Junwen

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the traditional surrogate worth trade-off (SWT) method and solve the multiple criteria decision making problem more efficiently and interactively, a new method labeled dual worth trade-off (DWT) method is proposed. The DWT method dynamically uses the duality theory related to the multiple criteria decision making problem and analytic hierarchy process technique to obtain the decision maker's solution preference information and finally find the satisfactory compromise solution of the decision maker. Through the interactive process between the analyst and the decision maker, trade-off information is solicited and treated properly, the representative subset of efficient solutions and the satisfactory solution to the problem are found. The implementation procedure for the DWT method is presented. The effectiveness and applicability of the DWT method are shown by a practical case study in the field of production scheduling.

  8. Fuzzy multiple attribute decision making methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shu-Jen

    1992-01-01

    This monograph is intended for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course as well as for researchers, who want a compilation of developments in this rapidly growing field of operations research. This is a sequel to our previous works: "Multiple Objective Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A state-of-the-Art Survey" (No.164 of the Lecture Notes); "Multiple Attribute Decision Making--Methods and Applications: A State-of-the-Art Survey" (No.186 of the Lecture Notes); and "Group Decision Making under Multiple Criteria--Methods and Applications" (No.281 of the Lecture Notes). In this monograph, the literature on methods of fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) has been reviewed thoroughly and critically, and classified systematically. This study provides readers with a capsule look into the existing methods, their characteristics, and applicability to the analysis of fuzzy MADM problems. The basic concepts and algorithms from the classical MADM methods have been used in the development of the f...

  9. Learning of Rule Ensembles for Multiple Attribute Ranking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembczyński, Krzysztof; Kotłowski, Wojciech; Słowiński, Roman; Szeląg, Marcin

    In this paper, we consider the multiple attribute ranking problem from a Machine Learning perspective. We propose two approaches to statistical learning of an ensemble of decision rules from decision examples provided by the Decision Maker in terms of pairwise comparisons of some objects. The first approach consists in learning a preference function defining a binary preference relation for a pair of objects. The result of application of this function on all pairs of objects to be ranked is then exploited using the Net Flow Score procedure, giving a linear ranking of objects. The second approach consists in learning a utility function for single objects. The utility function also gives a linear ranking of objects. In both approaches, the learning is based on the boosting technique. The presented approaches to Preference Learning share good properties of the decision rule preference model and have good performance in the massive-data learning problems. As Preference Learning and Multiple Attribute Decision Aiding share many concepts and methodological issues, in the introduction, we review some aspects bridging these two fields. To illustrate the two approaches proposed in this paper, we solve with them a toy example concerning the ranking of a set of cars evaluated by multiple attributes. Then, we perform a large data experiment on real data sets. The first data set concerns credit rating. Since recent research in the field of Preference Learning is motivated by the increasing role of modeling preferences in recommender systems and information retrieval, we chose two other massive data sets from this area - one comes from movie recommender system MovieLens, and the other concerns ranking of text documents from 20 Newsgroups data set.

  10. Multiplicative Attribute Graph Model of Real-World Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myunghwan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Leskovec, Jure [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-10-20

    Large scale real-world network data, such as social networks, Internet andWeb graphs, is ubiquitous in a variety of scientific domains. The study of such social and information networks commonly finds patterns and explain their emergence through tractable models. In most networks, especially in social networks, nodes also have a rich set of attributes (e.g., age, gender) associatedwith them. However, most of the existing network models focus only on modeling the network structure while ignoring the features of nodes in the network. Here we present a class of network models that we refer to as the Multiplicative Attribute Graphs (MAG), which naturally captures the interactions between the network structure and node attributes. We consider a model where each node has a vector of categorical features associated with it. The probability of an edge between a pair of nodes then depends on the product of individual attributeattribute similarities. The model yields itself to mathematical analysis as well as fit to real data. We derive thresholds for the connectivity, the emergence of the giant connected component, and show that the model gives rise to graphs with a constant diameter. Moreover, we analyze the degree distribution to show that the model can produce networks with either lognormal or power-law degree distribution depending on certain conditions.

  11. Trade-off between multiple constraints enables simultaneous formation of modules and hubs in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Chen

    Full Text Available The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter α, and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of α, resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of α values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real

  12. Balancing tradeoffs: Reconciling multiple environmental goals when ecosystem services vary regionally

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Christine S.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Cuadra, Santiago; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Gerber, James; West, Paul C.; Polasky, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    As the planet’s dominant land use, agriculture often competes with the preservation of natural systems that provide globally and regionally important ecosystem services. How agriculture impacts ecosystem service delivery varies regionally, among services being considered, and across spatial scales. Here, we assess the tradeoffs between four ecosystem services—agricultural production, carbon storage, biophysical climate regulation, and biodiversity—using as a case study the Amazon, an active frontier of agricultural expansion. We find that the highest values for each of the ecosystem services are concentrated in different regions. Agricultural production potential and carbon storage are highest in the north and west, biodiversity greatest in the west, and climate regulation services most vulnerable to disruption in the south and east. Using a simple optimization model, we find that under scenarios of agricultural expansion that optimize total production across ecosystem services, small increases in priority for one ecosystem service can lead to reductions in other services by as much as 140%. Our results highlight the difficulty of managing landscapes for multiple environmental goals; the approach presented here can be adapted to guide value-laden conservation decisions and identify potential solutions that balance priorities.

  13. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  14. Privacy Protection Method for Multiple Sensitive Attributes Based on Strong Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, most studies on data publishing only considered single sensitive attribute, and the works on multiple sensitive attributes are still few. And almost all the existing studies on multiple sensitive attributes had not taken the inherent relationship between sensitive attributes into account, so that adversary can use the background knowledge about this relationship to attack the privacy of users. This paper presents an attack model with the association rules between the sensitive attributes and, accordingly, presents a data publication for multiple sensitive attributes. Through proof and analysis, the new model can prevent adversary from using the background knowledge about association rules to attack privacy, and it is able to get high-quality released information. At last, this paper verifies the above conclusion with experiments.

  15. Sampling plans in attribute mode with multiple levels of precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a method for deriving sampling plans for nuclear material inventory verification. The method presented is different from the classical approach which envisages two levels of measurement precision corresponding to NDA and DA. In the classical approach the precisions of the two measurement methods are taken as fixed parameters. The new approach is based on multiple levels of measurement precision. The design of the sampling plan consists of choosing the number of measurement levels, the measurement precision to be used at each level and the sample size to be used at each level

  16. An Extended TOPSIS Method for the Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems Based on Interval Neutrosophic Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Chi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The interval neutrosophic set (INS can be easier to express the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information, and TOPSIS is one of the most commonly used and effective method for multiple attribute decision making, however, in general, it can only process the attribute values with crisp numbers. In this paper, we have extended TOPSIS to INS, and with respect to the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute weights are unknown and the attribute values take the form of INSs, we proposed an expanded TOPSIS method. Firstly, the definition of INS and the operational laws are given, and distance between INSs is defined. Then, the attribute weights are determined based on the Maximizing deviation method and an extended TOPSIS method is developed to rank the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  17. Multiple attribute decision making model and application to food safety risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lihua; Chen, Hong; Yan, Huizhe; Yang, Lifeng; Wu, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Decision making for supermarket food purchase decisions are characterized by network relationships. This paper analyzed factors that influence supermarket food selection and proposes a supplier evaluation index system based on the whole process of food production. The author established the intuitive interval value fuzzy set evaluation model based on characteristics of the network relationship among decision makers, and validated for a multiple attribute decision making case study. Thus, the proposed model provides a reliable, accurate method for multiple attribute decision making.

  18. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  19. On the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of secret-key agreement over multiple-antenna channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2014-09-01

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. First, the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain are defined. Then, the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is established. The eavesdropper is shown to \\'steal\\' only transmit antennas. We show that likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T highlights a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel whose secret DMT depends crucially on CSI-T. Several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes are presented in case of full CSI-T.

  20. On the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of secret-key agreement over multiple-antenna channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. First, the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain are defined. Then, the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is established. The eavesdropper is shown to 'steal' only transmit antennas. We show that likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T highlights a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel whose secret DMT depends crucially on CSI-T. Several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes are presented in case of full CSI-T.

  1. Assessing trade-offs in large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tammy E; Epstein, Graham; Aguilera, Stacy E; Brooks, Cassandra M; Cox, Michael; Evans, Louisa S; Maxwell, Sara M; Nenadovic, Mateja; Ban, Natalie C

    2018-01-01

    Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users (demand trade-offs). We also found several divergent outcomes that were attributed to influences beyond the scope of the LMPA. We suggest that despite their size, trade-offs can develop in LMPAs and should be considered in planning and design. LMPAs may improve their performance across multiple social and ecological objectives if integrated with larger-scale conservation efforts.

  2. Attributional style and depression in multiple sclerosis: the learned helplessness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Gray A; Arnett, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms.

  3. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: The Learned Helplessness Model

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Gray A.; Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS...

  4. Multiple attribute decision making model and application to food safety risk evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Ma

    Full Text Available Decision making for supermarket food purchase decisions are characterized by network relationships. This paper analyzed factors that influence supermarket food selection and proposes a supplier evaluation index system based on the whole process of food production. The author established the intuitive interval value fuzzy set evaluation model based on characteristics of the network relationship among decision makers, and validated for a multiple attribute decision making case study. Thus, the proposed model provides a reliable, accurate method for multiple attribute decision making.

  5. Dual hesitant pythagorean fuzzy Hamacher aggregation operators in multiple attribute decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guiwu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the multiple attribute decision making (MADM problem based on the Hamacher aggregation operators with dual Pythagorean hesitant fuzzy information. Then, motivated by the ideal of Hamacher operation, we have developed some Hamacher aggregation operators for aggregating dual hesitant Pythagorean fuzzy information. The prominent characteristic of these proposed operators are studied. Then, we have utilized these operators to develop some approaches to solve the dual hesitant Pythagorean fuzzy multiple attribute decision making problems. Finally, a practical example for supplier selection in supply chain management is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  6. The Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff of Secret-Key Agreement over Multiple-Antenna Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-10-26

    We study the problem of secret-key agreement between two legitimate parties, Alice and Bob, in presence an of eavesdropper Eve. There is a public channel with unlimited capacity that is available to the legitimate parties and is also observed by Eve. Our focus is on Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge of their channels. We study the system in the high-power regime. First, we define the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain. Second, we establish the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) under no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). The eavesdropper is shown to “steal” only transmit antennas. We show that, likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information at the transmitter. This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T features a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel, in which secret DMT depends heavily on CSI-T. Finally, we present several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes in case of full CSI-T. We argue that secret DMT-achieving schemes are also key DMT-achieving. Moreover, we show formally that artificial noise (AN), likewise zero-forcing (ZF), is DMT-achieving. We also show that the public feedback channel improves the outage performance without having any effect on the DMT.

  7. The Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff of Secret-Key Agreement over Multiple-Antenna Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of secret-key agreement between two legitimate parties, Alice and Bob, in presence an of eavesdropper Eve. There is a public channel with unlimited capacity that is available to the legitimate parties and is also observed by Eve. Our focus is on Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge of their channels. We study the system in the high-power regime. First, we define the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain. Second, we establish the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) under no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). The eavesdropper is shown to “steal” only transmit antennas. We show that, likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information at the transmitter. This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T features a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel, in which secret DMT depends heavily on CSI-T. Finally, we present several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes in case of full CSI-T. We argue that secret DMT-achieving schemes are also key DMT-achieving. Moreover, we show formally that artificial noise (AN), likewise zero-forcing (ZF), is DMT-achieving. We also show that the public feedback channel improves the outage performance without having any effect on the DMT.

  8. Multiple breeding in the Great Tit. A trade-off between successive reproductive attempts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, S.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Daan, S.

    1997-01-01

    1. Multiple breeding (raising more than one batch of young per breeding season) is a common life-history tactic that has received very little attention. A simple static optimization model was developed, applicable to iteroparous animals with parental care, that predicts: (1) when an animal should be

  9. A scheme of hidden-structure attribute-based encryption with multiple authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J.; Weng, A. X.

    2018-05-01

    In the most of the CP-ABE schemes with hidden access structure, both all the user attributes and the key generation are managed by only one authority. The key generation efficiency will decrease as the number of user increases, and the data will encounter security issues as the only authority is attacked. We proposed a scheme of hidden-structure attribute-based encryption with multiple authorities, which introduces multiple semi-trusted attribute authorities, avoiding the threat even though one or more authorities are attacked. We also realized user revocation by managing a revocation list. Based on DBDH assumption, we proved that our scheme is of IND-CMA security. The analysis shows that our scheme improves the key generation efficiency.

  10. An Extended TOPSIS Method for Multiple Attribute Decision Making based on Interval Neutrosophic Uncertain Linguistic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables can easily express the indeterminate and inconsistent information in real world, and TOPSIS is a very effective decision making method more and more extensive applications. In this paper, we will extend the TOPSIS method to deal with the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic information, and propose an extended TOPSIS method to solve the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the attribute value takes the form of the interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables and attribute weight is unknown. Firstly, the operational rules and properties for the interval neutrosophic variables are introduced. Then the distance between two interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables is proposed and the attribute weight is calculated by the maximizing deviation method, and the closeness coefficients to the ideal solution for each alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the decision making steps and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search (OMOSOS for time, cost, quality and work continuity tradeoff in repetitive projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Hoc Tran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction managers often face with projects containing multiple units wherein activities repeat from unit to unit. Therefore effective resource management is crucial in terms of project duration, cost and quality. Accordingly, researchers have developed several models to aid planners in developing practical and near-optimal schedules for repetitive projects. Despite their undeniable benefits, such models lack the ability of pure simultaneous optimization because existing methodologies optimize the schedule with respect to a single factor, to achieve minimum duration, total cost, resource work breaks or various combinations, respectively. This study introduces a novel approach called “opposition multiple objective symbiotic organisms search” (OMOSOS for scheduling repetitive projects. The proposed algorithm used an opposition-based learning technique for population initialization and for generation jumping. Further, this study integrated a scheduling module (M1 to determine all project objectives including time, cost, quality and interruption. The proposed algorithm was implemented on two application examples in order to demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the scheduling of repetitive construction projects. The results indicate that the OMOSOS approach is a powerful optimization technique and can assist project managers in selecting appropriate plan for project. Keywords: Symbiotic organisms search, Multi-objective analysis, Resource tradeoff, Schedules, Repetitive

  12. Quantitative Prediction of Coalbed Gas Content Based on Seismic Multiple-Attribute Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfang Pan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of gas planar distribution is crucial to selection and development of new CBM exploration areas. Based on seismic attributes, well logging and testing data we found that seismic absorption attenuation, after eliminating the effects of burial depth, shows an evident correlation with CBM gas content; (positive structure curvature has a negative correlation with gas content; and density has a negative correlation with gas content. It is feasible to use the hydrocarbon index (P*G and pseudo-Poisson ratio attributes for detection of gas enrichment zones. Based on seismic multiple-attribute analyses, a multiple linear regression equation was established between the seismic attributes and gas content at the drilling wells. Application of this equation to the seismic attributes at locations other than the drilling wells yielded a quantitative prediction of planar gas distribution. Prediction calculations were performed for two different models, one using pre-stack inversion and the other one disregarding pre-stack inversion. A comparison of the results indicates that both models predicted a similar trend for gas content distribution, except that the model using pre-stack inversion yielded a prediction result with considerably higher precision than the other model.

  13. Multiplicative mixing of object identity and image attributes in single inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan Murty, N Apurva; Arun, S P

    2018-04-03

    Object recognition is challenging because the same object can produce vastly different images, mixing signals related to its identity with signals due to its image attributes, such as size, position, rotation, etc. Previous studies have shown that both signals are present in high-level visual areas, but precisely how they are combined has remained unclear. One possibility is that neurons might encode identity and attribute signals multiplicatively so that each can be efficiently decoded without interference from the other. Here, we show that, in high-level visual cortex, responses of single neurons can be explained better as a product rather than a sum of tuning for object identity and tuning for image attributes. This subtle effect in single neurons produced substantially better population decoding of object identity and image attributes in the neural population as a whole. This property was absent both in low-level vision models and in deep neural networks. It was also unique to invariances: when tested with two-part objects, neural responses were explained better as a sum than as a product of part tuning. Taken together, our results indicate that signals requiring separate decoding, such as object identity and image attributes, are combined multiplicatively in IT neurons, whereas signals that require integration (such as parts in an object) are combined additively. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam; Aslam, Muhammad; Jun, Chi-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  15. A New Attribute Control Chart using Multiple Dependent State Repetitive Sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Aldosari, Mansour Sattam

    2017-03-25

    In this manuscript, a new attribute control chart using multiple dependent state repetitive sampling is designed. The operational procedure and structure of the proposed control chart is given. The required measures to determine the average run length (ARL) for in-control and out-of-control processes are given. Tables of ARLs are reported for various control chart parameters. The proposed control chart is more sensitive in detecting a small shift in the process as compared to the existing attribute control charts. The simulation study shows the efficiency of the proposed chart over the existing charts. An example is given for the illustration purpose.

  16. Evaluating multiple dimensions of visitors' tradeoffs between access and crowding at Arches National Park using indifference curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Lawson; Robert E. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Tradeoffs are an inherent part of many of the decisions faced by outdoor recreation managers. For example, decisions concerning the social carrying capacity of popular attraction sites involve tradeoffs between limiting visitor use to ensure a high quality experience and allowing high levels of visitor use to ensure that large numbers of visitors retain access to park...

  17. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based Relay Vehicle Selection for Electric Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale electric vehicle integration into power grid and charging randomly will cause serious impacts on the normal operation of power grid. Therefore, it is necessary to control the charging behavior of electric vehicle, while information transmission for electric vehicle is significant. Due to the highly mobile characteristics of vehicle, transferring information to power grid directly might be inaccessible. Relay vehicle (RV can be used for supporting multi-hop connection between SV and power grid. This paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making (MADM-based RV selection algorithm, which considers multiple attribute, including data transfer rate, delay, route duration. It takes the characteristics of electric vehicle communication into account, which can provide protection for the communication services of electric vehicle charging and discharging. Numerical results demonstrate that compared to previous algorithm, the proposed algorithm offer better performance in terms of throughput, transmission delay.

  18. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based on Cross-Evaluation with Uncertain Decision Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple attribute decision making (MADM problem is one of the most common and popular research fields in the theory of decision science. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with such problems. Nevertheless, many of them assumed that attribute weights are determined by different types of additional preference information which will result in subjective decision making. In order to solve such problems, in this paper, we propose a novel MADM approach based on cross-evaluation with uncertain parameters. Specifically, the proposed approach assumes that all attribute weights are uncertain. It can overcome the drawback in prior research that the alternatives’ ranking may be determined by a single attribute with an overestimated weight. In addition, the proposed method can also balance the mean and deviation of each alternative’s cross-evaluation score to guarantee the stability of evaluation. Then, this method is extended to a more generalized situation where the attribute values are also uncertain. Finally, we illustrate the applicability of the proposed method by revisiting two reported studies and by a case study on the selection of community service companies in the city of Hefei in China.

  19. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA. Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  20. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  1. Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, István; Hormay, Edina; Csetényi, Bettina; Nagy, Bernadett; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2018-02-01

    Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 73(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- Special chemosensory cells, the glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons, reportedly involved in the central feeding control, exist in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex (mVLPFC). Electrophysiological, metabolic and behavioral studies reveal complex functional attributes of these cells and raise their homeostatic significance. Single neuron recordings, by means of the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique, elucidate differential sensitivities of limbic forebrain neurons in the rat and the rhesus monkey to glucose and other chemicals, whereas gustatory stimulations demonstrate their distinct taste responsiveness. Metabolic examinations provide evidence for alteration of blood glucose level in glucose tolerance test and elevation of plasma triglyceride concentration after destruction of the local GM cells by streptozotocin (STZ). In behavioral studies, STZ microinjection into the mVLPFC fails to interfere with the acquisition of saccharin conditioned taste avoidance, does cause, however, taste perception deficit in taste reactivity tests. Multiple functional attributes of GM neurons in the mVLPFC, within the frame of the hierarchically organized central GM neuronal network, appear to play important role in the maintenance of the homeostatic balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned Bonferroni means and their application to multiple attribute decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengmin; Liu, Peide

    2017-04-01

    The Bonferroni mean (BM) was originally introduced by Bonferroni and generalised by many other researchers due to its capacity to capture the interrelationship between input arguments. Nevertheless, in many situations, interrelationships do not always exist between all of the attributes. Attributes can be partitioned into several different categories and members of intra-partition are interrelated while no interrelationship exists between attributes of different partitions. In this paper, as complements to the existing generalisations of BM, we investigate the partitioned Bonferroni mean (PBM) under intuitionistic uncertain linguistic environments and develop two linguistic aggregation operators: intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (IULPBM) and its weighted form (WIULPBM). Then, motivated by the ideal of geometric mean and PBM, we further present the partitioned geometric Bonferroni mean (PGBM) and develop two linguistic geometric aggregation operators: intuitionistic uncertain linguistic partitioned geometric Bonferroni mean (IULPGBM) and its weighted form (WIULPGBM). Some properties and special cases of these proposed operators are also investigated and discussed in detail. Based on these operators, an approach for multiple attribute decision-making problems with intuitionistic uncertain linguistic information is developed. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the developed approach and comparison analyses are conducted with other representative methods to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed approach.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Attributional Style Questionnaire- Survey in people with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Ian I.; Dewar, Sophie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of an attributional style measure that can be administered remotely, to people who have multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 495 participants with MS were recruited. Participants completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire-Survey (ASQ-S) and two comparison measures of cognitive variables via postal survey on three occasions, each 12 months apart. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability and congruent validity were considered. Results: The internal reliability of the ASQ-S was good (α > 0.7). The test-retest correlations were significant, but failed to reach the 0.7 set. The congruent validity of the ASQ-S was established relative to the comparisons. Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the ASQ-S indicate that it shows promise as a tool for researchers investigating depression in people with MS and is likely sound to use clinically in this population. PMID:28450893

  4. Rock property estimates using multiple seismic attributes and neural networks; Pegasus Field, West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuelke, J.S.; Quirein, J.A.; Sarg, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    This case study shows the benefit of using multiple seismic trace attributes and the pattern recognition capabilities of neural networks to predict reservoir architecture and porosity distribution in the Pegasus Field, West Texas. The study used the power of neural networks to integrate geologic, borehole and seismic data. Illustrated are the improvements between the new neural network approach and the more traditional method of seismic trace inversion for porosity estimation. Comprehensive statistical methods and interpretational/subjective measures are used in the prediction of porosity from seismic attributes. A 3-D volume of seismic derived porosity estimates for the Devonian reservoir provide a very detailed estimate of porosity, both spatially and vertically, for the field. The additional reservoir porosity detail provided, between the well control, allows for optimal placement of horizontal wells and improved field development. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Carbon sequestration in wood products: a method for attribution to multiple parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Marland, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    When forest is harvested some of the forest carbon ends up in wood products. If the forest is managed so that the standing stock of the forest remains constant over time, and the stock of wood products is increasing, then carbon dioxide is being removed from the atmosphere in net and this should be reflected in accounting for greenhouse gas emissions. We suggest that carbon sequestration in wood products requires cooperation of multiple parties; from the forest owner to the product manufacturer to the product user, and perhaps others. Credit for sequestering carbon away from the atmosphere could acknowledge the contributions of these multiple parties. Accounting under a cap-and-trade or tax system is not necessarily an inventory system, it is a system designed to motivate and/or reward an environmental objective. We describe a system of attribution whereby credits for carbon sequestration would be shared among multiple, contributing parties. It is hoped that the methodology outlined herein proves attractive enough to parties concerned to spur them to address the details of such a system. The system of incentives one would choose for limiting or controlling greenhouse gas emissions could be quite different, depending on how the attribution for emissions and sequestration is chosen

  6. Aggregation operators of neutrosophic linguistic numbers for multiple attribute group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Based on the concept of neutrosophic linguistic numbers (NLNs) in symbolic neutrosophic theory presented by Smarandache in 2015, the paper firstly proposes basic operational laws of NLNs and the expected value of a NLN to rank NLNs. Then, we propose the NLN weighted arithmetic average (NLNWAA) and NLN weighted geometric average (NLNWGA) operators and discuss their properties. Further, we establish a multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) method by using the NLNWAA and NLNWGA operators under NLN environment. Finally, an illustrative example on a decision-making problem of manufacturing alternatives in the flexible manufacturing system is given to show the application of the proposed MAGDM method.

  7. VIKOR Method for Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Han Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will extend the VIKOR (VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje method to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM with interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs. Firstly, the basic concepts of INNs are briefly presented. The method first aggregates all individual decision-makers’ assessment information based on an interval neutrosophic weighted averaging (INWA operator, and then employs the extended classical VIKOR method to solve MAGDM problems with INNs. The validity and stability of this method are verified by example analysis and sensitivity analysis, and its superiority is illustrated by a comparison with the existing methods.

  8. Adjusted permutation method for multiple attribute decision making with meta-heuristic solution approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Karimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The permutation method of multiple attribute decision making has two significant deficiencies: high computational time and wrong priority output in some problem instances. In this paper, a novel permutation method called adjusted permutation method (APM is proposed to compensate deficiencies of conventional permutation method. We propose Tabu search (TS and particle swarm optimization (PSO to find suitable solutions at a reasonable computational time for large problem instances. The proposed method is examined using some numerical examples to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The preliminary results show that both approaches provide competent solutions in relatively reasonable amounts of time while TS performs better to solve APM.

  9. A new linguistic aggregation operator and its application to multiple attribute decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new linguistic aggregation operator in linguistic environment is established and the desirable properties: monotonic, focus effect, idempotent, commutative and bounded are studied. Then, a new restricted ordering relation on the n-dimensional linguistic scales is proposed which satisfies strict pareto-dominance and is restricted by a weighting vector. A practical multiple attribute decision making methodology for an uncertain linguistic environment is proposed based on the proposed operator. An example is given to illustrate the rationality and validity of the new approach to decision making application.

  10. Some Interval Neutrosophic Linguistic Maclaurin Symmetric Mean Operators and Their Application in Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushui Geng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many practical decision-making problems in people’s lives, but the information given by decision makers (DMs is often unclear and how to describe this information is of critical importance. Therefore, we introduce interval neutrosophic linguistic numbers (INLNs to represent the less clear and uncertain information and give their operational rules and comparison methods. In addition, since the Maclaurin symmetric mean (MSM operator has the special characteristic of capturing the interrelationships among multi-input arguments, we further propose an MSM operator for INLNs (INLMSM. Furthermore, considering the weights of attributes are the important parameters and they can influence the decision results, we also propose a weighted INLMSM (WINLMSM operator. Based on the WINLMSM operator, we develop a multiple attribute decision making (MADM method with INLNs and some examples are used to show the procedure and effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed method is more convenient to express the complex and unclear information. At the same time, it is more scientific and flexible in solving the MADM problems by considering the interrelationships among multi-attributes.

  11. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    OpenAIRE

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-01-01

    A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011) (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549) proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI) method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the o...

  12. Prediction Approach of Critical Node Based on Multiple Attribute Decision Making for Opportunistic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting critical nodes of Opportunistic Sensor Network (OSN can help us not only to improve network performance but also to decrease the cost in network maintenance. However, existing ways of predicting critical nodes in static network are not suitable for OSN. In this paper, the conceptions of critical nodes, region contribution, and cut-vertex in multiregion OSN are defined. We propose an approach to predict critical node for OSN, which is based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM. It takes RC to present the dependence of regions on Ferry nodes. TOPSIS algorithm is employed to find out Ferry node with maximum comprehensive contribution, which is a critical node. The experimental results show that, in different scenarios, this approach can predict the critical nodes of OSN better.

  13. Material Selection for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Baghel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs provide a potential alternative to conventional p-n junction photovoltaic devices. The semiconductor thin film plays a crucial role in the working of DSC. This paper aims at formulating a process for the selection of optimum semiconductor material for nanostructured thin film using multiple attribute decision making (MADM approach. Various possible available semiconducting materials and their properties like band gap, cost, mobility, rate of electron injection, and static dielectric constant are considered and MADM technique is applied to select the best suited material. It was found that, out of all possible candidates, titanium dioxide (TiO2 is the best semiconductor material for application in DSC. It was observed that the proposed results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  14. TODIM Method for Single-Valued Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the TODIM has been used to solve multiple attribute decision making (MADM problems. The single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs are useful tools to depict the uncertainty of the MADM. In this paper, we will extend the TODIM method to the MADM with the single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs. Firstly, the definition, comparison, and distance of SVNNs are briefly presented, and the steps of the classical TODIM method for MADM problems are introduced. Then, the extended classical TODIM method is proposed to deal with MADM problems with the SVNNs, and its significant characteristic is that it can fully consider the decision makers’ bounded rationality which is a real action in decision making. Furthermore, we extend the proposed model to interval neutrosophic sets (INSs. Finally, a numerical example is proposed.

  15. Multiple Authorities Attribute-Based Verification Mechanism for Blockchain Mircogrid Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmadullah Khan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, advancements in energy distribution models have fulfilled the needs of microgrids in finding a suitable energy distribution model between producer and consumer without the need of central controlling authority. Most of the energy distribution model deals with energy transactions and losses without considering the security aspects such as information tampering. The transaction data could be accessible online to keep track of the energy distribution between the consumer and producer (e.g., online payment records and supplier profiles. However this data is prone to modification and misuse if a consumer moves from one producer to other. Blockchain is considered to be one solution to allow users to exchange energy related data and keep track of it without exposing it to modification. In this paper, electrical transactions embedded in blockchain are validated using the signatures of multiple producers based on their assigned attributes. These signatures are verified and endorsed by the consumers satisfying those attributes without revealing any information. The public and private keys for these consumers are generated by the producers and endorsement procedure using these keys ensures that these consumers are authorized. This approach does not need any central authority. To resist against collision attacks, producers are given a secret pseudorandom function seed. The comparative analysis shows the efficiency of proposed approach over the existing ones.

  16. Intelligent Decision Support in Proportional–Stop-Loss Reinsurance Using Multiple Attribute Decision-Making (MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Jie Xuan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the possibility of incorporating intelligent decision support systems into reinsurance decision-making. This involves the insurance company and the reinsurance company, and is negotiated through reinsurance intermediaries. The article proposes a decision flow to model the reinsurance design and selection process. This article focuses on adopting more than one optimality criteria under a more generic combinational design of commonly used reinsurance products, i.e., proportional reinsurance and stop-loss reinsurance. In terms of methodology, the significant contribution of the study the incorporation of the well-established decision analysis tool multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM into the modelling of reinsurance selection. To illustrate the feasibility of incorporating intelligent decision supporting systems in the reinsurance market, the study includes a numerical case study using the simulation software @Risk in modeling insurance claims, as well as programming in MATLAB to realize MADM. A list of managerial implications could be drawn from the case study results. Most importantly, when choosing the most appropriate type of reinsurance, insurance companies should base their decisions on multiple measurements instead of single-criteria decision-making models so that their decisions may be more robust.

  17. Simultaneous colour visualizations of multiple ALS point cloud attributes for land cover and vegetation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Schroiff, Anke; Otepka, Johannes; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    LIDAR point clouds hold valuable information for land cover and vegetation analysis, not only in the spatial distribution of the points but also in their various attributes. However, LIDAR point clouds are rarely used for visual interpretation, since for most users, the point cloud is difficult to interpret compared to passive optical imagery. Meanwhile, point cloud viewing software is available allowing interactive 3D interpretation, but typically only one attribute at a time. This results in a large number of points with the same colour, crowding the scene and often obscuring detail. We developed a scheme for mapping information from multiple LIDAR point attributes to the Red, Green, and Blue channels of a widely used LIDAR data format, which are otherwise mostly used to add information from imagery to create "photorealistic" point clouds. The possible combinations of parameters are therefore represented in a wide range of colours, but relative differences in individual parameter values of points can be well understood. The visualization was implemented in OPALS software, using a simple and robust batch script, and is viewer independent since the information is stored in the point cloud data file itself. In our case, the following colour channel assignment delivered best results: Echo amplitude in the Red, echo width in the Green and normalized height above a Digital Terrain Model in the Blue channel. With correct parameter scaling (but completely without point classification), points belonging to asphalt and bare soil are dark red, low grassland and crop vegetation are bright red to yellow, shrubs and low trees are green and high trees are blue. Depending on roof material and DTM quality, buildings are shown from red through purple to dark blue. Erroneously high or low points, or points with incorrect amplitude or echo width usually have colours contrasting from terrain or vegetation. This allows efficient visual interpretation of the point cloud in planar

  18. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel E Raine

    Full Text Available Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals that were fast to learn yellow as a predictor of reward were also quick to reverse this association. Furthermore, overnight memory retention tests suggest that faster learning individuals are also better at retaining previously learned information. There is also an effect of relatedness: colonies whose workers were fast to learn the association between yellow and reward also reversed this association rapidly. These results are inconsistent with a trade-off between learning speed and the reversal of a previously made association. On the contrary, they suggest that differences in learning performance and cognitive (behavioural flexibility could reflect more general differences in colony learning ability. Hence, this study provides additional evidence to support the idea that rapid learning and behavioural flexibility have adaptive value.

  19. On the road to invariant recognition: explaining tradeoff and morph properties of cells in inferotemporal cortex using multiple-scale task-sensitive attentive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Markowitz, Jeffrey; Cao, Yongqiang

    2011-12-01

    Visual object recognition is an essential accomplishment of advanced brains. Object recognition needs to be tolerant, or invariant, with respect to changes in object position, size, and view. In monkeys and humans, a key area for recognition is the anterior inferotemporal cortex (ITa). Recent neurophysiological data show that ITa cells with high object selectivity often have low position tolerance. We propose a neural model whose cells learn to simulate this tradeoff, as well as ITa responses to image morphs, while explaining how invariant recognition properties may arise in stages due to processes across multiple cortical areas. These processes include the cortical magnification factor, multiple receptive field sizes, and top-down attentive matching and learning properties that may be tuned by task requirements to attend to either concrete or abstract visual features with different levels of vigilance. The model predicts that data from the tradeoff and image morph tasks emerge from different levels of vigilance in the animals performing them. This result illustrates how different vigilance requirements of a task may change the course of category learning, notably the critical features that are attended and incorporated into learned category prototypes. The model outlines a path for developing an animal model of how defective vigilance control can lead to symptoms of various mental disorders, such as autism and amnesia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable Assessment of Aerosol Pollution Decrease Applying Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution with various materials, particularly with aerosols, increases with the advances in technological development. This is a complicated global problem. One of the priorities in achieving sustainable development is the reduction of harmful technological effects on the environment and human health. It is a responsibility of researchers to search for effective methods of reducing pollution. The reliable results can be obtained by combining the approaches used in various fields of science and technology. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of the multiple attribute decision-making (MADM methods in investigating and solving the environmental pollution problems. The paper presents the study of the process of the evaporation of a toxic liquid based on using the MADM methods. A schematic view of the test setup is presented. The density, viscosity, and rate of the released vapor flow are measured and the dependence of the variation of the solution concentration on its temperature is determined in the experimental study. The concentration of hydrochloric acid solution (HAS varies in the range from 28% to 34%, while the liquid is heated from 50 to 80 °C. The variations in the parameters are analyzed using the well-known VIKOR and COPRAS MADM methods. For determining the criteria weights, a new CILOS (Criterion Impact LOSs method is used. The experimental results are arranged in the priority order, using the MADM methods. Based on the obtained data, the technological parameters of production, ensuring minimum environmental pollution, can be chosen.

  1. Hesitant triangular fuzzy information aggregation operators based on Bonferroni means and their application to multiple attribute decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyong; Li, Qingguo; Zhou, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) problems with hesitant triangular fuzzy information. Firstly, definition and some operational laws of hesitant triangular fuzzy elements are introduced. Then, we develop some hesitant triangular fuzzy aggregation operators based on Bonferroni means and discuss their basic properties. Some existing operators can be viewed as their special cases. Next, we apply the proposed operators to deal with multiple attribute decision-making problems under hesitant triangular fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the developed method and demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  2. Face Image Retrieval of Efficient Sparse Code words and Multiple Attribute in Binning Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In photography, face recognition and face retrieval play an important role in many applications such as security, criminology and image forensics. Advancements in face recognition make easier for identity matching of an individual with attributes. Latest development in computer vision technologies enables us to extract facial attributes from the input image and provide similar image results. In this paper, we propose a novel LOP and sparse codewords method to provide similar matching results with respect to input query image. To improve accuracy in image results with input image and dynamic facial attributes, Local octal pattern algorithm [LOP] and Sparse codeword applied in offline and online. The offline and online procedures in face image binning techniques apply with sparse code. Experimental results with Pubfig dataset shows that the proposed LOP along with sparse codewords able to provide matching results with increased accuracy of 90%.

  3. Managing forest and marginal agricultural land for multiple tradeoffs : compromising on economic, carbon and structural biodiversity objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Kooten, van G.C.; Vertinsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use compromise programming to solve a multiple-objective land use and forest management planning model. Long- and short- (`fast¿) term carbon uptake, maintenance of structural diversity, and economic (net returns to forestry and agriculture) objectives are simultaneously achieved

  4. Relational Aggression and Hostile Attribution Biases: Testing Multiple Statistical Methods and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used both categorical and dimensional approaches to test the association between relational and physical aggression and hostile intent attributions for both relational and instrumental provocation situations using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  5. Decision Making in Manufacturing Environment Using Graph Theory and Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making Methods Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, R Venkata

    2013-01-01

    Decision Making in Manufacturing Environment Using Graph Theory and Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making Methods presents the concepts and details of applications of MADM methods. A range of methods are covered including Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), VIšekriterijumsko KOmpromisno Rangiranje (VIKOR), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Preference Ranking METHod for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realité (ELECTRE), COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS), Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), UTility Additive (UTA), and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA). The existing MADM methods are improved upon and three novel multiple attribute decision making methods for solving the decision making problems of the manufacturing environment are proposed. The concept of integrated weights is introduced in the proposed subjective and objective integrated weights (SOIW) method and the weighted Euclidean distance ba...

  6. Models for Multiple Attribute Decision-Making with Dual Generalized Single-Valued Neutrosophic Bonferroni Mean Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we expand the dual generalized weighted BM (DGWBM and dual generalized weighted geometric Bonferroni mean (DGWGBM operator with single valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs to propose the dual generalized single-valued neutrosophic number WBM (DGSVNNWBM operator and dual generalized single-valued neutrosophic numbers WGBM (DGSVNNWGBM operator. Then, the multiple attribute decision making (MADM methods are proposed with these operators. In the end, we utilize an applicable example for strategic suppliers selection to prove the proposed methods.

  7. Hair length, facial attractiveness, personality attribution: A multiple fitness model of hairdressing

    OpenAIRE

    Bereczkei, Tamas; Mesko, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Multiple Fitness Model states that attractiveness varies across multiple dimensions, with each feature representing a different aspect of mate value. In the present study, male raters judged the attractiveness of young females with neotenous and mature facial features, with various hair lengths. Results revealed that the physical appearance of long-haired women was rated high, regardless of their facial attractiveness being valued high or low. Women rated as most attractive were those whose f...

  8. A case of multiple skin cancer attributed to Grenz radiotherapy after 50 years latency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kazuko; Matsushita, Shigeto; Baba, Chiaki; Yoshii, Noriko; Uchimiya, Hiroshi; Kanekura, Takuro; Kanzaki, Tamotsu; Mera, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    In 1955, this 74-year-old man received Grenz-ray therapy for inguinal tinea. In 1995, an intractable ulcer appeared in his left inguinal region. The diagnosis was Bowen's disease. In 2005, he noticed new small ulcer in the left inguinal region and a nodule on his left thigh; these lesions were diagnosed as squamous- and basal-cell carcinoma, respectively. This case suggests that various types of skin cancer may be attributable to Grenz radiotherapy after 50 years latency. We review the literature on skin cancers that developed after Grenz radiotherapy and discuss the relationship between exposure to Grenz rays and skin cancer. (author)

  9. Identification of Multiple Subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat and the Impact on Source Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Hudson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of failing to recognise the presence of clinically relevant, but numerically infrequent, subtypes. To investigate this, between 21 and 25 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from each of ten retail chicken carcasses were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using the two restriction enzymes SmaI and KpnI. Among the 227 isolates, thirteen subtypes were identified, the most frequently occurring subtype being isolated from three carcasses. Six carcasses carried a single subtype, three carcasses carried two subtypes each and one carcass carried three subtypes. Some subtypes carried by an individual carcass were shown to be potentially clonally related. Comparison of C. jejuni subtypes from chickens with isolate subtypes from human clinical cases (n = 1248 revealed seven of the thirteen chicken subtypes were indistinguishable from human cases. None of the numerically minor chicken subtypes were identified in the human data. Therefore, typing only one Campylobacter isolate from individual chicken carcasses may be adequate to inform Campylobacter source attribution.

  10. Estimation of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk from multiple head CT scans in ventriculoperitoneal shunted children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aw-Zoretic, J.; Seth, D.; Katzman, G.; Sammet, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to determine the averaged effective dose and lifetime attributable risk factor from multiple head computed tomography (CT) dose data on children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS). Method and materials: A total of 422 paediatric head CT exams were found between October 2008 and January 2011 and retrospectively reviewed. The CT dose data was weighted with the latest IRCP 103 conversion factor to obtain the effective dose per study and the averaged effective dose was calculated. Estimates of the lifetime attributable risk were also calculated from the averaged effective dose using a conversion factor from the latest BEIR VII report. Results: Our study found the highest effective doses in neonates and the lowest effective doses were observed in the 10–18 years age group. We estimated a 0.007% potential increase risk in neonates and 0.001% potential increased risk in teenagers over the base risk. Conclusion: Multiple head CTs in children equates to a slight potential increase risk in lifetime attributable risk over the baseline risk for cancer, slightly higher in neonates relative to teenagers. The potential risks versus clinical benefit must be assessed

  11. A hybrid multiple attribute decision making method for solving problems of industrial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate alternative in the industrial environment is an important but, at the same time, a complex and difficult problem because of the availability of a wide range of alternatives and similarity among them. Therefore, there is a need for simple, systematic, and logical methods or mathematical tools to guide decision makers in considering a number of selection attributes and their interrelations. In this paper, a hybrid decision making method of graph theory and matrix approach (GTMA and analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed. Three examples are presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed GTMA-AHP method and the results are compared with the results obtained using other decision making methods.

  12. Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Methods Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Two-Dimensional Linguistic Partitioned Bonferroni Mean Aggregation Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Yang, Benshuo; Li, Xuemei

    2018-01-24

    In this paper, we investigate multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems where decision makers represent their evaluation of alternatives by trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional uncertain linguistic variable. To begin with, we introduce the definition, properties, expectation, operational laws of trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic information. Then, to improve the accuracy of decision making in some case where there are a sort of interrelationship among the attributes, we analyze partition Bonferroni mean (PBM) operator in trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional variable environment and develop two operators: trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLPBM) aggregation operator and trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic weighted partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLWPBM) aggregation operator. Furthermore, we develop a novel method to solve MAGDM problems based on TF2DLWPBM aggregation operator. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method and analyses the impact of different parameters on the results of decision-making.

  13. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC): A Psychometric and Equivalence Study of an Alternate Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Jason K; Lurie, Jessica B; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2013-01-01

    The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) uses a 64-second video of geometric shapes set in motion to portray themes of social relatedness and intentions. Considered a test of "Theory of Mind," the SAT-MC assesses implicit social attribution formation while reducing verbal and basic cognitive demands required of other common measures. We present a comparability analysis of the SAT-MC and the new SAT-MC-II, an alternate form created for repeat testing, in a university sample (n = 92). Score distributions and patterns of association with external validation measures were nearly identical between the two forms, with convergent and discriminant validity supported by association with affect recognition ability and lack of association with basic visual reasoning. Internal consistency of the SAT-MC-II was superior (alpha = .81) to the SAT-MC (alpha = .56). Results support the use of SAT-MC and new SAT-MC-II as equivalent test forms. Demonstrating relatively higher association to social cognitive than basic cognitive abilities, the SAT-MC may provide enhanced sensitivity as an outcome measure of social cognitive intervention trials.

  14. Public Transportation Hub Location with Stochastic Demand: An Improved Approach Based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transportation hubs are the key nodes of the public transportation system. The location of such hubs is a combinatorial problem. Many factors can affect the decision-making of location, including both quantitative and qualitative factors; however, most current research focuses solely on either the quantitative or the qualitative factors. Little has been done to combine these two approaches. To fulfill this gap in the research, this paper proposes a novel approach to the public transportation hub location problem, which takes both quantitative and qualitative factors into account. In this paper, an improved multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM method based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution and deviation is proposed to convert the qualitative factors of each hub into quantitative evaluation values. A location model with stochastic passenger flows is then established based on the above evaluation values. Finally, stochastic programming theory is applied to solve the model and to determine the location result. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  15. New Hybrid Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Model for Improving Competence Sets: Enhancing a Company’s Core Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Wei Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A company’s core competitiveness depends on the strategic allocation of its human resources in alignment with employee capabilities. Competency models can identify the range of capabilities at a company’s disposal, and this information can be used to develop internal or external education training policies for sustainable development. Such models can ensure the importation of a strategic orientation reflecting the growth of its employee competence set and enhancing human resource sustainably. This approach ensures that the most appropriate people are assigned to the most appropriate positions. In this study, we proposed a new hybrid multiple attributed decision-making model by using the Decision-making trial and Evaluation Laboratory Technique (DEMATEL to construct an influential network relation map (INRM and determined the influential weights by using the basic concept of the analytic network process (called DEMATEL-based ANP, DANP; the influential weights were then adopted with a modified Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method. A simple forecasting technique as an iteration function was also proposed. The proposed model was effective. We expect that the proposed model can facilitate making timely revisions, reflecting the growth of employee competence sets, reducing the performance gap toward the aspiration level, and ensuring the sustainability of a company.

  16. Predicting Social and Communicative Ability in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study of the Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger-Caplan, Rebecca; Saulnier, Celine; Jones, Warren; Klin, Ami

    2016-01-01

    The Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice is introduced as a measure of implicit social cognitive ability in children, addressing a key challenge in quantification of social cognitive function in autism spectrum disorder, whereby individuals can often be successful in explicit social scenarios, despite marked social adaptive deficits. The…

  17. Identification and Prioritization of Important Attributes of Disease-Modifying Drugs in Decision Making among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Nominal Group Technique and Best-Worst Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Ingrid E H; Evers, Silvia M A A; Jongen, Peter J; van der Weijden, Trudy; van de Kolk, Ilona; Hiligsmann, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for disease-modifying drugs and involving these patients in clinical decision making can improve the concordance between medical decisions and patient values and may, subsequently, improve adherence to disease-modifying drugs. This study aims first to identify which characteristics-or attributes-of disease-modifying drugs influence patients´ decisions about these treatments and second to quantify the attributes' relative importance among patients. First, three focus groups of relapsing-remitting MS patients were formed to compile a preliminary list of attributes using a nominal group technique. Based on this qualitative research, a survey with several choice tasks (best-worst scaling) was developed to prioritize attributes, asking a larger patient group to choose the most and least important attributes. The attributes' mean relative importance scores (RIS) were calculated. Nineteen patients reported 34 attributes during the focus groups and 185 patients evaluated the importance of the attributes in the survey. The effect on disease progression received the highest RIS (RIS = 9.64, 95% confidence interval: [9.48-9.81]), followed by quality of life (RIS = 9.21 [9.00-9.42]), relapse rate (RIS = 7.76 [7.39-8.13]), severity of side effects (RIS = 7.63 [7.33-7.94]) and relapse severity (RIS = 7.39 [7.06-7.73]). Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in preference of patients. For example, side effect-related attributes were statistically more important for patients who had no experience in using disease-modifying drugs compared to experienced patients (p decision making would be needed and requires eliciting individual preferences.

  18. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give

  19. Performance evaluation and ranking of direct sales stores using BSC approach and fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Soltannezhad Dizaji; Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh; Ahmad Makui

    2017-01-01

    In an environment where markets go through a volatile process, and rapid fundamental changes occur due to technological advances, it is important to ensure and maintain a good performance measurement. Organizations, in their performance evaluation, should consider different types of financial and non-financial indicators. In systems like direct sales stores in which decision units have multiple inputs and outputs, all criteria influencing on performance must be combined and examined in a syst...

  20. Evaluation of Personal and Built Environment Attributes to Physical Activity: A Multilevel Analysis on Multiple Population-Based Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies have documented that built environment factors potentially promote or impede leisure time physical activity (LTPA. This study explored the relationship between multiple built environment factors and individual characteristics on LTPA. Methods. Multiple data sources were utilized including individual level data for health behaviors and health status from the Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and community level data from different data sources including indicators for recreation facilities, safety, air quality, commute time, urbanization, population density, and land mix level. Mixed model logistic regression and geographic information system (GIS spatial analysis were conducted. Results. Among 6,311 respondents, 24.4% reported no LTPA engagement during the past 30 days. No engagement in LTPA was significantly associated with (1 individual factors: older age, less education, lower income, being obesity, and low life satisfaction and (2 community factors: more commute time, higher crime rate, urban residence, higher population density, but not for density and distance to recreation facilities, air quality, and land mix. Conclusions. Multiple data systems including complex population survey and spatial analysis are valuable tools on health and built environment studies.

  1. Environmentally induced development costs underlie fitness tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Greg M; Wilkinson, Melanie J; Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms struggle to reach key life history stages, or alternatively, die shortly after reaching life history stages if there are greater risks of mortality associated with costs to developing in novel environments. We used multiple populations from four ecotypes of an Australian native wildflower (Senecio pinnatifolius) in reciprocal transplants to explore how fitness tradeoffs arise across ontogeny. We then assessed whether the survival probability for plants from native and foreign populations was contingent on reaching key developmental stages. We found that fitness tradeoffs emerged as ontogeny progressed when native plants were more successful than foreign plants at reaching seedling establishment and maturity. Native and foreign plants that failed to reach seedling establishment died at the same rate, but plants from foreign populations died quicker than native plants after reaching seedling establishment, and died quicker regardless of whether they reached sexual maturity or not. Development rates were similar for native and foreign populations, but changed depending on the environment. Together, our results suggest that natural selection for environment-specific traits early in life history created tradeoffs between contrasting environments. Plants from foreign populations were either unable to develop to seedling establishment, or they suffered increased mortality as a consequence of reaching seedling establishment. The observation of tradeoffs together with

  2. Maclaurin symmetric mean operators of linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy numbers and their application to multiple-attribute decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peide; Qin, Xiyou

    2017-11-01

    Linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy number (LIFN) is a special intuitionistic fuzzy number which can more easily describe the vagueness existing in the real decision-making. Maclaurin symmetric mean (MSM) operator has the characteristic of considering the interrelationships among any number of input parameters. In this paper, we extended the MSM operator to the LIFNs and some extended MSM operators for LIFNs were proposed, some new decision-making methods were developed. Firstly, we introduced the definition, score function, properties and operational rules of the LIFNs. Then, we proposed some linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy MSM operators, such as linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy Maclaurin symmetric mean operator, weighted linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy Maclaurin symmetric mean (WLIFMSM) operator, linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy dual Maclaurin symmetric mean operator, weighted linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy dual Maclaurin symmetric mean (WLIFDMSM) operator. In the meantime, we studied some important properties of these operators, and developed some methods based on WLIFMSM operator and WLIFDMSM operator for multi-attribute decision-making. Finally, we use an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  3. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  4. Novel attributes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/SiC HEMTs with the multiple indented channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Ghaffari, Majid

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a high performance AlGaN/AlN/GaN/SiC High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) with the multiple indented channel (MIC-HEMT) is proposed. The main focus of the proposed structure is based on reduction of the space around the gate, stop of the spread of the depletion region around the source-drain, and decrement of the thickness of the channel between the gate and drain. Therefore, the breakdown voltage increases, meanwhile the elimination of the gate depletion layer extension to source/drain decreases the gate-source and gate-drain capacitances. The optimized results reveal that the breakdown voltage and the drain saturation current increase about 178% and 46% compared with a conventional HEMT (C-HEMT), respectively. Therefore, the maximum output power density is improved by factor 4.1 in comparison with conventional one. Also, the cut-off frequency of 25.2 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency of 92.1 GHz for the MIC-HEMT are obtained compared to 13 GHz and 43 GHz for that of the C-HEMT and the minimum figure noise decreased consequently of reducing the gate-drain and gate-source capacitances by about 42% and 40%, respectively. The proposed MIC-HEMT shows a maximum stable gain (MSG) exceeding 24.1 dB at 3.1 GHz which the greatest gain is yet reported for HEMTs, showing the potential of this device for high power RF applications.

  5. Performance evaluation and ranking of direct sales stores using BSC approach and fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Soltannezhad Dizaji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where markets go through a volatile process, and rapid fundamental changes occur due to technological advances, it is important to ensure and maintain a good performance measurement. Organizations, in their performance evaluation, should consider different types of financial and non-financial indicators. In systems like direct sales stores in which decision units have multiple inputs and outputs, all criteria influencing on performance must be combined and examined in a system, simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of different products through direct sales of a firm named Shirin Asal with a combination of Balanced Scorecard, fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS so that the weaknesses of subjectivity and selective consideration of evaluators in evaluating the performance indicators are reduced and evaluation integration is provided by considering the contribution of each indicator and each indicator group of balanced scorecard. The research method of this case study is applied. The data collection method is a questionnaire from the previous studies, the use of experts' opinions and the study of documents in the organization. MATLAB and SPSS were used to analyze the data. During this study, the customer and financial perspectives are of the utmost importance to assess the company branches. Among the sub-criteria, the rate of new customer acquisition in the customer dimension and the net income to sales ratio in financial dimension are of the utmost importance.

  6. Trade-off between bandwidth and efficiency in semipolar (20 2 ¯ 1 ¯) InGaN/GaN single- and multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, M.; Rashidi, A.; Aragon, A. A.; Nami, M.; Oh, S. H.; DenBaars, S. P.; Feezell, D.

    2018-05-01

    InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with large modulation bandwidths are desirable for visible-light communication. Along with modulation speed, the consideration of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) under operating conditions is also important. Here, we report the modulation characteristics of semipolar (20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) InGaN/GaN (LEDs) with single-quantum well (SQW) and multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active regions grown on free-standing semipolar GaN substrates with peak internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of 0.93 and 0.73, respectively. The MQW LEDs exhibit on average about 40-80% higher modulation bandwidth, reaching 1.5 GHz at 13 kA/cm2, but about 27% lower peak IQE than the SQW LEDs. We extract the differential carrier lifetimes (DLTs), RC parasitics, and carrier escape lifetimes and discuss their role in the bandwidth and IQE characteristics. A coulomb-enhanced capture process is shown to rapidly reduce the DLT of the MQW LED at high current densities. Auger recombination is also shown to play little role in increasing the speed of the LEDs. Finally, we investigate the trade-offs between the bandwidth and efficiency and introduce the bandwidth-IQE product as a potential figure of merit for optimizing speed and efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs.

  7. Improved hybridization of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) algorithm with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiwani, B. E.; Zarlis, M.; Efendi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the improvement of hybridization algorithm of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS) in selecting the best bank chief inspector based on several qualitative and quantitative criteria with various priorities. To improve the performance of the above research, FAHP algorithm hybridization with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW) algorithm was adopted, which applied FAHP algorithm to the weighting process and SAW for the ranking process to determine the promotion of employee at a government institution. The result of improvement of the average value of Efficiency Rate (ER) is 85.24%, which means that this research has succeeded in improving the previous research that is equal to 77.82%. Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Fuzzy AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, FMADM-SAW.

  8. Uses And Characteristics Of Dynamic Tradeoff Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses basic concepts, some applications, and performance characteristics of dynamic tradeoff evaluation (DTE). Basic concepts of DTE also described in "Dynamic Restructuring of Problems in Artificial Intelligence" (NPO-18488). DTE is method of enhancing real-time performance of artificial-intelligence system such as might be used to monitor data from multiple sensors in factory, aircraft, spacecraft, or other complex system of equipment. Report presents evaluation of DTE as applied to spacecraft-monitoring problems.

  9. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preference Evaluation System for Construction Products Using QFD-TOPSIS Logic by Considering Trade-Off Technical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of quality function deployment, technique for the order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (QFD-TOPSIS in presenting user preferences for multiple alternatives, such as construction technologies, products, systems, and design solutions, with trade-off technical characteristics (TC. The original QFD as house of quality (HOQ defines the requirements and features as subjective matrix relations, which cause interpretations to vary across users and limit its industrial applications. QFD-TOPSIS is a new model that combines the benefits of QFD with those of TOPSIS, maintains the subjectivity and objectivity evaluation of the technical characteristics (TC, and rates the preferences by considering users’ individual propensity for requirements. In addition, QFD-TOPSIS rates the preferences through the reciprocal compensation effects of trade-off TC and filters unsuitable alternatives with predefined restrictive conditions. Trade-off refers to conflicts and/or contradictions between attributes, often arising in multicriteria decision-making. Users or project stakeholder groups define the priorities of trade-off TC that directly influence product preferences and decision-making. In the present study, we have developed a Web system based on the QFD-TOPSIS logic and tested its operation to verify its industrial applicability and viability for automatic quality evaluation.

  11. Gluon attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good

  12. Patient centered decision making: use of conjoint analysis to determine risk-benefit trade-offs for preference sensitive treatment choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leslie; Loucks, Aimee; Bui, Christine; Gipson, Greg; Zhong, Lixian; Schwartzburg, Amy; Crabtree, Elizabeth; Goodin, Douglas; Waubant, Emmanuelle; McCulloch, Charles

    2014-09-15

    Understanding patient preferences facilitates shared decision-making and focuses on patient-centered outcomes. Little is known about relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patient preferences for disease modifying therapies (DMTs). We use choice based conjoint (CBC) analysis to calculate patient preferences for risk/benefit trade-offs for hypothetical DMTs. Patients with RRMS were surveyed between 2012 and 2013. Our CBC survey mimicked the decision-making process and trade-offs of patients choosing DMTs, based on all possible DMT attributes. Mixed-effects logistic regression analyzed preferences. We estimated maximum acceptable risk trade-offs for various DMT benefits. Severe side-effect risks had the biggest impact on patient preference with a 1% risk, decreasing patient preference five-fold compared to no risk. (OR=0.22, pbenefit (OR=3.68, pbenefit trade-offs for attributes of all available DMTs. Evaluation of patient preferences is a key step in shared decision making and may significantly impact early drug initiation and compliance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling trade-offs between plant fiber and toxins: a framework for quantifying risks perceived by foraging herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Meghan J; Shipley, Lisa A; Johnson, Timothy R; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen; Rachlow, Janet L; Crowell, Miranda M

    2015-12-01

    When selecting habitats, herbivores must weigh multiple risks, such as predation, starvation, toxicity, and thermal stress, forcing them to make fitness trade-offs. Here, we applied the method of paired comparisons (PC) to investigate how herbivores make trade-offs between habitat features that influence selection of food patches. The method of PC measures utility and the inverse of utility, relative risk, and makes trade-offs and indifferences explicit by forcing animals to make choices between two patches with different types of risks. Using a series of paired-choice experiments to titrate the equivalence curve and find the marginal rate of substitution for one risk over the other, we evaluated how toxin-tolerant (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis) and fiber-tolerant (mountain cottontail rabbit Sylviagus nuttallii) herbivores differed in their hypothesized perceived risk of fiber and toxins in food. Pygmy rabbits were willing to consume nearly five times more of the toxin 1,8-cineole in their diets to avoid consuming higher levels of fiber than were mountain cottontails. Fiber posed a greater relative risk for pygmy rabbits than cottontails and cineole a greater risk for cottontails than pygmy rabbits. Our flexible modeling approach can be used to (1) quantify how animals evaluate and trade off multiple habitat attributes when the benefits and risks are difficult to quantify, and (2) integrate diverse risks that influence fitness and habitat selection into a single index of habitat value. This index potentially could be applied to landscapes to predict habitat selection across several scales.

  14. Attributing Hacks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ziqi; Smola, Alexander J.; Soska, Kyle; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for estimating the provenance of hacks on websites. That is, given properties of sites and the temporal occurrence of attacks, we are able to attribute individual attacks to joint causes and vulnerabilities, as well as estimating the evolution of these vulnerabilities over time. Specifically, we use hazard regression with a time-varying additive hazard function parameterized in a generalized linear form. The activation coefficients on each feature are co...

  15. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Karen L.; Veile, Amanda; Ot?rola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger s...

  16. Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Probabilistic Graphical Model with Multiple Feature Fusion for Binary Facial Attribute Classification in Real-World Face Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkus, Meltem; Precup, Doina; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Recent literature shows that facial attributes, i.e., contextual facial information, can be beneficial for improving the performance of real-world applications, such as face verification, face recognition, and image search. Examples of face attributes include gender, skin color, facial hair, etc. How to robustly obtain these facial attributes (traits) is still an open problem, especially in the presence of the challenges of real-world environments: non-uniform illumination conditions, arbitrary occlusions, motion blur and background clutter. What makes this problem even more difficult is the enormous variability presented by the same subject, due to arbitrary face scales, head poses, and facial expressions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of facial trait classification in real-world face videos. We have developed a fully automatic hierarchical and probabilistic framework that models the collective set of frame class distributions and feature spatial information over a video sequence. The experiments are conducted on a large real-world face video database that we have collected, labelled and made publicly available. The proposed method is flexible enough to be applied to any facial classification problem. Experiments on a large, real-world video database McGillFaces [1] of 18,000 video frames reveal that the proposed framework outperforms alternative approaches, by up to 16.96 and 10.13%, for the facial attributes of gender and facial hair, respectively.

  17. Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.P.; Beard, T.D.; Bennett, E.M.; Cumming, Graeme S.; Cork, S.J.; Agard, J.; Dobson, A.P.; Peterson, G.D.

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem service (ES) trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, a trade-off may be an explicit choice; but in others, trade-offs arise without premeditation or even awareness that they are taking place. Trade-offs in ES can be classified along three axes: spatial scale, temporal scale, and reversibility. Spatial scale refers to whether the effects of the trade-off are felt locally or at a distant location. Temporal scale refers to whether the effects take place relatively rapidly or slowly. Reversibility expresses the likelihood that the perturbed ES may return to its original state if the perturbation ceases. Across all four Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios and selected case study examples, trade-off decisions show a preference for provisioning, regulating, or cultural services (in that order). Supporting services are more likely to be "taken for granted." Cultural ES are almost entirely unquantified in scenario modeling; therefore, the calculated model results do not fully capture losses of these services that occur in the scenarios. The quantitative scenario models primarily capture the services that are perceived by society as more important - provisioning and regulating ecosystem services - and thus do not fully capture trade-offs of cultural and supporting services. Successful management policies will be those that incorporate lessons learned from prior decisions into future management actions. Managers should complement their actions with monitoring programs that, in addition to monitoring the short-term provisions of services, also monitor the long-term evolution of slowly changing variables. Policies can then be developed to take into account ES trade-offs at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Successful strategies will

  18. Trade-offs across Space, Time, and Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Paul. Rodríguez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service (ES trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, a trade-off may be an explicit choice; but in others, trade-offs arise without premeditation or even awareness that they are taking place. Trade-offs in ES can be classified along three axes: spatial scale, temporal scale, and reversibility. Spatial scale refers to whether the effects of the trade-off are felt locally or at a distant location. Temporal scale refers to whether the effects take place relatively rapidly or slowly. Reversibility expresses the likelihood that the perturbed ES may return to its original state if the perturbation ceases. Across all four Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios and selected case study examples, trade-off decisions show a preference for provisioning, regulating, or cultural services (in that order. Supporting services are more likely to be "taken for granted." Cultural ES are almost entirely unquantified in scenario modeling; therefore, the calculated model results do not fully capture losses of these services that occur in the scenarios. The quantitative scenario models primarily capture the services that are perceived by society as more important - provisioning and regulating ecosystem services - and thus do not fully capture trade-offs of cultural and supporting services. Successful management policies will be those that incorporate lessons learned from prior decisions into future management actions. Managers should complement their actions with monitoring programs that, in addition to monitoring the short-term provisions of services, also monitor the long-term evolution of slowly changing variables. Policies can then be developed to take into account ES trade-offs at multiple spatial and temporal scales

  19. Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kurata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms, even in situations where much simpler designs seem to be sufficient for generating nominal functionality. Using module-based analysis coupled with rigorous mathematical comparisons, we propose that in analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of cellular systems and the presence of hierarchical modular structures can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. We employ the Escherichia coli heat shock response system, a strongly conserved cellular mechanism, as an example to explore the design principles of such modular architectures. In the heat shock response system, the sigma-factor sigma32 is a central regulator that integrates multiple feedforward and feedback modules. Each of these modules provides a different type of robustness with its inherent tradeoffs in terms of transient response and efficiency. We demonstrate how the overall architecture of the system balances such tradeoffs. An extensive mathematical exploration nevertheless points to the existence of an array of alternative strategies for the existing heat shock response that could exhibit similar behavior. We therefore deduce that the evolutionary constraints facing the system might have steered its architecture toward one of many robustly functional solutions.

  20. Interval-valued Hesitant Fuzzy Heronian Mean Operators and Their Application to Multiple Attribute Decision Making%区间犹豫模糊集成算子及其在多属性决策中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓冬; 臧誉琪; 孙微

    2017-01-01

    针对属性值为区间犹豫模糊元且属性间存在相互关联的多属性决策问题,提出一种基于区间犹豫模糊Heronian平均算子的多属性决策方法.首先,给出了区间犹豫模糊元的定义及运算法则;然后,提出了区间犹豫模糊Heronian平均算子和区间犹豫模糊几何Heronian平均算子,并探讨了它们的特性;在此基础上,考虑到各属性的不同重要性,定义了区间犹豫模糊加权Heronian平均算子和区间犹豫模糊加权几何Heronian平均算子;最后,将区间犹豫模糊加权Heronian平均算子应用于多属性决策问题中,验证了所提算子的有效性和可行性.%With respect to the multiple attribute decision making problems in which the a ttribute values are in the form of interval-valued hesitant fuzzy information and attributes are associated with each other,in this paper proposed a multiple attribute decision making method based on the intervalvalued hesitant fuzzy Heronian mean operator.Firstly,the definition of the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy set is given,some basic operation laws of it are discussed;Then,the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy Heronian mean operator and the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy geometric Heronian mean operator are proposed,some desirable properties are studied in detail;Furthermore,considering the attributes with different importance,the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy weighted Heronian mean operator and the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy weighted geometric Heronian mean operator are defined.Finally,the interval-valued hesitant fuzzy weighted Heronian mean operator is applied to the multiple attribute decision making problem,in order to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed operators.

  1. Age-dependent trade-offs between immunity and male, but not female, reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; van Lieshout, Emile; Jones, Therésa M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Immune function is costly and must be traded off against other life-history traits, such as gamete production. Studies of immune trade-offs typically focus on adult individuals, yet the juvenile stage can be a highly protracted period when reproductive resources are acquired and immune challenges are ubiquitous. Trade-offs during development are likely to be important, yet no studies have considered changes in adult responses to immune challenges imposed at different stages of juvenile development. By manipulating the timing of a bacterial immune challenge to the larvae of the cotton bollworm moth, we examined potential trade-offs between investment into immunity at different stages of juvenile development (early or late) and subsequent adult reproductive investment into sperm or egg production. Our data reveal an age-dependent trade-off between juvenile immune function and adult male reproductive investment. Activation of the immune response during late development resulted in a reduced allocation of resources to eupyrene (fertilizing) sperm production. Immune activation from the injection procedure itself (irrespective of whether individuals were injected with an immune elicitor or a control solution) also caused reproductive trade-offs; males injected early in development produced fewer apyrene (nonfertilizing) sperm. Contrary to many other studies, our study demonstrates these immune trade-offs under ad libitum nutritional conditions. No trade-offs were observed between female immune activation and adult reproductive investment. We suggest the differences in trade-offs observed between male sperm types and the absence of reproductive trade-offs in females may be the result of ontogenetic differences in gamete production in this species. Our data reveal developmental windows when trade-offs between immune function and gametic investment are made, and highlight the importance of considering multiple developmental periods when making inferences regarding the

  2. Managing trade-offs in landscape restoration and revegetation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martine; Cockfield, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Landscape restoration projects often have multiple and disparate conservation, resource enhancement, and sometimes economic objectives, since projects that seek to meet more than one objective tend to be viewed more positively by funding agencies and the community. The degree to which there are trade-offs among desired objectives is an important variable for decision makers, yet this is rarely explicitly considered. In particular, the existence of ecological thresholds has important implications for decision-making at both the project level and the regional level. We develop a model of the possibilities and choices for an agency seeking to achieve two environmental objectives in a region through revegetation of a number of sites. A graphical model of the production possibilities sets for a single revegetation project is developed, and different trade-off relationships are discussed and illustrated. Then the model is used to demonstrate the possibilities for managing all such projects within a region. We show that, where there are thresholds in the trade-off relationship between two objectives, specialization (single- or dominant-objective projects) should be considered. This is illustrated using a case study in which revegetation is used to meet avian biodiversity and salinity mitigation objectives. We conclude that where there are sufficient scientific data, explicit consideration of different types of trade-offs can assist in making decisions about the most efficient mix and type of projects to better achieve a range of objectives within a region.

  3. Balancing tradeoffs in the Denali Wilderness: an expanded approach to normative research using stated choice analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Lawson; Robert Manning

    2002-01-01

    Wilderness experiences are thought to be comprised of or defined by three dimensions, including social, resource, and management conditions. Decisions about how to manage wilderness recreation in Denali National Park involve potential tradeoffs among the conditions of resource, social, and managerial attributes of the wilderness experience. This study expands the...

  4. Habitat Fragmentation Intensifies Trade-Offs between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in a Heathland Ecosystem in Southern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, Justine E; Newton, Adrian C; Rose, Robert J; Clarke, Ralph T; Bullock, James M

    2015-01-01

    While habitat fragmentation represents a major threat to global biodiversity, its impacts on provision of ecosystem services are largely unknown. We analysed biodiversity value and provision of multiple ecosystem services in 110 fragments of lowland heathland ecosystems in southern England, in which vegetation dynamics have been monitored for over 30 years. Decreasing fragment size was found to be associated with a decrease in biodiversity and recreational values, but an increase in relative carbon storage, aesthetic value and timber value. The trade-off between either biodiversity or recreational values with the other ecosystem services therefore became more pronounced as heathland size decreased. This was attributed to a higher rate of woody succession in smaller heathland fragments over the past three decades, and contrasting values of different successional vegetation types for biodiversity and provision of ecosystem services. These results suggest that habitat fragmentation can reduce the potential for developing "win win" solutions that contribute to biodiversity conservation while also supporting socio-economic development. Approaches to multi-purpose management of fragmented landscapes should therefore consider the potential trade-offs in ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with fragmentation, in order to make an effective contribution to sustainable development.

  5. Performance trade-offs and ageing in the 'world's greatest athletes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Wilson, Robbie S

    2017-08-16

    The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within -individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among -individual variation in 'quality'. Although there is a current debate on how to unambiguously define and account for quality, no previous studies have partitioned trait correlations at the within- and among-individual levels. Here, we evaluate performance trade-offs among and within 1369 elite athletes that performed in a total of 6418 combined-events competitions (decathlon and heptathlon). Controlling for age, experience and wind conditions, we detected strong trade-offs between groups of functionally similar events (throwing versus jumping versus running) occurring at the among-individual level. We further modelled individual (co)variation in age-related plasticity of performance and found previously unseen trade-offs in throwing versus running performance that manifest through ageing. Our results verify that human performance is limited by fundamental genetic, environmental and ageing constraints that preclude the simultaneous improvement of performance in multiple dimensions. Identifying these constraints is fundamental to understanding performance trade-offs and predicting the ageing of motor function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Evolutionary tradeoffs, Pareto optimality and the morphology of ammonite shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, Avichai; Mayo, Avraham; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-07

    Organisms that need to perform multiple tasks face a fundamental tradeoff: no design can be optimal at all tasks at once. Recent theory based on Pareto optimality showed that such tradeoffs lead to a highly defined range of phenotypes, which lie in low-dimensional polyhedra in the space of traits. The vertices of these polyhedra are called archetypes- the phenotypes that are optimal at a single task. To rigorously test this theory requires measurements of thousands of species over hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Ammonoid fossil shells provide an excellent model system for this purpose. Ammonoids have a well-defined geometry that can be parameterized using three dimensionless features of their logarithmic-spiral-shaped shells. Their evolutionary history includes repeated mass extinctions. We find that ammonoids fill out a pyramid in morphospace, suggesting five specific tasks - one for each vertex of the pyramid. After mass extinctions, surviving species evolve to refill essentially the same pyramid, suggesting that the tasks are unchanging. We infer putative tasks for each archetype, related to economy of shell material, rapid shell growth, hydrodynamics and compactness. These results support Pareto optimality theory as an approach to study evolutionary tradeoffs, and demonstrate how this approach can be used to infer the putative tasks that may shape the natural selection of phenotypes.

  7. Coding-Spreading Tradeoff in CDMA Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolas, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    .... Comparing different combinations of coding and spreading with a traditional DS-CDMA, as defined in the IS-95 standard, allows the criteria to be defined for the best coding-spreading tradeoff in CDMA systems...

  8. Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Olfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rinberg, Dmitry; Koulakov, ALexel; Gelperin, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The basic psychophysical principle of speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) has been used to understand key aspects of neuronal information processing in vision and audition, but the principle of SAT is still debated in olfaction...

  9. Information-disturbance tradeoff in quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple information-disturbance tradeoff relation valid for any general measurement apparatus: The disturbance between input and output states is lower bounded by the information the apparatus provides in distinguishing these two states

  10. Estimating the monetary value of willingness to pay for E-book reader's attributes using partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Chin-Khian

    2013-09-01

    A partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiments design was used to examine the monetary value of the willingness to pay for E-book Reader's attributes. Conjoint analysis is an efficient, cost-effective, and most widely used quantitative method in marketing research to understand consumer preferences and value trade-off. Value can be interpreted by customer or consumer as the received of multiple benefits from a price that was paid. The monetary value of willingness to pay for battery life, internal memory, external memory, screen size, text to Speech, touch screen, and converting handwriting to digital text of E-book reader were estimated in this study. Due to the significant interaction effect of the attributes with the price, the monetary values for the seven attributes were found to be different at different values of odds of purchasing versus not purchasing. The significant interactions effects were one of the main contribution of the partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment.

  11. Plant responses, climate pivot points, and trade-offs in water-limited ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, S. M.; Bunting, E.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem transitions and thresholds are conceptually well-defined and have become a framework to address vegetation response to climate change and land-use intensification, yet there are few approaches to define the environmental conditions which can lead to them. We demonstrate a novel climate pivot point approach using long-term monitoring data from a broad network of permanent plots, satellite imagery, and experimental treatments across the southwestern U.S. The climate pivot point identifies conditions that lead to decreased plant performance and serves as an early warning sign of increased vulnerability of crossing a threshold into an altered ecosystem state. Plant responses and climate pivot points aligned with the lifespan and structural characteristics of species, were modified by soil and landscape attributes of a site, and had non-linear dynamics in some cases. Species with strong increases in abundance when water was available were most susceptible to losses during water shortages, reinforcing plant energetic and physiological tradeoffs. Future research to uncover the heterogeneity of plant responses and climate pivot points at multiple scales can lead to greater understanding of shifts in ecosystem productivity and vulnerability to climate change.

  12. Analysis of the Perfect Table Fuzzy Rainbow Tradeoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Il Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptanalytic time memory tradeoff algorithms are tools for inverting one-way functions, and they are used in practice to recover passwords that restrict access to digital documents. This work provides an accurate complexity analysis of the perfect table fuzzy rainbow tradeoff algorithm. Based on the analysis results, we show that the lesser known fuzzy rainbow tradeoff performs better than the original rainbow tradeoff, which is widely believed to be the best tradeoff algorithm. The fuzzy rainbow tradeoff can attain higher online efficiency than the rainbow tradeoff and do so at a lower precomputation cost.

  13. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  14. Multi-Attribute Vickrey Auctions when Utility Functions are Unknown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Máhr, T.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-attribute auctions allow negotiations over multiple attributes besides price. For example in task allocation, service providers can define their service by means of multiple attributes, such as quality of service, deadlines, or delay penalties. Auction mechanisms assume that the players have

  15. Payload system tradeoffs for mobile communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    System level trade-offs carried out during Mobile Satellite (M-SAT) design activities are described. These trade-offs relate to the use of low level beam forming, flexible power and spectrum distribution, and selection of the number of beams to cover the service area. It is shown that antenna performance can be improved by sharing horns between beams using a low level beam forming network (BFN). Additionally, greatly increased power utilization is possible using a hybrid matrix concept to share power between beams.

  16. Science for Trade-Offs Between Conflicting Interests in Future Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Linder

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests deliver multiple ecosystem services to society. Management of forests must be able to deal with trade-offs when the delivery of different ecosystem services comes in conflict with each other. The research program Future Forests (http://www.futureforests.se attempts to form a scientific basis for managing such trade-offs between conflicting interests in northern boreal forests. Some key characteristics of the research program are interdisciplinary and participatory research and a clear communication agenda for stakeholders. This paper gives a brief overview of the underlying ideas behind the program, and an introduction to the papers published in this Special Issue.

  17. Ecosystem service trade-offs across global contexts and scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Cavender-Bares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Meeting human needs while sustaining the planet's life support systems is the fundamental challenge of our time. What role sustenance of biodiversity and contrasting ecosystem services should play in achieving a sustainable future varies along philosophical, cultural, institutional, societal, and governmental divisions. Contrasting biophysical constraints and perspectives on human well-being arise both within and across countries that span the tropics and temperate zone. Direct sustenance of livelihoods from ecosystem services in East Africa contrasts with the complex and diverse relationships with the land in Mexico and the highly monetary-based economy of the United States. Lack of understanding of the contrasting contexts in which decision-making about trade-offs occurs creates impediments to collective global efforts to sustain the Earth's life support systems. While theoretical notions of the goals of sustainability science seek a unified path forward, realities on the ground present challenges. This Special Feature seeks to provide both an analytical framework and a series of case studies to illuminate impediments posed to sustainability by contrasting biophysical constraints and human perspectives on what should be sustained. The contributors aim to clarify the trade-offs posed to human welfare in sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services and the challenges in managing for a sustainable future in which human well-being is not compromised as compared to today. Our goal is to provide novel insights on how sustainability can be achieved internationally through exploration of constraints, trade-offs, and human values examined at multiple scales, and across geographic regions from a range of cultural perspectives.

  18. Reassessing the Trade-off Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Do economic conditions drive voters to punish politicians that tolerate corruption? Previous scholarly work contends that citizens in young democracies support corrupt governments that are capable of promoting good economic outcomes, the so-called trade-off hypothesis. We test this hypothesis based...

  19. Time and Outcome Framing in Intertemporal Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but…

  20. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b

  1. A study of Trade-off between Opportunistic Resource Allocation and Interference Alignment in Femtocell Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lertwiram, Namzilp; Popovski, Petar; Sakaguchi, Kei

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in wireless heterogeneous networks is interference between macro- and femto-cells. Using Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) to create multiple frequency orthogonal sub-channels, this interference can be completely avoided if each sub-channel is exclusiv...... of the communication resources. In this letter we investigate the interactions and the trade-offs between these two strategies....

  2. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  3. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    pronounced at intermediate environmental conditions. Optimizing single traits generally leads to a more pronounced response of the defense traits, which implies that studying single traits leads to an overestimation of their response to predation. Behavioral defense and morphological defense compensate......Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits...... for and augment each other depending on predator densities and the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms. In the presence of time constraints, the model shows peak investment into morphological and behavioral defense at intermediate resource levels....

  4. A possible tradeoff between developmental rate and pathogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    related tradeoffs is that they are mediated via the conflict- ... Keywords. life-history evolution; tradeoff; development time; immune function; pathogen; Drosophila. Journal of Genetics .... This work was supported in parts by funds from Depart-.

  5. Metropolitan density, energy efficiency and carbon emissions: Multi-attribute tradeoffs and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Of all the potential benefits of urban containment, compaction, and densification, just two are the central focus here: attainment of greater energy efficiency and reduction in carbon emissions. In cities these are largely associated with the transport and building sectors. This paper probes the form-efficiency relation in the transport sector across 57 census-defined urbanized areas in the United States in 2000. Thirty-six of the forty largest are included. Increase in core area population density is correlated with modest gain in energy efficiency in the urban transport sector and modest decrease in its carbon emissions. Densification's lagged effects related to travel rationalization and growth in transit receptivity may increase overall metro transport energy efficiency beyond the degree revealed here. These impacts are associated with two off-setting negative externalities: (1) diminished housing affordability, and (2) increased roadway congestion. Each may moderate over time. Such effects are non-additive, owing to a difference of metrics. Elevated CAFE standards provoking new transport technologies may reduce total energy consumption and associated emissions ceteris paribus, lessening densification's marginal efficiency payoff while magnifying the significance of densification's opportunity costs. Categories of policy interventions to promote metro-scale energy efficiencies and emissions reductions, with and without urban densification, conclude the paper. - Highlight: ► Transport VMT and Btu per capita are considered across 57 U.S. metro areas in 2000. ► Per capita VMT, Btu and vehicle emissions are inverse to metro core area population density. ► Interior road congestion and housing costs rise with core but not peripheral densification. ► Spatial non-density and aspatial transport approaches constitute alternate policy levers.

  6. Ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies misunderstood without landscape history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Tomscha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in ecosystem services have motivated recent work characterizing their interactions, including identifying trade-offs and synergies. Although time is arguably implicit in these ideas of trade-offs and synergies (e.g., temporal dynamics or changes in ecosystem services, such interactions are routinely inferred based on the spatial relationships among ecosystem services alone (e.g., spatial concordance of ecosystem services indicates synergies, whereas incongruence signifies trade-offs. The limitations of this approach have not been fully explored. We quantified ecosystem service interactions using correlations among contemporary ecosystem services and compared these results to those derived by incorporating change in ecosystem services from an earlier decade. To document change over ~60 years in an urbanizing floodplain, we used aerial photography to map multiple floodplain-associated ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate how incorporating landscape baselines can influence measured synergies and trade-offs. Spatial correlations among contemporary ecosystem services missed several interactions that were detected when using prior baseline ecosystem services. Ignoring the history of ecosystem services and their change over time may result in missed opportunities to foster their synergies and lead to unnecessary trade-offs. Efforts to incorporate ecosystem services into land management should include long-term monitoring and baseline reconstructions of ecosystem services.

  7. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  8. 48 CFR 15.101-1 - Tradeoff process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tradeoff process. 15.101-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.101-1 Tradeoff process. (a) A tradeoff process is appropriate when it may be in the best interest of the...

  9. Quality Attribute Design Primitives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Len

    2000-01-01

    This report focuses on the quality attribute aspects of mechanisms. An architectural mechanism is a 'structure whereby objects collaborate to provide some behavior that satisfies a requirement of the problem...

  10. The hyperspectral imaging trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    , this will be the standard situation, and it enables the detection of small spectral features like peaks, valleys and shoulders for a wide range of chemistries. Everything else being equal this is what you would wish for, and hyperspectral imaging is often used in research and in remote sensing because of the needs and cost......Although it has no clear-cut definition, hyperspectral imaging in the UV-Visible-NIR wavelength region seems to mean spectral image sampling in bands from 10 nm width or narrower that enables spectral reconstruction over some wavelength interval. For non-imaging spectral applications...... structures in these projects. However, hyperspectral imaging is a sampling choice within spectral imaging that typically will impose some trade-offs, and these trade-offs will not be optimal for many applications. The purpose of this presentation is to point out and increase the awareness of these trade...

  11. Time-Space Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    . The area of time-space trade-offs deals with both upper and lower bounds and both are interesting, theoretically as well as practically. The viewpoint of this dissertation is theoretical, but we believe that some of our results can find applications in practice as well. The last four years has witnessed...... perspective hierarchical memory layout models are the most interesting. Such models are called external memory models, in contrast to the internal memory models discussed above. Despite the fact that space might be of great relevance when solving practical problems on real computers, no theoretical model...... capturing space (and time simultaneously) has been defined. We introduce such a model and use it to prove so-called IOspace trade-offs for Sorting. Building on the abovementioned techniques for time-space efficient internal memory Sorting, we develop the first IO-space efficient external memory Sorting...

  12. Temporal trade-offs in psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barack, David L; Gold, Joshua I

    2016-04-01

    Psychophysical techniques typically assume straightforward relationships between manipulations of real-world events, their effects on the brain, and behavioral reports of those effects. However, these relationships can be influenced by many complex, strategic factors that contribute to task performance. Here we discuss several of these factors that share two key features. First, they involve subjects making flexible use of time to process information. Second, this flexibility can reflect the rational regulation of information-processing trade-offs that can play prominent roles in particular temporal epochs: sensitivity to stability versus change for past information, speed versus accuracy for current information, and exploitation versus exploration for future goals. Understanding how subjects manage these trade-offs can be used to help design and interpret psychophysical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 100 Areas soil washing tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    The complex nature of cost analysis and systems work demands a level of effort to ensure that decisions made support the best interests of all parties. This tradeoff study will act as a formal decision analysis method for the evaluation of many variables. The documentation of the decision rationale and system design is essential for successful planning and implementation of any system. The Hanford Site offers unique problems for economic analysis of remediation alternatives. The variations in the size of sites, geographic locations, and possible cleanup scenarios all add to the complexity of the tradeoff analysis. A thorough examination of all alternatives must be held to a level of detail appropriate to current regulatory and budgetary considerations. This study will compare the economics of two specific alternatives for remediation of soils at the Hanford Site. Remove and dispose is compared to remove, treat, and dispose. The treatment analyzed in this study is volume reduction through soil washing

  14. Viruses' life history: towards a mechanistic basis of a trade-off between survival and reproduction among phages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne De Paepe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Life history theory accounts for variations in many traits involved in the reproduction and survival of living organisms, by determining the constraints leading to trade-offs among these different traits. The main life history traits of phages-viruses that infect bacteria-are the multiplication rate in the host, the survivorship of virions in the external environment, and their mode of transmission. By comparing life history traits of 16 phages infecting the bacteria Escherichia coli, we show that their mortality rate is constant with time and positively [corrected] correlated to their multiplication rate in the bacterial host. Even though these viruses do not age, this result is in line with the trade-off between survival and reproduction previously observed in numerous aging organisms. Furthermore, a multiple regression shows that the combined effects of two physical parameters, namely, the capsid thickness and the density of the packaged genome, account for 82% of the variation in the mortality rate. The correlations between life history traits and physical characteristics of virions may provide a mechanistic explanation of this trade-off. The fact that this trade-off is present in this very simple biological situation suggests that it might be a fundamental property of evolving entities produced under constraints. Moreover, such a positive correlation between mortality and multiplication reveals an underexplored trade-off in host-parasite interactions.

  15. Land management influences trade-offs and the total supply of ecosystem services in alpine grassland in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junxi; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Chengqun; Luo, Liming; Pan, Ying

    2017-05-15

    Developing sustainable use patterns for alpine grassland in Tibet is the primary challenge related to conserving these vulnerable ecosystems of the 'world's third pole' and guaranteeing the well-being of local inhabitants. This challenge requires researchers to think beyond the methods of most current studies that are limited to a single aspect of conservation or productivity, and focus on balancing various needs. An analysis of trade-offs involving ecosystem services provides a framework that can be used to quantify the type of balancing needed. In this study, we measured variations in four types of ecosystem services under five types of grassland management including grazing exclusion, sowing, combined plowing and grazing exclusion, combined plowing and sowing, and natural grassland, from 2013 to 2015. In addition, we accessed the existence and changing patterns of ecosystem service trade-offs using Spearman coefficients and a trade-off index. The results revealed the existence of trade-offs among provisioning and regulating services. Plowing and sowing could convert the trade-off relationships into synergies immediately. Grazing exclusion reduced the level of trade-offs gradually over time. Thus, the combined plowing and sowing treatment promoted the total supply of multiple ecosystem services when compared with natural grassland. We argue that the variations in dry matter allocation to above- and belowground serve as one cause of the variation in trade-off relationships. Another cause for variation in trade-offs is the varied species competition between selection effects and niche complementarity. Our study provides empirical evidence that the effects of trade-offs among ecosystem services could be reduced and even converted into synergies by optimizing management techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs in Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    capacity of discrete motor responses under different cognitive sets. Journal of Experimental Psychology , 71 (4), 475. SPEED-ACCURACY TRADEOFFS IN HUMAN...space defined by vocal tract constriction degree and location, as in Articulatory Phonology Browman & Goldstein (1992). These high-level spaces are...relationship between speech gestures varies as a function of their positions within the syllable Browman & Goldstein (1995); Krakow (1999); Byrd et al

  17. Tritium-containment systems: a tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkers, C.L.; Cena, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Various design parameters are evaluated that affect the performance of tritium-containment systems for fusion reactors. Our study included a review of such parameters as tritium forms, impurities, catalysts, adsorbents, getters, and as low as reasonably achievable principles. We organized these schemes, which can be considered for treating either air or inert atmospheres, so one could easily make orderly choices and tradeoffs for optimum performance. The relationships examined involved purification-system decontamination factors, flow rates, recycling and leakage, and environmental losses

  18. Design trade-offs for homing missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Allen; Moore, William

    1992-05-01

    Major design considerations, trade-offs and technology issues for future hypervelocity, anti-missile interceptors are presented in an overview format. Two classes of interceptors are considered: a low altitude interceptor using an active radar seeker for defense against tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) and a higher altitude interceptor using a passive infra-red seeker for defense against ICBMs. Considerations are presented in the areas of mission requirements, seeker selection, aerodynamic and aerothermal environments, control systems, and guidance performance.

  19. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  20. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Kramer

    Full Text Available Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1 as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2 competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3 however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  1. Diversity-Multiplexing-Nulling Trade-Off Analysis of Multiuser MIMO System for Intercell Interference Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwoo Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental performance trade-off of multicell multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO systems is explored for achieving intercell and intracell interference-free conditions. In particular, we analyze the three-dimensional diversity-multiplexing-nulling trade-off (DMNT among the diversity order (i.e., the slope of the error performance curve, multiplexing order (i.e., the number of users that are simultaneously served by MU-MIMO, and nulling order (i.e., the number of users with zero interference in a victim cell. This trade-off quantifies the performance of MU-MIMO in terms of its diversity and multiplexing order, while nulling the intercell interference toward the victim cell in the neighbor. First, we design a precoding matrix to mitigate both intercell and intracell interference for a linear precoding-based MU-MIMO system. Then, the trade-off relationship is obtained by analyzing the distribution of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR at the user terminals. Furthermore, we demonstrate how DMNT can be applied to estimate the long-term throughput for each mobile station, which allows for determining the optimal number of multiplexing order and throughput loss due to the interference nulling.

  2. Use of multiple attributes decision-making Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS for Ghare-Gheshlagh calcite in determination of optimum geochemical sampling sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei Azizi

    2015-04-01

    for green, white and pink calcites were varied 0.087, 0.247 and 0.997 respectively. The low amounts of Eu anomaly for green and white calcites attributed to low rock/fluid ratio (Nesbitt et al., 1990 and relatively more pH value (Cheng et al., 2013, however, increasing the Eu anomaly may be due to high rock/fluid ratio and less pH value. Ce anomalies are 0.0241, 0.0113 and 0.0131 in pink, white and green calcites respectively. The most negative Ce anomaly values show that calcite have precipitated under reduction conditions (Nesbitt et al., 1990. Discussion Recently, multiple attributes decision-making techniques help scientist to solve decision-making problems related to various controlling factors (Zhijun et al., 2013. One of these techniques is a Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS which is a quantitative weighted method (Momenei 2006. The identified criteria are CaO abundant in solution (C1, Eu anomaly (C2, Ce anomaly (C3, Sr abundant (C4 and volume (C5. The Index-Rock matrix also includes A1, A2 and A3 alternatives; as pink, green and white calcite respectively. The weighted normalized decision matrix can be calculated by multiplying the normalized evaluation matrix with its associated weight to obtain the result. The result show that Eu anomaly, volume, Sr abundant and Ce anomaly in order have higher role to investigate the geochemical study of area. Calculation of the relative closeness to the ideal solution (Cl * for pink, green and white calcites are 0.837, 0.445 and 0.157 respectively. It can be deduced that the most preferable calcite to be sampled for investigating geochemically are pink and green calcites. References Cheng, D.L., Jiang-haob, L., Shou-pengc, Z., Lianga, L., Zhao-bina, Y., Guo-lina, G. and Tinga, L., 2013. Geochemical characteristics of calcite and dolomite in sandstone of Dongying Sinking, Shandong Province, China. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 7(4: 504 – 507. Eftekharnezhad, J., 1973

  3. Improving the Accuracy of Attribute Extraction using the Relatedness between Attribute Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollegala, Danushka; Tani, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Extracting attribute-values related to entities from web texts is an important step in numerous web related tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and entity disambiguation (namesake disambiguation). For example, for a search query that contains a personal name, we can not only return documents that contain that personal name, but if we have attribute-values such as the organization for which that person works, we can also suggest documents that contain information related to that organization, thereby improving the user's search experience. Despite numerous potential applications of attribute extraction, it remains a challenging task due to the inherent noise in web data -- often a single web page contains multiple entities and attributes. We propose a graph-based approach to select the correct attribute-values from a set of candidate attribute-values extracted for a particular entity. First, we build an undirected weighted graph in which, attribute-values are represented by nodes, and the edge that connects two nodes in the graph represents the degree of relatedness between the corresponding attribute-values. Next, we find the maximum spanning tree of this graph that connects exactly one attribute-value for each attribute-type. The proposed method outperforms previously proposed attribute extraction methods on a dataset that contains 5000 web pages.

  4. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Löfström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    , and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude...

  5. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. ... basic philosophical nature of phenomenological meaning and inquiry, and that he not ... In keeping with the title of my book, Researching. Lived Experience ...... a quantitative social science that can make generalizing.

  6. Main designations and attributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the main designations and attributions of the LNMRI - Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, the Cooperative Center in Radiation Protection and Medical Preparations for Accidents with Radiation; the Treaty for fully banning of nuclear tests and the Regional Center for Training of IAEA

  7. Searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation in cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Zhao, Duqiao; Zhang, Yaling

    2017-01-01

    Attribute based encryption (ABE) is a good way to achieve flexible and secure access control to data, and attribute revocation is the extension of the attribute-based encryption, and the keyword search is an indispensable part for cloud storage. The combination of both has an important application in the cloud storage. In this paper, we construct a searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation in cloud storage, the keyword search in our scheme is attribute based with access control, when the search succeeds, the cloud server returns the corresponding cipher text to user and the user can decrypt the cipher text definitely. Besides, our scheme supports multiple keywords search, which makes the scheme more practical. Under the assumption of decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman exponent (q-BDHE) and decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) in the selective security model, we prove that our scheme is secure.

  8. Nuclear propulsion tradeoffs for manned Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; Malloy, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conjunction class split/sprint manned Mars exploration mission was studied to evaluate tradeoffs in performance characteristics of nuclear thermal rockets. A Particle Bed Reactor-based nuclear thermal rocket was found to offer a 38% to 52% total mass savings compared with a NERVA-based nuclear thermal rocket for this mission. This advantage is primarily due to the higher thrust-to-weight ratio of the Particle Bed Reactor nuclear rocket. The mission is enabled by nuclear thermal rockets. It cannot be performed practically using chemical propulsion

  9. Financing Investment: The Cost Trade-Off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  10. Integrated Adaptive Scenarios for Ariculture: Synergies and Tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Adam, J. C.; Brady, M.; Stockle, C.; Liu, M.; Kruger, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    A wide variety of factors can drive adaptation of the agricultural production sector in response to climate change. Warming and increased growing season length can lead to adoption of newer plant varieties as well as increases in double cropping systems. Changes in expectations of drought frequency or economic factors could lead to adoption of new technology (such as irrigation technology or water trading systems) or crop choices with a view of reducing farm-level risk, and these choices can result in unintended system wide effects. These are all examples of producer adaptation decisions made with a long-term (multiple decades) view. In addition, producers respond to short-term (current year) shocks - such as drought events - through management strategies that include deficit irrigation, fallowing, nutrient management, and engaging in water trading. The effects of these short- and long-term decisions are not independent, and can drive or be driven by the other. For example, investment in new irrigation systems (long-term) can be driven by expectations of short-term crop productivity losses in drought years. Similarly, the capacity to manage for short-term shocks will depend on crop type and variety as well as adopted irrigation technologies. Our overarching objective is to understand the synergies and tradeoffs that exist when combining three potential long-term adaptation strategies and two short-term adaptation strategies, with a view of understanding the synergies and tradeoffs. We apply the integrated crop-hydrology modeling framework VIC-CropSyst, along with the water management module Yakima RiverWare to address these questions over our test area, the Yakima River basin. We consider adoption of a) more efficient irrigation technologies, slower growing crop varieties, and increased prevalence of double cropping systems as long-term adaptation strategies; and b) fallowing and deficit irrigation as short-term responses to droughts. We evaluate the individual and

  11. A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services supply and trade-offs in European wood-pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor

    2018-01-01

    Wood-pastures are complex social-ecological systems (SES), which are the product of long-term interaction between society and its surrounding landscape. Traditionally characterized by multifunctional low-intensity management that enhanced a wide range of ecosystem services (ES), current farm management has shifted toward more intensive farm models. This study assesses the supply of ES in four study areas dominated by managed wood-pastures in Spain, Sweden, and Romania. On the basis of 144 farm surveys and the use of multivariate techniques, we characterize farm management and structure in the study areas and identify the trade-offs in ES supply associated with this management. We link these trade-offs to multiple factors that characterize the landholding: economic, social, environmental, technological, and governance. Finally, we analyze how landholders’ values and perspectives have an effect on management decisions. Results show a differentiated pattern of ES supply in the four study areas. We identified four types of trade-offs in ES supply that appear depending on what is being promoted by the farm management and that are associated with different dimensions of wood-pasture management: productivity-related trade-offs, crop production–related trade-offs, multifunctionality-related trade-offs, and farm accessibility–related trade-offs. These trade-offs are influenced by complex interactions between the properties of the SES, which have a direct influence on landholders’ perspectives and motivations. The findings of this paper advance the understanding of the dynamics between agroecosystems and society and can inform system-based agricultural and conservation policies. PMID:29732404

  12. Are trade-offs among species' ecological interactions scale dependent? A test using pitcher-plant inquiline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs among species' ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species' ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance) and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate) community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer) from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate) and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity) were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species' traits in the context of coexistence at different scales

  13. Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H; Caldarone, Giorgio; Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Ennaanay, Driss; Hannahs, Neil; Mendoza, Guillermo; Polasky, Stephen; Wolny, Stacie; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-05-08

    Recent high-profile efforts have called for integrating ecosystem-service values into important societal decisions, but there are few demonstrations of this approach in practice. We quantified ecosystem-service values to help the largest private landowner in Hawaii, Kamehameha Schools, design a land-use development plan that balances multiple private and public values on its North Shore land holdings (Island of O'ahu) of ∼10,600 ha. We used the InVEST software tool to evaluate the environmental and financial implications of seven planning scenarios encompassing contrasting land-use combinations including biofuel feedstocks, food crops, forestry, livestock, and residential development. All scenarios had positive financial return relative to the status quo of negative return. However, tradeoffs existed between carbon storage and water quality as well as between environmental improvement and financial return. Based on this analysis and community input, Kamehameha Schools is implementing a plan to support diversified agriculture and forestry. This plan generates a positive financial return ($10.9 million) and improved carbon storage (0.5% increase relative to status quo) with negative relative effects on water quality (15.4% increase in potential nitrogen export relative to status quo). The effects on water quality could be mitigated partially (reduced to a 4.9% increase in potential nitrogen export) by establishing vegetation buffers on agricultural fields. This plan contributes to policy goals for climate change mitigation, food security, and diversifying rural economic opportunities. More broadly, our approach illustrates how information can help guide local land-use decisions that involve tradeoffs between private and public interests.

  14. Statistical Multiplexing of Computations in C-RAN with Tradeoffs in Latency and Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalør, Anders E.; Agurto, Mauricio I.; Pratas, Nuno K.; Nielsen, Jimmy J.; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    In the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture, the baseband signals from multiple remote radio heads are processed in a centralized baseband unit (BBU) pool. This architecture allows network operators to adapt the BBU’scomputational resources to the aggregate access load experienced at the BBU, which can change in every air-interface access frame. The degree of savings that can be achieved by adapting the resources is a tradeoff between savings, adaptation frequency, and increased qu...

  15. Ideology, family policy and gender economic inequality: Different models, different tradeoffs

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Hadas

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on cross-national differences in patterns of gender economic inequality, revealing their affinity to both welfare state policies and prevailing conceptions of gender equality. By mapping multiple aspects of inequality and assembling them into distinctive profiles, the paper shows that each pattern of state intervention is accompanied by an uneven record of achievements and failures in promoting gender equality. These tradeoffs can best be understood by placing them in the i...

  16. Metabolic enzyme cost explains variable trade-offs between microbial growth rate and yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike T Wortel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes may maximize the number of daughter cells per time or per amount of nutrients consumed. These two strategies correspond, respectively, to the use of enzyme-efficient or substrate-efficient metabolic pathways. In reality, fast growth is often associated with wasteful, yield-inefficient metabolism, and a general thermodynamic trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield has been proposed to explain this. We studied growth rate/yield trade-offs by using a novel modeling framework, Enzyme-Flux Cost Minimization (EFCM and by assuming that the growth rate depends directly on the enzyme investment per rate of biomass production. In a comprehensive mathematical model of core metabolism in E. coli, we screened all elementary flux modes leading to cell synthesis, characterized them by the growth rates and yields they provide, and studied the shape of the resulting rate/yield Pareto front. By varying the model parameters, we found that the rate/yield trade-off is not universal, but depends on metabolic kinetics and environmental conditions. A prominent trade-off emerges under oxygen-limited growth, where yield-inefficient pathways support a 2-to-3 times higher growth rate than yield-efficient pathways. EFCM can be widely used to predict optimal metabolic states and growth rates under varying nutrient levels, perturbations of enzyme parameters, and single or multiple gene knockouts.

  17. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material.

  18. Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so-called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes

  19. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  20. Operational trade-offs in reservoir control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.

    1993-11-01

    Reservoir operation decisions require constant reevaluation in the face of conflicting objectives, varying hydrologic conditions, and frequent operational policy changes. Optimality is a relative concept very much dependent on the circumstances under which a decision is made. More than anything else, reservoir management authorities need the means to assess the impacts of various operational options. It is their responsibility to define what is desirable after a thorough evaluation of the existing circumstances. This article presents a model designed to generate operational trade-offs common among reservoir systems. The model avoids an all-encompassing problem formulation and distinguishes three operational modes (levels) corresponding to normal, drought, and flood operations. Each level addresses only relevant system elements and uses a static and a dynamic control module to optimize turbine performance within each planning period and temporally. The model is used for planning the operation of the Savannah River System.

  1. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria

    2017-02-13

    Consider a distributed control problem with a communication channel connecting the observer of a linear stochastic system to the controller. The goal of the controller is minimize a quadratic cost function. The most basic special case of that cost function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b. The bound applies as long as the system noise has a probability density function. If target cost b is not too large, that bound can be closely approached by a simple lattice quantization scheme that only quantizes the innovation, that is, the difference between the controller\\'s belief about the current state and the true state.

  2. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  3. Cloud E-Learning Service Strategies for Improving E-Learning Innovation Performance in a Fuzzy Environment by Using a New Hybrid Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiu Hung; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Hu, Shu-Kung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address this problem by applying a new hybrid fuzzy multiple criteria decision-making model including (a) using the fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique to construct the fuzzy scope influential network relationship map (FSINRM) and determine the fuzzy influential weights of the…

  4. Tradeoffs between image quality and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Image quality takes on different perspectives and meanings when associated with the concept of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), which is chiefly focused on radiation dose delivered as a result of a medical imaging procedure. ALARA is important because of the increased radiosensitivity of children to ionizing radiation and the desire to keep the radiation dose low. By the same token, however, image quality is also important because of the need to provide the necessary information in a radiograph in order to make an accurate diagnosis. Thus, there are tradeoffs to be considered between image quality and radiation dose, which is the main topic of this article. ALARA does not necessarily mean the lowest radiation dose, nor, when implemented, does it result in the least desirable radiographic images. With the recent widespread implementation of digital radiographic detectors and displays, a new level of flexibility and complexity confronts the technologist, physicist, and radiologist in optimizing the pediatric radiography exam. This is due to the separation of the acquisition, display, and archiving events that were previously combined by the screen-film detector, which allows for compensation for under- and overexposures, image processing, and on-line image manipulation. As explained in the article, different concepts must be introduced for a better understanding of the tradeoffs encountered when dealing with digital radiography and ALARA. In addition, there are many instances during the image acquisition/display/interpretation process in which image quality and associated dose can be compromised. This requires continuous diligence to quality control and feedback mechanisms to verify that the goals of image quality, dose and ALARA are achieved. (orig.)

  5. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Scherbov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. Objective: To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. Methods: We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels of labor force participation rates to the projected populations. We introduce the notion of a relative burden, which is the ratio of the fraction of the income of people in the labor market in 2050 that they transfer to adults out of the labor market to the same fraction in 2009. We use this indicator to investigate the trade-offs between changes in normal pension ages and the general level of labor force participation rates. Results: We show that, in most European countries, a difference in policies that results in an increase in average labor force participation rates by an additional one to two percentage points by 2050 can substitute for a one-year increase in the normal pension age. This is important because, in many European countries, without additional increases in labor force participation rates, normal pension ages would have to be raised well above 68 by 2050 to keep the burden on those working manageable. Conclusions: Because of anticipated increases in life expectancy and health at older ages as well as because of financial necessity, some mix of increases in pension ages and in labor force participation rates will be needed. Pension age changes by themselves will not be sufficient.

  6. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  7. On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Debbie; Szabo-Kubitz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    "On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students" documents California community college students' struggles to cover college expenses beyond tuition, their experiences with financial aid, and the troubling tradeoffs they face when available resources do not stretch far enough. Consistent with a growing body of…

  8. Trade-off analysis of ecosystem services in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.; Wossink, Ada; Kortelainen, M.; Alkemade, R.; Schulp, C.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we assess trade-offs between ecosystem services in a spatially explicit manner. From a supply side perspective, we estimate opportunity costs, which reflect in monetary terms the trade-offs between ecosystem services due to a marginal land use change. These are based on estimation of

  9. 'Trade-off' in Antarctic bacteria: limnetic psychrotrophs concede multiple enzyme expressions for multiple metal resistance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The present study examines the metal and antibiotic resistant bacteria in ice and water from lakes east and west of the Indian base camp (Maitri) in Antarctica. The isolates from western and eastern lakes showed distinct geographical differences...

  10. Valuing tradeoffs between agricultural production and ecosystem services in the Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem services are faced with multiple stress from complex driving factors, such as climate change and human interventions. The Heihe River Basin (HRB), as the second largest inland river basin in China, is a typical semi-arid and arid region with fragile and sensitive ecological environment. For the past decades, agricultural production activities in the basin has affected ecosystem services in different degrees, leading to complex relations among "water-land-climate-ecology-human", in which hydrological process and water resource management is the key. In this context, managing trade-offs among water uses in the river basin to sustain multiple ecosystem services is crucial for healthy ecosystem and sustainable socioeconomic development. In this study, we analyze the trade-offs between different water uses in agricultural production and key ecosystem services in the HRB by applying production frontier analysis, with the aim to explore the potential for managing them. This method traces out joint production frontiers showing the combinations of ecosystem services and agricultural production that can be generated in a given area, and it deals with the economic problem of the allocation of scarce water resources under presumed objective, which aims to highlight synergies and reduce trade-offs between alternative water uses. Thus, management schemes that targets to both sustain agricultural production and increase the provision of key ecosystem services have to consider not only the technological or biological nature of interrelationships, but also the economic interdependencies among them.

  11. Conceptualising and managing trade-offs in sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Pope, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of sustainability assessment as a form of impact assessment is that it provides a forum for the explicit consideration of the trade-offs that are inherent in complex decision-making processes. Few sustainability assessments have achieved this goal though, and none has considered trade-offs in a holistic fashion throughout the process. Recent contributions such as the Gibson trade-off rules have significantly progressed thinking in this area by suggesting appropriate acceptability criteria for evaluating substantive trade-offs arising from proposed development, as well as process rules for how evaluations of acceptability should occur. However, there has been negligible uptake of these rules in practice. Overall, we argue that there is inadequate consideration of trade-offs, both process and substantive, throughout the sustainability assessment process, and insufficient considerations of how process decisions and compromises influence substantive outcomes. This paper presents a framework for understanding and managing both process and substantive trade-offs within each step of a typical sustainability assessment process. The framework draws together previously published literature and offers case studies that illustrate aspects of the practical application of the framework. The framing and design of sustainability assessment are vitally important, as process compromises or trade-offs can have substantive consequences in terms of sustainability outcomes delivered, with the choice of alternatives considered being a particularly significant determinant of substantive outcomes. The demarcation of acceptable from unacceptable impacts is a key aspect of managing trade-offs. Offsets can be considered as a form of trade-off within a category of sustainability that are utilised to enhance preferred alternatives once conditions of impact acceptability have been met. In this way they may enable net gains to be delivered; another imperative

  12. Conceptualising and managing trade-offs in sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North West University (South Africa); School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Pope, Jenny [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North West University (South Africa); Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    One of the defining characteristics of sustainability assessment as a form of impact assessment is that it provides a forum for the explicit consideration of the trade-offs that are inherent in complex decision-making processes. Few sustainability assessments have achieved this goal though, and none has considered trade-offs in a holistic fashion throughout the process. Recent contributions such as the Gibson trade-off rules have significantly progressed thinking in this area by suggesting appropriate acceptability criteria for evaluating substantive trade-offs arising from proposed development, as well as process rules for how evaluations of acceptability should occur. However, there has been negligible uptake of these rules in practice. Overall, we argue that there is inadequate consideration of trade-offs, both process and substantive, throughout the sustainability assessment process, and insufficient considerations of how process decisions and compromises influence substantive outcomes. This paper presents a framework for understanding and managing both process and substantive trade-offs within each step of a typical sustainability assessment process. The framework draws together previously published literature and offers case studies that illustrate aspects of the practical application of the framework. The framing and design of sustainability assessment are vitally important, as process compromises or trade-offs can have substantive consequences in terms of sustainability outcomes delivered, with the choice of alternatives considered being a particularly significant determinant of substantive outcomes. The demarcation of acceptable from unacceptable impacts is a key aspect of managing trade-offs. Offsets can be considered as a form of trade-off within a category of sustainability that are utilised to enhance preferred alternatives once conditions of impact acceptability have been met. In this way they may enable net gains to be delivered; another imperative

  13. Valuing Treatments for Parkinson Disease Incorporating Process Utility: Performance of Best-Worst Scaling, Time Trade-Off, and Visual Analogue Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, Marieke Geertruida Maria; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; van Til, Janine Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare treatment profiles including both health outcomes and process characteristics in Parkinson disease using best-worst scaling (BWS), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analogue scales (VAS). Methods From the model comprising of seven attributes with

  14. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  15. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and......, hence, their reciprocal behavior. Furthermore, with the help of two applications it is demonstrated how this framework can be used to explain experimental findings showing that people react very differently in outcomewise-identical situations depending on the moves of chance involved....

  16. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  18. Equity trade-offs in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bennett, Nathan J; Ives, Christopher D; Friedman, Rachel; Davis, Katrina J; Archibald, Carla; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2018-04-01

    Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation. Different ethical frameworks may lead to different conceptions of equity through alternative perspectives of what is good or right. This can lead to different and potentially conflicting equity objectives in practice. We promote a more transparent, nuanced, and pluralistic conceptualization of equity in conservation decision making that particularly recognizes where multidimensional equity objectives may conflict. To help identify and mitigate ethical conflicts and avoid cases of good intentions producing bad outcomes, we encourage a more analytical incorporation of equity into conservation decision making particularly during mechanistic integration of equity objectives. We recommend that in conservation planning motivations and objectives for equity be made explicit within the problem context, methods used to incorporate equity objectives be applied with respect to stated objectives, and, should objectives dictate, evaluation of equity outcomes and adaptation of strategies be employed during policy implementation. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Quantifying women's stated benefit-risk trade-off preferences for IBS treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F Reed; Hauber, A Brett; Ozdemir, Semra; Lynd, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration, currently, is exploring quantitative benefit-risk methods to support regulatory decision-making. A scientifically valid method for assessing patients' benefit-risk trade-off preferences is needed to compare risks and benefits in a common metric. The study aims to quantify the maximum acceptable risk (MAR) of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) that women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are willing to accept in exchange for symptom relief. A stated-choice survey was used to elicit trade-off preferences among constructed treatment profiles, each defined by symptom severity and treatment-related AEs. Symptom attributes included frequency of abdominal pain and discomfort, frequency of diarrhea, and frequency of urgency. AE attributes included frequency of mild-to-moderate constipation and the risk of four possible serious AEs. A Web-enabled survey was administered to 589 female US residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported diagnosis of diarrhea-predominant IBS. Preference weights and MAR were estimated using mixed-logit methods. SUBJECTS were willing to accept higher risks of serious AEs in return for treatments offering better symptom control. For an improvement from the lowest to the highest of four benefit levels, subjects were willing to tolerate a 2.65% increase in impacted-bowel risk, but only a 1.34% increase in perforated-bowel risk. Variation in MARs across AE types is consistent with the relative seriousness of the AEs. Stated-preference methods offer a scientifically valid approach to quantifying benefit-risk trade-off preferences that can be used to inform regulatory decision-making.

  20. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  1. Learning about social-ecological trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Galafassi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trade-offs are manifestations of the complex dynamics in interdependent social-ecological systems. Addressing trade-offs involves challenges of perception due to the dynamics of interdependence. We outline the challenges associated with addressing trade-offs and analyze knowledge coproduction as a practice that may contribute to tackling trade-offs in social-ecological systems. We discuss this through a case study in coastal Kenya in which an iterative knowledge coproduction process was facilitated to reveal social-ecological trade-offs in the face of ecological and socioeconomic change. Representatives of communities, government, and NGOs attended two integrative workshops in which methods derived from systems thinking, dialogue, participatory modeling, and scenarios were applied to encourage participants to engage and evaluate trade-offs. Based on process observation and interviews with participants and scientists, our analysis suggests that this process lead to increased appreciation of interdependences and the way in which trade-offs emerge from complex dynamics of interdependent factors. The process seemed to provoke a reflection of knowledge assumptions and narratives, and management goals for the social-ecological system. We also discuss how stakeholders link these insights to their practices.

  2. Time and outcome framing in intertemporal tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but then its timing is changed. The outcome framing model generalizes the approach taken by the hyperbolic discounting model (Loewenstein & Prelec, 1992): Not obtaining a positive outcome when expected is a worse than expected state, to which people are over-responsive, or hypersensitive, and not incurring a negative outcome when expected is a better than expected state, to which people are under-responsive, or hyposensitive. The time framing model takes a new approach: Delaying a positive outcome or speeding up a negative one involves a loss of time to which people are hypersensitive, and speeding up a positive outcome or delaying a negative one involves a gain of time to which people are hyposensitive. We compare the models on their quantitative predictions of indifference data from matching and preference data from choice. The time framing model systematically outperforms the outcome framing model. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  4. 一种基于三参数区间灰色语言变量的多属性群决策方法%A Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making Model Based on Three-para Meter Interval Grey Linguistic Variable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国; 沈利香

    2014-01-01

    针对属性值为三参数区间灰色语言变量的不确定型多属性决策问题进行了研究,本文将语言变量和三参数区间数融合,提出了三参数区间灰色语言变量的概念,定义了三参数区间灰色语言变量的运算规则和可能度公式,在此基础上建立了基于投影模型的三参数区间灰色语言变量的多属性群决策方法。最后,通过对移动银行服务质量评估案例验证本模型的有效性。%A method based on the three-parameter interval grey additive linguistic variables is presented to solve multiple attribute group decision making problems , in which the attribute values take the form of the grey additive linguistic variables.Firstly, some properties are defined, such as the concept and the relational calculation rules of grey additive linguistic variables .Then, a multiple attribute group decision making problem model based on three-parameter interval grey additive linguistic variables and project model are used to solve the mobile quality of service evaluation problems .At last , an example involved in the mobile bank shows the effectiveness of this method, and the result shows that information security and mobile services may be the most important evaluation indicators.

  5. Teori Pecking Order dan Trade-Off dalam Analisis Struktur Modal di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Agus Harjito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims to test the pecking order theory and trade-off theory of capital structure in the analysis of the Indonesia Stock Exchange. Pecking order theory is represented by the variable profitability and growth, while the variables volatility of earnings, tangibility of assets and the size represents a trade-off theory. The company's goal is prosperity of shareholder value. To achieve these objectives the company needs funds from internal sources and external sources. Internal sources in the form of retained earnings, while the external sources of debt and shareholders' approval in the pecking order theory. This study uses the data of financial ratios of the firms during the period 2000-2010. To analyze the data, this study uses a multiple regression with the dependent variable is the debt ratio, while profitability, growth, volatility of earnings, tangibility of assets and size as independent variables. The results show that asset structure and company size has a positive and significant impact on capital structure, while profitability has a negative effect on debt ratios. But company's growth rate has not relationship with the debt ratio or capital structure. Simultaneously, the all independent variables affect capital structure significantly.Keywords: pecking order, trade-off, capital structure, debt rasioAbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji teori pecking order dan teori trade-off dalam analisis struktur modal di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Teori pecking order diwakili oleh variabel profitability dan growth, sementara variabel-variabel volatility of earnings, tangibility of assets dan size mewakili teori trade-off. Tujuan perusahaan adalah memakmurkan nilai pemegang saham. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut perusahaan membutuhkan dana yang diperoleh dari sumber internal dan sumber eksternal. Sumber internal berupa laba ditahan, sedangkan sumber eksternal berupa hutang dan saham sebagaimana dijelaskan dalam teori pecking order

  6. Technical attributes, health attribute, consumer attributes and their roles in adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. A survival-reproduction trade-off in entomopathogenic nematodes mediated by their bacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelianoff, Vanya; Chapuis, Elodie; Le Brun, Nathalie; Chiral, Magali; Moulia, Catherine; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the investment of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes (Rhabditidae) in their symbiotic association with Xenorhabdus bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae). Their life cycle comprises two phases: (1) a free stage in the soil, where infective juveniles (IJs) of the nematode carry bacteria in a digestive vesicle and search for insect hosts, and (2) a parasitic stage into the insect where bacterial multiplication, nematode reproduction, and production of new IJs occur. Previous studies clearly showed benefits to the association for the nematode during the parasitic stage, but preliminary data suggest the existence of costs to the association for the nematode in free stage. IJs deprived from their bacteria indeed survive longer than symbiotic ones. Here we show that those bacteria-linked costs and benefits lead to a trade-off between fitness traits of the symbiotic nematodes. Indeed IJs mortality positively correlates with their parasitic success in the insect host for symbiotic IJs and not for aposymbiotic ones. Moreover mortality and parasitic success both positively correlate with the number of bacteria carried per IJ, indicating that the trade-off is induced by symbiosis. Finally, the trade-off intensity depends on parental effects and, more generally, is greater under restrictive environmental conditions.

  9. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  10. Information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a unitary transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of the information-disturbance tradeoff associated to the estimation of a quantum transformation and show how the extraction of information about a black box causes a perturbation of the corresponding input-output evolution. In the case of a black box performing a unitary transformation, randomly distributed according to the invariant measure, we give a complete solution of the problem, deriving the optimal tradeoff curve and presenting an explicit construction of the optimal quantum network.

  11. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Attribute clustering has been previously employed to detect statistical dependence between subsets of variables. We propose a novel attribute clustering algorithm motivated by research of complex networks, called the Star Discovery algorithm. The algorithm partitions and indirectly discards...... inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  12. Energy/Reliability Trade-offs in Fault-Tolerant Event-Triggered Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Gruian, Flavius; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    task, such that transient faults are tolerated, the timing constraints of the application are satisfied, and the energy consumed is minimized. Tasks are scheduled using fixed-priority preemptive scheduling, while replication is used for recovery from multiple transient faults. Addressing energy...... and reliability simultaneously is especially challenging, since lowering the voltage to reduce the energy consumption has been shown to increase the transient fault rate. We presented a Tabu Search-based approach which uses an energy/reliability trade-off model to find reliable and schedulable implementations...

  13. Trade-off study of liquid-metal self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A trade-off study of liquid-metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets with respect to the main functions in a fusion reactor, and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main purpose is to improve the reactor economics by maximizing the blanket energy multiplication factor, reduce the capital cost of the reactor, and satisfy the design requirements. The main parameters during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the 6 Li enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, the impact of different reactor design choices on the performance parameters was analyzed. The effect of the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket, and the neutron source distribution were part of the trade-off study. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed to study the impact of the use of different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance and the negative effect of high TBR on the energy multiplication motivated the benchmark calculations

  14. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40°C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses...... in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures....... In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance...

  15. Structured tradeoffs preference elicitation: Evaluating CRWMS design and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, H.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary studies over the past few years have yielded multiple design and operations alternatives for the planned Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Waste isolation, pre-closure health and safety, and life cycle cost are among the many factors considered in developing these alternatives. The task of CRWMS designers is complicated by substantial heat and nuclear radiation energy output of the spent nuclear fuel and high level waste intended for disposal in an underground repository. Not only must the usual effectiveness, operability and cost objectives be balanced, but done so in the context of a constantly changing environment. Particular alternatives sometimes are favored by virtue of their outstanding performance relative to one of these factors. The Ultimate success of the potential repository, however, depends on reaching a defensible and traceable final decision through simultaneous and systematic weighing of all relevant factors. This paper documents the outcome of Structured Tradeoffs Preference (STP) elicitation as a method for the simultaneous and systematic weighing of factors relevant to repository thermal loading, waste package (WP) design, and emplacement mode decisions. The study provided a low-cost early indication of directions of further research on CRWMS design and operations likely to be most fruitful. The method of STP elicitation was utilized to avoid potential biases documented in other efforts which use only unstructured decision making, or open-quotes well-considered judgmentclose quotes. The STP elicitation procedure presented here complements the use of a parameter network-model pyramid suggested elsewhere in this proceedings to provide a framework for precisely articulating technical questions needing answers. It also forms an independent crosscheck of systems engineering study results and performance assessment modeling

  16. SOA: A Quality Attribute Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    in software engineering from CMU. 6June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011 Carnegie Mellon University Agenda Service -Oriented Architecture and... Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges 7June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011...Architecture and Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges Review 10June 2011 Twitter

  17. A Reference-Dependent Regret Model for Deterministic Trade-off Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2005-02-25

    Today's typical multi-criteria decision analysis is based on classical expected utility theory that assumes a mythical ''Rational Individual'' immune to psychological influences such as anticipated regret. It is therefore in conflict with rational individuals who trade-off some benefits and forgo the alternative with the highest total classical utility for a more balanced alternative in order to reduce their levels of anticipated regret. This paper focuses on decision making under certainty. It presents a reference-dependent regret model (RDRM) in which the level of regret that an individual experiences depends on the absolute values rather than the differences of the utilities of the chosen and forgone alternatives. The RDRM best choice may differ from the conventional linear additive utility model, the analytic hierarchy process, and the regret theory of Bell and Loomes and Sugden. Examples are presented that indicate that RDRM is the better predictive descriptor for decision making under certainty. RDRM satisfies transitivity of the alternatives under pairwise comparisons and models rank reversal consistent with observed reasonable choices under dynamic or distinct situations. Like regret theory, the RDRM utilities of all the alternatives under consideration are interrelated. For complex trade-off studies regret is incorporated as an element of a cost-utility-regret analysis that characterizes each alternative in terms of its monetary cost, an aggregate performance utility, and a regret value. This provides decision makers adequate information to compare the alternatives and depending on their values they may trade-off some performance and/or cost to avoid high levels of regret. The result is a well-balanced alternative often preferred by reasonable decision makers to the optimal choice of classical multi-attribute utility analysis. The model can readily be extended to incorporate rejoicing to suit decision makers who seek it. The

  18. Transfer and use of generation attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.

    2005-06-01

    Key issues regarding generation attribute accounting are being considered in the U.S., following similar discussions related to their use in Europe. Strict substantiation, environmental additionality and consistency criteria should be enshrined in nascent legislation being developed regarding claims over (electricity) generation attributes, and suitable standardization of disclosure labels should be mandated for electricity offerings to end users. In this way, the issue of multiple counting can be addressed effectively, consumer protection in the electricity market reliably ensured, and confidence in the integrity of green power products enhanced. For the time being, non-hydro renewable electricity cannot gain substantial market share without specific policy stimulation. Yet, both in Europe and in the U.S., credible facilitation of the consumer's choice in the electricity market is set to unleash considerable addition

  19. Constraints, Trade-offs and the Currency of Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerenza, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding evolutionary trajectories remains a difficult task. This is because natural evolutionary processes are simultaneously affected by various types of constraints acting at the different levels of biological organization. Of particular importance are constraints where correlated changes occur in opposite directions, called trade-offs. Here we review and classify the main evolutionary constraints and trade-offs, operating at all levels of trait hierarchy. Special attention is given to life history trade-offs and the conflict between the survival and reproduction components of fitness. Cellular mechanisms underlying fitness trade-offs are described. At the metabolic level, a linear trade-off between growth and flux variability was found, employing bacterial genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Its analysis indicates that flux variability can be considered as the currency of fitness. This currency is used for fitness transfer between fitness components during adaptations. Finally, a discussion is made regarding the constraints which limit the increase in the amount of fitness currency during evolution, suggesting that occupancy constraints are probably the main restrictions.

  20. The emotion-induced memory trade-off: more than an effect of overt attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Katherine R Mickley; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that many effects of emotion on memory are attributable to attention, in the present study we addressed the hypothesis that such effects may relate to a number of different factors during encoding or postencoding. One way to look at the effects of emotion on memory is by examining the emotion-induced memory trade-off, whereby enhanced memory for emotional items often comes at the cost of memory for surrounding background information. We present evidence that this trade-off cannot be explained solely by overt attention (measured via eyetracking) directed to the emotional items during encoding. Participants did not devote more overt attention to emotional than to neutral items when those items were selectively remembered (at the expense of their backgrounds). Only when participants were asked to answer true/false questions about the items and the backgrounds--a manipulation designed to affect both overt attention and poststimulus elaboration--was there a reduction in selective emotional item memory due to an increase in background memory. These results indicate that the allocation of overt visual attention during encoding is not sufficient to predict the occurrence of selective item memory for emotional items.

  1. Energy and water tradeoffs in enhancing food security: A selective international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Maroulis, Jerry; Hafeez, Mohsin

    2009-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food in most Asian countries. However, with rapidly growing populations, sustained high productivity and yields through improving water productivity is critically important. Increasingly complex energy-agriculture relationships require an in-depth understanding of water and energy tradeoffs. This study contributes to energy and food policies by analysing the complex energy, water and economics dynamics across a selection of major rice growing countries. The results show that tradeoffs exist between yield and energy inputs with high yield attributed to higher levels of energy input. The selected developed countries show higher energy productivity, relative to all other energy inputs, compared to the selected developing counties, owing to enhanced mechanisation, on-farm technology and improved farm management. Among all countries, China has the highest water productivity due to water-saving irrigation practices. These practices offer opportunities for developed and developing countries to increase water productivity at the same time taking advantage of economic and energy benefits of reduced pumping. Sustained production from agriculture is vital to food security. Improved irrigation practices can offset environmental footprints in the short run but their large-scale implementation remains an issue. In the long run, investments are needed to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improved energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce energy dependency, enhanced natural resource sustainability and ensuring future food security.

  2. A Decision Support System for Assessing Trade-Offs between Ecosystem Management Goals: An Application in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cork oak (Quercus suber L. and holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia ecosystems are characteristic of Mediterranean forestry in Portugal. Even though cork is the most valuable product, these ecosystems provide multiple products and services. Assessing trade-offs between multiple goals is thus critical for the effectiveness of oak ecosystem management planning. This paper focuses on the development of a decision support system for oak ecosystems’ scenario analysis including multiple criteria. It includes an innovative decision support systems (DSS functionality to assess trade-offs between the criteria that may support negotiation and consensus building between decision-makers and forest stakeholders. Specifically, a module that encapsulates the Feasible Goals Method/Interactive Decision Maps (FGM/IDM technique is developed for interactive visualization of the Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier illustrates the degree to which improving one particular criterion requires accepting sacrifices in the achievements of others. It thus provides information about trade-offs between competing decision-makers’ preferences. Results are discussed for a large-scale application encompassing over 1 million ha of cork and holm oak forest ecosystems in Southern Portugal. This study demonstrates the potential of the new DSS functionality to enhance multi-objective forest planning, namely by facilitating participation by stakeholders and providing transparency to the decision-making processes.

  3. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  4. Privacy preserving data publishing with multiple sensitive attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalaal, Ahmed Fuad

    2012-01-01

    Data mining is the process of extracting hidden predictive information from large databases, it has a great potential to help governments, researchers and companies focus on the most significant information in their data warehouses. High quality data and effective data publishing are needed to gain a high impact from data mining process. However there is a clear need to preserve individual privacy in the released data. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research topic of eliminating priv...

  5. An Exploration of Multiple Channel Evaluations in Attributions of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-24

    woo Id lit with11011 t lit’ d It ted i In Add flt lotia dcl In t foli! tidclt (le on loi it Ithioulgh socialit ivdl lv dit treit appear to dgrct, wi lIi...Specifically, a survey was designed for this purpose (Appendix B). The survey consisted of 12 statements, mostly political in nature, and allowed each

  6. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  7. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Multi-Attribute Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Most existing multi-attribute optimization researches for the modern CNC (computer numerical control turning industry were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances, or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme proposed is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, four parameters (cutting depth, feed rate, speed, tool nose runoff with three levels (low, medium, high are considered to optimize the multi-attribute (surface roughness, tool wear, and material removal rate finish turning. Through FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process with eighty intervals for each attribute, the weight of each attribute is evaluated from the paired comparison matrix constructed by the expert judgment. Additionally, twenty-seven fuzzy control rules using trapezoid membership function with respective to seventeen linguistic grades for each attribute are constructed. Considering thirty input and eighty output intervals, the defuzzifierion using center of gravity is thus completed. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution is moreover utilized to integrate and evaluate the multiple machining attributes for the Taguchi experiment, and thus the optimum general deduction parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment for optimum general deduction parameters is furthermore performed on an ECOCA-3807 CNC lathe. It is shown that the attributes from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters are all significantly advanced comparing to those from benchmark. This paper not only proposes a general deduction optimization scheme using orthogonal array, but also contributes the satisfactory fuzzy linguistic approach for multiple CNC turning attributes with profound insight.

  8. Potential Trade-Offs between the Sustainable Development Goals in Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig W. Hutton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs are offered as a comprehensive strategy to guide and encourage sustainable development at multiple scales both nationally and internationally. Furthermore, through the development of indicators associated with each goal and sub-goal, the SDGs support the notion of monitoring, evaluation and adaptive management, underpinned by the aspirations of social justice, equity and transparency. As such, the ethical intention of the SDGs is well founded. However, possible conflicts and trade-offs between individual SDGs have received little attention. For example, SDGs relating to poverty (SDG 1, inequality (SDG 10, food security (SDG2, economic development (SDG 8 and life in water and on land (SDGs 14 and 15, are potentially competing in many circumstances. In a social–ecological context, policy support and formulation are increasingly adopting systems approaches, which analyse the complex interactions of system elements. Adopting such an approach in this work, the above SDGs are analysed for coastal Bangladesh. This demonstrates multiple potential trade-offs between the SDGs, including agricultural farming approaches in the light of poverty reduction, and between economic growth and environmental integrity as well as equity. To develop coherent and policy relevant socio-ecological strategies, appropriate decision frameworks need to be co-developed across the range of stakeholders and decision-makers. Integrated models have great potential to support such a process.

  9. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  10. Do Managers Face a Performance Trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk

    2017-01-01

    equity, accountability, and procedural justice. However, our knowledge of whether such trade-offs exist is scarce. Using an administrative 10-year panel data set of Danish public schools and principals, this paper analyzes trade-offs between production performance (measured by student performance...... and student pass rate) and process performance (measured by equity, accountability, and procedural justice). Results show no evidence of trade-offs. In contrast, principals who succeed in raising student performance generally also succeed in securing high pass rates, high equity, high accountability, and high...... procedural justice. These results suggest that managers who are able to secure high performance on one dimension of performance will likely also be high performing on other performance dimensions....

  11. Do Performance-Safety Tradeoffs Cause Hypometric Metabolic Scaling in Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jon F

    2017-09-01

    Hypometric scaling of aerobic metabolism in animals has been widely attributed to constraints on oxygen (O 2 ) supply in larger animals, but recent findings demonstrate that O 2 supply balances with need regardless of size. Larger animals also do not exhibit evidence of compensation for O 2 supply limitation. Because declining metabolic rates (MRs) are tightly linked to fitness, this provides significant evidence against the hypothesis that constraints on supply drive hypometric scaling. As an alternative, ATP demand might decline in larger animals because of performance-safety tradeoffs. Larger animals, which typically reproduce later, exhibit risk-reducing strategies that lower MR. Conversely, smaller animals are more strongly selected for growth and costly neurolocomotory performance, elevating metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality attributes for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite

    2016-01-01

    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  13. "Entrepreneurship policy: Trade-offs and impact in the EU"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murdock, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Based on the notion that trade-offs in public policies form the basis of the separation of managed and entrepreneurial economies; this paper investigates the impact of policy on actual entrepreneurship activity in these two categories of economies. Using data from 19 European Union member countries......, the impact that policy trade-offs in the goal, target, location and system of finance have on entrepreneurship activity is measured using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicate that while business regulation negatively impact entrepreneurship activity, the location of policy does not show...

  14. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  15. Secure diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of zero-forcing transmit scheme at finite-SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we address the finite Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wiretap channel, where a Zero-Forcing (ZF) transmit scheme, that intends to send the secret information in the orthogonal space of the eavesdropper channel, is used. First, we introduce the secrecy multiplexing gain at finite-SNR that generalizes the definition at high-SNR. Then, we provide upper and lower bounds on the outage probability under secrecy constraint, from which secrecy diversity gain estimates of ZF are derived. Through asymptotic analysis, we show that the upper bound underestimates the secrecy diversity gain, whereas the lower bound is tight at high-SNR, and thus its related diversity gain estimate is equal to the actual asymptotic secrecy diversity gain of the MIMO wiretap channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Dissociable mechanisms of speed-accuracy tradeoff during visual perceptual learning are revealed by a hierarchical drift diffusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang eZhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two phenomena are commonly observed in decision-making. First, there is a speed-accuracy tradeoff such that decisions are slower and more accurate when instructions emphasize accuracy over speed, and vice versa. Second, decision performance improves with practice, as a task is learnt. The speed-accuracy tradeoff and learning effects have been explained under a well-established evidence-accumulation framework for decision-making, which suggests that evidence supporting each choice is accumulated over time, and a decision is committed to when the accumulated evidence reaches a decision boundary. This framework suggests that changing the decision boundary creates the tradeoff between decision speed and accuracy, while increasing the rate of accumulation leads to more accurate and faster decisions after learning. However, recent studies challenged the view that speed-accuracy tradeoff and learning are associated with changes in distinct, single decision parameters. Further, the influence of speed-accuracy instructions over the course of learning remains largely unknown. Here, we used a hierarchical drift-diffusion model to examine the speed-accuracy tradeoff during learning of a coherent motion discrimination task across multiple training sessions, and a transfer test session. The influence of speed-accuracy instructions was robust over training and generalized across untrained stimulus features. Emphasizing decision accuracy rather than speed was associated with increased boundary separation, drift rate and non-decision time at the beginning of training. However, after training, an emphasis on decision accuracy was only associated with increased boundary separation. In addition, faster and more accurate decisions after learning were due to a gradual decrease in boundary separation and an increase in drift rate. The results suggest that speed-accuracy instructions and learning differentially shape decision-making processes at different time scales.

  17. Trade-offs between reproductive allocation and storage in species of Oenothera L. (Onagraceae) native to Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Alejandra; Cariaga, Rodrigo; González-Paleo, Luciana; Ravetta, Damián

    2008-01-01

    A trade-off between reproduction and survival arises because current reproduction diminishes levels of a limiting resource such that less can be placed in storage organs for the survival of an organism during the unfavorable season. Oenothera is a particularly suited genus for studying those kind of trade-offs because it contains species with different life-history strategies (annual, biennial and perennial). Since allocation to leaves is a major factor associated with changes in life-history, here we tested the hypothesis that Oenothera leaf attributes would affect plant reproductive effort and therefore, root reserves. We selected two groups of taxa differing in their leaf area ratio (low- and high-LAR) and we compared their pattern of resource allocation to growth, reproduction and storage. Path analysis confirmed our hypothesis that LAR is the most important variable in explaining variation in allocation to reproduction or storage. The group with high allocation to leaves assigned resources preferentially to storage while the other group allocated more resources to reproduction, as predicted. A trade-off between reproduction and storage was only confirmed for the high-LAR group. The low-LAR group showed the life-history tactic of annual plants, while the high-LAR group exhibited a strategy generally associated with perenniality.

  18. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Darimont, Chris T; Macduffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable method

  19. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    Full Text Available Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC, Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a

  20. Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausch, Kurt D; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B; Young, Michael K; Peterson, Douglas P

    2009-08-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are populations of conservation value present (considering evolutionary legacies, ecological functions, and socioeconomic benefits as distinct values)? Second, are populations vulnerable to invasion and displacement by non-native salmonids? Third, would these populations be threatened with local extinction if isolated with barriers? And, fourth, how should management be prioritized among multiple populations? We also developed a conceptual model of the joint trade-off of invasion and isolation threats that considers the opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions. We illustrated use of this framework in an analysis of the invasion-isolation trade-off for native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in 2 contrasting basins in western North America where invasion and isolation are either present and strong or farther away and apparently weak. These cases demonstrate that decisions to install or remove barriers to conserve native salmonids are often complex and depend on conservation values, environmental context (which influences the threat of invasion and isolation), and additional socioeconomic factors. Explicit analysis with tools such as those we propose can help managers make

  1. An Adaptive Tradeoff Algorithm for Multi-issue SLA Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seokho; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Since participants in a Cloud may be independent bodies, mechanisms are necessary for resolving different preferences in leasing Cloud services. Whereas there are currently mechanisms that support service-level agreement negotiation, there is little or no negotiation support for concurrent price and timeslot for Cloud service reservations. For the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation, a tradeoff algorithm to generate and evaluate a proposal which consists of price and timeslot proposal is necessary. The contribution of this work is thus to design an adaptive tradeoff algorithm for multi-issue negotiation mechanism. The tradeoff algorithm referred to as "adaptive burst mode" is especially designed to increase negotiation speed and total utility and to reduce computational load by adaptively generating concurrent set of proposals. The empirical results obtained from simulations carried out using a testbed suggest that due to the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation mechanism with adaptive tradeoff algorithm: 1) both agents achieve the best performance in terms of negotiation speed and utility; 2) the number of evaluations of each proposal is comparatively lower than previous scheme (burst-N).

  2. Behavioral tradeoffs when dispersing across a patchy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; Steven L. Lima

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the behavior of dispersing animals will assist in determining the factors that limit their success and ultimately help improve the way dispersal is incorporated into population models. To that end, we used a simulation model to investigate three questions about behavioral tradeoffs that dispersing animals might face: (i) speed of movement...

  3. Testing static tradeoff theiry against pecking order models of capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We test two models with the purpose of finding the best empirical explanation for corporate financing choice of a cross section of 27 Nigerian quoted companies. The models were developed to represent the Static tradeoff Theory and the Pecking order Theory of capital structure with a view to make comparison between ...

  4. Has the tradeoff between productivity gains and job growth disappeared?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.D. Cavelaars

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPolicymakers’ efforts to boost trend output growth may be hampered by the presence of a tradeoff between productivity gains and job creation. This paper presents empirical evidence that the negative relationship between productivity growth and employment growth that prevailed in the

  5. A trade-off between length and width in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 1557-2862 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : proof complexity * resolution * trade-off Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http:// toc .nada.kth.se/ articles /v012a005/index.html

  6. Fundamental Tradeoffs among Reliability, Latency and Throughput in Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Mogensen, Preben; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2014-01-01

    We address the fundamental tradeoffs among latency, reliability and throughput in a cellular network. The most important elements influencing the KPIs in a 4G network are identified, and the inter-relationships among them is discussed. We use the effective bandwidth and the effective capacity......, in which latency and reliability will be two of the principal KPIs....

  7. A trade-off study revealing nested timescales of constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnants, M.L.; Cox, R.F.A; Hasselman, F.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Van Orden, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates human performance in a cyclic Fitts task at three different scales of observation, either in the presence (difficult condition) or in the absence (easy condition) of a speed–accuracy trade-off. At the fastest scale, the harmonicity of the back and forth movements, which

  8. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    The results of the design trade-off studies and the sensitivity analysis of Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) Program are presented. The effects of variations in the design of the vehicle body, propulsion systems, and other components on vehicle power, weight, cost, and fuel economy and an optimized hybrid vehicle design are discussed. (LCL)

  9. Cancer and Longevity--Is There a Trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Pedersen, Jacob K; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B

    2012-01-01

    Animal models and a few human studies have suggested a complex interaction between cancer risk and longevity indicating a trade-off where low cancer risk is associated with accelerating aging phenotypes and, vice versa, that longevity potential comes with the cost of increased cancer risk...

  10. Trade-offs in osmoregulation and parallel shifts in molecular function follow ecological transitions to freshwater in the Alewife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotta, Jonathan P.; McCormick, Stephen; Schultz, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to freshwater may be expected to reduce performance in seawater because these environments represent opposing selective regimes. We tested for such a trade-off in populations of the Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Alewives are ancestrally anadromous, and multiple populations have been independently restricted to freshwater (landlocked). We conducted salinity challenge experiments, whereby juvenile Alewives from one anadromous and multiple landlocked populations were exposed to freshwater and seawater on acute and acclimation timescales. In response to acute salinity challenge trials, independently derived landlocked populations varied in the degree to which seawater tolerance has been lost. In laboratory-acclimation experiments, landlocked Alewives exhibited improved freshwater tolerance, which was correlated with reductions in seawater tolerance and hypo-osmotic balance, suggesting that trade-offs in osmoregulation may be associated with local adaptation to freshwater. We detected differentiation between life-history forms in the expression of an ion-uptake gene (NHE3), and in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Trade-offs in osmoregulation, therefore, may be mediated by differentiation in ion-uptake and salt-secreting pathways.

  11. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Chance for Attributable Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J; Müller, Thomas

    Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indeterministic setting. The model, recently introduced by one of the authors in the context of artificial intelligence, shows that an agent with a sufficiently complex memory organization can employ indeterministic happenings in a meaningful way. We claim that these considerations successfully counter arguments against the coherence of libertarian (indeterminism-based) free will.

  13. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  14. Ocean zoning for conservation, fisheries and marine renewable energy: assessing trade-offs and co-location opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S; Klein, Carissa J

    2015-04-01

    Oceans, particularly coastal areas, are getting busier and within this increasingly human-dominated seascape, marine biodiversity continues to decline. Attempts to maintain and restore marine biodiversity are becoming more spatial, principally through the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs compete for space with other uses, and the emergence of new industries, such as marine renewable energy generation, will increase competition for space. Decision makers require guidance on how to zone the ocean to conserve biodiversity, mitigate conflict and accommodate multiple uses. Here we used empirical data and freely available planning software to identified priority areas for multiple ocean zones, which incorporate goals for biodiversity conservation, two types of renewable energy, and three types of fishing. We developed an approached to evaluate trade-offs between industries and we investigated the impacts of co-locating some fishing activities within renewable energy sites. We observed non-linear trade-offs between industries. We also found that different subsectors within those industries experienced very different trade-off curves. Incorporating co-location resulted in significant reductions in cost to the fishing industry, including fisheries that were not co-located. Co-location also altered the optimal location of renewable energy zones with planning solutions. Our findings have broad implications for ocean zoning and marine spatial planning. In particular, they highlight the need to include industry subsectors when assessing trade-offs and they stress the importance of considering co-location opportunities from the outset. Our research reinforces the need for multi-industry ocean-zoning and demonstrates how it can be undertaken within the framework of strategic conservation planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Verification of classified fissile material using unclassified attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, N.J.; Fearey, B.L.; Puckett, J.M.; Tape, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the most recent efforts of US technical experts to explore verification by IAEA of unclassified attributes of classified excess fissile material. Two propositions are discussed: (1) that multiple unclassified attributes could be declared by the host nation and then verified (and reverified) by the IAEA in order to provide confidence in that declaration of a classified (or unclassified) inventory while protecting classified or sensitive information; and (2) that attributes could be measured, remeasured, or monitored to provide continuity of knowledge in a nonintrusive and unclassified manner. They believe attributes should relate to characteristics of excess weapons materials and should be verifiable and authenticatable with methods usable by IAEA inspectors. Further, attributes (along with the methods to measure them) must not reveal any classified information. The approach that the authors have taken is as follows: (1) assume certain attributes of classified excess material, (2) identify passive signatures, (3) determine range of applicable measurement physics, (4) develop a set of criteria to assess and select measurement technologies, (5) select existing instrumentation for proof-of-principle measurements and demonstration, and (6) develop and design information barriers to protect classified information. While the attribute verification concepts and measurements discussed in this paper appear promising, neither the attribute verification approach nor the measurement technologies have been fully developed, tested, and evaluated

  16. Cognition-Action Trade-Offs Reflect Organization of Attention in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E; Harbourne, Regina T; Horger, Melissa N

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses what cognition-action trade-offs in infancy reveal about the organization and developmental trajectory of attention. We focus on internal attention because this aspect is most relevant to the immediate concerns of infancy, such as fluctuating levels of expertise, balancing multiple taxing skills simultaneously, learning how to control attention under variable conditions, and coordinating distinct psychological domains. Cognition-action trade-offs observed across the life span include perseveration during skill emergence, errors and inefficient strategies during decision making, and the allocation of resources when attention is taxed. An embodied cognitive-load account interprets these behavioral patterns as a result of limited attentional resources allocated across simultaneous, taxing task demands. For populations where motor errors could be costly, like infants and the elderly, attention is typically devoted to motor demands with errors occurring in the cognitive domain. In contrast, healthy young adults tend to preserve their cognitive performance by modifying their actions. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Industrial-strength ecology: trade-offs and opportunities in algal biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Abbott, Rachel L; Deal, Michael S; Kwan, Garfield T; Litchman, Elena; McBride, Robert C; Mandal, Shovon; Smith, Val H

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae represent one of the most promising groups of candidate organisms for replacing fossil fuels with contemporary primary production as a renewable source of energy. Algae can produce many times more biomass per unit area than terrestrial crop plants, easing the competing demands for land with food crops and native ecosystems. However, several aspects of algal biology present unique challenges to the industrial-scale aquaculture of photosynthetic microorganisms. These include high susceptibility to invading aquatic consumers and weeds, as well as prodigious requirements for nutrients that may compete with the fertiliser demands of other crops. Most research on algal biofuel technologies approaches these problems from a cellular or genetic perspective, attempting either to engineer or select algal strains with particular traits. However, inherent functional trade-offs may limit the capacity of genetic selection or synthetic biology to simultaneously optimise multiple functional traits for biofuel productivity and resilience. We argue that a community engineering approach that manages microalgal diversity, species composition and environmental conditions may lead to more robust and productive biofuel ecosystems. We review evidence for trade-offs, challenges and opportunities in algal biofuel cultivation with a goal of guiding research towards intensifying bioenergy production using established principles of community and ecosystem ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Predicting shifting sustainability tradeoffs in marine finfish aquaculture under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarà, Gianluca; Gouhier, Tarik C; Brigolin, Daniele; Porporato, Erika M D; Mangano, M Cristina; Mirto, Simone; Mazzola, Antonio; Pastres, Roberto

    2018-05-03

    Defining sustainability goals is a crucial but difficult task because it often involves the quantification of multiple interrelated and sometimes conflicting components. This complexity may be exacerbated by climate change, which will increase environmental vulnerability in aquaculture and potentially compromise the ability to meet the needs of a growing human population. Here, we developed an approach to inform sustainable aquaculture by quantifying spatio-temporal shifts in critical trade-offs between environmental costs and benefits using the time to reach the commercial size as a possible proxy of economic implications of aquaculture under climate change. Our results indicate that optimizing aquaculture practices by minimizing impact (this study considers as impact a benthic carbon deposition ≥ 1 gC m -2 d -1 ) will become increasingly difficult under climate change. Moreover, an increasing temperature will produce a poleward shift in sustainability trade-offs. These findings suggest that future sustainable management strategies and plans will need to account for the effects of climate change across scales. Overall, our results highlight the importance of integrating environmental factors in order to sustainably manage critical natural resources under shifting climatic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. A Typology Framework for Trade-Offs in Development and Disaster Risk Reduction: A Case Study of Typhoon Haiyan Recovery in Tacloban, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Tuhkanen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Development and disaster risk are deeply linked. Disasters reverse development gains; development initiatives influence the risk, vulnerability, and exposure of people, assets, and environments to disasters. Hence, knowledge of key dimensions of the potential trade-offs between development and disaster risk reduction (DRR may inform decision-making processes, goals, and initiatives in ways that have potential to address unsustainable development practices that are commonplace in countries of all economic levels. This paper presents, explores, and tests a conceptual framework for analysing the trade-offs that underpin this relationship as evidenced through policy goals, initiatives, and decision-making processes. We categorise key dimensions of relevant trade-offs into five specific dimensions: (i The aggregation of development and DRR gains and losses, (ii risk prioritisation when seeking to reduce multiple risks, (iii the equity of decision-making processes and outcomes, (iv the balancing of near- and long-term goals, and (v the distribution of power and participation. By framing key questions related to each trade-off dimension, we test the framework in the context of a major disaster recovery process in Tacloban, the Philippines, following Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda in November 2013. We consider how decision-making trade-offs can be made more visible and useful in the pursuit of transformative change in development and DRR.

  20. Attribute Obfuscation with Gradient Reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmery, Chris; Manjavacas, Enrique; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in computational stylometry have demonstrated that automatically inferring quite an extensive set of personal attributes from text alone (e.g. gender, age, education, socio-economic status, mental health issues) is not only feasible, but can often rely on little supervision. This

  1. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  2. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lourembam Surjit

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social…

  3. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  4. The cricket and the ant : Organizational trade-offs in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peli, Gabor; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Organizations face trade-offs when they adopt strategies in changing resource environments. The type of trade-off depends on the type of resource change. This paper offers an organizational trade-off model for quantitative resource changes. We call it the "Cricket and Ant" (CA) model, because the

  5. Organizational Attributes, Market Growth, and Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility

  6. On the finite-SNR diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of zero-forcing transmit scheme under secrecy constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we address the finite Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wiretap channel, where a Zero-Forcing (ZF) transmit scheme, that intends to send the secret information in the orthogonal space of the eavesdropper channel, is used. First, we introduce the secret multiplexing gain at finite-SNR that generalizes the definition at high-SNR. Then, we provide upper and lower bounds on the outage probability under secrecy constraint, from which secret diversity gain estimates of ZF are derived. Through asymptotic analysis, we show that the upper bound underestimates the secret diversity gain, whereas the lower bound is tight at high-SNR, and thus its related diversity gain estimate is equal to the actual asymptotic secret diversity gain of the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wiretap channel. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Attribution style, theory and empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Master i læring i komplekse systemer Attribution theory is a long-standing and widely discussed theory that addresses individuals’ explanation of causes of events. People attribute events of success and failure individually. Previous studies indicate that performance in sporting events may be improved by changing individuals’ attribution style. Article one describes attribution and attribution theory as state of the art. The article addresses the most important findings within attribution ...

  8. Trade-off between information and disturbance in qubit thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2018-03-01

    We address the trade-off between information and disturbance in qubit thermometry from the perspective of quantum estimation theory. Given a quantum measurement, we quantify information via the Fisher information of the measurement and disturbance via four different figures of merit, which capture different aspects (statistical, thermodynamical, geometrical) of the trade-off. For each disturbance measure, the efficient measurements, i.e., the measurements that introduce a disturbance not greater than any other measurement extracting the same amount of information, are determined explicitly. The family of efficient measurements varies with the choice of the disturbance measure. On the other hand, commutativity between the elements of the probability operator-valued measure (POVM) and the equilibrium state of the thermometer is a necessary condition for efficiency with respect to any figure of disturbance.

  9. Energy security and climate change protection: Complementarity or tradeoff?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2008-01-01

    Energy security and climate change protection have risen to the forefront of energy policy - linked in time and a perception that both goals can be achieved through the same or similar policies. Although such complementarity can exist for individual technologies, policymakers face a tradeoff between these two policy objectives. The tradeoff arises when policymakers choose the mix of individual technologies with which to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security. Optimal policy is achieved when the cost of the additional use of each technology equals the value of the additional energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emission that it provides. Such an approach may draw more heavily on conventional technologies that provide benefits in only one dimension than on more costly technologies that both increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  10. Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2009-10-20

    Forests provide multiple benefits at local to global scales. These include the global public good of carbon sequestration and local and national level contributions to livelihoods for more than half a billion users. Forest commons are a particularly important class of forests generating these multiple benefits. Institutional arrangements to govern forest commons are believed to substantially influence carbon storage and livelihood contributions, especially when they incorporate local knowledge and decentralized decision making. However, hypothesized relationships between institutional factors and multiple benefits have never been tested on data from multiple countries. By using original data on 80 forest commons in 10 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America, we show that larger forest size and greater rule-making autonomy at the local level are associated with high carbon storage and livelihood benefits; differences in ownership of forest commons are associated with trade-offs between livelihood benefits and carbon storage. We argue that local communities restrict their consumption of forest products when they own forest commons, thereby increasing carbon storage. In showing rule-making autonomy and ownership as distinct and important institutional influences on forest outcomes, our results are directly relevant to international climate change mitigation initiatives such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and avoided deforestation. Transfer of ownership over larger forest commons patches to local communities, coupled with payments for improved carbon storage can contribute to climate change mitigation without adversely affecting local livelihoods.

  11. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  12. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  13. DECISION USEFULNESS: TRADE-OFF ANTARA RELIABILITY DAN RELEVANCE

    OpenAIRE

    AGUS INDRA TENAYA

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to search for trade-off solution betweenreliability and relevance. Approach that can be used to have more reliable andrelevant financial statement is decision usefulness. This approach suggests thatfinancial statement must be useful to become a base of investors’ decision making.The change function of financial statement from just a tool of responsibility tobecome a tool of decision making has caused historical cost-based financialstatement could not be used to ...

  14. Photovoltaic subsystem optimization and design tradeoff study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.J.

    1982-03-01

    Tradeoffs and subsystem choices are examined in photovoltaic array subfield design, power-conditioning sizing and selection, roof- and ground-mounted structure installation, energy loss, operating voltage, power conditioning cost, and subfield size. Line- and self-commutated power conditioning options are analyzed to determine the most cost-effective technology in the megawatt power range. Methods for reducing field installation of flat panels and roof mounting of intermediate load centers are discussed, including the cost of retrofit installations.

  15. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...... world data from Danish secondary school students show 84% prediction accuracy when using all available material and 71.9% prediction accuracy when using only the five most recent writing samples from each student....

  16. Attribution methodologies for mobility impacts

    OpenAIRE

    KOTELNIKOVA WEILER, Natalia; LEURENT, Fabien; POULHES, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Motorized transportation modes all consume energy and emit local pollutants ? chemical and noise. Congestion can also be considered as a local pollution caused by some emitters onto some receivers. Various methods have been designed to evaluate impacts and relate them to emitters and/or receivers. Called ?attribution? in environmental evaluation or ?imputation? in economic analysis, these schemes? purpose is to identify the causes of impacts and to design management or compensation schemes to...

  17. Development and Validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan; Kogan, Steven M

    2017-07-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire (MAQ). The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically grounded measure of masculine attributes for sexual health research with African American young men. Consistent with Whitehead's theory, the MAQ items were hypothesized to comprise two components representing reputation-based and respect-based attributes. The sample included 505 African American men aged 19 to 22 years ( M = 20.29, SD = 1.10) living in resource-poor communities in the rural South. Convergent and discriminant validity of the MAQ were assessed by examining the associations of masculinity attributes with psychosocial factors. Criterion validity was assessed by examining the extent to which the MAQ subscales predicted sexual risk behavior outcomes. Consistent with study hypotheses, the MAQ was composed of (a) reputation-based attributes oriented toward sexual prowess, toughness, and authority-defying behavior and (b) respect-based attributes oriented toward economic independence, socially approved levels of hard work and education, and committed romantic relationships. Reputation-based attributes were associated positively with street code and negatively related to academic orientation, vocational engagement, and self-regulation, whereas respect-based attributes were associated positively with academic and vocational orientations and self-regulation. Finally, reputation-based attributes predicted sexual risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, multiple sexual partners, marijuana use, and incarceration, net of the influence of respect-based attributes. The development of the MAQ provides a new measure that permits systematic quantitative investigation of the associations between African American men's masculinity ideology and sexual risk behavior.

  18. Zirconium-barrier cladding attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.; Rand, R.A.; Tucker, R.P.; Cheng, B.; Adamson, R.B.; Davies, J.H.; Armijo, J.S.; Wisner, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This metallurgical study of Zr-barrier fuel cladding evaluates the importance of three salient attributes: (1) metallurgical bond between the zirconium liner and the Zircaloy substrate, (2) liner thickness (roughly 10% of the total cladding wall), and (3) softness (purity). The effect that each of these attributes has on the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance of the Zr-barrier fuel was studied by a combination of analytical model calculations and laboratory experiments using an expanding mandrel technique. Each of the attributes is shown to contribute to PCI resistance. The effect of the zirconium liner on fuel behavior during off-normal events in which steam comes in contact with the zirconium surface was studied experimentally. Simulations of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) showed that the behavior of Zr-barrier cladding is virtually indistinguishable from that of conventional Zircaloy cladding. If steam contacts the zirconium liner surface through a cladding perforation and the fuel rod is operated under normal power conditions, the zirconium liner is oxidized more rapidly than is Zircaloy, but the oxidation rate returns to the rate of Zircaloy oxidation when the oxide phase reaches the zirconium-Zircaloy metallurgical bond

  19. Social attribution in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Hambrook, David; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2018-05-01

    People with anorexia nervosa (AN) report socioemotional difficulties; however, measurement has been criticised for lacking ecological validity and the state or trait nature of difficulties remains unclear. Participants (n = 122) were recruited across 3 groups: people who are currently ill with AN (n = 40); people who recovered (RecAN, n = 18); healthy-control participants (n = 64). Participants completed clinical questionnaires and the Social Attribution Task. The Social Attribution Task involves describing an animation of moving shapes, scored for number of propositions offered, accuracy, and social relevance. Groups were compared cross-sectionally. Those with current AN were assessed prepsychological and postpsychological treatments. People with AN provided fewer propositions than other groups and fewer salient social attributions than healthy-control participants. Those who recovered scored intermediately and not significantly different from either group. Following treatment, people with AN demonstrated (nonsignificant) improvements, and no significance between group differences were observed. Findings suggest difficulties for people with AN in providing spontaneous social narrative and in identifying social salience. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  20. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  1. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  2. Casual Attributions of Adolescent Females in a Masculine Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauser, Barbara Z.; Ballif, Bonnie L.

    Achievement attributions of adolescent females in the masculine domain of mathematics were investigated in relation to self-schemas for gender, expectancy of success, and mathematics achievement. The most important findings revealed by multiple regression analysis were that mathematics achievement and the self-schema for masculinity predicted…

  3. Balanced the Trade-offs problem of ANFIS Using Particle Swarm Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Palupi Rini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving the approximation accuracy and interpretability of fuzzy systems is an important issue either in fuzzy systems theory or in its applications . It is known that simultaneous optimisation both issues was the trade-offs problem, but it will improve performance of the system and avoid overtraining of data. Particle swarm optimisation (PSO is part of evolutionary algorithm that is good candidate algorithms to solve multiple optimal solution and better global search space. This paper introduces an integration of PSO dan ANFIS for optimise its learning especially for tuning membership function parameters and finding the optimal rule for better classification. The proposed method has been tested on four standard dataset from UCI machine learning i.e. Iris Flower, Habermans Survival Data, Balloon and Thyroid dataset. The results have shown better classification using the proposed PSO-ANFIS and the time complexity has reduced accordingly.

  4. On capacity tradeoffs in secure DS-CDMA packet communications with QOS constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, F.; Mufti, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical framework for analysis of effect of counter mode (CTR) encryption on the traffic capacity of packet communication systems based on direct-sequence, code-division, multiple-access (DS-CDMA). We specify QoS constraints in terms of minimum acceptable mean opinion score (MOS) of voice payload, maximum permissible resource utilization for CTR-mode re-keying and DS-CDMA processing gain. We quantify the trade-offs in system capacity as a function of these constraints. Results show that application of CTR encryption causes error expansion and respecting the QoS constraints while satisfying the desired encryption parameters results in reduction of traffic capacity. (author)

  5. Scheduling and Optimization of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Transparency/Performance Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of fault-tolerant schedules and for the mapping of fault-tolerant applications. Our techniques handle transparency/performance trade-offs and use the faultoccurrence information to reduce the overhead due to fault tolerance. Processes...... and messages are statically scheduled, and we use process reexecution for recovering from multiple transient faults. We propose a finegrained transparent recovery, where the property of transparency can be selectively applied to processes and messages. Transparency hides the recovery actions in a selected part...... of the application so that they do not affect the schedule of other processes and messages. While leading to longer schedules, transparent recovery has the advantage of both improved debuggability and less memory needed to store the faulttolerant schedules....

  6. Speed and stamina trade-off in lacertid lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhooydonck, B; Van Damme, R; Aerts, P

    2001-05-01

    Morphological and physiological considerations suggest that sprinting ability and endurance capacity put conflicting demands on the design of an animal's locomotor apparatus and therefore cannot be maximized simultaneously. To test this hypothesis, we correlated size-corrected maximal sprint speed and stamina of 12 species of lacertid lizards. Phylogenetically independent contrasts of sprint speed and stamina showed a significant negative relationship, giving support to the idea of an evolutionary trade-off between the two performance measures. To test the hypothesis that the trade-off is mediated by a conflict in morphological requirements, we correlated both performance traits with snout-vent length, size-corrected estimates of body mass and limb length, and relative hindlimb length (the residuals of the relationship between hind- and forelimb length). Fast-running species had hindlimbs that were long compared to their forelimbs. None of the other size or shape variables showed a significant relationship with speed or endurance. We conclude that the evolution of sprint capacity may be constrained by the need for endurance capacity and vice versa, but the design conflict underlying this trade-off has yet to be identified.

  7. Evolutionary trade-offs in kidney injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yutian; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease. In this review we extend the concept of evolutionary nephrology by discussing how the physiologic adaptations (danger responses) to tissue injury create evolutionary trade-offs that drive histopathological changes underlying acute and chronic kidney diseases. The evolution of multicellular organisms positively selected a number of danger response programs for their overwhelming benefits in assuring survival such as clotting, inflammation, epithelial healing and mesenchymal healing, i.e. fibrosis and sclerosis. Upon kidney injury these danger programs often present as pathomechanisms driving persistent nephron loss and renal failure. We explore how classic kidney disease entities involve insufficient or overshooting activation of these danger response programs for which the underlying genetic basis remains largely to be defined. Dissecting the causative and hierarchical relationships between danger programs should help to identify molecular targets to control kidney injury and to improve disease outcomes.

  8. Synthetic control of a fitness tradeoff in yeast nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jack J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities are involved in many processes relevant to industrial and medical biotechnology, such as the formation of biofilms, lignocellulosic degradation, and hydrogen production. The manipulation of synthetic and natural microbial communities and their underlying ecological parameters, such as fitness, evolvability, and variation, is an increasingly important area of research for synthetic biology. Results Here, we explored how synthetic control of an endogenous circuit can be used to regulate a tradeoff between fitness in resource abundant and resource limited environments in a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that noise in the expression of a key enzyme in ammonia assimilation, Gdh1p, mediated a tradeoff between growth in low nitrogen environments and stress resistance in high ammonia environments. We implemented synthetic control of an endogenous Gdh1p regulatory network to construct an engineered strain in which the fitness of the population was tunable in response to an exogenously-added small molecule across a range of ammonia environments. Conclusion The ability to tune fitness and biological tradeoffs will be important components of future efforts to engineer microbial communities.

  9. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P.; Bennett, Micah G.; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A.; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable ( R 2 = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie ( Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  10. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P; Bennett, Micah G; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable (R (2) = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  11. Managing bay and estuarine ecosystems for multiple services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needles, Lisa A.; Lester, Sarah E.; Ambrose, Richard; Andren, Anders; Beyeler, Marc; Connor, Michael S.; Eckman, James E.; Costa-Pierce, Barry A.; Gaines, Steven D.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Lenihan, Junter S.; Parrish, Julia; Peterson, Mark S.; Scaroni, Amy E.; Weis, Judith S.; Wendt, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    Managers are moving from a model of managing individual sectors, human activities, or ecosystem services to an ecosystem-based management (EBM) approach which attempts to balance the range of services provided by ecosystems. Applying EBM is often difficult due to inherent tradeoffs in managing for different services. This challenge particularly holds for estuarine systems, which have been heavily altered in most regions and are often subject to intense management interventions. Estuarine managers can often choose among a range of management tactics to enhance a particular service; although some management actions will result in strong tradeoffs, others may enhance multiple services simultaneously. Management of estuarine ecosystems could be improved by distinguishing between optimal management actions for enhancing multiple services and those that have severe tradeoffs. This requires a framework that evaluates tradeoff scenarios and identifies management actions likely to benefit multiple services. We created a management action-services matrix as a first step towards assessing tradeoffs and providing managers with a decision support tool. We found that management actions that restored or enhanced natural vegetation (e.g., salt marsh and mangroves) and some shellfish (particularly oysters and oyster reef habitat) benefited multiple services. In contrast, management actions such as desalination, salt pond creation, sand mining, and large container shipping had large net negative effects on several of the other services considered in the matrix. Our framework provides resource managers a simple way to inform EBM decisions and can also be used as a first step in more sophisticated approaches that model service delivery.

  12. A trade-off between precopulatory and postcopulatory trait investment in male cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, James P; Mesnick, Sarah L; Ralls, Katherine; May-Collado, Laura; Agnarsson, Ingi; Dean, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    Mating with multiple partners is common across species, and understanding how individual males secure fertilization in the face of competition remains a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. Game theory stipulates that males have a fixed budget for reproduction that can lead to a trade-off between investment in precopulatory traits such as body size, armaments, and ornaments, and postcopulatory traits such as testis size and spermatogenic efficiency. Recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that if males can monopolize access to multiple females, they will invest disproportionately in precopulatory traits and less in postcopulatory traits. Using phylogenetically controlled comparative methods, we demonstrate that across 58 cetacean species with the most prominent sexual dimorphism in size, shape, teeth, tusks, and singing invest significantly less in relative testes mass. In support of theoretical predictions, these species tend to show evidence of male contests, suggesting there is opportunity for winners to monopolize access to multiple females. Our approach provides a robust dataset with which to make predictions about male mating strategies for the many cetacean species for which adequate behavioral observations do not exist. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. A MOX fuel attribute monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-01-01

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252 Cf

  14. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  15. An internet graph model based on trade-off optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hamelin, J. I.; Schabanel, N.

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a new model for the Internet graph (AS graph) based on the concept of heuristic trade-off optimization, introduced by Fabrikant, Koutsoupias and Papadimitriou in[CITE] to grow a random tree with a heavily tailed degree distribution. We propose here a generalization of this approach to generate a general graph, as a candidate for modeling the Internet. We present the results of our simulations and an analysis of the standard parameters measured in our model, compared with measurements from the physical Internet graph.

  16. Understanding trade-offs between development and resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwadla, Xolisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngwadla_CSIR2017.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4104 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ngwadla_CSIR2017.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 UNDERSTANDING TRADE... feedstock + production aspects • Are there limits to growth? WHY UNDERSTAND RESOURCE TRADE-OFFS WITH INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT? UNEMPLOYMENT - 24% in 2011 - 27% in 2016 INEQUALITY - Gini Coefficient: - 0,69 in 2011 - 0,68 in 2015...

  17. Regime switches in the risk-return trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Marcellino, Massimiliano; Ghysels, Eric; Guerin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the risk-return trade-off. We use a MIDAS model for the conditional variance and allow for possible switches in the risk-return relation through a Markov-switching specification. We find strong evidence for regime changes in the risk-return relation. This finding is robust to a large range of specifications. In the first regime characterized by low ex-post returns and high volatility, the risk-return relation is reversed, whereas the intuitive positive ...

  18. Estimating the risk-return tradeoff in MENA Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Lahmiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study employs the generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic in the mean (GARCH-M methodology to investigate the return generating process of Jordan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Kuwait, and Morocco stock market indices. The tradeoff between returns and the conditional variance is found to be positive in all markets. In other words, the empirical findings show that investors are rewarded for their exposure to more risk in these financial markets. This result is consistent with both financial theory and empirical finance.

  19. The Tradeoff Between Mutual Fund and Direct Stock Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Steininger, Bertram I.

    2014-01-01

    We study the tradeoff between direct and indirect stock investments through equity mutual funds for a utility-maximizing investor. Whereas direct investments impose higher transaction costs on the formation of a well-diversified portfolio, mutual funds charge fees for their services. Our results...... show that the fee levels that make private investors indifferent between direct and indirect stock investments vary heavily according to risk aversion, the amounts invested, correlations between assets, transaction costs, and the length of investment horizon. In particular, our results suggest...

  20. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  1. The critical attributes of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A

    1992-11-01

    The final decade of this century is a period of unprecedented change that by all indicators will continue unabated well into the next millennium. This article explored some elemental and immutable truths about leadership, management, communication, and negotiation essential to organizational success, particularly during periods of accelerated change. The case is made for a level of integrity, ethical conduct, and self-control to match the technical competence essential for managerial success in a technologically intensive work environment. These attributes and skills coupled with a widening scope of institutional vision are critical to sustained leadership and growth in an unstable world. Those without these abilities will be diminished in their capacity to communicate or negotiate. Hence, they will be thwarted or powerless to create task attraction, to effect change, or to promote excellence. These lessons are applicable to the dynamic changes occurring within the health care industrial complex, including health information management.

  2. Stability for Function Trade-Offs in the Enolase Superfamily 'Catalytic Module'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, R.A.; Gonzalez, A.; Shoichet, B.K.; Brinen, L.S.; Babbitt, P.C.; /UC, San Francisco /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-07-12

    Enzyme catalysis reflects a dynamic interplay between charged and polar active site residues that facilitate function, stabilize transition states, and maintain overall protein stability. Previous studies show that substituting neutral for charged residues in the active site often significantly stabilizes a protein, suggesting a stability trade-off for functionality. In the enolase superfamily, a set of conserved active site residues (the ''catalytic module'') has repeatedly been used in nature in the evolution of many different enzymes for the performance of unique overall reactions involving a chemically diverse set of substrates. This catalytic module provides a robust solution for catalysis that delivers the common underlying partial reaction that supports all of the different overall chemical reactions of the superfamily. As this module has been so broadly conserved in the evolution of new functions, we sought to investigate the extent to which it follows the stability-function trade-off. Alanine substitutions were made for individual residues, groups of residues, and the entire catalytic module of o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS), a member of the enolase superfamily from Escherichia coli. Of six individual residue substitutions, four (K131A, D161A, E190A, and D213A) substantially increased protein stability (by 0.46-4.23 kcal/mol), broadly consistent with prediction of a stability-activity trade-off. The residue most conserved across the superfamily, E190, is by far the most destabilizing. When the individual substitutions were combined into groups (as they are structurally and functionally organized), nonadditive stability effects emerged, supporting previous observations that residues within the module interact as two functional groups within a larger catalytic system. Thus, whereas the multiple-mutant enzymes D161A/E190A/D213A and K131A/K133A/D161A/E190A/D213A/K235A (termed 3KDED) are stabilized relative to the wild-type enzyme (by 1

  3. Molecular and Neuroendocrine Approaches to Understanding Trade-offs: Food, Sex, Aggression, Stress, and Longevity-An Introduction to the Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Deviche, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies. There is general recognition that trade-offs are made at the individual and population level, but much remains to be learned concerning the molecular neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie trade-offs. For example, we still do not know whether the mechanisms that underlie trade-offs at the individual level relate to trade-offs at the population level. To advance our understanding of trade-offs, we organized a group of speakers who study neuroendocrine mechanisms at the interface of traits that are not maximized simultaneously. Speakers were invited to represent research from a wide range of taxa including invertebrates (e.g., worms and insects), fish, nonavian reptiles, birds, and mammals. Three general themes emerged. First, the study of trade-offs requires that we investigate traditional endocrine mechanisms that include hormones, neuropeptides, and their receptors, and in addition, other chemical messengers not traditionally included in endocrinology. The latter group includes growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and molecules of the immune system. Second, the nomenclature and theory of neuroscience that has dominated the study of behavior is being re-evaluated in the face of evidence for the peripheral actions of so-called neuropeptides and neurotransmitters and the behavioral repercussions of these actions. Finally, environmental and ecological contexts continue to be critical in unmasking molecular mechanisms that are hidden when study animals

  4. Women's Benefits and Harms Trade-Offs in Breast Cancer Screening: Results from a Discrete-Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsic, Jonathan; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie; Moumjid, Nora

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, the benefits and harms balance of breast cancer (BC) screening has been widely debated. To elicit women's trade-offs between the benefits and harms of BC screening and to analyze the main determinants of these trade-offs. A discrete-choice experiment with seven attributes depicting BC screening programs including varying levels of BC mortality, overdiagnosis, and false-positive result was used. Eight hundred twelve women aged 40 to 74 years with no personal history of BC recruited by a survey institute and representative of the French general population (age, socioeconomic level, and geographical location) completed the discrete-choice experiment. Preference heterogeneity was investigated using generalized multinomial logit models from which individual trade-offs were derived, and their main determinants were assessed using generalized linear models. Screening acceptance rates under various benefits and harms ratios were simulated on the basis of the distribution of individual preferences. The women would be willing to accept on average 14.1 overdiagnosis cases (median = 9.6) and 47.8 false-positive results (median = 27.2) to avoid one BC-related death. After accounting for preference heterogeneity, less than 50% of women would be willing to accept 10 overdiagnosis cases for one BC-related death avoided. Screening acceptance rates were higher among women with higher socioeconomic level and lower among women with poor health. Women are sensitive to both the benefits and the harms of BC screening and their preferences are highly heterogeneous. Our study provides useful results for public health authorities and clinicians willing to improve their recommendations of BC screening on the basis of women's preferences. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A multi-attribute approach to choosing adaptation strategies: Application to sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.; Chu, H.Q.

    1994-01-01

    Selecting good adaptation strategies in anticipation of climate change is gaining increasing attention as it becomes increasingly clear that much of the likely change is already committed, and could not be avoided even with aggressive and immediate emissions reductions. Adaptation decision making will place special requirements on regional and local planners in the US and other countries, especially developing countries. Approaches, tools, and guidance will be useful to assist in an effective response to the challenge. This paper describes the value of using a multi-attribute approach for evaluating adaptation strategies and its implementation as a decision-support software tool to help planners understand and execute this approach. The multi-attribute approach described here explicitly addresses the fact that many aspects of the decision cannot be easily quantified, that future conditions are highly uncertain, and that there are issues of equity, flexibility, and coordination that may be as important to the decision as costs and benefits. The approach suggested also avoids trying to collapse information on all of the attributes to a single metric. Such metrics can obliterate insights about the nature of the trade-offs that must be made in choosing among very dissimilar types of responses to the anticipated threat of climate change. Implementation of such an approach requires management of much information, and an ability to easily manipulate its presentation while seeking acceptable trade-offs. The Adaptation Strategy Evaluator (ASE) was developed under funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide user-friendly, PC-based guidance through the major steps of a multi-attribute evaluation. The initial application of ASE, and the focus of this paper, is adaptation to sea level rise. However, the approach can be easily adapted to any multi-attribute choice problem, including the range of other adaptation planning needs

  6. Trade-off analysis of high-aspect-ratio-cooling-channels for rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzarelli, Marco; Nasuti, Francesco; Onofri, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aspect ratio has a significant effect on cooling efficiency and hydraulic losses. • Minimizing power loss is of paramount importance in liquid rocket engine cooling. • A suitable quasi-2D model is used to get fast cooling system analysis. • Trade-off with assigned weight, temperature, and channel height or wall thickness. • Aspect ratio is found that minimizes power loss in the cooling circuit. -- Abstract: High performance liquid rocket engines are often characterized by rectangular cooling channels with high aspect ratio (channel height-to-width ratio) because of their proven superior cooling efficiency with respect to a conventional design. However, the identification of the optimum aspect ratio is not a trivial task. In the present study a trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system that can be of interest for rocket engines. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations and thus cannot be efficiently performed by CFD solvers. Therefore, a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-2D model, is used to have fast and accurate predictions of cooling system properties. This approach relies on its capability of describing the thermal stratification that occurs in the coolant and in the wall structure, as well as the coolant warming and pressure drop along the channel length. Validation of the model is carried out by comparison with solutions obtained with a validated CFD solver. Results of the analysis show the existence of an optimum channel aspect ratio that minimizes the requested pump power needed to overcome losses in the cooling circuit

  7. Trade-offs in thermal adaptation: the need for a molecular to ecological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, Hans O; Bennett, Albert F; Bozinovic, Francisco; Clarke, Andrew; Lardies, Marco A; Lucassen, Magnus; Pelster, Bernd; Schiemer, Fritz; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2006-01-01

    Through functional analyses, integrative physiology is able to link molecular biology with ecology as well as evolutionary biology and is thereby expected to provide access to the evolution of molecular, cellular, and organismic functions; the genetic basis of adaptability; and the shaping of ecological patterns. This paper compiles several exemplary studies of thermal physiology and ecology, carried out at various levels of biological organization from single genes (proteins) to ecosystems. In each of those examples, trade-offs and constraints in thermal adaptation are addressed; these trade-offs and constraints may limit species' distribution and define their level of fitness. For a more comprehensive understanding, the paper sets out to elaborate the functional and conceptual connections among these independent studies and the various organizational levels addressed. This effort illustrates the need for an overarching concept of thermal adaptation that encompasses molecular, organellar, cellular, and whole-organism information as well as the mechanistic links between fitness, ecological success, and organismal physiology. For this data, the hypothesis of oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance in animals provides such a conceptual framework and allows interpreting the mechanisms of thermal limitation of animals as relevant at the ecological level. While, ideally, evolutionary studies over multiple generations, illustrated by an example study in bacteria, are necessary to test the validity of such complex concepts and underlying hypotheses, animal physiology frequently is constrained to functional studies within one generation. Comparisons of populations in a latitudinal cline, closely related species from different climates, and ontogenetic stages from riverine clines illustrate how evolutionary information can still be gained. An understanding of temperature-dependent shifts in energy turnover, associated with adjustments in aerobic scope and performance

  8. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  9. Optimization of Emissions Sensor Networks Incorporating Tradeoffs Between Different Sensor Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, B.; Klise, K. A.; Laird, C. D.; Ravikumar, A. P.; Brandt, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    In order to comply with current and future methane emissions regulations, natural gas producers must develop emissions monitoring strategies for their facilities. In addition, regulators must develop air monitoring strategies over wide areas incorporating multiple facilities. However, in both of these cases, only a limited number of sensors can be deployed. With a wide variety of sensors to choose from in terms of cost, precision, accuracy, spatial coverage, location, orientation, and sampling frequency, it is difficult to design robust monitoring strategies for different scenarios while systematically considering the tradeoffs between different sensor technologies. In addition, the geography, weather, and other site specific conditions can have a large impact on the performance of a sensor network. In this work, we demonstrate methods for calculating optimal sensor networks. Our approach can incorporate tradeoffs between vastly different sensor technologies, optimize over typical wind conditions for a particular area, and consider different objectives such as time to detection or geographic coverage. We do this by pre-computing site specific scenarios and using them as input to a mixed-integer, stochastic programming problem that solves for a sensor network that maximizes the effectiveness of the detection program. Our methods and approach have been incorporated within an open source Python package called Chama with the goal of providing facility operators and regulators with tools for designing more effective and efficient monitoring systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  10. Thermal hydraulic tradeoffs in the design of IRIS primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriani, L.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.; Paramonov, D.; Carelli, M.; Conway, L.

    2001-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is currently being developed by an international consortium, led by Westinghouse and including universities. In order to achieve high level of safety, reduce complexity and capital cost, and enhance proliferation resistance, an integral primary circuit configuration has been selected. The integral configuration (the core, steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and control rods are all contained within the reactor vessel) has no loop piping and thereby eliminates the possibility of large loss of coolant accidents. If the reactor vessel and components are designed for a very high level of natural circulation, which is promoted by an integral design, the consequence of loss of flow accidents can be significantly reduced or even completely eliminated. Core and integral primary circuit design optimization has been performed using the OSCAR computer code, a specialized tool for the analyses of the IRIS primary system developed at POLIMI. Results of trade-off studies of various in-vessel configurations explored to achieve tight packaging and high serviceability and/or replacement of components such as steam generators and pumps are reported. Effects of changes in secondary side parameters and steam generator design on system efficiency were explored together with the optimization of the vessel and steam generator dimensions and costs. The aim of the trade-off analyses was to limit the design space, and select a reference configuration for the IRIS reactor. (author)

  11. Exploration of tradeoffs in intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, David; Halabi, Tarek; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to calculate Pareto surfaces in multi-criteria radiation treatment planning and to analyse the dependency of the Pareto surfaces on the objective functions used for the volumes of interest. We develop a linear approach that allows us to calculate truly Pareto optimal treatment plans, and we apply it to explore the tradeoff between tumour dose homogeneity and critical structure sparing. We show that for two phantom and two clinical cases, a smooth (as opposed to kinked) Pareto tradeoff curve exists. We find that in the paraspinal cases the Pareto surface is invariant to the response function used on the spinal cord: whether the mean cord dose or the maximum cord dose is used, the Pareto plan database is similar. This is not true for the lung studies, where the choice of objective function on the healthy lung tissue influences the resulting Pareto surface greatly. We conclude that in the special case when the tumour wraps around the organ at risk, e.g. prostate cases and paraspinal cases, the Pareto surface will be largely invariant to the objective function used to model the organ at risk

  12. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

  13. No Genetic Tradeoffs between Hygienic Behaviour and Individual Innate Immunity in the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Harpur, Brock A.; Chernyshova, Anna; Soltani, Arash; Tsvetkov, Nadejda; Mahjoorighasrodashti, Mohammad; Xu, Zhixing; Zayed, Amro

    2014-01-01

    Many animals have individual and social mechanisms for combating pathogens. Animals may exhibit short-term physiological tradeoffs between social and individual immunity because the latter is often energetically costly. Genetic tradeoffs between these two traits can also occur if mutations that enhance social immunity diminish individual immunity, or vice versa. Physiological tradeoffs between individual and social immunity have been previously documented in insects, but there has been no stu...

  14. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming; Wu, Guangdong

    2014-01-01

    Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illus...

  15. Attributes and descriptors for building performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopikrishnan

    2017-12-01

    In order to obtain the right feedback in levels of satisfaction with respect to these attributes, there is a need to have appropriate descriptors for incorporation in a survey instrument. This paper identifies attributes that indicate building performance and provides simple description of these attributes based on which items can be generated for a questionnaire. Such items can enable any user/occupant to easily understand the characteristics of these attributes and offer an objective feedback during questionnaire survey.

  16. General tradeoff relations of quantum nonlocality in the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hong-Yi, E-mail: hongyisu@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Physics Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Jing-Ling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Hwang, Won-Young, E-mail: wyhwang@jnu.ac.kr [Department of Physics Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    General tradeoff relations present in nonlocal correlations of bipartite systems are studied, regardless of any specific quantum states and measuring directions. Extensions to multipartite scenarios are possible and very promising. Tsirelson’s bound can be derived out in particular. The close connection with uncertainty relations is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Quantum violation of CHSH inequalities is found to satisfy tradeoff relations. • Tsirelson’s bound for quantum mechanics can be directly implied from these tradeoffs. • Tradeoff relations shed new light on uncertainty relations in summation forms.

  17. On the cost/delay tradeoff of wireless delay tolerant geographic routing

    OpenAIRE

    Tasiopoulos, Argyrios; Tsiaras, Christos; Toumpis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), there is a fundamental tradeoff between the aggregate transport cost of a packet and the delay in its delivery. We study this tradeoff in the context of geographical routing in wireless DTNs.We ?rst specify the optimal cost/delay tradeoff, i.e., the tradeoff under optimal network operation, using a dynamic network construction termed the Cost/Delay Evolving Graph (C/DEG) and the Optimal Cost/Delay Curve (OC/DC), a function that gives the minimum possible agg...

  18. Attribution Theory and Crisis Intervention Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbeck, William M.

    It was proposed that existing therapeutic procedures may influence attributions about emotional states. Therefore an attributional analysis of crisis intervention, a model of community-based, short-term consultation, was presented. This analysis suggested that crisis intervention provides attributionally-relevant information about both the source…

  19. A multiple objective mixed integer linear programming model for power generation expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, C. Henggeler; Martins, A. Gomes [INESC-Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Universidade de Coimbra, Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Coimbra (Portugal); Brito, Isabel Sofia [Instituto Politecnico de Beja, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Beja (Portugal)

    2004-03-01

    Power generation expansion planning inherently involves multiple, conflicting and incommensurate objectives. Therefore, mathematical models become more realistic if distinct evaluation aspects, such as cost and environmental concerns, are explicitly considered as objective functions rather than being encompassed by a single economic indicator. With the aid of multiple objective models, decision makers may grasp the conflicting nature and the trade-offs among the different objectives in order to select satisfactory compromise solutions. This paper presents a multiple objective mixed integer linear programming model for power generation expansion planning that allows the consideration of modular expansion capacity values of supply-side options. This characteristic of the model avoids the well-known problem associated with continuous capacity values that usually have to be discretized in a post-processing phase without feedback on the nature and importance of the changes in the attributes of the obtained solutions. Demand-side management (DSM) is also considered an option in the planning process, assuming there is a sufficiently large portion of the market under franchise conditions. As DSM full costs are accounted in the model, including lost revenues, it is possible to perform an evaluation of the rate impact in order to further inform the decision process (Author)

  20. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-07-21

    A major challenge for the production of ethanol from biomass-derived feedstocks is to develop yeasts that can sustain growth under the variety of inhibitory conditions present in the production process, e.g., high osmolality, high ethanol titers, and/or elevated temperatures (≥ 40 °C). Using adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40 °C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses. Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3 °C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34 °C. Computational analysis of the physical properties of proteins showed that the lethal temperature for yeast is around 49 °C, as a large fraction of the yeast proteins denature above this temperature. Our analysis also indicated that the number of functions involved in controlling the growth rate decreased in the thermotolerant strains compared with the number in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures. In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. Yeast thermotolerance can significantly reduce the production costs of biomass

  1. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  2. Diversity and abundance of invertebrate epifaunal assemblages associated with gorgonians are driven by colony attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Curdia, Joao; Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Fá bio R.; Guerra-Garcí a, José Manuel; Santos, Miguel Neves Dos; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explicitly quantify the link between the attributes of shallow-water gorgonian colonies (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) and the ecological patterns of associated non-colonial epifaunal invertebrates. Based on multiple

  3. A procurement decision support mechanism on multi-attribute fuzzy-interval auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Procurement systems are the basis for assuring efficiency and fairness in organizations. Consequently, the development of procurement systems faces an ongoing challenge in designing trading systems that facilitate transparent competition on both price and multiple attributes, as well as ensuring...

  4. Attributional Choices for Academic Success and Failure by Intellectually Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Colangelo, Nicholas; Ihrig, Damien; Forstadt, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    This study emerges from the lack of empirical research on gifted students' attributions about academic success and failure in multiple subject areas and school in general. We explored differences in top attributional choices between boys and girls for success and failure in general academics, language arts, science, and mathematics. Gifted…

  5. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from 1-meter August 2009 true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  6. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  7. Anticipating and Managing Future Trade-offs and Complementarities between Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Reed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how, with the aid of computer models developed in close collaboration with decision makers and other stakeholders, it is possible to quantify and map how policy decisions are likely to affect multiple ecosystem services in future. In this way, potential trade-offs and complementarities between different ecosystem services can be identified, so that policies can be designed to avoid the worst trade-offs, and where possible, enhance multiple services. The paper brings together evidence from across the Rural Economy and Land Use Programme's Sustainable Uplands project for the first time, with previously unpublished model outputs relating to runoff, agricultural suitability, biomass, heather cover, age, and utility for Red Grouse (Lagopus scotica, grass cover, and accompanying scenario narratives and video. Two contrasting scenarios, based on policies to extensify or intensify land management up to 2030, were developed through a combination of interviews and discussions during site visits with stakeholders, literature review, conceptual modeling, and process-based computer models, using the Dark Peak of the Peak District National Park in the UK as a case study. Where extensification leads to a significant reduction in managed burning and grazing or land abandonment, changes in vegetation type and structure could compromise a range of species that are important for conservation, while compromising provisioning services, amenity value, and increasing wildfire risk. However, where extensification leads to the restoration of peatlands damaged by former intensive management, there would be an increase in carbon sequestration and storage, with a number of cobenefits, which could counter the loss of habitats and species elsewhere in the landscape. In the second scenario, land use and management was significantly intensified to boost UK self-sufficiency in food. This would benefit certain provisioning services but would have negative

  8. Employability attributes and personality preferences of postgraduate business management students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Potgieter

    2013-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between employees’ employability attributes (as the Employability Attributes Scale measures them and their personality preferences (as the Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Form M, measures them. Motivation for the study: There seems to be a paucity of information about how employees’ personality preferences relate to their employability attributes in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context. Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted a quantitative survey. It involved a non-probability sample of 304 early career adults enrolled for an Honour’s degree in business management in an open distance learning higher education institution. They used correlational statistics and multiple regression analyses to analyse the data. Main findings: The authors observed a number of significant relationships between the participants’ personality preferences and their employability attributes. Practical/managerial implications: Career counsellors and human resource practitioners need to recognise how employees’ personality preferences influence their employability attributes in the management of their career development and employability. Contribution/value add: The findings add to the existing career literature on the career metacompetencies that influence employees’ employability. They also provide valuable information that organisations can use for career development support and counselling practices in the contemporary world of work.

  9. Exercise identity and attribution properties predict negative self-conscious emotions for exercise relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Parminder K; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Brawley, Lawrence R; Spink, Kevin S

    2012-10-01

    Research on exercise identity (EXID) indicates that it is related to negative affect when exercisers are inconsistent or relapse. Although identity theory suggests that causal attributions about this inconsistency elicit negative self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, no EXID studies have examined this for exercise relapse. Weiner's attribution-based theory of interpersonal motivation (2010) offers a means of testing the attribution-emotion link. Using both frameworks, we examined whether EXID and attributional properties predicted negative emotions for exercise relapse. Participants (n = 224) read an exercise relapse vignette, and then completed EXID, attributions, and emotion measures. Hierarchical multiple regression models using EXID and the attributional property of controllability significantly predicted each of shame and guilt, R² adjusted = .09, ps ≤ .001. Results support identity theory suggestions and Weiner's specific attribution-emotion hypothesis. This first demonstration of an interlinking of EXID, controllability, and negative self-conscious emotions offers more predictive utility using complementary theories than either theory alone.

  10. Evolutionary Influences on Attribution and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.

  11. Declarative capacity does not trade-off with procedural capacity in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengottuvel Kuppuraj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims The procedural deficit hypothesis attributes the language phenotype in children with specific language impairment to an impaired procedural and relatively intact declarative memory system. The declarative compensatory hypothesis is an extension of the procedural deficit hypothesis which claims that the declarative system in specific language impairment compensates for the procedural deficit. The present study’s aim was to examine the claims of the procedural deficit hypothesis and declarative compensatory hypothesis by examining these memory systems and relation between them in specific language impairment. Methods Participants were children aged 8–13 years, 30 with specific language impairment and 30 typically developing controls, who spoke Kannada (an agglutinating language of the Dravidian family. Procedural learning was assessed using a serial reaction time task. Declarative memory was assessed using two non-verbal tasks that differed at the level of encoding and retrieval: a recognition memory task after incidental encoding using real and novel object images and a recall task after intentional encoding using visual paired associates. Retrieval was examined after short (10 min and long (60 min delays after encoding on both declarative tasks. Results Findings confirmed that children with specific language impairment (SLI have impaired procedural memory on a non-verbal serial reaction time task. On recognition memory task after incidental encoding though children with specific language impairment encoded less well, they recognized items as well as typically developing controls. Both the groups retrieved more at short compared to long intervals and retrieved real (verbalizable objects better than novel objects. On visual paired associates (recall task with intentional encoding children with specific language impairment retrieved less than typically developing children (even after controlling for non-verbal ability

  12. DECISION USEFULNESS: TRADE-OFF ANTARA RELIABILITY DAN RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS INDRA TENAYA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to search for trade-off solution betweenreliability and relevance. Approach that can be used to have more reliable andrelevant financial statement is decision usefulness. This approach suggests thatfinancial statement must be useful to become a base of investors’ decision making.The change function of financial statement from just a tool of responsibility tobecome a tool of decision making has caused historical cost-based financialstatement could not be used to predict future value of a firm. This problem couldbe solved by presenting full disclosure of financial statement. Discussion sessionshows that full disclosure results in more useful and reliable accountinginformation to be used in decision making process of various users.

  13. Adhesive bonds for optics: analysis and trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, John G.; Hawk, Matthew D.

    2017-08-01

    Fastening optical elements with adhesives presents challenges when dissimilar materials (almost always the case) are encountered and environmental exposures from temperature changes, shock and vibration must be met. A brief review of standard processes will be followed by a selection criteria for the optic, its substrate, the bond geometry, surface preparation, application and cure. Common analysis practices will be compared to Finite Element models. The impact of stress in terms of distortion and level of risk of bond failure is highlighted. Trade-offs will be presented as aids in determination of the best approach. Some areas addressed will be different adhesive types, matching CTE's, stress effects, athermal bonds, monolithic designs, and the use of flexures.

  14. Cooperative decoding in femtocell networks: Performance-complexity tradeoff

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells, which are low cost low power, stand alone cellular access points, are a potential solution to provide good indoor coverage with high data rate. However, the femtocell deployment may also increase the co-channel interference (CCI) by reducing the distance reuse of the spectrum. In this paper, we introduce methods to cancel out the interference among the femtocells while considering that macrocells operate orthogonally to the femtocells. The femtocells may also cooperate through joint detection of the received signal and improve the overall error performance at the expense of an increased computational complexity. In this paper, the performance-complexity tradeoff of cooperative detection is investigated for uplink transmissions. Numerical results show that the cooperative detection gain may reach 10 dB at a Bit-Error Rate (BER) of 10 -2 when compared to the case without cooperation. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Experimental evolution reveals trade-offs between mating and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; Wedell, Nina; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-08-23

    Immune system maintenance and upregulation is costly. Sexual selection intensity, which increases male investment into reproductive traits, is expected to create trade-offs with immune function. We assayed phenoloxidase (PO) and lytic activity of individuals from populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, which had been evolving under different intensities of sexual selection. We found significant divergence among populations, with males from female-biased populations having lower PO activity than males from balanced sex ratio or male-biased populations. There was no divergence in anti-bacterial lytic activity. Our data suggest that it is the increased male mating demands in female-biased populations that trades-off against immunity, and not the increased investment in sperm transfer per mating that characterizes male-biased populations.

  16. Cooperative decoding in femtocell networks: Performance-complexity tradeoff

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Femtocells, which are low cost low power, stand alone cellular access points, are a potential solution to provide good indoor coverage with high data rate. However, the femtocell deployment may also increase the co-channel interference (CCI) by reducing the distance reuse of the spectrum. In this paper, we introduce methods to cancel out the interference among the femtocells while considering that macrocells operate orthogonally to the femtocells. The femtocells may also cooperate through joint detection of the received signal and improve the overall error performance at the expense of an increased computational complexity. In this paper, the performance-complexity tradeoff of cooperative detection is investigated for uplink transmissions. Numerical results show that the cooperative detection gain may reach 10 dB at a Bit-Error Rate (BER) of 10 -2 when compared to the case without cooperation. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Heterogeneous Face Attribute Estimation: A Deep Multi-Task Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hu; K Jain, Anil; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin

    2017-08-10

    Face attribute estimation has many potential applications in video surveillance, face retrieval, and social media. While a number of methods have been proposed for face attribute estimation, most of them did not explicitly consider the attribute correlation and heterogeneity (e.g., ordinal vs. nominal and holistic vs. local) during feature representation learning. In this paper, we present a Deep Multi-Task Learning (DMTL) approach to jointly estimate multiple heterogeneous attributes from a single face image. In DMTL, we tackle attribute correlation and heterogeneity with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) consisting of shared feature learning for all the attributes, and category-specific feature learning for heterogeneous attributes. We also introduce an unconstrained face database (LFW+), an extension of public-domain LFW, with heterogeneous demographic attributes (age, gender, and race) obtained via crowdsourcing. Experimental results on benchmarks with multiple face attributes (MORPH II, LFW+, CelebA, LFWA, and FotW) show that the proposed approach has superior performance compared to state of the art. Finally, evaluations on a public-domain face database (LAP) with a single attribute show that the proposed approach has excellent generalization ability.

  18. Multiplant strategy under core-periphery structure

    OpenAIRE

    Tsubota, Kenmei

    2012-01-01

    A typical implicit assumption on monopolistic competition models for trade and economic geography is that firms can produce and sell only at one place. This paper fallows endogenous determination of the number of plants in a new economic geography model and examine the stable outcomes of organization choice between single-plant and multi-plant in two regions. We explicitly consider the firms' trade-off between larger economies of scale under single plant configuration and the saving in interr...

  19. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty and trade-offs in resilience assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several frameworks have been developed to assess the resilience of social-ecological systems, but most require substantial data inputs, time, and technical expertise. Stakeholders and practitioners often lack the resources for such intensive efforts. Furthermore, most end with problem framing and fail to explicitly address trade-offs and uncertainty. To remedy this gap, we developed a rapid survey assessment that compares the relative resilience of social-ecological systems with respect to a number of resilience properties. This approach generates large amounts of information relative to stakeholder inputs. We targeted four stakeholder categories: government (policy, regulation, management, end users (farmers, ranchers, landowners, industry, agency/public science (research, university, extension, and NGOs (environmental, citizen, social justice in four North American watersheds, to assess social-ecological resilience through surveys. Conceptually, social-ecological systems are comprised of components ranging from strictly human to strictly ecological, but that relate directly or indirectly to one another. They have soft boundaries and several important dimensions or axes that together describe the nature of social-ecological interactions, e.g., variability, diversity, modularity, slow variables, feedbacks, capital, innovation, redundancy, and ecosystem services. There is no absolute measure of resilience, so our design takes advantage of cross-watershed comparisons and therefore focuses on relative resilience. Our approach quantifies and compares the relative resilience across watershed systems and potential trade-offs among different aspects of the social-ecological system, e.g., between social, economic, and ecological contributions. This approach permits explicit assessment of several types of uncertainty (e.g., self-assigned uncertainty for stakeholders; uncertainty across respondents, watersheds, and subsystems, and subjectivity in

  1. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  2. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover / loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 1/2 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  3. Interparameter trade-off quantification and reduction in isotropic-elastic full-waveform inversion: synthetic experiments and Hussar land data set application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenyong; Geng, Yu; Innanen, Kristopher A.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of inverting for multiple physical parameters in the subsurface using seismic full-waveform inversion (FWI) is complicated by interparameter trade-off arising from inherent ambiguities between different physical parameters. Parameter resolution is often characterized using scattering radiation patterns, but these neglect some important aspects of interparameter trade-off. More general analysis and mitigation of interparameter trade-off in isotropic-elastic FWI is possible through judiciously chosen multiparameter Hessian matrix-vector products. We show that products of multiparameter Hessian off-diagonal blocks with model perturbation vectors, referred to as interparameter contamination kernels, are central to the approach. We apply the multiparameter Hessian to various vectors designed to provide information regarding the strengths and characteristics of interparameter contamination, both locally and within the whole volume. With numerical experiments, we observe that S-wave velocity perturbations introduce strong contaminations into density and phase-reversed contaminations into P-wave velocity, but themselves experience only limited contaminations from other parameters. Based on these findings, we introduce a novel strategy to mitigate the influence of interparameter trade-off with approximate contamination kernels. Furthermore, we recommend that the local spatial and interparameter trade-off of the inverted models be quantified using extended multiparameter point spread functions (EMPSFs) obtained with pre-conditioned conjugate-gradient algorithm. Compared to traditional point spread functions, the EMPSFs appear to provide more accurate measurements for resolution analysis, by de-blurring the estimations, scaling magnitudes and mitigating interparameter contamination. Approximate eigenvalue volumes constructed with stochastic probing approach are proposed to evaluate the resolution of the inverted models within the whole model. With a synthetic

  4. Features of spatial and functional segregation and integration of the primate connectome revealed by trade-off between wiring cost and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C; Zhou, Changsong

    2017-09-01

    The primate connectome, possessing a characteristic global topology and specific regional connectivity profiles, is well organized to support both segregated and integrated brain function. However, the organization mechanisms shaping the characteristic connectivity and its relationship to functional requirements remain unclear. The primate brain connectome is shaped by metabolic economy as well as functional values. Here, we explored the influence of two competing factors and additional advanced functional requirements on the primate connectome employing an optimal trade-off model between neural wiring cost and the representative functional requirement of processing efficiency. Moreover, we compared this model with a generative model combining spatial distance and topological similarity, with the objective of statistically reproducing multiple topological features of the network. The primate connectome indeed displays a cost-efficiency trade-off and that up to 67% of the connections were recovered by optimal combination of the two basic factors of wiring economy and processing efficiency, clearly higher than the proportion of connections (56%) explained by the generative model. While not explicitly aimed for, the trade-off model captured several key topological features of the real connectome as the generative model, yet better explained the connectivity of most regions. The majority of the remaining 33% of connections unexplained by the best trade-off model were long-distance links, which are concentrated on few cortical areas, termed long-distance connectors (LDCs). The LDCs are mainly non-hubs, but form a densely connected group overlapping on spatially segregated functional modalities. LDCs are crucial for both functional segregation and integration across different scales. These organization features revealed by the optimization analysis provide evidence that the demands of advanced functional segregation and integration among spatially distributed regions may

  5. Features of spatial and functional segregation and integration of the primate connectome revealed by trade-off between wiring cost and efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The primate connectome, possessing a characteristic global topology and specific regional connectivity profiles, is well organized to support both segregated and integrated brain function. However, the organization mechanisms shaping the characteristic connectivity and its relationship to functional requirements remain unclear. The primate brain connectome is shaped by metabolic economy as well as functional values. Here, we explored the influence of two competing factors and additional advanced functional requirements on the primate connectome employing an optimal trade-off model between neural wiring cost and the representative functional requirement of processing efficiency. Moreover, we compared this model with a generative model combining spatial distance and topological similarity, with the objective of statistically reproducing multiple topological features of the network. The primate connectome indeed displays a cost-efficiency trade-off and that up to 67% of the connections were recovered by optimal combination of the two basic factors of wiring economy and processing efficiency, clearly higher than the proportion of connections (56% explained by the generative model. While not explicitly aimed for, the trade-off model captured several key topological features of the real connectome as the generative model, yet better explained the connectivity of most regions. The majority of the remaining 33% of connections unexplained by the best trade-off model were long-distance links, which are concentrated on few cortical areas, termed long-distance connectors (LDCs. The LDCs are mainly non-hubs, but form a densely connected group overlapping on spatially segregated functional modalities. LDCs are crucial for both functional segregation and integration across different scales. These organization features revealed by the optimization analysis provide evidence that the demands of advanced functional segregation and integration among spatially

  6. Electricity supply industry modelling for multiple objectives under demand growth uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.; Basson, L.; Howells, M.; Petrie, J.

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate energy-environment-economic (E3) modelling provides key information for policy makers in the electricity supply industry (ESI) faced with navigating a sustainable development path. Key challenges include engaging with stakeholder values and preferences, and exploring trade-offs between competing objectives in the face of underlying uncertainty. As a case study we represent the South African ESI using a partial equilibrium E3 modelling approach, and extend the approach to include multiple objectives under selected future uncertainties. This extension is achieved by assigning cost penalties to non-cost attributes to force the model's least-cost objective function to better satisfy non-cost criteria. This paper incorporates aspects of flexibility to demand growth uncertainty into each future expansion alternative by introducing stochastic programming with recourse into the model. Technology lead times are taken into account by the inclusion of a decision node along the time horizon where aspects of real options theory are considered within the planning process. Hedging in the recourse programming is automatically translated from being purely financial, to include the other attributes that the cost penalties represent. From a retrospective analysis of the cost penalties, the correct market signals, can be derived to meet policy goal, with due regard to demand uncertainty. (author)

  7. Dynamical trade-offs arise from antagonistic coevolution and decrease intraspecific diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weini; Traulsen, Arne; Werner, Benjamin; Hiltunen, Teppo; Becks, Lutz

    2017-12-12

    Trade-offs play an important role in evolution. Without trade-offs, evolution would maximize fitness of all traits leading to a "master of all traits". The shape of trade-offs has been shown to determine evolutionary trajectories and is often assumed to be static and independent of the actual evolutionary process. Here we propose that coevolution leads to a dynamical trade-off. We test this hypothesis in a microbial predator-prey system and show that the bacterial growth-defense trade-off changes from concave to convex, i.e., defense is effective and cheap initially, but gets costly when predators coevolve. We further explore the impact of such dynamical trade-offs by a novel mathematical model incorporating de novo mutations for both species. Predator and prey populations diversify rapidly leading to higher prey diversity when the trade-off is concave (cheap). Coevolution results in more convex (costly) trade-offs and lower prey diversity compared to the scenario where only the prey evolves.

  8. Contract Source Selection: An Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    using- spss - statistics.php Lamoureux, J., Murrow, M., & Walls, C. (2015). Relationship of source selection methods to contract outcomes: an analysis ...Contract Source Selection: an Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff Strategies 15 June 2016 LCDR Jamal M. Osman, USN...ACQUISITION RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Contract Source Selection: an Analysis of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable and Tradeoff

  9. Measuring service quality trade-offs in Asian distribution channels: A multi-layer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, M.G.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Lemmink, J.G.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In international marketing channels customer service has become an important factor in supplier and purchase decisions. In evaluating supplier performance several trade-offs are taken into account by actors operating at various channel levels. These are trade-offs among customer service elements and

  10. Trade-off between growth and immune function : a meta-analysis of selection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Most, Peter; de Jong, Berber; Parmentier, Henk K.; Verhulst, Simon

    P>1. Evidence suggests that developing and maintaining an effective immune system may be costly and that an organism has to make a trade-off between immune function and other fitness-enhancing traits. To test for a trade-off between growth and immune function we carried out a meta-analysis of data

  11. Trade-offs, co-benefits and safeguards: Current debates on the breadth of REDD+.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; McDermott, C.; Vijge, M.J.; Cashore, B.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental trade-offs exist between different land uses for carbon, livelihoods, economic development, biodiversity, agriculture and energy (especially biofuels). This article analyses the scientific debates on REDD+ trade-offs, co-benefits and safeguards, and shows how the development and expanded

  12. Trade-off analysis in the Northern Andes to study the dynamics in agricultural land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.; Antle, J.M.; Crissman, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that land use change can be induced by non-linearities and thresholds in production systems that impact farmers' decision making. Tradeoffs between environmental and economic indicators is a useful way to represent dynamic properties of agricultural systems. The Tradeoff

  13. Endogenous testosterone is not associated with the trade-off between paternal and mating effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Males may face a trade-off between caring for offspring and pursuing additional matings. In birds, the androgen testosterone has been suggested to be a key proximate mediator in this trade-off for several reasons. At the population level, high testosterone is typically associated with the period of

  14. Identifying mechanisms that structure ecological communities by snapping model parameters to empirically observed tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Clark, Adam; Lehman, Clarence; Tilman, David

    2018-04-01

    Theory predicts that interspecific tradeoffs are primary determinants of coexistence and community composition. Using information from empirically observed tradeoffs to augment the parametrisation of mechanism-based models should therefore improve model predictions, provided that tradeoffs and mechanisms are chosen correctly. We developed and tested such a model for 35 grassland plant species using monoculture measurements of three species characteristics related to nitrogen uptake and retention, which previous experiments indicate as important at our site. Matching classical theoretical expectations, these characteristics defined a distinct tradeoff surface, and models parameterised with these characteristics closely matched observations from experimental multi-species mixtures. Importantly, predictions improved significantly when we incorporated information from tradeoffs by 'snapping' characteristics to the nearest location on the tradeoff surface, suggesting that the tradeoffs and mechanisms we identify are important determinants of local community structure. This 'snapping' method could therefore constitute a broadly applicable test for identifying influential tradeoffs and mechanisms. © 2018 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The influence of the composition of tradeoffs on the generation of differentiated cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, André; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2017-06-01

    We study the emergence of cell differentiation under the influence of tradeoffs between the different functions the cell needs to perform. In the model, the viability of a given colony, i.e. the chance to survive and then form propagules, is determined by the capability of its lower level units to perform different functions. Due to the existence of tradeoffs, it can be evolutionarily advantageous for the colony to evolve the division of labor whereby the cells can suppress their contributions to some of the activities through the activation of regulatory genes. Our simulation results show that cell differentiation is more likely as the number of tradeoffs increases, but the outcome also depends on their strength. We observe the existence of critical values for the minimum number of tradeoffs and their strength beyond that maximum cell differentiation can be attained. The occurrence of a maximum tradeoff strength beyond which the population is no longer viable imposes an upper level of constraint to the system. This maximum tradeoff strength decreases with the number of tradeoffs. Besides the statistical study of the model, as a concrete example, we apply the model to a simplified cyanobacteria system. In this line, variations of this model can be applied to a variety of systems when the underlying tradeoffs are known or can be estimated.

  16. Tradeoffs around crop residue biomass in smallholder crop-livestock systems - What's next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Gérard, B.; Erenstein, O.

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written on the tradeoffs that smallholder farmers face when having to allocate their biomass resources among competing objectives such as feed, fuel, mulch, compost or the market. This paper summarises yet a new body of evidence from 10 studies on tradeoffs in the allocation of cereal

  17. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGarlick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  18. Attribute Learning for SAR Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification approach based on attribute learning for high spatial resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. To explore the representative and discriminative attributes of SAR images, first, an iterative unsupervised algorithm is designed to cluster in the low-level feature space, where the maximum edge response and the ratio of mean-to-variance are included; a cross-validation step is applied to prevent overfitting. Second, the most discriminative clustering centers are sorted out to construct an attribute dictionary. By resorting to the attribute dictionary, a representation vector describing certain categories in the SAR image can be generated, which in turn is used to perform the classifying task. The experiments conducted on TerraSAR-X images indicate that those learned attributes have strong visual semantics, which are characterized by bright and dark spots, stripes, or their combinations. The classification method based on these learned attributes achieves better results.

  19. Ants learn to rely on more informative attributes during decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takao; Pratt, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that animals act to maximize their fitness when choosing among a set of options, such as what to eat or where to live. Making the best choice is challenging when options vary in multiple attributes, and animals have evolved a variety of heuristics to simplify the task. Many of these involve ranking or weighting attributes according to their importance. Because the importance of attributes can vary across time and place, animals might benefit by adjusting weights accordingly. Here, we show that colonies of the ant Temnothorax rugatulus use their experience during nest site selection to increase weights on more informative nest attributes. These ants choose their rock crevice nests on the basis of multiple features. After exposure to an environment where only one attribute differentiated options, colonies increased their reliance on this attribute relative to a second attribute. Although many species show experience-based changes in selectivity based on a single feature, this is the first evidence in animals for adaptive changes in the weighting of multiple attributes. These results show that animal collectives, like individuals, change decision-making strategies according to experience. We discuss how these colony-level changes might emerge from individual behaviour.

  20. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  1. Quality Attributes and Service-Oriented Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Liam; Bass, Len; Merson, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    .... Because software architecture is the bridge between mission/business goals and a software-intensive system, and quality attribute requirements drive software architecture design, it is important...

  2. Trade-offs between carbon, water, soil and food in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. X.; Li, Jing; Guo, Z. Z.; Li, Ting

    2017-06-01

    It is important to ensure the efficient supply of land ecosystem services when the competition for land is increasing. In this paper we simulated the ecosystem services function under two scenarios, including carbon sequestration, agricultural production, water and soil conservation, and analyzed the tradeoffs among these ecosystem services in Guanzhong-Tianshui region from 2000 to 2050. Then the productive efficiency of ecosystem services was assessed under two scenarios and compared their production possibility frontiers (PPFs). Through the simulation analysis of their optimum allocation, we also provide the scientific evidence to the development of ecosystem. The natural rules were revealed that if these trade-offs emphasize the potential to sequester carbon in the landscape, along with very little loss of agricultural production, much more water is used. It could be identified to adhere to combine the exploitation and utilization, remediation and protection for land to promote the effective circulation of land eco-system, and meet the society's preferences for land ecosystem service function by adjusting the use of multiple eco-services.

  3. Evaluating the Life Cycle Environmental Benefits and Trade-Offs of Water Reuse Systems for Net-Zero Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasik, Vaclav; Anderson, Naomi E; Collinge, William O; Thiel, Cassandra L; Khanna, Vikas; Wirick, Jason; Piacentini, Richard; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2017-02-07

    Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and trade-offs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems. We investigated the NZB's impacts over varying lifetimes, conducted a break-even analysis, and included Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. The results show that, although the NZB performs better in most categories than the conventional building, the water efficient building generally outperforms the NZB. The lifetime of the NZB, septic tank aeration, and use of solar energy have been found to be important factors in the NZB's impacts. While these findings are specific to the case study building, location, and treatment technologies, the framework for comparison of water and wastewater impacts of various buildings can be applied during building design to aid decision making. As we design and operate high-performance buildings, the potential trade-offs of advanced decentralized water treatment systems should be considered.

  4. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies

  5. Trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of this study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. The primary results of the study are as follows: a) the lithium-lead blanket achieves a higher TBR with a smaller blanket thickness relative to the lithium blanket; b) the lithium blanket generates more energy per fusion neutron relative to the lithium-lead blanket; c) among the possible reflector materials, the carbon reflector produces the highest TBR; d) the high-Z reflector materials (Mo, Cu, W, or steel) generate more energy per fusion neutron and produce smaller TBRs relative to the carbon reflector; e) lithium-6 enrichment is required for the lithium-lead blanket to reduce the total blanket thickness; and f) the energy deposition per fusion neutron reaches a saturation as the blanket thickness, the fraction of the high-Z material in the reflector, or the reflector zone thickness increases (this allows one to design the blanket for a specific TBR without reducing the energy production)

  6. Lower Bound of Energy-Latency Tradeoff of Opportunistic Routing in Multihop Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorce Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic networking aims at exploiting sporadic radio links to improve the connectivity of multihop networks and to foster data transmissions. The broadcast nature of wireless channels is an important feature that can be exploited to improve transmissions by using several potential receivers. Opportunistic relaying is thus the first brick for opportunistic networking. However, the advantage of opportunistic relaying may be degraded due to energy increase related to having multiple active receivers. This paper proposes a thorough analysis of opportunistic relaying efficiency under different realistic radio channel conditions. The study is intended to find the best tradeoff between two objectives: energy and latency minimizations, with a hard reliability constraint. We derive an optimal bound, namely, the Pareto front of the related optimization problem, which offers a good insight into the benefits of opportunistic routings compared with classical multihop routing schemes. Meanwhile, the lower bound provides a framework to optimize the parameters at the physical layer, MAC layer, and routing layer from the viewpoint of cross layer during the design or planning phase of a network.

  7. A dynamic model to assess tradeoffs in power production and riverine ecosystem protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J

    2013-06-01

    Major strategic planning decisions loom as society aims to balance energy security, economic development and environmental protection. To achieve such balance, decisions involving the so-called water-energy nexus must necessarily embrace a regional multi-power plant perspective. We present here the Thermoelectric Power & Thermal Pollution Model (TP2M), a simulation model that simultaneously quantifies thermal pollution of rivers and estimates efficiency losses in electricity generation as a result of fluctuating intake temperatures and river flows typically encountered across the temperate zone. We demonstrate the model's theoretical framework by carrying out sensitivity tests based on energy, physical and environmental settings. We simulate a series of five thermoelectric plants aligned along a hypothetical river, where we find that warm ambient temperatures, acting both as a physical constraint and as a trigger for regulatory limits on plant operations directly reduce electricity generation. As expected, environmental regulation aimed at reducing thermal loads at a single plant reduces power production at that plant, but ironically can improve the net electricity output from multiple plants when they are optimally co-managed. On the technology management side, high efficiency can be achieved through the use of natural gas combined cycle plants, which can raise the overall efficiency of the aging population of plants, including that of coal. Tradeoff analysis clearly shows the benefit of attaining such high efficiencies, in terms of both limiting thermal loads that preserve ecosystem services and increasing electricity production that benefits economic development.

  8. Trade-offs in size, quantity and reliability of generalized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Mubayi, V.

    1987-01-01

    In the 1960's and 1970's, there was rapid growth in the size of newly started nuclear power plants because of the anticipated advantages of increasing scale. Any such advantages were overwhelmed by the complications that arose with long construction times, and attention is now being given to a ''second generation'' of smaller plants of new design. Providing the same production capacity will require larger numbers of plants if they are smaller. Although it seems to have received little attention previously, there should be compensating economies due to ''learning curve'' effects in the manufacture of multiple units of standardized designs (Hill 1983). Moreover, the use of a large number of smaller units increases the overall system reliability. On balance, however, it is not clear how scale, quantity, and reliability considerations interact to determine optimal plant size. The purpose of this paper is to begin examining the size-quantity tradeoff taking into account scale effects, the manufacturing learning curve, plant availability, and system reliability

  9. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  10. Fisher's preferences and trade-offs between management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Mike; Maravelias, Christos D; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2017-01-01

    fisheries in Denmark and demersal fisheries in Greece. Fisheries management policies were characterized by five attributes designed both to cover the principal CFP reform proposals and to integrate ecological, social, economic and institutional factors affecting fisher’s decisions. The study uses a random...

  11. Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning for Relative Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinge; Wang, Ruxin; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-06-02

    The use of relative attributes for semantic understanding of images and videos is a promising way to improve communication between humans and machines. However, it is extremely labor- and time-consuming to define multiple attributes for each instance in large amount of data. One option is to incorporate active learning, so that the informative samples can be actively discovered and then labeled. However, most existing active-learning methods select samples one at a time (serial mode), and may therefore lose efficiency when learning multiple attributes. In this paper, we propose a batch-mode active-learning method, called Diverse Expected Gradient Active Learning (DEGAL). This method integrates an informativeness analysis and a diversity analysis to form a diverse batch of queries. Specifically, the informativeness analysis employs the expected pairwise gradient length as a measure of informativeness, while the diversity analysis forces a constraint on the proposed diverse gradient angle. Since simultaneous optimization of these two parts is intractable, we utilize a two-step procedure to obtain the diverse batch of queries. A heuristic method is also introduced to suppress imbalanced multi-class distributions. Empirical evaluations of three different databases demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  12. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  13. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2014-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Nicodème Fassinou Hotegni

    Full Text Available In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1 to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2 to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction, maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers' harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity. Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers' harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction

  15. Mavericks versus team players: the trade-off between shared glory and making a personal contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-08-01

    The modern world is characterized by progressive specialization of function and ever-larger-scale coordination of these ever-more-specialized functions. More and more of science is done by increasing-sized teams of specialists, and the ability to engage in 'teamwork' is regarded as an almost essential attribute for most scientists. But teamwork does not suit all personality types. Some 'maverick' individuals would rather have personal credit for a relatively modest scientific contribution which they achieved (mostly) by themselves, than a share of credit in a much larger scientific contribution generated by a large team. The present system of medical science is organized to discourage mavericks and, on the whole, this is probably justifiable on the basis that scientists are not natural team players. Extra inducements are necessary to get people to adopt the relatively self-effacing behaviours necessary for building the large organizations of complementary specialists that are necessary for tackling many of the most intractable modern scientific problems. However, an ethos of teamwork does carry substantial disadvantages. Although most scientists are dispensable, and do not make a significant personal contribution, the very best scientists do make a difference to the rate of progress of science. And top notch scientists are wasted as team players. The very best scientists can function only as mavericks because they are doing science for vocational reasons. The highest intensity of personal commitment requires individual rewards from distinctive contributions. In conclusion, the current incentive system that encourages teamwork involves a trade-off. The majority of modestly talented scientists can probably achieve more when working as members of a team. But the very best scientists probably need to work as mavericks.

  16. The gender-job satisfaction paradox and the dual-earner society: Are women (still) making work-family trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Anne; Öun, Ida

    2018-01-01

    Despite their disadvantaged labour market position, women consistently report higher levels of job satisfaction than men. Researchers have attributed women's higher job satisfaction to their lower expectations, arguing that gender differences will fade away as women's labour market prospects improve. Others, however, argue that women are more contented than men because their jobs satisfy a need for family adaptions. In this article, we put the hypotheses of transitions and trade-offs to a strong test, by comparing men and women with comparable human capital investments living in a country where women's employment is strongly supported by policies, practices and social norms. The relationship between gender and job satisfaction is analysed with stepwise OLS regressions. The analysis is based on a survey to newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n ≈ 2 450). First, we show that, after controlling for a range of job characteristics, women report a higher level of job satisfaction than men. Second, although the paradox appears to be surprisingly persistent, it cannot be attributed to work-family trade-offs. Future research should consider job satisfaction more broadly in the light of gender role socialization and persistent gender inequalities.

  17. Accounting Students' Perceptions of Effective Faculty Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfraih, Mishari M.; Alanezi, Faisal S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the attributes of an effective accounting faculty from the student perspective. It also examines similarities and differences in the perceived importance of these attributes between bachelor's and associate's accounting degree students in two public higher education institutions in Kuwait, namely, Kuwait…

  18. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted

  19. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  20. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  1. Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Margaret E.

    Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

  2. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Ghazanfari, Mohammad; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attributions of success and failure. It also set out to investigate whether these attributions vary by teachers' age, teaching experience, gender and educational level. To do so, 200 EFL teachers were selected according to convenience sampling among EFL teachers teaching…

  3. Implicational Schemata and the Attribution of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Spores, John M.

    Attribution of a disposition or trait to a person asserts information about the pattern of that person's behavior. Past research has suggested that a moral disposition implies only moral behavior, while an immoral disposition implies both moral and immoral behavior. The effect of these implicational schemata on attributions of morality was…

  4. Attribute-Based Digital Signature System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Asim, Muhammad; Petkovic, M.

    2011-01-01

    An attribute-based digital signature system comprises a signature generation unit (1) for signing a message (m) by generating a signature (s) based on a user secret key (SK) associated with a set of user attributes, wherein the signature generation unit (1) is arranged for combining the user secret

  5. Detection and attribution of observed impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, W.; Yohe, G.W.; Auffhammer, M.; Huggel, C.; Molau, U.; Dias, M.A.F.S.; Leemans, R.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter synthesizes the scientific literature on the detection and attribution of observed changes in natural and human systems in response to observed recent climate change. For policy makers and the public, detection and attribution of observed impacts will be a key element to determine the

  6. Cyber-Physical Trade-Offs in Distributed Detection Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Nageswara S.; Yao, David K.Y.; Chin, J.C.; Ma, Chris Y.T.; Madan, Rabinder

    2010-01-01

    We consider a network of sensors that measure the scalar intensity due to the background or a source combined with background, inside a two-dimensional monitoring area. The sensor measurements may be random due to the underlying nature of the source and background or due to sensor errors or both. The detection problem is to infer the presence of a source of unknown intensity and location based on sensor measurements. In the conventional approach, detection decisions are made at the individual sensors, which are then combined at the fusion center, for example using the majority rule. With increased communication and computation costs, we show that a more complex fusion algorithm based on measurements achieves better detection performance under smooth and non-smooth source intensity functions, Lipschitz conditions on probability ratios and a minimum packing number for the state-space. We show that these conditions for trade-offs between the cyber costs and physical detection performance are applicable for two detection problems: (i) point radiation sources amidst background radiation, and (ii) sources and background with Gaussian distributions.

  7. Fitness Trade-Offs in Competence Differentiation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Melih; Power, Jeffrey J; Ribbe, Jan; Volkmann, Thorsten; Maier, Berenike

    2016-01-01

    In the stationary phase, Bacillus subtilis differentiates stochastically and transiently into the state of competence for transformation (K-state). The latter is associated with growth arrest, and it is unclear how the ability to develop competence is stably maintained, despite its cost. To quantify the effect differentiation has on the competitive fitness of B. subtilis, we characterized the competition dynamics between strains with different probabilities of entering the K-state. The relative fitness decreased with increasing differentiation probability both during the stationary phase and during outgrowth. When exposed to antibiotics inhibiting cell wall synthesis, transcription, and translation, cells that differentiated into the K-state showed a selective advantage compared to differentiation-deficient bacteria; this benefit did not require transformation. Although beneficial, the K-state was not induced by sub-MIC concentrations of antibiotics. Increasing the differentiation probability beyond the wt level did not significantly affect the competition dynamics with transient antibiotic exposure. We conclude that the competition dynamics are very sensitive to the fraction of competent cells under benign conditions but less sensitive during antibiotic exposure, supporting the picture of stochastic differentiation as a fitness trade-off.

  8. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Sovacool, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs.

  9. Shifts in growth strategies reflect tradeoffs in cellular economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Douwe; van Berlo, Rogier; de Ridder, Dick; Teusink, Bas

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate-dependent regulation of cell size, ribosomal content, and metabolic efficiency follows a common pattern in unicellular organisms: with increasing growth rates, cell size and ribosomal content increase and a shift to energetically inefficient metabolism takes place. The latter two phenomena are also observed in fast growing tumour cells and cell lines. These patterns suggest a fundamental principle of design. In biology such designs can often be understood as the result of the optimization of fitness. Here we show that in basic models of self-replicating systems these patterns are the consequence of maximizing the growth rate. Whereas most models of cellular growth consider a part of physiology, for instance only metabolism, the approach presented here integrates several subsystems to a complete self-replicating system. Such models can yield fundamentally different optimal strategies. In particular, it is shown how the shift in metabolic efficiency originates from a tradeoff between investments in enzyme synthesis and metabolic yields for alternative catabolic pathways. The models elucidate how the optimization of growth by natural selection shapes growth strategies. PMID:19888218

  10. Strategic tradeoffs in competitor dynamics on adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Noël, Pierre-André; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Libby, Eric

    2017-08-08

    Recent empirical work highlights the heterogeneity of social competitions such as political campaigns: proponents of some ideologies seek debate and conversation, others create echo chambers. While symmetric and static network structure is typically used as a substrate to study such competitor dynamics, network structure can instead be interpreted as a signature of the competitor strategies, yielding competition dynamics on adaptive networks. Here we demonstrate that tradeoffs between aggressiveness and defensiveness (i.e., targeting adversaries vs. targeting like-minded individuals) creates paradoxical behaviour such as non-transitive dynamics. And while there is an optimal strategy in a two competitor system, three competitor systems have no such solution; the introduction of extreme strategies can easily affect the outcome of a competition, even if the extreme strategies have no chance of winning. Not only are these results reminiscent of classic paradoxical results from evolutionary game theory, but the structure of social networks created by our model can be mapped to particular forms of payoff matrices. Consequently, social structure can act as a measurable metric for social games which in turn allows us to provide a game theoretical perspective on online political debates.

  11. Telomere Length and the Cancer-Atherosclerosis Trade-Off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka C Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans, the longest-living terrestrial mammals, display short telomeres and repressed telomerase activity in somatic tissues compared with most short-living small mammals. The dual trait of short telomeres and repressed telomerase might render humans relatively resistant to cancer compared with short-living small mammals. However, the trade-off for cancer resistance is ostensibly increased age-related degenerative diseases, principally in the form of atherosclerosis. In this communication, we discuss (a the genetics of human telomere length, a highly heritable complex trait that is influenced by genetic ancestry, sex, and paternal age at conception, (b how cancer might have played a role in the evolution of telomere biology across mammals, (c evidence that in modern humans telomere length is a determinant (rather than only a biomarker of cancer and atherosclerosis, and (d the potential influence of relatively recent evolutionary forces in fashioning the variation in telomere length across and within populations, and their likely lasting impact on major diseases in humans. Finally, we propose venues for future research on human telomere genetics in the context of its potential role in shaping the modern human lifespan.

  12. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  13. Cost and risk tradeoff for routing nuclear spent fuel movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the transportation industry, much effort has been devoted to finding the least cost routes for shipping goods from their production sites to the market areas. In addition to cost, the decision maker must take the risk of an incident into consideration for transportation routing involving hazardous materials. The transportation of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites to repositories is an example. Given suitable network information, existing routing methods can readily determine least cost or least risk routes for any shipment. These two solutions, however, represent the extremes of a large number of alternatives with different combinations of risk and cost. In the selection of routes and also in the evaluation of alternative storage sites it is not enough to know which is the lease cost or lowest risk. Intelligent decision-marking requires knowledge of how much it will cost to lower risk by a certain amount. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system to evaluate the tradeoff between transportation cost and potential population at risk under different nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies

  14. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2002-02-28

    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  15. Quantifying design trade-offs of beryllium targets on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Loomis, E. N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Shah, R. C.; Perry, T. S.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; MacLaren, S. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Masse, L. P.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tipton, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    An important determinant of target performance is implosion kinetic energy, which scales with the capsule size. The maximum achievable performance for a given laser is thus related to the largest capsule that can be imploded symmetrically, constrained by drive uniformity. A limiting factor for symmetric radiation drive is the ratio of hohlraum to capsule radii, or case-to-capsule ratio (CCR). For a fixed laser energy, a larger hohlraum allows for driving bigger capsules symmetrically at the cost of reduced peak radiation temperature (Tr). Beryllium ablators may thus allow for unique target design trade-offs due to their higher ablation efficiency at lower Tr. By utilizing larger hohlraum sizes than most modern NIF designs, beryllium capsules thus have the potential to operate in unique regions of the target design parameter space. We present design simulations of beryllium targets with a large CCR = 4.3 3.7 . These are scaled surrogates of large hohlraum low Tr beryllium targets, with the goal of quantifying symmetry tunability as a function of CCR. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52- 06NA25396, and by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; Foley, Jonathan A; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  17. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  18. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sovacool, Kelly E. [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs. (author)

  19. Sleep-Wake State Tradeoffs, Impulsivity and Life History Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa A. Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary ecological theory predicts that sleep-wake state tradeoffs may be related to local environmental conditions and should therefore correlate to alterations in behavioral life history strategies. It was predicted that firefighters who slept more and reported better quality sleep on average would exhibit lower impulsivity inclinations related to slower life history trajectories. UPPS impulsivity scores and self-reported sleep averages were analyzed and indicated a negative association between sleep variables and urgency and a positive association with premeditation. Perseverance, and in some cases premeditation, however, disclosed an unpredicted marginally significant positive association between increased and emergency nighttime waking-related sleep deprivation. Sensation seeking was not associated with sleep variables, but was strongly associated with number of biological children. This research contributes to understanding the implications of human sleep across ecological and behavioral contexts and implies further research is necessary for constructing evolutionarily oriented measures of impulsivity inclination and its meaning in the context of life history strategies.

  20. On the Delay-Energy Tradeoff in Multiuser Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf R. Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the delay-energy tradeoff on a fading channel with multiuser diversity. For fixed arbitrary rates of the users, the total transmitted energy is minimized subject to a delay constraint. To achieve this goal we propose a scheme which schedules a subset of all users simultaneously. The scheduled users are allocated power to guarantee successful separation at the detector by successive decoding. In this way, we can benefit from both multiuser diversity and the near-far situation via scheduling and simultaneous transmission, respectively. We analytically show that when the number of users goes to infinity the energy required to guarantee the required user rates can be made as small as required at the cost of a higher delay “delay-energy tradeoff”. We explicitly compute the delay under the proposed scheduling policy and discuss how delay differentiation can be achieved. We extend the results to multiband multiaccess channel. Finally, all the results can be generalized in a straightforward fashion to broadcast channel due to the Gaussian multiaccess-broadcast channel duality.

  1. Trade-off preferences regarding adjuvant endocrine therapy among women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.; Maatman, G.A.; Dijk, L. van; Bouvy, M.L.; Vree, R.; Geffen, E.C.G. van; Nortier, J.W.; Stiggelbout, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is substantial nonadherence to effective adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer prevention. We therefore examined patients' trade-offs between the efficacy, side-effects, and regimen duration, and whether trade-offs predicted nonadherence. Patients and methods: Trade-offs

  2. Trade-off preferences regarding adjuvant endocrine therapy among women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H; Maatman, G A; Van Dijk, L; Bouvy, M L; Vree, R; Van Geffen, E C G; Nortier, J W; Stiggelbout, A M

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial nonadherence to effective adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer prevention. We therefore examined patients' trade-offs between the efficacy, side-effects, and regimen duration, and whether trade-offs predicted nonadherence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trade-offs

  3. Multiple Criteria Decision Making Combined with VRP: A Categorized Bibliographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Zare Mehrjerdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research author reviews references related to the topic of multi criterion (goal programming, multiple objective linear and nonlinear programming, bi-criterion programming, Multi Attribute Decision Making, Compromise Programming, Surrogate Worth Trade-off Method and various versions of vehicle routing problem (VRP, Multi depot VRP (MDVRP, VRP with time windows (VRPWTW, Stochastic VRP (SVRP, Capacitated VRP (CVRP, Fuzzy VRP (FVRP, Location VRP (LVRP, Backhauling VRP(BHVRP, Facility Location VRP (FLVRP, and Inventory control VRP (ICVRP. Although, VRP is a research area with rich research works and powerful researchers there found only 81 articles that relates various vehicle routing type problems with various multiple objectives techniques. This author found that there is no research done in some areas of VRP (i.e., FVRP, ICVRP, LRP and CVRP. It is interesting to see that this research area was completely an unattractive to master students (with zero research reported and a somewhat attractive area to doctoral students (with 6 researches reported. Among the many multi criterion programming techniques available only three of them (goal programming, bi-criterion programming, linear and nonlinear multi objective programming are being employed to solve the problem.

  4. No genetic tradeoffs between hygienic behaviour and individual innate immunity in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Brock A; Chernyshova, Anna; Soltani, Arash; Tsvetkov, Nadejda; Mahjoorighasrodashti, Mohammad; Xu, Zhixing; Zayed, Amro

    2014-01-01

    Many animals have individual and social mechanisms for combating pathogens. Animals may exhibit short-term physiological tradeoffs between social and individual immunity because the latter is often energetically costly. Genetic tradeoffs between these two traits can also occur if mutations that enhance social immunity diminish individual immunity, or vice versa. Physiological tradeoffs between individual and social immunity have been previously documented in insects, but there has been no study of genetic tradeoffs involving these traits. There is strong evidence that some genes influence both innate immunity and behaviour in social insects--a prerequisite for genetic tradeoffs. Quantifying genetic tradeoffs is critical for understanding the evolution of immunity in social insects and for devising effective strategies for breeding disease-resistant pollinator populations. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis of a genetic tradeoff between social and individual immunity in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. First, we estimated the relative contribution of genetics to individual variation in innate immunity of honey bee workers, as only heritable traits can experience genetic tradeoffs. Second, we examined if worker bees with hygienic sisters have reduced individual innate immune response. We genotyped several hundred workers from two colonies and found that patriline genotype does not significantly influence the antimicrobial activity of a worker's hemolymph. Further, we did not find a negative correlation between hygienic behaviour and the average antimicrobial activity of a worker's hemolymph across 30 honey bee colonies. Taken together, our work indicates no genetic tradeoffs between hygienic behaviour and innate immunity in honey bees. Our work suggests that using artificial selection to increase hygienic behaviour of honey bee colonies is not expected to concurrently compromise individual innate immunity of worker bees.

  5. No genetic tradeoffs between hygienic behaviour and individual innate immunity in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock A Harpur

    Full Text Available Many animals have individual and social mechanisms for combating pathogens. Animals may exhibit short-term physiological tradeoffs between social and individual immunity because the latter is often energetically costly. Genetic tradeoffs between these two traits can also occur if mutations that enhance social immunity diminish individual immunity, or vice versa. Physiological tradeoffs between individual and social immunity have been previously documented in insects, but there has been no study of genetic tradeoffs involving these traits. There is strong evidence that some genes influence both innate immunity and behaviour in social insects--a prerequisite for genetic tradeoffs. Quantifying genetic tradeoffs is critical for understanding the evolution of immunity in social insects and for devising effective strategies for breeding disease-resistant pollinator populations. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis of a genetic tradeoff between social and individual immunity in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. First, we estimated the relative contribution of genetics to individual variation in innate immunity of honey bee workers, as only heritable traits can experience genetic tradeoffs. Second, we examined if worker bees with hygienic sisters have reduced individual innate immune response. We genotyped several hundred workers from two colonies and found that patriline genotype does not significantly influence the antimicrobial activity of a worker's hemolymph. Further, we did not find a negative correlation between hygienic behaviour and the average antimicrobial activity of a worker's hemolymph across 30 honey bee colonies. Taken together, our work indicates no genetic tradeoffs between hygienic behaviour and innate immunity in honey bees. Our work suggests that using artificial selection to increase hygienic behaviour of honey bee colonies is not expected to concurrently compromise individual innate immunity of worker bees.

  6. Insights from life history theory for an explicit treatment of trade-offs in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    As economic and social contexts become more embedded within biodiversity conservation, it becomes obvious that resources are a limiting factor in conservation. This recognition is leading conservation scientists and practitioners to increasingly frame conservation decisions as trade-offs between conflicting societal objectives. However, this framing is all too often done in an intuitive way, rather than by addressing trade-offs explicitly. In contrast, the concept of trade-off is a keystone in evolutionary biology, where it has been investigated extensively. I argue that insights from evolutionary theory can provide methodological and theoretical support to evaluating and quantifying trade-offs in biodiversity conservation. I reviewed the diverse ways in which trade-offs have emerged within the context of conservation and how advances from evolutionary theory can help avoid the main pitfalls of an implicit approach. When studying both evolutionary trade-offs (e.g., reproduction vs. survival) and conservation trade-offs (e.g., biodiversity conservation vs. agriculture), it is crucial to correctly identify the limiting resource, hold constant the amount of this resource when comparing different scenarios, and choose appropriate metrics to quantify the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. Insights from studies in evolutionary theory also reveal how an inadequate selection of conservation solutions may result from considering suboptimal rather than optional solutions when examining whether a trade-off exits between 2 objectives. Furthermore, the shape of a trade-off curve (i.e., whether the relationship between 2 objectives follows a concave, convex, or linear form) is known to affect crucially the definition of optimal solutions in evolutionary biology and very likely affects decisions in biodiversity conservation planning too. This interface between evolutionary biology and biodiversity conservation can therefore provide methodological guidance to

  7. Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic tradeoff in plains zebra (Equus quagga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Turner, Wendy C.; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection. Few, however, have focused on the selective effects of multiple parasite types on host immunogenetic patterns. Here, we examined relationships between variation in the equine MHC gene, ELA-DRA, and both gastrointestinal (GI) and ectoparasitism in plains zebras (Equus quagga). Specific alleles present at opposing population frequencies had antagonistic effects, with rare alleles associated with increased GI parasitism and common alleles with increased tick burdens. These results support a frequency-dependent mechanism, but are also consistent with fluctuating selection. Maladaptive GI parasite ‘susceptibility alleles’ were reduced in frequency, suggesting that these parasites may play a greater selective role at this locus. Heterozygote advantage, in terms of allele mutational divergence, also predicted decreased GI parasite burden in genotypes with a common allele. We conclude that an immunogenetic trade-off affects resistance/susceptibility to parasites in this system. Because GI and ectoparasites do not directly interact within hosts, our results uniquely show that antagonistic parasite interactions can be indirectly modulated through the host immune system. This study highlights the importance of investigating the role of multiple parasites in shaping patterns of host immunogenetic variation.

  8. Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic trade-off in plains zebras (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Turner, Wendy C; Küsters, Martina; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-05-22

    Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection. Few, however, have focused on the selective effects of multiple parasite types on host immunogenetic patterns. Here, we examined relationships between variation in the equine MHC gene, ELA-DRA, and both gastrointestinal (GI) and ectoparasitism in plains zebras (Equus quagga). Specific alleles present at opposing population frequencies had antagonistic effects, with rare alleles associated with increased GI parasitism and common alleles with increased tick burdens. These results support a frequency-dependent mechanism, but are also consistent with fluctuating selection. Maladaptive GI parasite 'susceptibility alleles' were reduced in frequency, suggesting that these parasites may play a greater selective role at this locus. Heterozygote advantage, in terms of allele mutational divergence, also predicted decreased GI parasite burden in genotypes with a common allele. We conclude that an immunogenetic trade-off affects resistance/susceptibility to parasites in this system. Because GI and ectoparasites do not directly interact within hosts, our results uniquely show that antagonistic parasite interactions can be indirectly modulated through the host immune system. This study highlights the importance of investigating the role of multiple parasites in shaping patterns of host immunogenetic variation.

  9. Competing values, tensions and trade-offs in management of nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Teemu; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2012-01-01

    The specific goal of the study is to look how tensions, competing values and trade-offs manifest in the management of nuclear power plants. Second goal is to inspect how existing frameworks, such as Competing Values Framework, can be used to model the tensions. Empirical data consists of thirty interviews that were conducted as part of a NKS study on safety culture in the Nordic nuclear branch. Eight trade-offs are identified based on a grounded theory based analysis of the interview data. The competing values and potential tensions involved in the trade-offs are discussed.

  10. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  11. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Expenditures (SAE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable expenditures (SAEs) are excess health care expenditures...

  12. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    2013-02-01

    Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. We estimate the probability of occurrence of each attribute as a function of the skin diseases. We use the distribution of this probability across the studied diseases and its entropy to define the discriminative power of the attribute. The discriminative power has a maximum value for attributes that occur (or do not occur) for only one disease and a minimum value for those which are equally likely to be observed among all diseases. Verrucous surface, red and brown colors, and the presence of more than 10 lesions are among the most informative attributes. A ranking of attributes is also carried out and used together with a naive Bayesian classifier, yielding results that confirm the soundness of the proposed method. proposed measure is proven to be a reliable way of assessing the discriminative power of dermatological attributes, and it also helps generate a condensed dermatological lexicon. Therefore, it can be of added value to the manual or computer-aided diagnostic process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  14. Extending Attribution Theory: Considering Students' Perceived Control of the Attribution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer

    2017-01-01

    Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…

  15. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  16. The Role of Empathy in Mental Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsteins, Patricia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work examines in what extent a notion of empathy may clarify mindreading’s debate. Taking into account an interdisciplinary and integrative notion of empathy, compatibility with mental attribution strategies both mental simulation and theory-theory, in non pure versions, is evaluated. Firstly, new empirical research is supposed to contribute strengthening an integrative empathy instead of theory-theory or mental simulation `s points of view. Secondly, new empirical research will bring better tools to distinguish between empathy and simulation. Consequently, the relationship between empathy and mental attribution theories may be better delimited and a full mental attribution theory may possibly be proposed.

  17. Towards generalizing co-evolutionary dynamics of socio-hydrology: Theoretical frameworks of cultural evolution and robustness-fragility tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, W. S.; Yu, D. J.; Davis, T.; Hillis, V.; Waring, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    One ongoing challenge to socio-hydrology is the problem of generalization: to what extent do common human-water co-evolutions exist across distinct cases and what are underlying mechanisms of these co-evolutions. This problem stems in part from a lack of unifying theories in socio-hydrology, which hinders the explanation and generalization of results between cases in different regions. Theories help an analyst to make assumptions that are necessary to diagnose a specific phenomenon, to explain the general mechanisms of causation, and, thus, to predict future outcomes. To help address the issue, this study introduces two theories that are increasingly used in the fields of sustainability science and social-ecological systems research: robustness-fragility tradeoff (RFTO) and cultural multi-level selection (CMLS). We apply each of these theories to two distinct cases (water management issues in southwest Bangladesh and the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida) and interpret the phenomena of the levee and adaptation effects. CMLS and RFTO focus on complementary aspects of socio-hydrological phenomena. The theory of RFTO, which is mostly about inherent tradeoffs associated with infrastructure improvements, explains how efforts to increase system robustness can generate hidden endogenous risks. CMLS theory, rooted in the broader theory of cultural evolution, concerns how human cultural dynamics can act as an endogenous driver of system change across multiple levels of social organizations. Using the applied examples, we demonstrate that these two theories can provide an effective way to study social-hydrological systems and to overcome the generalization problem. Our work shows that multiple theories can be synthesized to give a richer understanding of diverse socio-hydrological patterns.

  18. Quantifying Trade-Offs Among Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity, and Agricultural Returns in an Agriculturally Dominated Landscape Under Future Land‑Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Underwood

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art4Change in land use in agriculturally dominated areas is often assumed to provide positive benefits for land-owners and financial agricultural returns at the expense of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. For an agriculturally dominated area in the Central Valley of California we quantify the trade-offs among ecosystem services, biodiversity, and the financial returns from agricultural lands. We do this by evaluating three different landscape management scenarios projected to 2050 compared to the current baseline: habitat restoration, urbanization, and enhanced agriculture. The restoration scenario benefited carbon storage services and increased landscape suitability for birds, and also decreased ecosystem disservices (nitrous oxide emissions, nitrogen leaching, although there was a trade-off in slightly lower financial agricultural returns. Under the urbanization scenario, carbon storage, suitability for birds, and agricultural returns were negatively affected. A scenario which enhanced agriculture, tailored to the needs of a key species of conservation concern (Swainson’s Hawk, Buteo swainsoni, presented the most potential for trade-offs. This scenario benefitted carbon storage and increased landscape suitability for the Swainson's Hawk as well as 15 other focal bird species. However, this scenario increased ecosystem disservices. These spatially explicit results, generated at a scale relevant to land management decision-makers in the Central Valley, provide valuable insight into managing for multiple benefits in the landscape and an approach for assessing future land-management decisions.

  19. Seasonal and within-canopy variation in shoot-scale resource-use efficiency trade-offs in a Norway spruce stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Räntfors, Mats; Wallin, Göran

    2015-11-01

    Previous leaf-scale studies of carbon assimilation describe short-term resource-use efficiency (RUE) trade-offs where high use efficiency of one resource requires low RUE of another. However, varying resource availabilities may cause long-term RUE trade-offs to differ from the short-term patterns. This may have important implications for understanding canopy-scale resource use and allocation. We used continuous gas exchange measurements collected at five levels within a Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) karst., canopy over 3 years to assess seasonal differences in the interactions between shoot-scale resource availability (light, water and nitrogen), net photosynthesis (An ) and the use efficiencies of light (LUE), water (WUE) and nitrogen (NUE) for carbon assimilation. The continuous data set was used to develop and evaluate multiple regression models for predicting monthly shoot-scale An . These models showed that shoot-scale An was strongly dependent on light availability and was generally well described with simple one- or two-parameter models. WUE peaked in spring, NUE in summer and LUE in autumn. However, the relative importance of LUE for carbon assimilation increased with canopy depth at all times. Our results suggest that accounting for seasonal and within-canopy trade-offs may be important for RUE-based modelling of canopy carbon uptake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The disposition of weapon grade plutonium: costs and tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weida, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores some of the economic issues surrounding a major area of expenditures now facing the nuclear powers: the disposition of weapon-grade plutonium either through 'burning' in nuclear reactors for power generation or by other means. Under the current budgeting philosophy in the United States, programs managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) tend to compete with one another for the total funds assigned to that agency. For example, in the FY1995 DOE budget a tradeoff was made between increased funding for nuclear weapons and reduced funding for site cleanup. No matter which disposition alternative is chosen, if disposition funds are controlled by the DOE in the US or by a government agency in any other country, disposition is likely to compete directly or indirectly with other alternatives for energy funding. And if they are subsidized by any government, research into plutonium as reactor fuel or the operations associated with such use are likely to consume funds that might otherwise be available to support sustainable energy alternatives. When all costs are considered, final waste disposal costs will be incurred whatever disposal option is taken. These costs could potentially be offset by doing something profitable with the plutonium prior to final storage, but this paper has shown that finding a profitable use for plutonium is unlikely. Thus, the more probable case is one where the costs of basic waste storage are increased by whatever costs are associated with the disposition option chosen. The factors most likely to significantly increase costs appear to arise from four areas: (1) The level of subsidization in the 'profitable' parts of the disposition program. (2) Those items (such as reprocessing) that increase the volume of waste and thus, the cost of waste disposal. (3) The cost of security and its direct relationship to the number of times plutonium is handled or moved. (4) The cost of research and development of new and unproven methods of

  1. Ionic Resistance and Permselectivity Tradeoffs in Anion Exchange Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with

  3. Historical trade-offs of livestock’s environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Yu, Kailiang; Carr, Joel A; D’Odorico, Paolo; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Human demand for animal products has risen markedly over the past 50 years with important environmental impacts. Dairy and cattle production have disproportionately contributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and land use, while crop demands of more intensive systems have increased fertilizer use and competition for available crop calories. At the same time, chicken and pig production has grown more rapidly than for ruminants, indicating a change in the environmental burden per animal calorie (EBC) with time. How EBCs have changed and to what extent resource use efficiency (RUE), the composition of animal production and the trade of feed have played a role in these changes have not been examined to date. We employ a calorie-based perspective, distinguishing animal calorie production between calories produced from feedcrop sources—directly competing with humans for available calories—and those from non-feed sources—plant biomass unavailable for direct human consumption. Combining this information with data on agricultural resource use, we calculate EBCs in terms of land, GHG emissions and nitrogen. We find that EBCs have changed substantially for land (−62%), GHGs (−46%) and nitrogen (+188%). Changes in RUE (e.g., selective breeding, increased grain-feeding) have been the primary contributor to these EBC trends, but shifts in the composition of livestock production were responsible for 12%–41% of the total EBC changes. In addition, the virtual trade of land for feed has more than tripled in the past 25 years with 77% of countries currently relying on virtual land imports to support domestic livestock production. Our findings indicate that important tradeoffs have occurred as a result of livestock intensification, with more efficient land use and emission rates exchanged for greater nitrogen use and increased competition between feed and food. This study provides an integrated evaluation of livestock’s impact on food security and the environment

  4. Multiple Learning Tracks: For Training Multinational Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Kerin, Roger A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of identifying and training college students to be effective multinational marketing managers is investigated in three parts: (1) Identification of multinational manager attributes, (2) selection of multinational managers, and (3) multiple "track" training programs. (TA)

  5. On the ARQ protocols over the Z-interference channels: Diversity-multiplexing-delay tradeoff

    KAUST Repository

    Nafea, Mohamed S.; Hamza, D.; Seddik, Karim G.; Nafie, Mohamed; Gamal, Hesham El

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the achievable three-dimensional tradeoff between diversity, multiplexing, and delay of the single antenna Automatic Retransmission reQuest (ARQ) Z-interference channel. Non-cooperative and cooperative ARQ protocols are adopted under

  6. Bypassing Evolutionary Roadblocks: Phenotypic Diversity in Isogenic Population Bridges Tradeoff in Evolution of a New Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, K. L.; Meyer, J. R.

    2017-07-01

    A novel mechanism of innovation bridges fitness valleys by violating the one gene-one phenotype dogma. Protein products of a single gene partition into populations, some of which carry out a new function and some the old, avoiding tradeoffs.

  7. Trade-offs in the distribution of neural networks in a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Tham, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the tradeoff between communication and memory usage in different methods of distributing neural networks in a Wireless Sensor Network. A structural approach is presented, categorized in two dimensions: horizontal and vertical decomposition. Horizontal decomposition turns

  8. Effect of primary user traffic on sensing-throughput tradeoff for cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Liang; Chen, Yunfei; Hines, Evor L.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the primary user traffic on the performance of the secondary network is investigated for the tradeoff between the sensing quality and the achievable throughput. Numerical results show that the actual secondary network performance when

  9. Cost, Emissions, and Customer Service Trade-Off Analysis In Pickup and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This research offers a novel formulation for including emissions into fleet assignment and vehicle routing, and for the : trade-offs faced by fleet operators between cost, emissions, and service quality. This approach enables evaluation of : the impa...

  10. The trade-off between food and temperature in the habitat choice of bluegill sunfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the trade-off between food and temperature in bluegills Lepomis macrochirus, where temperature was the primary factor used in determining the patch in which to reside.

  11. Parent-offspring conflict and the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölliker, Mathias; Boos, Stefan; Wong, Janine W Y; Röllin, Lilian; Stucki, Dimitri; Raveh, Shirley; Wu, Min; Meunier, Joël

    2015-04-16

    The genetic conflict between parents and their offspring is a cornerstone of kin selection theory and the gene-centred view of evolution, but whether it actually occurs in natural systems remains an open question. Conflict operates only if parenting is driven by genetic trade-offs between offspring performance and the parent's ability to raise additional offspring, and its expression critically depends on the shape of these trade-offs. Here we investigate the occurrence and nature of genetic conflict in an insect with maternal care, the earwig Forficula auricularia. Specifically, we test for a direct response to experimental selection on female future reproduction and correlated responses in current offspring survival, developmental rate and growth. The results demonstrate genetic trade-offs that differ in shape before and after hatching. Our study not only provides direct evidence for parent-offspring conflict but also highlights that conflict is not inevitable and critically depends on the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

  12. Trade-Off Analysis between Concerns Based on Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Abelyn Methanie R.; Takada, Shingo

    The identification of functional and non-functional concerns is an important activity during requirements analysis. However, there may be conflicts between the identified concerns, and they must be discovered and resolved through trade-off analysis. Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering (AORE) has trade-off analysis as one of its goals, but most AORE approaches do not actually offer support for trade-off analysis; they focus on describing concerns and generating their composition. This paper proposes an approach for trade-off analysis based on AORE using use cases and the Requirements Conflict Matrix (RCM) to represent compositions. RCM shows the positive or negative effect of non-functional concerns over use cases and other non-functional concerns. Our approach is implemented within a tool called E-UCEd (Extended Use Case Editor). We also show the results of evaluating our tool.

  13. Quantum circuit implementation of the optimal information-disturbance tradeoff of maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang ShengLi; Zou Xubo; Li Ke; Jin Chenhui; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    We give a direct derivation for the information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a maximally entangled state, which was first obtained by Sacchi (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 220502) in terms of the covariant positive operator valued measurement (POVM) and Jamiolkowski's isomorphism. We find that, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which is one of the most powerful tools in deriving the tradeoff for a single-particle pure state still plays a key role in the case of the maximal entanglement estimation. Our result shows that the inequality becomes equality when the optimal tradeoff is achieved. Moreover, we demonstrate that such a tradeoff is physically achievable with a quantum circuit that only involves single- and two-particle logic gates and single-particle measurements

  14. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illustrate the robust model, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II is modified to solve the project example. The results show that, by means of adjusting the time and cost robust coefficients, the robust Pareto sets for time-cost tradeoff can be obtained according to different acceptable risk level, from which the decision maker could choose the preferred construction alternative.

  15. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James B.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 596. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/596/).This updated New Mexico wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 562 wind turbines established within the State of New Mexico as of June 2011, an increase of 155 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. The locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based June 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during June 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy

  16. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  17. Trait-fitness relationships determine how trade-off shapes affect species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Elias; Becks, Lutz; Gaedke, Ursula

    2017-12-01

    Trade-offs between functional traits are ubiquitous in nature and can promote species coexistence depending on their shape. Classic theory predicts that convex trade-offs facilitate coexistence of specialized species with extreme trait values (extreme species) while concave trade-offs promote species with intermediate trait values (intermediate species). We show here that this prediction becomes insufficient when the traits translate non-linearly into fitness which frequently occurs in nature, e.g., an increasing length of spines reduces grazing losses only up to a certain threshold resulting in a saturating or sigmoid trait-fitness function. We present a novel, general approach to evaluate the effect of different trade-off shapes on species coexistence. We compare the trade-off curve to the invasion boundary of an intermediate species invading the two extreme species. At this boundary, the invasion fitness is zero. Thus, it separates trait combinations where invasion is or is not possible. The invasion boundary is calculated based on measurable trait-fitness relationships. If at least one of these relationships is not linear, the invasion boundary becomes non-linear, implying that convex and concave trade-offs not necessarily lead to different coexistence patterns. Therefore, we suggest a new ecological classification of trade-offs into extreme-favoring and intermediate-favoring which differs from a purely mathematical description of their shape. We apply our approach to a well-established model of an empirical predator-prey system with competing prey types facing a trade-off between edibility and half-saturation constant for nutrient uptake. We show that the survival of the intermediate prey depends on the convexity of the trade-off. Overall, our approach provides a general tool to make a priori predictions on the outcome of competition among species facing a common trade-off in dependence of the shape of the trade-off and the shape of the trait

  18. Assessing students' beliefs, emotions and causal attribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: academic emotion; belief; causal attribution; statistical validation; students' conceptions of learning ... Sadi & Lee, 2015), through their effect on motivation and learning strategies .... to understand why they may or may not be doing.

  19. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  20. Object attributes combine additively in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, R T; Arun, S P

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in internal details, such as texture; (c) differences in emergent attributes, such as symmetry; and (d) differences in global properties, such as orientation or overall configuration of parts. Our results elucidate an enduring question in object vision by showing that the whole object is not a sum of its parts but a sum of its many attributes.

  1. Design-Build Partnership Attributes Survey Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pyle, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    Two basic hypotheses were investigated: 1. Finding these attributes for success for a design-build partnership may be accomplished by transferring concepts and ideas from business research on partnership formation. 2...

  2. Architectural patterns and quality attributes interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Me, G.; Calero Munoz, C.; Lago, P.; Muccini, H.

    2016-01-01

    Architectural patterns and styles represent common solutions to recurrent problems. They encompass architectural knowledge about how to achieve holistic system quality. The relation between patterns (or styles) and quality attributes has been regularly addressed in the literature. However, there is

  3. Heat-conserving postures hinder escape: a thermoregulation–predation trade-off in wintering birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie M. Carr; Steven L. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Wintering birds may conserve body heat by adopting postures with minimal leg exposure or significant ptiloerection. However, maximally heat-conserving postures may hinder a bird's ability to escape attack, leading to a trade-off between predation risk and thermoregulation. Such a trade-off implies that birds should use the most heat-conserving postures only at very cold temperatures. Feeding in a relatively low-risk environment should also facilitate the use of such heat-conserving postures. ...

  4. Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Meng-Jia; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Ying-Jun; Li, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Ding; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jian-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the 4th common cancer in China. Most colorectal cancers are due to modifiable lifestyle factors, but few studies have provided a systematic evidence-based assessment of the burden of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality attributable to the known risk factors in China. Methods We estimated the population attributable faction (PAF) for each selected risk factor in China, based on the prevalence of exposure around 2000 and relative risks from cohort studies a...

  5. Object attributes combine additively in visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod, R. T.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We perceive objects as containing a variety of attributes: local features, relations between features, internal details, and global properties. But we know little about how they combine. Here, we report a remarkably simple additive rule that governs how these diverse object attributes combine in vision. The perceived dissimilarity between two objects was accurately explained as a sum of (a) spatially tuned local contour-matching processes modulated by part decomposition; (b) differences in in...

  6. Corporate apologia and the attribution of guilt

    OpenAIRE

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia – the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack on – differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management...

  7. Language Learner Beliefs from an Attributional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This qualitative study, aimed to analyze eight French-speaking learners' beliefs about English and English language learning. The data were obtained via semi-structured interviews. The study drew on Weiner's attribution theory of achievement motivation and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The novelty about this research is the employment of an attributional analysis framework to study and explain the learners' stated beliefs about English and English language learning.

  8. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Vázquez; Sonia Panadero

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors") and Spanish ("observers") undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ). Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are difference...

  9. Attributional processes in the learned helplessness paradigm: behavioral effects of global attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, M

    1986-12-01

    Following the learned helplessness paradigm, I assessed in this study the effects of global and specific attributions for failure on the generalization of performance deficits in a dissimilar situation. Helplessness training consisted of experience with noncontingent failures on four cognitive discrimination problems attributed to either global or specific causes. Experiment 1 found that performance in a dissimilar situation was impaired following exposure to globally attributed failure. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral effects of the interaction between stable and global attributions of failure. Exposure to unsolvable problems resulted in reduced performance in a dissimilar situation only when failure was attributed to global and stable causes. Finally, Experiment 3 found that learned helplessness deficits were a product of the interaction of global and internal attribution. Performance deficits following unsolvable problems were recorded when failure was attributed to global and internal causes. Results were discussed in terms of the reformulated learned helplessness model.

  10. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  11. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  12. Noncognitive Attributes in Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Anthony E; Goldgar, Constance; Hills, Karen J; Snyder, Jennifer H; VanderMeulen, Stephane P; Lane, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Physician assistant (PA) admissions processes have typically given more weight to cognitive attributes than to noncognitive ones, both because a high level of cognitive ability is needed for a career in medicine and because cognitive factors are easier to measure. However, there is a growing consensus across the health professions that noncognitive attributes such as emotional intelligence, empathy, and professionalism are important for success in clinical practice and optimal care of patients. There is also some evidence that a move toward more holistic admissions practices, including evaluation of noncognitive attributes, can have a positive effect on diversity. The need for these noncognitive attributes in clinicians is being reinforced by changes in the US health care system, including shifting patient demographics and a growing emphasis on team-based care and patient satisfaction, and the need for clinicians to help patients interpret complex medical information. The 2016 Physician Assistant Education Association Stakeholder Summit revealed certain behavioral and affective qualities that employers of PAs value and sometimes find lacking in new graduates. Although there are still gaps in the evidence base, some tools and technologies currently exist to more accurately measure noncognitive variables. We propose some possible strategies and tools that PA programs can use to formalize the way they select for noncognitive attributes. Since PA programs have, on average, only 27 months to educate students, programs may need to focus more resources on selecting for these attributes than teaching them.

  13. Use of seismic attributes for sediment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Radomille Santana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to understand the relationships between seismic attributes extracted from 2D high-resolution seismic data and the seafloor's sediments of the surveyed area. As seismic attributes are features highly influenced by the medium through which the seismic waves are propagated, the authors can assume that it would be possible to characterise the geological nature of the seafloor by using these attributes. Herein, a survey was performed on the continental margin of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where both 2D high-resolution seismic data and sediment gravity cores samples were simultaneously acquired. A computational script was written to extract the seismic attributes from the data, which have been statistically analysed with clustering analyses, such as principal components analysis, dendrograms and k-means classification. The extracted seismic attributes are the amplitude, the instantaneous phase, the instantaneous frequency, the envelope, the time derivative of the envelope, the second derivative of the envelope and the acceleration of phase. Statistical evaluation showed that geological classification of the seafloor's sediments is possible by associating these attributes according to their coherence. The methodologies here developed seem to be appropriate for glacio-marine environment and coarse-to-medium silt sediment found in the study area and may be applied to other regions in the same geological conditions.

  14. A population model evaluating the consequences of the evolution of double-resistance and tradeoffs on the benefits of two-drug antibiotic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ellsworth M; Chao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance in microbes poses one of the greatest challenges to the management of human health. Because addressing the problem experimentally has been difficult, research on strategies to slow the evolution of resistance through the rational use of antibiotics has resorted to mathematical and computational models. However, despite many advances, several questions remain unsettled. Here we present a population model for rational antibiotic usage by adding three key features that have been overlooked: 1) the maximization of the frequency of uninfected patients in the human population rather than the minimization of antibiotic resistance in the bacterial population, 2) the use of cocktails containing antibiotic pairs, and 3) the imposition of tradeoff constraints on bacterial resistance to multiple drugs. Because of tradeoffs, bacterial resistance does not evolve directionally and the system reaches an equilibrium state. When considering the equilibrium frequency of uninfected patients, both cycling and mixing improve upon single-drug treatment strategies. Mixing outperforms optimal cycling regimens. Cocktails further improve upon aforementioned strategies. Moreover, conditions that increase the population frequency of uninfected patients also increase the recovery rate of infected individual patients. Thus, a rational strategy does not necessarily result in a tragedy of the commons because benefits to the individual patient and general public are not in conflict. Our identification of cocktails as the best strategy when tradeoffs between multiple-resistance are operating could also be extended to other host-pathogen systems. Cocktails or other multiple-drug treatments are additionally attractive because they allow re-using antibiotics whose utility has been negated by the evolution of single resistance.

  15. An appraisal of the enzyme stability-activity trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott R

    2017-07-01

    A longstanding idea in evolutionary physiology is that an enzyme cannot jointly optimize performance at both high and low temperatures due to a trade-off between stability and activity. Although a stability-activity trade-off has been observed for well-characterized examples, such a trade-off is not imposed by any physical chemical constraint. To better understand the pervasiveness of this trade-off, I investigated the stability-activity relationship for comparative biochemical studies of purified orthologous enzymes identified by a literature search. The nature of this relationship varied greatly among studies. Notably, studies of enzymes with low mean synonymous nucleotide sequence divergence were less likely to exhibit the predicted negative correlation between stability and activity. Similarly, a survey of directed evolution investigations of the stability-activity relationship indicated that these traits are often uncoupled among nearly identical yet phenotypically divergent enzymes. This suggests that the presumptive trade-off often reported for investigations of enzymes with high mean sequence divergence may in some cases instead be a consequence of the degeneration over time of enzyme function in unselected environments, rather than a direct effect of thermal adaptation. The results caution against the general assertion of a stability-activity trade-off during enzyme adaptation. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. The evolution of trade-offs under directional and correlational selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Derek A; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2012-08-01

    Using quantitative genetic theory, we develop predictions for the evolution of trade-offs in response to directional and correlational selection. We predict that directional selection favoring an increase in one trait in a trade-off will result in change in the intercept but not the slope of the trade-off function, with the mean value of the selected trait increasing and that of the correlated trait decreasing. Natural selection will generally favor an increase in some combination of trait values, which can be represented as directional selection on an index value. Such selection induces both directional and correlational selection on the component traits. Theory predicts that selection on an index value will also change the intercept but not the slope of the trade-off function but because of correlational selection, the direction of change in component traits may be in the same or opposite directions. We test these predictions using artificial selection on the well-established trade-off between fecundity and flight capability in the cricket, Gryllus firmus and compare the empirical results with a priori predictions made using genetic parameters from a separate half-sibling experiment. Our results support the predictions and illustrate the complexity of trade-off evolution when component traits are subject to both directional and correlational selection. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  18. Attributes of Successful Actions to Restore Lakes and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more success is achieved restoring lakes and estuaries from nutrient pollution, there is increased opportunity to evaluate the scientific, social, and policy factors associated with achieving restoration goals. We examined case studies where deliberate actions to reduce nutrient pollution resulted in ecological recovery. Cases were identified from scientific literature meeting the following: (1) scientific evidence of nutrient pollution; (2) restoration actions taken to mitigate nutrient pollution; and (3) documented ecological improvement. We identified 9 estuaries and 7 lakes spanning countries, climatic regions, physical types, depths, and watershed areas. Among these 8 achieved improvements short of stated restoration goals, 8 were successful initially, but then condition declined and 3 achieved their goals fully. We examined each case to identify both common attributes of nutrient management, grouped into ‘themes’, and the variations on those attributes, which were coded into categorical variables and examined using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). MCA results suggested that the attributes most associated with achieving restoration goals include: (1) leadership by a dedicated watershed management agency; (2) governance through a bottom-up collaborative process; (3) a strategy that set numeric targets based on a specific ecological goal; and (4) actions to reduce nutrient loads from all sources. While our study did not provide a compreh

  19. Labeled experimental choice design for estimating attribute and availability cross effects with N attributes and specific brand attribute levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2011-01-01

    Experimental designs are required in widely used techniques in marketing research, especially for preference-based conjoint analysis and discrete-choice studies. Ideally, marketing researchers prefer orthogonal designs because this technique could give uncorrelated parameter estimates. However, o...... for implementing designs that is efficient enough to estimate model with N brands, each brand have K attributes, and brand attribute has specific levels. The paper also illustrates an example in food consumption study.......Experimental designs are required in widely used techniques in marketing research, especially for preference-based conjoint analysis and discrete-choice studies. Ideally, marketing researchers prefer orthogonal designs because this technique could give uncorrelated parameter estimates. However......, orthogonal design is not available for every situation. Instead, efficient design based on computerized design algorithm is always available. This paper presents the method of efficient design for estimating brand models having attribute and availability cross effects. The paper gives a framework...

  20. Global economic trade-offs between wild nature and tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis R; Webb, Edward L; Symes, William S; Koh, Lian P; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2017-07-01

    Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs) and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.

  1. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings: how to make trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Del Grande, Claudio; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Eveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-05-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Three regions of Quebec. Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Irrespective of their models, PC practices' pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Regional drivers of clutch loss reveal important trade-offs for beach-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslo, Brooke; Schlacher, Thomas A; Weston, Michael A; Huijbers, Chantal M; Anderson, Chris; Gilby, Ben L; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M; Schoeman, David S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km), encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia. Of the 132 model nests deployed and monitored with cameras, 45 (34%) survived the experimental exposure period. Thirty-five (27%) were lost to flooding, 32 (24%) were depredated, nine (7%) buried by sand, seven (5%) destroyed by people, three (2%) failed by unknown causes, and one (1%) was destroyed by a dog. Clutch fate differed substantially among regions, particularly with respect to losses from flooding and predation. 'Topographic' exposure was the main driver of mortality of nests placed close to the drift line near the base of dunes, which were lost to waves (particularly during storms) and to a lesser extent depredation. Predators determined the fate of clutches not lost to waves, with the depredation probability largely influenced by region. Depredation probability declined as nests were backed by higher dunes and were placed closer to vegetation. This study emphasizes the scale at which clutch fate and survival varies within a regional context, the prominence of corvids as egg predators, the significant role of flooding as a source of nest loss, and the multiple trade-offs faced by beach-nesting birds and those that manage them.

  3. Regional drivers of clutch loss reveal important trade-offs for beach-nesting birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Maslo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km, encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia. Of the 132 model nests deployed and monitored with cameras, 45 (34% survived the experimental exposure period. Thirty-five (27% were lost to flooding, 32 (24% were depredated, nine (7% buried by sand, seven (5% destroyed by people, three (2% failed by unknown causes, and one (1% was destroyed by a dog. Clutch fate differed substantially among regions, particularly with respect to losses from flooding and predation. ‘Topographic’ exposure was the main driver of mortality of nests placed close to the drift line near the base of dunes, which were lost to waves (particularly during storms and to a lesser extent depredation. Predators determined the fate of clutches not lost to waves, with the depredation probability largely influenced by region. Depredation probability declined as nests were backed by higher dunes and were placed closer to vegetation. This study emphasizes the scale at which clutch fate and survival varies within a regional context, the prominence of corvids as egg predators, the significant role of flooding as a source of nest loss, and the multiple trade-offs faced by beach-nesting birds and those that manage them.

  4. Wetland management strategies lead to tradeoffs in ecological structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane L. Peralta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic legacy effects often occur as a consequence of land use change or land management and can leave behind long-lasting changes to ecosystem structure and function. This legacy is described as a memory in the form of ecological structure or ecological interactions that remains at a location from a previous condition. We examined how forested floodplain restoration strategy, based on planting intensity, influenced wetland community structure and soil chemical and physical factors after 15 years. The site was divided into 15 strips, and strips were assigned to one of five restoration treatments: plantings of acorns, 2-year-old seedlings, 5-ft bareroot trees, balled and burlapped trees, and natural seed bank regeneration. Our community composition survey revealed that plots planted with bareroot or balled and burlapped trees developed closed tree canopies with little herbaceous understory, while acorn plantings and natural colonization plots developed into dense stands of the invasive species reed canary grass (RCG; 'Phalaris arundinacea'. Restoration strategy influenced bacterial community composition but to a lesser degree compared to the plant community response, and riverine hydrology and restoration strategy influenced wetland soil conditions. Soil ammonium concentrations and pH were similar across all wetland restoration treatments, while total organic carbon was highest in forest and RCG-dominated plots compared to mixed patches of trees and open areas. The differences in restoration strategy and associated economic investment resulted in ecological tradeoffs. The upfront investment in larger, more mature trees (i.e., bareroot, balled and burlapped led to floodplain forested communities, while cheaper, more passive planting strategies (i.e., seedlings, seedbank, or acorns resulted in dense stands of invasive RCG, despite the similar floodplain hydrology across all sites. Therefore, recovery of multiple ecosystem services that

  5. Education Gains Attributable to Fertility Decline: Patterns by Gender, Period, and Country in Latin America and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the heterogeneity across countries and time in the relationship between mother's fertility and children's educational attainment-the quantity-quality (Q-Q) trade-off-by using census data from 17 countries in Asia and Latin America, with data from each country spanning multiple census years. For each country-year, we estimate micro-level instrumental variables models predicting secondary school attainment using number of siblings of the child, instrumented by the sex composition of the first two births in the family. We then analyze correlates of Q-Q trade-off patterns across countries. On average, one additional sibling in the family reduces the probability of secondary education by 6 percentage points for girls and 4 percentage points for boys. This Q-Q trade-off is significantly associated with the level of son preference, slightly decreasing over time and with fertility, but it does not significantly differ by educational level of the country.

  6. Relating auditory attributes of multichannel sound to preference and to physical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2006-01-01

    playing a role in sound quality evaluation. Eight selected attributes are quantified by a panel of 39 listeners using paired-comparison judgments and probabilistic choice models, and related to overall preference. A multiple-regression model predicts preference well, and some similarities are observed......Sound reproduced by multichannel systems is affected by many factors giving rise to various sensations, or auditory attributes. Relating specific attributes to overall preference and to physical measures of the sound field provides valuable information for a better understanding of the parameters...

  7. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge......, significantly reduced levels of IL-13 in the MCS group and no group differences in the allergen specific IgE measures. The differences were independent of factors such as sex, age, Body Mass Index, asthma, smoking, depression, anxiety and allergen-specific IgE. In conclusion, the study identified a distinct...

  8. Main attributes influencing spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreescu, N.; Ohai, D.

    1997-01-01

    All activities regarding nuclear fuel, following its discharge from the NPP, constitute the spent fuel management and are grouped in two possible back end variants, namely reprocessing (including HLW vitrification and geological disposal) and direct disposal of spent fuel. In order to select the appropriate variant it is necessary to analyse the aggregate fulfillment of the imposed requirements, particularly of the derived attributes, defined as distinguishing characteristics of the factors used in the decision making process. The main identified attributes are the following: - environmental impact, - availability of suitable sites, - non-proliferation degree, -strategy of energy, - technological complexity and technical maturity, -possible further technical improvements, - size of nuclear programme, - total costs, - public acceptance, - peculiarity of CANDU fuel. The significance of the attributes in the Romanian case, taking into consideration the present situation, as a low scenario and a high scenario corresponding to an important development of the nuclear power, after the year 2010, is presented. According to their importance the ranking of attributes is proposed . Subsequently, the ranking could be used for adequate weighing of attributes in order to realize a multi-criteria analysis and a relevant comparison of back end variants. (authors)

  9. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  10. Value tradeoffs for the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von [Decision Insights, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program at the Hanford Site of the Department of Energy has adopted a logical approach to making decisions that uses decision analysis to structure and analyze decision alternatives and public values to evaluate them. This report is the third in a series to support this effort. The first identified a set of objectives (called {open_quotes}ends objectives{close_quotes}) that characterize the ultimate goals and desires of Hanford decision makers and stakeholders. The second report developed operational measures for these ends objectives (called {open_quotes}ends measures{close_quotes}) and it also developed a set of performance objectives and associated performance measures that are more directly related to how well decision alternatives in the TWRS program perform to achieve the ends objectives. The present report describes the development of quantitative value tradeoffs for both the ends measures and the performance measures. First, five national value experts were interviewed to obtain value tradeoffs for units of the ends measures identified in Keeney and von Winterfeldt (1996). The results of this assessment are shown in Table S1. Second, the implied value tradeoffs for the units of the performance measures were calculated from the value tradeoffs for units of the ends measures provided by the national experts. When calculating the value tradeoffs for the units of the performance measures, very simple quantitative relationships between ends and performance measures were assumed. The results of this calculation are shown in Table S2. The results of this report shown in Tables S1 and S2 should be considered preliminary and largely illustrative of the principles for developing value tradeoffs. The report lists several important caveats and recommendations for how future work can improve on the assessment of value tradeoffs.

  11. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  12. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon; Karim, Asim A.; Kamiran, Faisal; Ali, Wasif Mohammad; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2013-01-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Controlling attribute effect in linear regression

    KAUST Repository

    Calders, Toon

    2013-12-01

    In data mining we often have to learn from biased data, because, for instance, data comes from different batches or there was a gender or racial bias in the collection of social data. In some applications it may be necessary to explicitly control this bias in the models we learn from the data. This paper is the first to study learning linear regression models under constraints that control the biasing effect of a given attribute such as gender or batch number. We show how propensity modeling can be used for factoring out the part of the bias that can be justified by externally provided explanatory attributes. Then we analytically derive linear models that minimize squared error while controlling the bias by imposing constraints on the mean outcome or residuals of the models. Experiments with discrimination-aware crime prediction and batch effect normalization tasks show that the proposed techniques are successful in controlling attribute effects in linear regression models. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Corporate apologia and the attribution of guilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse, and if the cr......, and if the crisis concerns legitimacy, the art is to shift the public attribution of guilt or responsibility. The case of Arla vs Hirtshals is used to demonstrate how a concerted effort in impression management succeeded in just such a shift.......This paper argues that in the difficult disciplines of crisis communication and image restoration, attribution theory has explanatory value. Corporate apologia - the explanations that an organisation offers after an attack - differs with the type of crisis it is designed to diffuse...

  15. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  16. Attribute And-Or Grammar for Joint Parsing of Human Pose, Parts and Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Nie, Xiaohan; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2017-07-25

    This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style. The parse graph outputs human detection, pose estimation, and attribute prediction simultaneously, which are intuitive and interpretable. We conduct experiments on two tasks on two datasets, and experimental results demonstrate the advantage of joint modeling in comparison with computing poses and attributes independently. Furthermore, our model obtains better performance over existing methods for both pose estimation and attribute prediction tasks.

  17. Navigating trade-offs in land-use planning: integrating human well-being into objective setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Adams

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for development of natural resources, which can be accompanied by environmental degradation. Planning for multiple land uses requires navigating trade-offs between social, economic, and environmental outcomes arising from different possible futures. To explore these trade-offs, we use the Daly River catchment, in Australia's Northern Territory, as a case study. The catchment contains areas of priority for both conservation and development. In response to the challenge of navigating the required trade-offs, the Daly River Management Advisory Committee (DRMAC initiated a land-use plan for the region. Both development and conservation of natural resources in the catchment will affect human well-being and the long-term provisioning of ecosystem services in diverse ways. To understand some of these impacts, an innovative engagement process was designed to elicit the relative importance of key factors to residents' well-being. The process identified 19 well-being factors grouped into four domains: biodiversity, socio-cultural, recreational, and commercial. Overall, the highest-ranked well-being factors were in the social-cultural and biodiversity domains while commercial values were ranked the least important. Respondents reported low satisfaction with commercial factors as well, noting concerns over environmental impacts from existing developments and sustainability of future developments. We identified differences in the reported importance values for several types of stakeholders, most notably between indigenous respondents and those employed in the agricultural sectors. Indigenous respondents placed greater importance on biodiversity and socio-cultural factors. Agricultural respondents placed greater importance on commercial factors. The outcomes of our engagement were integrated into DRMAC's process of objective-setting to ensure that objectives for each domain were included in land-use planning. Our results can also

  18. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade André Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  19. Attribute correlates of hospital outpatient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueckeberg, H F; Hubbert, A

    1995-01-01

    Customer satisfaction (patient satisfaction) with hospital outpatient or ambulatory services is an important factor in influencing patient patronage and loyalty. Based on an empirical study, this article examines the attributes of the ambulatory care experience which were significantly associated with the level of satisfaction resulting from the most recent hospital ambulatory visit. This study focuses on identifying attributes of ambulatory services. This article brings to the health care marketing literature information on ambulatory satisfaction comparable to that which has been contributed to the literature regarding satisfaction with physician and hospital experiences.

  20. Cereal straw management: a trade-off between energy and agronomic fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation is the most important driving force for bioenergy development. Consequently, the environmental design of bioenergy value chains should address the actual savings of both primary energy demand and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. According to the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC, no direct impacts and no GHG emissions should be attributed to crop residues (like cereal straws when they are removed from agricultural land for the purpose of bioenergy utilisation. The carbon neutral assumption applied to crop residues is, however, a rough simplification. Crop residues, indeed, should not be viewed simply as a waste to be disposed, because they play a critical role in sustaining soil organic matter and therefore have an inherent C-capturing value. Moreover, considering straws as an energy feedstock, its status of co-product is clearly recognised and its availability could be obtained according to different cropping systems, corresponding to different primary energy costs and GHG emissions. This paper highlights some hidden features in the assessment of agricultural energy and carbon balance, still very difficult to be detected and accounted for. Although they are frequently disregarded, these features (such as long term dynamic trend of soil organic carbon and annual nitrous oxide emissions from the soil should be carefully considered in assembling the energy and emission balance. By using a crop simulation model, the long-term soil organic matter and annual N2O soil emissions were estimated. Consequently, a comprehensive energy and GHG balance was determined in accordance with the life cycle assessment methodology. Contrasting methods of straw management and wheat cultivation were compared: straw retention vs removal from the soil; conventional vs conservation tillage; wheat cropping system as a single-crop or in rotation. The resulting carbon footprint of straws has different magnitudes with respect to the several

  1. Trade-offs in Cervical Cancer Prevention: Balancing Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Natasha K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Ortendahl, Jesse D.; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Background New screening and vaccination technologies will provide women with more options for cervical cancer prevention. Because the risk of cervical cancer diminishes with effective routine screening, women may wish to consider additional attributes, such as the likelihood of false-positive results and diagnostic procedures for mild abnormalities likely to resolve without intervention in their screening choices. Methods We used an empirically calibrated simulation model of cervical cancer in the United States to assess the benefits and potential risks associated with prevention strategies differing by primary screening test, triage test for abnormal results (cytologic testing, human papillomavirus [HPV] DNA test), and screening frequency. Outcomes included colposcopy referrals, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) types 1 and 2 or 3, lifetime cancer risk, and quality-adjusted life expectancy. Results Across strategies, colposcopy referrals and diagnostic workups varied 3-fold, although diagnostic rates of CIN 2 or 3 were similar and 95% of positive screening test results were for mild abnormalities likely to resolve on their own. For a representative group of a thousand 20-year-old women undergoing triennial screening for 10 years, we expect 1038 colposcopy referrals (7 CIN 2 or 3 diagnoses) from combined cytologic and HPV DNA testing and fewer than 200 referrals (6–7 CIN 2 or 3 diagnoses) for strategies that use triage testing. Similarly, for a thousand 40-year-old women, combined cytologic and HPV DNA testing led to 489 referrals (9 CIN 2 or 3), whereas alternative strategies resulted in fewer than 150 referrals (7–8 CIN 2 or 3). Using cytologic testing followed by triage testing in younger women minimizes both diagnostic workups and positive HPV test results, whereas in older women diagnostic workups are minimized with HPV DNA testing followed by cytologic triage testing. Conclusions Clinically relevant information highlighting trade-offs among

  2. Designing multi-reservoir system designs via efficient water-energy-food nexus trade-offs - Selecting new hydropower dams for the Blue Nile and Nepal's Koshi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harou, J. J.; Hurford, A.; Geressu, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the world's multi-reservoir water resource systems are being considered for further development of hydropower and irrigation aiming to meet economic, political and ecological goals. Complex river basins serve many needs so how should the different proposed groupings of reservoirs and their operations be evaluated? How should uncertainty about future supply and demand conditions be factored in? What reservoir designs can meet multiple goals and perform robustly in a context of global change? We propose an optimized multi-criteria screening approach to identify best performing designs, i.e., the selection, size and operating rules of new reservoirs within multi-reservoir systems in a context of deeply uncertain change. Reservoir release operating rules and storage sizes are optimized concurrently for each separate infrastructure design under consideration across many scenarios representing plausible future conditions. Outputs reveal system trade-offs using multi-dimensional scatter plots where each point represents an approximately Pareto-optimal design. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile River reservoirs in Ethiopia, where trade-offs between capital costs, total and firm energy output, aggregate storage and downstream irrigation and energy provision for the best performing designs are evaluated. The impact of filling period for large reservoirs is considered in a context of hydrological uncertainty. The approach is also applied to the Koshi basin in Nepal where combinations of hydropower storage and run-of-river dams are being considered for investment. We show searching for investment portfolios that meet multiple objectives provides stakeholders with a rich view on the trade-offs inherent in the nexus and how different investment bundles perform differently under plausible futures. Both case-studies show how the proposed approach helps explore and understand the implications of investing in new dams in a global change context.

  3. Boldness predicts an individual's position along an exploration-exploitation foraging trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Samantha C; Pinaud, David; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2017-09-01

    Individuals do not have complete information about the environment and therefore they face a trade-off between gathering information (exploration) and gathering resources (exploitation). Studies have shown individual differences in components of this trade-off but how stable these strategies are in a population and the intrinsic drivers of these differences is not well understood. Top marine predators are expected to experience a particularly strong trade-off as many species have large foraging ranges and their prey often have a patchy distribution. This environment leads these species to exhibit pronounced exploration and exploitation phases but differences between individuals are poorly resolved. Personality differences are known to be important in foraging behaviour but also in the trade-off between exploration and exploitation. Here we test whether personality predicts an individual exploration-exploitation strategy using wide ranging wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) as a model system. Using GPS tracking data from 276 wandering albatrosses, we extract foraging parameters indicative of exploration (searching) and exploitation (foraging) and show that foraging effort, time in patch and size of patch are strongly correlated, demonstrating these are indicative of an exploration-exploitation (EE) strategy. Furthermore, we show these are consistent within individuals and appear stable in the population, with no reproductive advantage. The searching and foraging behaviour of bolder birds placed them towards the exploration end of the trade-off, whereas shy birds showed greater exploitation. This result provides a mechanism through which individual foraging strategies may emerge. Age and sex affected components of the trade-off, but not the trade-off itself, suggesting these factors may drive behavioural compensation to maintain resource acquisition and this was supported by the evidence that there were no fitness consequence of any EE trait nor the trade-off

  4. Fitness tradeoffs of antibiotic resistance in extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Prabh; Alsaadi, Ahlam; Bernal-Astrain, Gabriel; O'Sullivan, Michael Liam; Hazlett, Bryn; Clarke, Leah Marie; Schoenrock, Andrew; Pitre, Sylvain; Wong, Alex

    2018-02-07

    Evolutionary trade-offs occur when selection on one trait has detrimental effects on other traits. In pathogenic microbes, it has been hypothesized that antibiotic resistance trades off with fitness in the absence of antibiotic. While studies of single resistance mutations support this hypothesis, it is unclear whether trade-offs are maintained over time, due to compensatory evolution and broader effects of genetic background. Here, we leverage natural variation in 39 extra-intestinal clinical isolates of Escherichia coli to assess trade-offs between growth rates and resistance to fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin antibiotics. Whole genome sequencing identifies a broad range of clinically relevant resistance determinants in these strains. We find evidence for a negative correlation between growth rate and antibiotic resistance, consistent with a persistent trade-off between resistance and growth. However, this relationship is sometimes weak, and depends on the environment in which growth rates are measured. Using in vitro selection experiments, we find that compensatory evolution in one environment does not guarantee compensation in other environments. Thus, even in the face of compensatory evolution and other genetic background effects, resistance may be broadly costly, supporting the use of drug restriction protocols to limit the spread of resistance. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the power of using natural variation to study evolutionary trade-offs in microbes. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards.

  6. Culture impacts the magnitude of the emotion-induced memory trade-off effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela; Garner, Lauryn; Ligouri, Laura; Konuk, Ayse Isilay; Boduroglu, Aysecan

    2017-10-04

    The present study assessed the extent to which culture impacts the emotion-induced memory trade-off effect. This trade-off effect occurs because emotional items are better remembered than neutral ones, but this advantage comes at the expense of memory for backgrounds such that neutral backgrounds are remembered worse when they occurred with an emotional item than with a neutral one. Cultures differ in their prioritisation of focal object versus contextual background information, with Westerners focusing more on objects and Easterners focusing more on backgrounds. Americans, a Western culture, and Turks, an Eastern-influenced culture, incidentally encoded positive, negative, and neutral items placed against neutral backgrounds, and then completed a surprise memory test with the items and backgrounds tested separately. Results revealed a reduced trade-off for Turks compared to Americans. Although both groups exhibited an emotional enhancement in item memory, Turks did not show a decrement in memory for backgrounds that had been paired with emotional items. These findings complement prior ones showing reductions in trade-off effects as a result of task instructions. Here, we suggest that a contextual-focus at the level of culture can mitigate trade-off effects in emotional memory.

  7. Phenotypic plasticity in the developmental integration of morphological trade-offs and secondary sexual trait compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Joseph L; Kotiaho, Janne S; Lebas, Natasha R

    2005-03-07

    Trait exaggeration through sexual selection will tale place alongside other changes in phenotype. Exaggerated morphology might be compensated by parallel changes in traits that support, enhance or facilitate exaggeration: 'secondary sexual trait compensation' (SSTC). Alternatively, exaggeration might be realized at the expense of other traits through morphological trade-offs. For the most part, SSTC has only been examined interspecifically. For these phenomena to be important intraspecifically, the sexual trait must be developmentally integrated with the compensatory or competing trait. We studied developmental integration in two species with different development: the holometabolous beetle Onthophagus taurus and the hemimetabolous earwig Forficula auricularia. Male-dimorphic variation in trait exaggeration was exploited to expose both trade-offs and SSTC. We found evidence for morphological trade-offs in O. taurus, but no F. auricularia, supporting the notion that trade-offs are more likely in closed developmetal systems. However, we found these trade-offs were not limited solely to traits growing close together. Developmental integration of structures involved in SSTC were detected in both species. The developmental integration of SSTC was phenotypically plastic, such that the compensation for relatively larger sexual traits was greater in the exasperated male morphs. Evidence of intraspecific SSTC demands studies of the selective, genetic and developmental architecture of phenotypic integration.

  8. The offspring quantity–quality trade-off and human fertility variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2016-01-01

    The idea that trade-offs between offspring quantity and quality shape reproductive behaviour has long been central to economic perspectives on fertility. It also has a parallel and richer theoretical foundation in evolutionary ecology. We review the application of the quantity–quality trade-off concept to human reproduction, emphasizing distinctions between clutch size and lifetime fertility, and the wider set of forces contributing to fertility variation in iteroparous and sexually reproducing species like our own. We then argue that in settings approximating human evolutionary history, several factors limit costly sibling competition. Consequently, while the optimization of quantity–quality trade-offs undoubtedly shaped the evolution of human physiology setting the upper limits of reproduction, we argue it plays a modest role in accounting for socio-ecological and individual variation in fertility. Only upon entering the demographic transition can fertility limitation be clearly interpreted as strategically orientated to advancing offspring quality via increased parental investment per child, with low fertility increasing descendant socio-economic success, although not reproductive success. We conclude that existing economic and evolutionary literature has often overemphasized the centrality of quantity–quality trade-offs to human fertility variation and advocate for the development of more holistic frameworks encompassing alternative life-history trade-offs and the evolved mechanisms guiding their resolution. PMID:27022072

  9. Growth and reproductive attributes of radionuclide phytoremediators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that growth attributes including relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf are index and specific leaf area, dry matter allocated to stem and leaves and number of reproductive organs decreased with the increase of radionuclide content of the plant, while the dry matter allocated to root and reproductive ...

  10. Development of the Attributed Dignity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Dixon, Jane; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2009-07-01

    A sequential, multi-method approach to instrument development beginning with concept analysis, followed by (a) item generation from qualitative data, (b) review of items by expert and lay person panels, (c) cognitive appraisal interviews, (d) pilot testing, and (e) evaluating construct validity was used to develop a measure of attributed dignity in older adults. The resulting positively scored, 23-item scale has three dimensions: Self-Value, Behavioral Respect-Self, and Behavioral Respect-Others. Item-total correlations in the pilot study ranged from 0.39 to 0.85. Correlations between the Attributed Dignity Scale (ADS) and both Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (0.17) and Crowne and Marlowe's Social Desirability Scale (0.36) were modest and in the expected direction, indicating attributed dignity is a related but independent concept. Next steps include testing the ADS with a larger sample to complete factor analysis, test-retest stability, and further study of the relationships between attributed dignity and other concepts.

  11. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  12. Parent-Child Agreement on Attributional Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Judith A.; Goodnow, Jacqueline J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores extent to which parents and their adolescent children agree with respect to their attributional beliefs. First-born Australian children of Anglo and Italian backgrounds and their parents ranked talent, effort, and teaching according to relative importance in the development of six skill areas. Variations in patterns of attributions…

  13. Consumer preferences for pork supply chain attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and

  14. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, L; Rosenquist, H; Larsson, J T; Nielsen, E M; Sørensen, G; Nordentoft, S; Hald, T

    2014-08-01

    SUMMARY This study assesses the contribution of different sources of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark using two different source-attribution approaches. In total, 794 non-human isolates and 406 isolates from human cases (domestic, travel related, and cases with unknown travel history) were collected. Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, flaA typing and susceptibility to antibiotics. Both models used indicate that the major burden of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark originates from the domestic broiler chicken reservoir. The second most important reservoir was found to be cattle. The Asymmetric Island model attributed 52% [95% credibility interval (CrI) 37-67] to Danish chicken, 17% (95% CrI 3-33) to imported chicken, and 17% (95% CrI 7-28) to cattle. Similarly, the Campylobacter source-attribution model apportioned 38% (95% CrI 28-47) to Danish chicken, 14% (95% CrI 10-18) to imported chicken, and 16% (95% CrI 7-25) to cattle. The addition of flaA type as an extra discriminatory typing parameter did not change the attribution of cases markedly.

  15. 1 Evaluating Biophysical Attributes of Environmentally Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.4 No. 1 2011. 1 Department of .... land cover types and other physical attributes. (soils and landform ..... Natural water bodies (Rivers). Figure 4: .... permanent or ephemeral rivers. .... evaluating land use/land cover change using participatory ... First Edition.

  16. Predictive user modeling with actionable attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Different machine learning techniques have been proposed and used for modeling individual and group user needs, interests and preferences. In the traditional predictive modeling instances are described by observable variables, called attributes. The goal is to learn a model for predicting the target

  17. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  18. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Marlies A.; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout; De Boer, Imke

    Background, aim and scope: Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  19. Beyond OCR: Handwritten manuscript attribute understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the author, date and location of handwritten historical documents is very important for historians to completely understand and reveal the valuable information they contain. In this thesis, three attributes, such as writer, date and geographical location, are studied by analyzing the

  20. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire: A Conceptual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Daniel

    The rich complexity of the concepts of masculinity and femininity has been reflected in personality measures in at least two different ways: by employing a variety of subscales with comparatively homogeneous items or by using a single scale with comparatively heterogeneous items. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was the subject of an…

  1. FAT-miner: mining frequent attribute trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijf, de J.; Cho, Y.; Wainwright, R.L.; Haddad, H.; Shin, S.Y.; Koo, Y.W.

    2007-01-01

    Data that can conceptually be viewed as tree structures abounds in domains such as bio-informatics, web logs, XML databases and multi-relational databases. Besides structural information such as nodes and edges, tree structured data also often contains attributes, that represent properties of nodes.

  2. Memory for Recently Accessed Visual Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Shupe, Joshua M.; Swallow, Khena M.; Tan, Deborah H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that the attended features of an item may be rapidly forgotten once they are no longer relevant for an ongoing task (attribute amnesia). This finding relies on a surprise memory procedure that places high demands on declarative memory. We used intertrial priming to examine whether the representation of an item's…

  3. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  4. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  5. Discriminative power of visual attributes in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Visser, Margaretha; Jonkman, Marcel; Petkov, Nicolai

    Background/purpose: Visual characteristics such as color and shape of skin lesions play an important role in the diagnostic process. In this contribution, we quantify the discriminative power of such attributes using an information theoretical approach. Methods: We estimate the probability of

  6. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2016-03-01

    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Credit in Acceptance Sampling on Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Chris A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Credit is introduced in acceptance sampling on attributes and a Credit Based Acceptance sampling system is developed that is very easy to apply in practice.The credit of a producer is defined as the total number of items accepted since the last rejection.In our sampling system the sample size for a

  9. Defining Hardwood Veneer Log Quality Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Michael Wiemann; Delton Alderman; John Baumgras; William Luppold

    2004-01-01

    This publication provides a broad spectrum of information on the hardwood veneer industry in North America. Veneer manufacturers and their customers impose guidelines in specifying wood quality attributes that are very discriminating but poorly defined (e.g., exceptional color, texture, and/or figure characteristics). To better understand and begin to define the most...

  10. Personal attributes influencing school burnout among graduating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires administered on participants contained scales that measured school burnout, academic self-efficacy, perception of teacher support, sex and age. The study predicted that personal attributes and demographics will significantly influence school burnout. The hypothesis was confirmed as predicted as result ...

  11. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  12. The effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty on information processing in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Hao, Leilei; Maguire, Phil; Hu, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty (ETOD) on information processing in decision-making. Eighty undergraduates (73.75% female, M = 21.90), grouped according to their cognitive style (field-dependent or field-independent), conducted an Information Display Board (IDB) task, through which search time, search depth and search pattern were measured. Participants' emotional states were assessed both before and after the IDB task. The results showed that participants experienced significantly more negative emotion under high ETOD compared to those under low ETOD. While both cognitive style and ETOD had significant effects on search time and search depth, only ETOD significantly influenced search pattern; individuals in both cognitive style groups tended to use attribute-based processing under high ETOD and to use alternative-based processing under low ETOD. There was also a significant interaction between cognitive style and ETOD for search time and search depth. We propose that these results are best accounted for by the coping behaviour framework under high ETOD, and by the negative emotion hypothesis under low ETOD. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boykin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

  14. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, B; Zhang, X; Chen, Y Z; Chen, C X; Wang, H T; Liu, F

    2016-08-09

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy.

  15. A keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangping; Ye, Jian; Zhang, Yaling

    2018-01-01

    Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme is a new type of data encryption primitive, which is very suitable for data cloud storage for its fine-grained access control. Keyword-based searchable encryption scheme enables users to quickly find interesting data stored in the cloud server without revealing any information of the searched keywords. In this work, we provide a keyword searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute update for cloud storage, which is a combination of attribute-based encryption scheme and keyword searchable encryption scheme. The new scheme supports the user's attribute update, especially in our new scheme when a user's attribute need to be updated, only the user's secret key related with the attribute need to be updated, while other user's secret key and the ciphertexts related with this attribute need not to be updated with the help of the cloud server. In addition, we outsource the operation with high computation cost to cloud server to reduce the user's computational burden. Moreover, our scheme is proven to be semantic security against chosen ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack in the general bilinear group model. And our scheme is also proven to be semantic security against chosen keyword attack under bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption.

  16. Preliminary A ampersand PCT multiple detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Camp, D.C.; Decman, D.J.; Johansson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation, multi-detector active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand PCT) scanner will be optimized for speed and accuracy. At the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) we have demonstrated the trade-offs between different A ampersand PCT design parameters that affect the speed and quality of the assay results. These fundamental parameters govern the optimum system design. Although the multi-detector scanner design has priority put on speed to increase waste drum throughput, higher speed should not compromise assay accuracy. One way to increase the speed of the A ampersand PCT technology is to use multiple detectors. This yields a linear speedup by a factor approximately equal to the number of detectors used without a compromise in system accuracy. There are many different design scenarios that can be developed using multiple detectors. Here we describe four different scenarios and discuss the trade-offs between them. Also, some considerations are given in this design description for the implementation of a multiple detector technology in a field- deployable mobile trailer system

  17. Gender Attributions of Science and Academic Attributes: AN Examination of Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, and Technology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W. Jay

    Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.

  18. Multiple criteria decision making with life cycle assessment for material selection of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in today’s modern engineering, current efforts in optimal design of composites include seeking material selection protocols that can (1 simultaneously consider a series of mechanical/electrical/chemical cost criteria over a set of alternative material options, and (2 closely take into account environmental aspects of final products including recycling and end-of-life disposal options. In this paper, in addition to a review of some recent experimental and methodological advances in the above areas, a new application of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM is presented to deal with decision conflicts often seen among design criteria in composite material selection with the help of life cycle assessment (LCA. To show the application, an illustrative case study on a plastic gear material selection is conducted where the cost, mechanical and thermal properties along with environmental impact criteria are to be satisfied simultaneously. A pure plastic gear is compared to a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/aluminum-powder composite alternative. Results suggest that simple MCDM models, including a signal-to-noise measure adapted to MCDM in the same case study, can be used to explore both trade-offs and design break-even points in large decision spaces as the decision maker’s perspective over environmental, material performance and cost attributes change during the design process. More advanced topics including the account of material data uncertainties are addressed.

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  20. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.