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Sample records for multiple aging stages

  1. Multiple Stages 2

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  2. Multiple stage railgun

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  3. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  4. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    Devaney, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is described for use in activating a switch or the like responding to multiple acceleration pulses in series, comprising: a housing forming a chamber having a first and second end; a mass slidably disposed in the chamber and movable during acceleration from the first end toward the second end; means for biasing the movable mass toward a reset position adjacent the first end; means for damping the movement of the mass in the chamber; cam and follower means carried by the movable mass and the housing for relative movement in response to the acceleration, the cam and follower means including means for temporarily blocking the mass movement toward the second end after a first acceleration pulse; the cam and follower means cooperating together to allow continued movement toward the second end and switch activation in response to at least a second separate acceleration pulse in series with the first

  5. Changes of endocrine and ultrasound markers as ovarian aging in modifying the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) staging system with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage.

    Ding, Ting; Luo, Aiyue; Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xiaofang; Yang, Shuhong; Lai, Zhiwen; Shen, Wei; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding; Wang, Shixuan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the changes of ovarian aging markers across the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) stages and modify it with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage (MR). Healthy females were classified according to the STRAW system. Serum basal FSH, LH, E2, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were detected, FSH/LH ratio calculated, and antral follicle counts (AFCs) determined in follicular phase. Progression through the whole STRAW stages under MR stage subdivided is associated with elevations in FSH, LH, FSH/LH ratio and decreases in E2, AMH and AFCs (p age in MR stage. 0.982 ng/ml AMH and 3 antral follicles (low level of MR 25-30 years) were set as cutoffs to distinguish MR stage into early mid reproductive age (EMR) and late mid reproductive age (LMR) stages. The women in EMR stage compared with LMR could retrieve more oocytes in IVF treatment (p stage, demonstrating disparate reproductive aging period with reduced ovarian reserve in young age across the STRAW stages.

  6. Multiple-stage pure phase encoding with biometric information

    Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many optical systems have been developed for securing information, and optical encryption/encoding has attracted more and more attention due to the marked advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, an optical security method is presented based on pure phase encoding with biometric information. Biometric information (such as fingerprint) is employed as security keys rather than plaintext used in conventional optical security systems, and multiple-stage phase-encoding-based optical systems are designed for generating several phase-only masks with biometric information. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only masks are further used in an optical setup for encoding an input image (i.e., plaintext). Numerical simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity, and the results demonstrate that high flexibility and high security can be achieved.

  7. Brain Age in Early Stages of Bipolar Disorders or Schizophrenia.

    Hajek, Tomas; Franke, Katja; Kolenic, Marian; Capkova, Jana; Matejka, Martin; Propper, Lukas; Uher, Rudolf; Stopkova, Pavla; Novak, Tomas; Paus, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Spaniel, Filip; Alda, Martin

    2017-12-20

    The greater presence of neurodevelopmental antecedants may differentiate schizophrenia from bipolar disorders (BD). Machine learning/pattern recognition allows us to estimate the biological age of the brain from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRI). The discrepancy between brain and chronological age could contribute to early detection and differentiation of BD and schizophrenia. We estimated brain age in 2 studies focusing on early stages of schizophrenia or BD. In the first study, we recruited 43 participants with first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES) and 43 controls. In the second study, we included 96 offspring of bipolar parents (48 unaffected, 48 affected) and 60 controls. We used relevance vector regression trained on an independent sample of 504 controls to estimate the brain age of study participants from structural MRI. We calculated the brain-age gap estimate (BrainAGE) score by subtracting the chronological age from the brain age. Participants with FES had higher BrainAGE scores than controls (F(1, 83) = 8.79, corrected P = .008, Cohen's d = 0.64). Their brain age was on average 2.64 ± 4.15 years greater than their chronological age (matched t(42) = 4.36, P stages of BD showed comparable BrainAGE scores to controls (F(2,149) = 1.04, corrected P = .70, η2 = 0.01) and comparable brain and chronological age. Early stages of schizophrenia, but not early stages of BD, were associated with advanced BrainAGE scores. Participants with FES showed neurostructural alterations, which made their brains appear 2.64 years older than their chronological age. BrainAGE scores could aid in early differential diagnosis between BD and schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Ages and Career Stages: Considerations in Providing Support for Mid-Late Career Stage Doctoral Students

    Robertson, Margaret J.

    2017-01-01

    This article raises two inter-related issues: firstly there is a correlation between the needs of doctoral students that are strongly related to age and career stage; and secondly, because these needs differ according to their demographic, the current discourse of developing work-readiness skills of doctoral students is misplaced for the growing…

  9. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  10. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    Vihar

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Low Birth Weight (LBW), maternal age and multiple ... mothers. Low socio-economic status is the underlying ... rate of low birth weight infants. ... Table 3: Distribution of Age against Birth weight.

  11. Combining multiple classifiers for age classification

    Van Heerden, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare several different classifier combination methods on a single task, namely speaker age classification. This task is well suited to combination strategies, since significantly different feature classes are employed. Support vector...

  12. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    ... cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Immunomodulators are a type of biologic therapy. Thalidomide , lenalidomide , and pomalidomide are immunomodulators used to treat multiple myeloma and other plasma ...

  13. Age-Related Differences in Multiple Task Monitoring

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men excee...

  14. Dislocation multiplication rate in the early stage of germanium plasticity

    Fikar, J.; Dupas, Corinne; Kruml, Tomáš; Jacques, A.; Martin, J. L.

    400-401, - (2005), s. 431-434 ISSN 0921-5093. [Dislocations 2004. La Colle-sur-Loup, 13.09.2004-17.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : dislocation multiplication * germanium * constitutive modelling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2005

  15. Multiple age components in individual molybdenite grains

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lowers, Heather; Magee, Charles W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    Re–Os geochronology of fractions composed of unsized, coarse, and fine molybdenite from a pod of unusual monazite–xenotime gneiss within a granulite facies paragneiss, Hudson Highlands, NY, yielded dates of 950.5 ± 2.5, 953.8 ± 2.6, and 941.2 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively. These dates are not recorded by co-existing zircon, monazite, or xenotime. SEM–BSE imagery of thin sections and separated grains reveals that most molybdenite grains are composed of core and rim plates that are approximately perpendicular. Rim material invaded cores, forming irregular contacts, probably reflecting dissolution/reprecipitation. EPMA and LA-ICP-MS analyses show that cores and rims have different trace element concentrations (for example, cores are relatively enriched in W). On the basis of inclusions of zircon with metamorphic overgrowths, we conclude that molybdenite cores and rims formed after high-grade regional metamorphism. The discovery of cores and rims in individual molybdenite grains is analogous to multi-component U-Pb geochronometers such as zircon, monazite, and titanite; thus, molybdenite should be carefully examined before dating to ensure that the requirement of age homogeneity is fulfilled.

  16. Physical activity staging distribution: establishing a heuristic using multiple studies.

    Nigg, C; Hellsten, L; Norman, G; Braun, L; Breger, R; Burbank, P; Coday, M; Elliot, D; Garber, C; Greaney, M; Keteyian, S; Lees, F; Matthews, C; Moe, E; Resnick, B; Riebe, D; Rossi, J; Toobert, D; Wang, T; Welk, G; Williams, G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the population prevalence across the stages of change (SoC) for regular physical activity and to establish the prevalence of people at risk. With support from the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, nine Behavior Change Consortium studies with a common physical activity SoC measure agreed to collaborate and share data. The distribution pattern identified in these predominantly reactively recruited studies was Precontemplation (PC) = 5% (+/- 10), Contemplation (C) = 10% (+/- 10), Preparation (P) = 40% (+/- 10), Action = 10% (+/- 10), and Maintenance = 35% (+/- 10). With reactively recruited studies, it can be anticipated that there will be a higher percentage of the sample that is ready to change and a greater percentage of currently active people compared to random representative samples. The at-risk stage distribution (i.e., those not at criteria or PC, C, and P) was approximately 10% PC, 20% C, and 70% P in specific samples and approximately 20% PC, 10% C, and 70% P in the clinical samples. Knowing SoC heuristics can inform public health practitioners and policymakers about the population's motivation for physical activity, help track changes over time, and assist in the allocation of resources.

  17. Dental Age Estimation (DAE): Data management for tooth development stages including the third molar. Appropriate censoring of Stage H, the final stage of tooth development.

    Roberts, Graham J; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Lucas, Victoria S

    2015-11-01

    The final stage of dental development of third molars is usually helpful to indicate whether or not a subject is aged over 18 years. A complexity is that the final stage of development is unlimited in its upper border. Investigators usually select an inappropriate upper age limit or censor point for this tooth development stage. The literature was searched for appropriate data sets for dental age estimation and those that provided the count (n), the mean (x¯), and the standard deviation (sd) for each of the tooth development stages. The Demirjian G and Demirjian H were used for this study. Upper and lower limits of the Stage G and Stage H data were calculated limiting the data to plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. The upper border of Stage H was limited by appropriate censoring at the maximum value for Stage G. The maximum age at attainment from published data, for Stage H, ranged from 22.60 years to 34.50 years. These data were explored to demonstrate how censoring provides an estimate for the correct maximum age for the final stage of Stage H as 21.64 years for UK Caucasians. This study shows that confining the data array of individual tooth developments stages to ± 3sd provides a reliable and logical way of censoring the data for tooth development stages with a Normal distribution of data. For Stage H this is inappropriate as it is unbounded in its upper limit. The use of a censored data array for Stage H using Percentile values is appropriate. This increases the reliability of using third molar Stage H alone to determine whether or not an individual is over 18 years old. For Stage H, individual ancestral groups should be censored using the same technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Nanosilica on Early Age Stages of Cement Hydration

    Forood Torabian Isfahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of nanosilica on cement hydration have been broadly investigated in the literature and early age cement hydration, as a whole, has been mainly considered, disregarding the substages of the hydration. The hydration of cement is characterized by different substages and nanosilica effect on the hydration could be a result of diverse, even contradictory, behavior of nanosilica in individual stages of the hydration. In this study, effects of nanosilica on different substages of cement hydration are investigated. Isothermal calorimetry results show that at early ages (initial 72 hours the effects of nanosilica depend on the phenomenon by which the hydration is governed: when the hydration is chemically controlled, that is, during initial reaction, dormant period, and acceleratory period, the hydration rate is accelerated by adding nanosilica; when the hydration is governed by diffusion process, that is, during postacceleratory period, the hydration rate is decelerated by adding nanosilica. The Thermal Gravimetric Analysis on the samples at the hardened state (after 28 days of curing reveals that, after adding nanosilica, the hydration degree slightly increased compared to the plain paste.

  19. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  20. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  1. Dependency of cardiovascular risk on reproductive stages and on age among middle-aged Chinese women.

    Sun, Y; Ruan, X; Mueck, A O

    2017-10-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular risk in middle-aged Chinese women living in the same community and the impact of reproductive aging and age. This was a cross-sectional study in the Yuetan Community of Beijing. Data on lifestyle habits, prevalence and treatment of chronic diseases with significance for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development were collected by interview. CVD risk factors were assessed by physical examination and laboratory tests. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham 10-year risk score. STRAW +10 criteria were used for the stages of reproductive aging. A total of 536 women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. The incidences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes were 32.6%, 45.7%, 65.5%, 37.9% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjustment, the incidence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age and with reproductive aging. Dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance were only associated with age. Abdominal obesity was related neither to age nor to reproductive aging. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 1% to 24.8%; 11.6% of women had a moderate or high Framingham 10-year risk score. CVD risk factors were frequent and more than 10% of the women were at moderate or high risk of developing cardiovascular disease within the next 10 years. To our knowledge, this was demonstrated for the first time in middle-aged Chinese women. Thus, women should maintain a healthy lifestyle and physicians should monitor them to prevent CVD.

  2. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma aged 21-40years versus 41-60years

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Nahi, Hareth; Avivi, Irit

    2016-01-01

    We compared the outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) patients aged 21-40 and 41-60years in the novel agent era. This case-control study included 1089 patients between 2000 and 2015. Cases and controls were matched for sex, International Staging System (ISS) stage and institution. There were 173 pati...

  3. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: examining the stages of change detection.

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-10-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old-new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old-new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central-parietal old-new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old-new effect. The younger adults' early old-new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults' behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults.

  4. Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Multiple-Stage Planetary Gear Train Used in Wind Driven Generator

    Jungang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of multiple-stage planetary gear train composed of a two-stage planetary gear train and a one-stage parallel axis gear is proposed to be used in wind driven generator to analyze the influence of revolution speed and mesh error on dynamic load sharing characteristic based on the lumped parameter theory. Dynamic equation of the model is solved using numerical method to analyze the uniform load distribution of the system. It is shown that the load sharing property of the system is significantly affected by mesh error and rotational speed; load sharing coefficient and change rate of internal and external meshing of the system are of obvious difference from each other. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for the design of the multiple-stage planetary gear train of wind driven generator.

  5. Decreased growth rate of P. falciparum blood stage parasitemia with age in a holoendemic population.

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Petravic, Janka; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; Davenport, Miles P

    2014-04-01

    In malaria holoendemic settings, decreased parasitemia and clinical disease is associated with age and cumulative exposure. The relative contribution of acquired immunity against various stages of the parasite life cycle is not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether changes in infection dynamics can be best explained by decreasing rates of infection, or by decreased growth rates of parasites in blood. Here, we analyze the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study participants of different ages. We use both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy detection of parasitemia in order to understand parasite growth rates and infection rates over time. The more sensitive PCR assay detects parasites earlier than microscopy, and demonstrates a higher overall prevalence of infection than microscopy alone. The delay between PCR and microscopy detection is significantly longer in adults compared with children, consistent with slower parasite growth with age. We estimated the parasite multiplication rate from delay to PCR and microscopy detections of parasitemia. We find that both the delay between PCR and microscopy infection as well as the differing reinfection dynamics in different age groups are best explained by a slowing of parasite growth with age.

  6. Forensic age estimation based on magnetic resonance imaging of third molars: converting 2D staging into 3D staging.

    De Tobel, Jannick; Hillewig, Elke; Verstraete, Koenraad

    2017-03-01

    Established methods to stage development of third molars for forensic age estimation are based on the evaluation of radiographs, which show a 2D projection. It has not been investigated whether these methods require any adjustments in order to apply them to stage third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which shows 3D information. To prospectively study root stage assessment of third molars in age estimation using 3 Tesla MRI and to compare this with panoramic radiographs, in order to provide considerations for converting 2D staging into 3D staging and to determine the decisive root. All third molars were evaluated in 52 healthy participants aged 14-26 years using MRI in three planes. Three staging methods were investigated by two observers. In sixteen of the participants, MRI findings were compared with findings on panoramic radiographs. Decisive roots were palatal in upper third molars and distal in lower third molars. Fifty-seven per cent of upper third molars were not assessable on the radiograph, while 96.9% were on MRI. Upper third molars were more difficult to evaluate on radiographs than on MRI (p third molars were equally assessable on both imaging techniques (93.8% MRI, 98.4% radiograph), with no difference in level of difficulty (p = .375). Inter- and intra-observer agreement for evaluation was higher in MRI than in radiographs. In both imaging techniques lower third molars showed greater inter- and intra-observer agreement compared to upper third molars. MR images in the sagittal plane proved to be essential for staging. In age estimation, 3T MRI of third molars could be valuable. Some considerations are, however, necessary to transfer known staging methods to this 3D technique.

  7. Innovation in a multiple-stage, multiple-product food marketing chain

    Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove

    A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...

  8. Study of the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy

    Wang Ying; Zhang Benshu; Cai Li; Zhang Meiyun; Gao Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: Forty-six MSA patients with cerebellar or Parkinsonian symptoms and 18 healthy controls with similar age as patients were included. According to the disease duration,the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (≤ 12 months, n=14), group 2 (13-24 months, n=13), group 3 (≥ 25 months, n=19). All patients and controls underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging. To compare metabolic distributions between different groups, SPM 8 software and two-sample t test were used for image data analysis. When P<0.005, the result was considered statistically significant. Results: At the level of P<0.005, the hypometabolism in group 1 (all t>3.49) was identified in the frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and anterior cerebellar hemisphere. The regions of hypometabolism extended to posterolateral putamen and part of posterior cerebellar hemisphere in group 2 (all t>3.21). In group 3, the whole parts of putamen and cerebellar hemisphere were involved as hypometabolism (all t>4.08). In addition to the hypometabolism regions, there were also stabled hypermetabolism regions mainly in the parietal lobe, medial temporal lobe and the thalamus in all patient groups (all t>3.27 in group 1, all t>3.02 in group 2,all t>3.30 in group 3). Conclusions: Disease duration is closely related to the FDG metabolism in the MSA patients. Frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus can be involved at early stage of the disease. Putaminal hypometabolism begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early at its anterior part. Besides, thalamus shows hypermetabolism in the whole duration. 18 F-FDG metabolic changes of brain can reflect the development of mixed-type MSA. (authors)

  9. Correlation between chronological age and third molar developmental stages in an Iranian population (Demirjian method).

    Khosronejad, Aria; Navabi, Manijeh; Sakhdari, Shirin; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Third molar development is the only available tool for estimating the age of individuals after puberty. Since this tooth has very high interethnic variability, formulas calculated to estimate the age from its development stages cannot be generalized to other populations and should be adjusted for each region. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate this method in a sample of Tehran individuals for the first time, and also to compare the development of third molars across sexes and arches, and to estimate cutoff developmental stages for legal minor/major identification. A total of 150 dental patients aged between 15 and 25 years old were prospectively enrolled, and their Demirjian stages were recorded. The associations between chronological age and Demirjian stages were evaluated. Dental formation was compared between sexes and jaws. Cutoff stages were determined to identify legal minor/major cases (above or below 18 years old). Age estimation formula was found for this population. Of the 150 included patients, 56 were males. The difference between the ages of males and females at each given developmental stage was nonsignificant ( P > 0.05), except for the H stage. Age difference between same stage teeth of the maxilla and mandible was nonsignificant. Each of the G and H stages was significantly above 18 years old ( P age were above 90% (all P Third molar development was positively affected by the chronological age ( P = 0.000) and being maxillary ( P = 0.000) but not sex ( P = 0.113). Regression formula for age estimation was: age = 6.52+ (0.64 × sex) + (0.32 × arch) + (1.86 × Demirjian stage). Development of third molar might complete after the age 22. Iranian individuals with third molars at the G and H stages are likely above 18 while those at E and F are likely below 18. Pace of molar development differs for jaws, but intergender differences are open to further investigations.

  10. A Danish reference chart for assessment of psychomotor development based on the Ages & Stages Questionnaire

    Østergaard, Katrine Kure; Lando, Ane Vibeke; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) scores from the background population so that these may be used as a reference group to extremely preterm children at nine and 18 months of corrected age....

  11. Influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures in multi-stage fracturing

    Yongming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, the limited-entry method is widely used to promote uniform growth of multiple fractures. However, this method's effectiveness may be lost because the perforations will be eroded gradually during the fracturing period. In order to study the influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures, we combined the solid–fluid coupled model of hydraulic fracture growth with an empirical model of perforation erosion to implement numerical simulation. The simulations show clearly that the erosion of perforation will significantly deteriorate the non-uniform growth of multiple fractures. Based on the numerical model, we also studied the influences of proppant concentration and injection rates on perforation erosion in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The results indicate that the initial erosion rates become higher with the rising proppant concentration, but the growth of multiple hydraulic fractures is not sensitive to the varied proppant concentration. In addition, higher injection rates are beneficial significantly to the limited-entry design, leading to more uniform growth of fractures. Thus, in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing enough high injection rates are proposed to keep uniform growths. Keywords: Unconventional oil and gas reservoir, Horizontal well, Perforation friction, Perforation erosion, Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, Numerical simulation, Mathematic model, Uniform growth of fractures

  12. The protective effects of high-education levels on cognition in different stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Rimkus, Carolina de Medeiros; Avolio, Isabella Maria Bello; Miotto, Eliane Correa; Pereira, Samira Apostolos; Mendes, Maria Fernanda; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Leite, Claudia da Costa

    2018-03-06

    Low-education attainment is associated with worse cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and possibly with a lower cognitive reserve and/or increased inflammatory activity. Cognitive reserve refers to the capability of a source of intellectual enrichment in attenuating a negative effect of a disease-related factor; while the inflammatory activity is often related to T2-lesion load (T2-LL) increase. To disentangle the effects of cognitive reserve and an increased T2-LL in MS-patients with low-education levels. The study included 136 MS patients and 65 healthy-controls, divided in low-education (12 years or less of school education without obtaining any technical superior degree) and high-education (more than 12 years of school education with technical or superior degree) groups. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied examining intelligence quotient and six cognitive domains. Test results were z-scored and subjects with z-scores ≤ -1.5 in two or more domains were considered cognitively impaired. To test the factors associated with worse cognitive performance, regression models were applied using average cognition as target; education level, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), T2-LL, disease duration, age of disease onset, age and gender as predictors. We also tested the correlation between T2-LL and cognition in the groups. To investigate the role of education level as a source of intellectual enrichment/cognitive reserve in different stages of MS, we sub-divided the MS patients in three groups according to the disease duration (less than 5 years, between 5 and 10 years and more than 10 years). Worse average cognition was associated with low-education level, higher T2-LL and male gender. A higher frequency of cognitively impaired patients was observed in MS patients with low-education level, in all stages of the disease. In patients with a disease duration shorter than five years, there was a lower correlation between

  13. Adaptive responses to salinity stress across multiple life stages in anuran amphibians.

    Albecker, Molly A; McCoy, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    In many regions, freshwater wetlands are increasing in salinity at rates exceeding historic levels. Some freshwater organisms, like amphibians, may be able to adapt and persist in salt-contaminated wetlands by developing salt tolerance. Yet adaptive responses may be more challenging for organisms with complex life histories, because the same environmental stressor can require responses across different ontogenetic stages. Here we investigated responses to salinity in anuran amphibians: a common, freshwater taxon with a complex life cycle. We conducted a meta-analysis to define how the lethality of saltwater exposure changes across multiple life stages, surveyed wetlands in a coastal region experiencing progressive salinization for the presence of anurans, and used common garden experiments to investigate whether chronic salt exposure alters responses in three sequential life stages (reproductive, egg, and tadpole life stages) in Hyla cinerea , a species repeatedly observed in saline wetlands. Meta-analysis revealed differential vulnerability to salt stress across life stages with the egg stage as the most salt-sensitive. Field surveys revealed that 25% of the species known to occur in the focal region were detected in salt-intruded habitats. Remarkably, Hyla cinerea was found in large abundances in multiple wetlands with salinity concentrations 450% higher than the tadpole-stage LC 50 . Common garden experiments showed that coastal (chronically salt exposed) populations of H. cinerea lay more eggs, have higher hatching success, and greater tadpole survival in higher salinities compared to inland (salt naïve) populations. Collectively, our data suggest that some species of anuran amphibians have divergent and adaptive responses to salt exposure across populations and across different life stages. We propose that anuran amphibians may be a novel and amenable natural model system for empirical explorations of adaptive responses to environmental change.

  14. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximizing the performance of a multiple-stage variable-throat venturi scrubber for particle collection

    Muir, D. M.; Akeredolu, F.

    The high collection efficiencies that are required nowadays to meet the stricter pollution control standards necessitate the use of high-energy scrubbers, such as the venturi scrubber, for the arrestment of fine particulate matter from exhaust gas streams. To achieve more energy-efficient particle collection, several venturi stages may be used in series. This paper is principally a theoretical investigation of the performance of a multiple-stage venturi scrubber, the main objective of the study being to establish the best venturi design configuration for any given set of operating conditions. A mathematical model is used to predict collection efficiency vs pressure drop relationships for particle sizes in the range 0.2-5.0 μm for one-, two-, three- and four-stage scrubbers. The theoretical predictions are borne out qualitatively by experimental work. The paper shows that the three-stage venturi produces the highest collection efficiencies over the normal operating range except for the collection of very fine particles at low pressure drops, when the single-stage venturi is best. The significant improvement in performance achieved by the three-stage venturi when compared with conventional single-stage operation increases as both the particle size and system pressure drop increase.

  16. Hemibody irradiation in stage III multiple myeloma: results of 20 patients

    Troussard, X.; Reman, O.; Macro, M.; Leporrier, M.; Roussel, A.

    1988-01-01

    The advanced forms of multiple myeloma of bone, stage III, or those with a large tumoral mass, characterized by a considerable number of myelomacells, pose difficult problems in treatment. Little progress has been made since the introduction of the alkylating agents, and combined chemotherapy does not seem to be any more effective in terms of survival. It is these severe forms that culminate in painful symptoms which are often difficult to eliminate. The radiosensitivity of myeloma led us to treat 20 patients affected by severe forms of the disease by total body irradiation in two stages, and we analyze here the effects of treatment and the tolerance for this technique

  17. Relationship between age at menarche and skeletal maturation stages in Taiwanese female orthodontic patients.

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Jane Yao, Chung-Chen; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-07-01

    The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8-18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation stages were assessed using the NTUH Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS) were determined using the latest CVMS Index. Menarcheal ages were self-reported by the patients and verified by the patients' mothers. The relationships between the NTUH-SMI or CVM stages and menarcheal status were investigated. More than 90% of the 148 subjects who had already attained menstruation had skeletal maturation beyond the NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III. However, the subjects who had never experienced menarche mostly had skeletal maturation before NTUH-SMI stage five or CVMS IV. During the period of orthodontic treatment, 19 females experienced their menarche. The mean age at menarche for the 167 female patients in total was 11.97 years. In average, menarche occurred between NTUH-SMI stages four and five or between CVM stages III and IV. The percentage of girls with menses increased from 1.2% at age 9 to 6.6% at age 10, 39.5% at age 11, 81.4% at age 12, 97% at age 13, and 100% at age 14. Compared with the results obtained 20 years previously, we found a downward shift of 0.47 years per decade for the mean age at menarche in female orthodontic patients. The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  18. Comorbidity, age, race and stage at diagnosis in colorectal cancer: a retrospective, parallel analysis of two health systems

    Rowe Krista L

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stage at diagnosis plays a significant role in colorectal cancer (CRC survival. Understanding which factors contribute to a more advanced stage at diagnosis is vital to improving overall survival. Comorbidity, race, and age are known to impact receipt of cancer therapy and survival, but the relationship of these factors to stage at diagnosis of CRC is less clear. The objective of this study is to investigate how comorbidity, race and age influence stage of CRC diagnosis. Methods Two distinct healthcare populations in the United States (US were retrospectively studied. Using the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium database, we identified CRC patients treated at 15 Veterans Administration (VA hospitals from 2003–2007. We assessed metastatic CRC patients treated from 2003–2006 at 10 non-VA, fee-for-service (FFS practices. Stage at diagnosis was dichotomized (non-metastatic, metastatic. Race was dichotomized (white, non-white. Charlson comorbidity index and age at diagnosis were calculated. Associations between stage, comorbidity, race, and age were determined by logistic regression. Results 342 VA and 340 FFS patients were included. Populations differed by the proportion of patients with metastatic CRC at diagnosis (VA 27% and FFS 77% reflecting differences in eligibility criteria for inclusion. VA patients were mean (standard deviation; SD age 67 (11, Charlson index 2.0 (1.0, and were 63% white. FFS patients were mean age 61 (13, Charlson index 1.6 (1.0, and were 73% white. In the VA cohort, higher comorbidity was associated with earlier stage at diagnosis after adjusting for age and race (odds ratio (OR 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.58–1.00; p = 0.045; no such significant relationship was identified in the FFS cohort (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.82–1.44; p = 0.57. In both cohorts, no association was found between stage at diagnosis and either age or race. Conclusion Higher comorbidity may lead to

  19. Discovery of HDAC inhibitors with potent activity against multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages.

    Hansen, Finn K; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Stenzel, Katharina; Duffy, Sandra; Meister, Stephan; Marek, Linda; Schmetter, Rebekka; Kuna, Krystina; Hamacher, Alexandra; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Kassack, Matthias U; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Avery, Vicky M; Andrews, Katherine T; Kurz, Thomas

    2014-07-23

    In this work we investigated the antiplasmodial activity of a series of HDAC inhibitors containing an alkoxyamide connecting-unit linker region. HDAC inhibitor 1a (LMK235), previously shown to be a novel and specific inhibitor of human HDAC4 and 5, was used as a starting point to rapidly construct a mini-library of HDAC inhibitors using a straightforward solid-phase supported synthesis. Several of these novel HDAC inhibitors were found to have potent in vitro activity against asexual stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Representative compounds were shown to hyperacetylate P. falciparum histones and to inhibit deacetylase activity of recombinant PfHDAC1 and P. falciparum nuclear extracts. All compounds were also screened in vitro for activity against Plasmodium berghei exo-erythrocytic stages and selected compounds were further tested against late stage (IV and V) P. falciparum gametocytes. Of note, some compounds showed nanomolar activity against all three life cycle stages tested (asexual, exo-erythrocytic and gametocyte stages) and several compounds displayed significantly increased parasite selectivity compared to the reference HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). These data suggest that it may be possible to develop HDAC inhibitors that target multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [METABOLIC STATUS OF PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS ON THE STAGES OF OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Stogov, M V; Ovchinnikov, E N; Sazonova, N V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical parameters of blood and urine in patients with osteoarthritis in the stages of the pathological process in different age groups. The patients of all age groups in the stages of osteoarthritis demonstrated metabolic acidosis, activation of the antioxidant system and increase in acute phase proteins. In addition to the total for all age groups metabolic shifts the characteristic age-related changes were observed: activated reaction of lipid peroxidation in middle-aged patients and negative calcium balance, with increasing energy metabolism disorders in elderly patients.

  1. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    van Buuren, Stef; Ooms, Jeroen C L

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disease staging), psychology (stages of cognitive development), human development (pubertal stages) and chronic diseases (stages of dementia). Transition probabilities between successive stages are modeled as smoothly varying functions of age. Age-conditional references are calculated from the modeled probabilities by the mid-P value. It is possible to eliminate the influence of age by calculating standard deviation scores (SDS). The method is applied to the empirical data to produce reference charts on secondary sexual maturation. The mean of the empirical SDS in the reference population is close to zero, whereas the variance depends on age. The stage line diagram provides quick insight into both status (in SDS) and tempo (in SDS/year) of development of an individual child. Other measures (e.g. height SDS, body mass index SDS) from the same child can be added to the chart. Diagrams for sexual maturation are available as a web application at http://vps.stefvanbuuren.nl/puberty. The stage line diagram expresses status and tempo of discrete changes on a continuous scale. Wider application of these measures scores opens up new analytic possibilities. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    examples to show how reproductive timing Tc and level R0 are shaped by stage dynamics (individual trait changes), selection on the trait, and parent-offspring phenotypic correlation. We also show how population structure can affect dispersion in reproduction among ages and stages. These macroscopic...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  3. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  4. Two-year follow-up study on neurodevelopmental outcomes after term intrapartum asphyxia using age and stages questionnaire.

    Keihani-Doust, Zarrin; Saeedi, Maryam; Esmaeilni, Tahere; Habibi, Massoud; Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi

    2013-12-01

    Birth asphyxia is one of the multiple causes of neonatal encephalopathy. The objective of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes of newborn term infants with definitive asphyxia. Thirty infants met study criteria for asphyxia. The 5-year incidence of asphyxia was estimated to be 5.5 in 1000. According to the Age and Stage Questionnaire, 10.5% of 6-month-old infants, 14.3% of 12- and 18-month-old infants, and 5.3% of 24-month-old infants had neurodevelopmental delay in gross motor function in the absence of cerebral palsy. In 7.3% of 18-month-old infants, neurodevelopmental delay in problem-solving ability was observed. Higher values of Apgar score and bicarbonate levels were associated with higher Age and Stage Questionnaire total score. Delivery type, maternal age, gravidity of mother, and existence of mother disease during pregnancy were also associated with lower Age and Stage Questionnaire total score in different stages of life.

  5. Initial Clinical Experience in Multiple Myeloma Staging by Means of Whole-Body Resonance Techniques

    Gallego, J. I.; Concepcion, L.; Alonso, S.; Sanchez, B.; Manzi, F.

    2003-01-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) exploratory technique equivalent to serial bone X-ray, and to compare their precision in the staging of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Multiple acquisition T1-weights TSE and STIR sequences in the coronal plane were performed. Ten healthy volunteers and 11 multiple myeloma diagnosed patients were included. The visualization of bony structures was particularly noted,with special attention given to those which would normally be included in a serial bone X-ray. In the case of the patients, a comparison was made between diagnostic capacities of the MR sequences. MR highlighters significantly more (p<0.05) bony elements than did the serial bone X-ray. This was greatly due to a sequential displacement of the scanner bed, allowing for field-of-views which were minimally from head to third proximal of the leg. Magnetic resonance detected a significantly higher number (p<0.05) of lesions. It was, in turn, capable of revealing greater lesion extensions, even to the point of implying staging classification changes in 18% of the patients. The utilization of whole-body MR techniques in multiple myeloma patients is feasible and clinically beneficial. MR is both more sensitive and more specific than serial bone X-ray for evaluation of bony lesions in MM. It is currently serving as a valid alternative in a growing numbers of patients. (Author) 10 refs

  6. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more sensitive to DPH. Our observations highlight the importance of understanding the influence of time of day on intrinsic locomotor activity, and the age-specific hazards of aquatic contaminants to fish behavior. PMID:26431593

  7. Duncan Wheeler, Golden Age Drama in Contemporary Spain. The Comedia on Page, Stage and Screen

    Alba Carmona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Duncan Wheeler, Golden Age Drama in Contemporary Spain. The Comedia on Page, Stage and Screen, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 2012, 295 pp. ISBN: 978-0-7083-2474-5.

  8. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  9. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish behavior impairments by biological active contaminants are limited yet necessary. • Aquatic toxicology assays with 0–4 dpf larval zebrafish are increasingly important. • Larval zebrafish locomotion varied with age and daylight during typical workday hours. • Photomotor behavior to diazinion and diphenhydramine differed by larval zebrafish age. • Behavioral responses of 7–10 dpf zebrafish were markedly more sensitive than 0–4 dpf. - Abstract: Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC–MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and

  10. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    Kristofco, Lauren A. [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Cruz, Luis Colon [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Haddad, Samuel P. [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Behra, Martine L. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan W., E-mail: Bryan_Brooks@baylor.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Fish behavior impairments by biological active contaminants are limited yet necessary. • Aquatic toxicology assays with 0–4 dpf larval zebrafish are increasingly important. • Larval zebrafish locomotion varied with age and daylight during typical workday hours. • Photomotor behavior to diazinion and diphenhydramine differed by larval zebrafish age. • Behavioral responses of 7–10 dpf zebrafish were markedly more sensitive than 0–4 dpf. - Abstract: Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC–MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and

  11. Melanoma survival is superior in females across all tumour stages but is influenced by age.

    Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Dasgupta, Paramita; Byrom, Lisa; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Green, Adele C

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with invasive melanoma, females are known to have higher survival than males globally. However, this survival advantage has not been explored in thin melanomas, the most common form of the disease. In addition, it is unclear if this advantage is true across all age groups. We aimed to compare melanoma survival between males and females by clinical stage and within age groups. Melanomas from 1995 to 2008 were extracted from the Queensland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and melanoma-specific deaths were ascertained up to 2011. Flexible parametric survival models compared survival between groups. The Queensland cohort of 28,979 patients experienced 1712 melanoma deaths and the SEER cohort of 57,402 patients included 6929 melanoma deaths. Survival rates were in favour of females across nearly all tumour stages, including thin invasive tumours in both cohorts after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors [odds ratio (OR) death female:male for stage I melanoma = 0.64 in Queensland; and OR = 0.79 in the US, both P age categories. In particular, the survival advantage was inconsistent in females with stage I melanoma aged under 60. Females with melanoma have a survival advantage over males including in stage I melanomas. However, this advantage is dependent on age at diagnosis, suggesting an underlying biological mechanism influenced by age that exists from the very early stages of the disease.

  12. Evaluation of Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients.

    González-Calle, Verónica; Slack, Abigail; Keane, Niamh; Luft, Susan; Pearce, Kathryn E; Ketterling, Rhett P; Jain, Tania; Chirackal, Sintosebastian; Reeder, Craig; Mikhael, Joseph; Noel, Pierre; Mayo, Angela; Adams, Roberta H; Ahmann, Gregory; Braggio, Esteban; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Van Wier, Scott A; Fonseca, Rafael

    2018-04-06

    The International Myeloma Working Group has proposed the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for risk stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are a limited number of studies that have validated this risk model in the autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) setting. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the applicability and value for predicting survival of the R-ISS model in 134 MM patients treated with new agents and ASCT at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the University Hospital of Salamanca in Spain. The patients were reclassified at diagnosis according to the R-ISS: 44 patients (33%) had stage I, 75 (56%) had stage II, and 15 (11%) had stage III. After a median follow-up of 60 months, R-ISS assessed at diagnosis was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) after ASCT, with median OS not reached, 111 and 37 months for R-ISS I, II and III, respectively (P R-ISS II and having high-risk chromosomal abnormalities (CA) had a significant shorter median OS than those with R-ISS II without CA: 70 vs. 111 months, respectively. Therefore, this study lends further support for the R-ISS as a reliable prognostic tool for estimating survival in transplant myeloma patients and suggests the importance of high-risk CA in the R-ISS II group.

  13. A novel multiple-stage antimalarial agent that inhibits protein synthesis

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Hallyburton, Irene; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Norcross, Neil R.; Grimaldi, Raffaella; Otto, Thomas D.; Proto, William R.; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Meister, Stephan; Wirjanata, Grennady; Ruecker, Andrea; Upton, Leanna M.; Abraham, Tara S.; Almeida, Mariana J.; Pradhan, Anupam; Porzelle, Achim; Martínez, María Santos; Bolscher, Judith M.; Woodland, Andrew; Norval, Suzanne; Zuccotto, Fabio; Thomas, John; Simeons, Frederick; Stojanovski, Laste; Osuna-Cabello, Maria; Brock, Paddy M.; Churcher, Tom S.; Sala, Katarzyna A.; Zakutansky, Sara E.; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Sanz, Laura Maria; Riley, Jennifer; Basak, Rajshekhar; Campbell, Michael; Avery, Vicky M.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Dechering, Koen J.; Noviyanti, Rintis; Campo, Brice; Frearson, Julie A.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer-Bazaga, Santiago; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Wyatt, Paul G.; Leroy, Didier; Siegl, Peter; Delves, Michael J.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Wittlin, Sergio; Marfurt, Jutta; Price, Ric N.; Sinden, Robert E.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Charman, Susan A.; Bebrevska, Lidiya; Gray, David W.; Campbell, Simon; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Willis, Paul A.; Rayner, Julian C.; Fidock, David A.; Read, Kevin D.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2015-06-01

    There is an urgent need for new drugs to treat malaria, with broad therapeutic potential and novel modes of action, to widen the scope of treatment and to overcome emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the discovery of DDD107498, a compound with a potent and novel spectrum of antimalarial activity against multiple life-cycle stages of the Plasmodium parasite, with good pharmacokinetic properties and an acceptable safety profile. DDD107498 demonstrates potential to address a variety of clinical needs, including single-dose treatment, transmission blocking and chemoprotection. DDD107498 was developed from a screening programme against blood-stage malaria parasites; its molecular target has been identified as translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which is responsible for the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome along messenger RNA, and is essential for protein synthesis. This discovery of eEF2 as a viable antimalarial drug target opens up new possibilities for drug discovery.

  14. [Transgenerational evolution of age of the main stages of reproductive life in Guadeloupe].

    Kadhel, P; Deloumeaux, J; Janky, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in the ages at which the main stages of reproductive life, including first sexual intercourse in particular, occur in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). We conducted a transverse study of three generations of men and women over the age of 20 years. We recorded age at first intercourse and at first child for all subjects, plus age at menarche, at first pregnancy and at menopause for the women. We collected information for 803 women and 169 men. For women, median age at menarche and at first intercourse had decreased significantly, reaching 12 and 17 years, respectively. The risk of first intercourse occurring before the median age was linked to the earliness of menarche. Age at first pregnancy, at menopause for women and at first intercourse for men remained roughly stable. A non-significant trend towards increasing age at the birth of the first child was observed in both sexes. Age indicators for the main stages of reproductive life in Guadeloupe follow the trends reported in most Western countries, including mainland France. However, most of the ages recorded for particular stages are below those in mainland France. The link between age at menarche and sexual precocity may justify targeted awareness programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How Applicable Are "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" for Use with Turkish Children?

    Kapci, Emine Gul; Kucuker, Sevgi; Uslu, Runa I.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of eligible children cannot access early intervention services in Turkey, often because they are not assessed. The authors adapted the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" (ASQ) for Turkish children ages 3 to 72 months. Study participants consisted of 375 children who were classified as at risk for developmental delays, 564…

  17. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  18. The silkworm (Bombyx mori microRNAs and their expressions in multiple developmental stages.

    Xiaomin Yu

    multiple developmental stages allowed us to pinpoint molting stages as hotspots of miRNA expression both in sorts and quantities. Based on the analysis of target genes, we hypothesized that miRNAs regulate development through a particular emphasis on complex stages rather than general regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Radiation therapy and patient age in the survival from early-stage breast cancer

    Joslyn, Sue A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the use of radiation therapy following local excision of invasive localized breast cancer and subsequent survival by 5-year age category. Methods: Data for 27,399 women diagnosed with localized stage of breast cancer and treated with local excision surgery from 1983 through 1992 were collected and provided by the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Use of radiation therapy was analyzed by race, ethnic background, geographic location, and age at diagnosis. Survival for women treated with local excision plus radiation therapy was compared to that of women treated with local excision alone for each 5-year age category. Results: Subjects in older age groups were significantly less likely (p < 0.001) to receive radiation following local excision compared to younger age groups. Statistically significant survival advantages were conferred on women receiving radiation therapy in each 5-year age category from age 35 to 84 years (ranging from p = 0.02 to p < 0.0001). Conclusion: While the use of radiation therapy following local excision of early-stage breast tumors drops significantly in older age groups, women aged 35-84 years receiving radiation therapy had significant reductions in mortality. These results did not appear to be influenced by the presence of mortal comorbid conditions. These results strongly suggest the need to consider carefully patient characteristics other than age in deciding the course of treatment for early-stage breast cancer

  20. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  1. Nature of strain aging stages in bake hardening steel for automotive application

    Vasilyev, Alexander A.; Lee, Hu-Chul; Kuzmin, Nikolay L.

    2008-01-01

    Strain aging behavior of industrially produced ultra low carbon bake hardening (BH) steel for automotive application was investigated. The aging process was studied by the dynamic Young's modulus and amplitude-independent dislocation internal friction measurements with acoustic methods. Analysis of the revealed strain aging stages was carried out and has resulted in the conclusion that formation of interstitial atoms atmospheres on the dislocations is accompanied and substantially affected by the dissolution of their grain boundary segregations

  2. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Gender-Age-Physiology Index Stage for Predicting Future Lung Function Decline.

    Salisbury, Margaret L; Xia, Meng; Zhou, Yueren; Murray, Susan; Tayob, Nabihah; Brown, Kevin K; Wells, Athol U; Schmidt, Shelley L; Martinez, Fernando J; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease with variable course. The Gender-Age-Physiology (GAP) Index and staging system uses clinical variables to stage mortality risk. It is unknown whether clinical staging predicts future decline in pulmonary function. We assessed whether the GAP stage predicts future pulmonary function decline and whether interval pulmonary function change predicts mortality after accounting for stage. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (N = 657) were identified retrospectively at three tertiary referral centers, and baseline GAP stages were assessed. Mixed models were used to describe average trajectories of FVC and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether declines in pulmonary function ≥ 10% in 6 months predict mortality after accounting for GAP stage. Over a 2-year period, GAP stage was not associated with differences in yearly lung function decline. After accounting for stage, a 10% decrease in FVC or Dlco over 6 months independently predicted death or transplantation (FVC hazard ratio, 1.37; Dlco hazard ratio, 1.30; both, P ≤ .03). Patients with GAP stage 2 with declining pulmonary function experienced a survival profile similar to patients with GAP stage 3, with 1-year event-free survival of 59.3% (95% CI, 49.4-67.8) vs 56.9% (95% CI, 42.2-69.1). Baseline GAP stage predicted death or lung transplantation but not the rate of future pulmonary function decline. After accounting for GAP stage, a decline of ≥ 10% over 6 months independently predicted death or lung transplantation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related inequalities in health and healthcare: the life stages approach.

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2017-05-16

    How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis.

    McLeod, Donald S A; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D; Ain, Kenneth B; Cooper, David S; Fein, Henry G; Haugen, Bryan R; Ladenson, Paul W; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S; Skarulis, Monica C; Steward, David L; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R; Maxon, Harry R; Sherman, Steven I

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R(2)). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45-50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50-55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003-0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation.

  5. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  6. Forensic age estimation based on development of third molars: a staging technique for magnetic resonance imaging.

    De Tobel, J; Phlypo, I; Fieuws, S; Politis, C; Verstraete, K L; Thevissen, P W

    2017-12-01

    The development of third molars can be evaluated with medical imaging to estimate age in subadults. The appearance of third molars on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differs greatly from that on radiographs. Therefore a specific staging technique is necessary to classify third molar development on MRI and to apply it for age estimation. To develop a specific staging technique to register third molar development on MRI and to evaluate its performance for age estimation in subadults. Using 3T MRI in three planes, all third molars were evaluated in 309 healthy Caucasian participants from 14 to 26 years old. According to the appearance of the developing third molars on MRI, descriptive criteria and schematic representations were established to define a specific staging technique. Two observers, with different levels of experience, staged all third molars independently with the developed technique. Intra- and inter-observer agreement were calculated. The data were imported in a Bayesian model for age estimation as described by Fieuws et al. (2016). This approach adequately handles correlation between age indicators and missing age indicators. It was used to calculate a point estimate and a prediction interval of the estimated age. Observed age minus predicted age was calculated, reflecting the error of the estimate. One-hundred and sixty-six third molars were agenetic. Five percent (51/1096) of upper third molars and 7% (70/1044) of lower third molars were not assessable. Kappa for inter-observer agreement ranged from 0.76 to 0.80. For intra-observer agreement kappa ranged from 0.80 to 0.89. However, two stage differences between observers or between staging sessions occurred in up to 2.2% (20/899) of assessments, probably due to a learning effect. Using the Bayesian model for age estimation, a mean absolute error of 2.0 years in females and 1.7 years in males was obtained. Root mean squared error equalled 2.38 years and 2.06 years respectively. The performance to

  7. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Planche, Vincent; Panatier, Aude; Hiba, Bassem; Ducourneau, Eva-Gunnel; Raffard, Gerard; Dubourdieu, Nadège; Maitre, Marlène; Lesté-Lasserre, Thierry; Brochet, Bruno; Dousset, Vincent; Desmedt, Aline; Oliet, Stéphane H; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of legal age using calcification stages of third molars in living individuals.

    Streckbein, Philipp; Reichert, Isabelle; Verhoff, Marcel A; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Kähling, Christopher; Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Schaaf, Heidrun; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; May, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The increased number of adolescents and young adults with unknown or inaccurately given date of birth is a current issue in justice and legal medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which third molar calcification stages assessed on panoramic X-rays could be useful as additional criteria for forensic age estimation in living individuals, focusing on the legally important ages 17 and 18. In a retrospective multi-center study, the developmental stage of each individual's third molar was analyzed using Demirjian's scale in 2360 cases. Additionally, sex, age and ancestry were assessed. Individuals with the lowest calcification stage of all present molars in stage H were ≥18 years with a likelihood of ≥99.05% in the female (n=388), and ≥99.24% in the male (n=482) population. The lowest calcification stage of all present third molars proved to be useful as an additional reliable criterion for the determination of an age ≥18 years. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. To Evaluate the Relationship between Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Skeletal Age.

    Malik, Pooja; Rana, Vivek; Rehani, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess skeletal age and establish relationship between mandibular canine calcification and skeletal age. The study included 147 females aged 10 to 13 years. The subjects were divided into three groups: Group I-comprising of 10 to 11 years old female; Group II-comprising of 11 to 12 years old female; Group III-12 to 13 years female. OPG and hand and wrist radiographs of left side for each subject were taken with prior consent of their parents. The calcification status of canine was evaluated from orthopantomograms according to scores given in Demirjian's method. The stages of ossification of various carpal bones were evaluated using radiographic atlas of Greulich-Pyle and skeletal age was calculated. Data collected was statistically analyzed. The results drawn from this study showed that a strong correlation was observed for canine calcification stage F for 10 to 11 years and for stage G in 11 to 12 years and 12 to 13 years respectively. How to cite this article: Malik P, Rana V, Rehani U. To Evaluate the Relationship between Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Skeletal Age. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1): 14-19.

  10. Combining evidence from multiple electronic health care databases: performances of one-stage and two-stage meta-analysis in matched case-control studies.

    La Gamba, Fabiola; Corrao, Giovanni; Romio, Silvana; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca; Schink, Tania; de Ridder, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Clustering of patients in databases is usually ignored in one-stage meta-analysis of multi-database studies using matched case-control data. The aim of this study was to compare bias and efficiency of such a one-stage meta-analysis with a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we compared the approaches by generating matched case-control data under 5 simulated scenarios, built by varying: (1) the exposure-outcome association; (2) its variability among databases; (3) the confounding strength of one covariate on this association; (4) its variability; and (5) the (heterogeneous) confounding strength of two covariates. Second, we made the same comparison using empirical data from the ARITMO project, a multiple database study investigating the risk of ventricular arrhythmia following the use of medications with arrhythmogenic potential. In our study, we specifically investigated the effect of current use of promethazine. Bias increased for one-stage meta-analysis with increasing (1) between-database variance of exposure effect and (2) heterogeneous confounding generated by two covariates. The efficiency of one-stage meta-analysis was slightly lower than that of two-stage meta-analysis for the majority of investigated scenarios. Based on ARITMO data, there were no evident differences between one-stage (OR = 1.50, CI = [1.08; 2.08]) and two-stage (OR = 1.55, CI = [1.12; 2.16]) approaches. When the effect of interest is heterogeneous, a one-stage meta-analysis ignoring clustering gives biased estimates. Two-stage meta-analysis generates estimates at least as accurate and precise as one-stage meta-analysis. However, in a study using small databases and rare exposures and/or outcomes, a correct one-stage meta-analysis becomes essential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Power and efficiency in a regenerative gas-turbine cycle with multiple reheating and intercooling stages

    Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.; Medina, A.

    1996-06-01

    Using an improved Brayton cycle as a model, a general analysis accounting for the efficiency and net power output of a gas-turbine power plant with multiple reheating and intercooling stages is presented. This analysis provides a general theoretical tool for the selection of the optimal operating conditions of the heat engine in terms of the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies and of the heat exchanger efficiency. Explicit results for the efficiency, net power output, optimized pressure ratios, maximum efficiency, maximum power, efficiency at maximum power, and power at maximum efficiency are given. Among others, the familiar results of the Brayton cycle (one compressor and one turbine) and of the corresponding Ericsson cycle (infinite compressors and infinite turbines) are obtained as particular cases.

  12. Effector stage CC chemokine receptor-1 selective antagonism reduces multiple sclerosis-like rat disease.

    Eltayeb, Sana; Sunnemark, Dan; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nordvall, Gunnar; Malmberg, Asa; Lassmann, Hans; Wallström, Erik; Olsson, Tomas; Ericsson-Dahlstrand, Anders

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the role of the chemokine receptor CCR1 during the effector stage of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed local production of the CCR1 ligands CCL3 (MIP-1 alpha) and CCL5 (RANTES), as well as large numbers of CCR1 and CCR5 expressing cells within inflammatory brain lesions. A low-molecular weight CCR1 selective antagonist potently abrogated both clinical and histopathological disease signs during a 5-day treatment period, without signs of peripheral immune compromise. Thus, we demonstrate therapeutic targeting of CCR1-dependent leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in a multiple sclerosis (MS)-like rat model.

  13. [Study on the difference of corresponding age at cervical vertebral maturation stages among different skeletal malocclusions].

    Zuo, Changyan; Cong, Chao; Wang, Shihui; Gu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    To compare the difference of corresponding age at cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages among different skeletal malocclusions and provide clinic guideline on optimal treatment timing for skeletal malocclusion. Based on ANB angle, 2 575 cephalograms collected from Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from May, 2006 to November, 2014 were classified into skeletal Class I (ANB 0°~5°, 1 317 subjects), Class II (ANB > 5°, 685 subjects) and Class III (ANB < 0°, 573 subjects) groups. CVM stages were evaluated with the modified version of CVM method. Independent sample t test was performed to analyze the difference of age at different CVM stages among various skeletal groups. Significant gender difference of age was found at CS3 to CS6 for skeletal Class I group (P < 0.05), at CS5 and CS6 for skeletal Class II group (P < 0.05), and at CS3 and CS5 for skeletal Class III group (P < 0.05). At CS3 stage, the average age of male in skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups was (11.6 ± 1.5) years old and (10.3 ± 1.9) years old, respectively; the average age of females in those two groups was (11.7 ± 1.3) years old and (9.3 ± 1.5) years old, respectively, and significant difference was found in both comparisons (P < 0.05). Compared average age at CS5 and CS6 between skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups [the ages of male was (15.1 ± 1.7) and (16.8 ± 1.6) years old, the ages of male was (14.6 ± 1.2) and (15.7 ± 2.5) years old], significant difference was also found (P < 0.05). Significant gender differences were found when evaluated CVM stage and age in skeletal Class I, II and III groups. Significant differences of age at different CVM stage was noted when skeletal Class II was compared with skeletal Class III groups.

  14. Identifying the most appropriate age threshold for TNM stage grouping of well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Hendrickson-Rebizant, J; Sigvaldason, H; Nason, R W; Pathak, K A

    2015-08-01

    Age is integrated in most risk stratification systems for well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). The most appropriate age threshold for stage grouping of WDTC is debatable. The objective of this study was to evaluate the best age threshold for stage grouping by comparing multivariable models designed to evaluate the independent impact of various prognostic factors, including age based stage grouping, on the disease specific survival (DSS) of our population-based cohort. Data from population-based thyroid cancer cohort of 2125 consecutive WDTC, diagnosed during 1970-2010, with a median follow-up of 11.5 years, was used to calculate DSS using the Kaplan Meier method. Multivariable analysis with Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess independent impact of different prognostic factors on DSS. The Akaike information criterion (AIC), a measure of statistical model fit, was used to identify the most appropriate age threshold model. Delta AIC, Akaike weight, and evidence ratios were calculated to compare the relative strength of different models. The mean age of the patients was 47.3 years. DSS of the cohort was 95.6% and 92.8% at 10 and 20 years respectively. A threshold of 55 years, with the lowest AIC, was identified as the best model. Akaike weight indicated an 85% chance that this age threshold is the best among the compared models, and is 16.8 times more likely to be the best model as compared to a threshold of 45 years. The age threshold of 55 years was found to be the best for TNM stage grouping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lanthanide-containing polymer microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization for highly multiplexed bioassays.

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-10-28

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 mum and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of lanthanide salts (LnCl(3)) and excess acrylic acid (AA) or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, that is, well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 10(6)-10(8) chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles and its detection by an antimouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr.

  16. Multiple kernel learning using single stage function approximation for binary classification problems

    Shiju, S.; Sumitra, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the multiple kernel learning (MKL) is formulated as a supervised classification problem. We dealt with binary classification data and hence the data modelling problem involves the computation of two decision boundaries of which one related with that of kernel learning and the other with that of input data. In our approach, they are found with the aid of a single cost function by constructing a global reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) as the direct sum of the RKHSs corresponding to the decision boundaries of kernel learning and input data and searching that function from the global RKHS, which can be represented as the direct sum of the decision boundaries under consideration. In our experimental analysis, the proposed model had shown superior performance in comparison with that of existing two stage function approximation formulation of MKL, where the decision functions of kernel learning and input data are found separately using two different cost functions. This is due to the fact that single stage representation helps the knowledge transfer between the computation procedures for finding the decision boundaries of kernel learning and input data, which inturn boosts the generalisation capacity of the model.

  17. The Multiple Meanings of Age for Television Content Preferences

    Mares, Marie-Louise; Sun, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined how adult age and time of measurement influence media preferences. Study 1 (using TV ratings data from 1970s to 1980s) found that the popularity of genres varied over time, but even after controlling for year, age groups differed in (a) genre choices (consistent with socioemotional selectivity theory) and (b) age of characters…

  18. Counseling middle-aged women about physical activity using the stages of change.

    Dearden, Jennifer S; Sheahan, Sharon L

    2002-11-01

    To discuss application of the Stages of Change theoretical framework and provide clinical tips on exercise adherence among midlife women. Included is a checklist to assist the nurse practitioner (NP) in effectively delivering the message. Review of the current scientific literature on exercise adherence and the Stages of Change model. Middle-aged women comprise a unique population. Determining the woman's readiness for change using the Stages of Change model, NPs can routinely include appropriate exercise recommendations in their practices. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to promote healthy behaviors by counseling women in midlife about adopting an active lifestyle. Exercise counseling is an essential component of healthcare, especially among middle-aged women who are experiencing physical, emotional, and social changes.

  19. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  20. Growing Musicians in English Secondary Schools at Key Stage 3 (Age 11-14)

    Dalladay, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The National Curriculum for Music in England at Key Stage 3 (KS3; age 11-14) declares its purpose that pupils should be inspired to "develop a love of music and their talent as musicians" (DfE, 2013: KS3 Music). The Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) have criticised secondary schools for a lack of progress in the musical…

  1. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  2. Genetics of Unilateral and Bilateral Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severity Stages

    Schick, T.; Altay, L.; Viehweger, E.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Felsch, M.; Fauser, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease causing visual impairment and blindness. Various gene variants are strongly associated with late stage AMD, but little is known about the genetics of early forms of the disease. This study evaluated associations of genetic

  3. Inhibition of Ubc13-mediated Ubiquitination by GPS2 Regulates Multiple Stages of B Cell Development.

    Lentucci, Claudia; Belkina, Anna C; Cederquist, Carly T; Chan, Michelle; Johnson, Holly E; Prasad, Sherry; Lopacinski, Amanda; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Monti, Stefano; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer; Tanasa, Bogdan; Cardamone, M Dafne; Perissi, Valentina

    2017-02-17

    Non-proteolytic ubiquitin signaling mediated by Lys 63 ubiquitin chains plays a critical role in multiple pathways that are key to the development and activation of immune cells. Our previous work indicates that GPS2 (G-protein Pathway Suppressor 2) is a multifunctional protein regulating TNFα signaling and lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue through modulation of Lys 63 ubiquitination events. However, the full extent of GPS2-mediated regulation of ubiquitination and the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that GPS2 is required for restricting the activation of TLR and BCR signaling pathways and the AKT/FOXO1 pathway in immune cells based on direct inhibition of Ubc13 enzymatic activity. Relevance of this regulatory strategy is confirmed in vivo by B cell-targeted deletion of GPS2, resulting in developmental defects at multiple stages of B cell differentiation. Together, these findings reveal that GPS2 genomic and non-genomic functions are critical for the development and cellular homeostasis of B cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Nanoelectrospray high capacity ion trap multiple stage mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of human brain gangliosides

    Vukelic, Zeljka; Ratiu, Cornelia; Grozescu, Ioan; Zamfir, Alina Diana

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A novel protocol based on electrospray ionization (ESI) multiple stage high capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for glycosphingolipidomic surveys. The method was optimized for detailed structural elucidation of human brain gangliosides and particularly applied to human hippocampus-associated structures. The multiple stage MS experiments allowed for a complete structural characterization of GM1 ganglioside species, which was achieved by elucidation of the oligosaccharide sequence, identification of the GM1 a structural isomer from the data upon sialic acid localization along the sugar backbone and determination of the d18:1/18:0 of fatty acid/sphingoid base composition of the ceramide moiety. The methodology developed here is of general practical applicability for glycolipids and represents a step forward in the implementation of the advanced and most modern MS methods in glycomics. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, which consist of a mono- to polysialylated oligosaccharide chain of variable length attached to a ceramide portion of different composition with respect to the type of sphingoid base and fatty acid residues. Among all body systems, the central nervous system (CNS) possesses the highest content of gangliosides and they are playing a particularly important biological role at this level. Specific changes in the ganglioside expression and type of the expressed structures were observed to occur during brain development, maturation, and aging, and due to diseases or neurodegeneration processes. Gangliosides represent, therefore, an important class of biomarkers, carriers of information upon various CNS processes and events. Though in the human brain, their expression was observed to have a regional and tissue development induced specificity, the differences in ganglioside structure, composition and quantity were not systematically investigated or rigorously determined so far. (authors)

  5. [Age of onset of puberty in Chilean boys according to testicular volume and Tanner stage].

    Gaete, Ximena; García, Roberto; Riquelme, Joel; Codner, Ethel

    2015-03-01

    A secular trend towards a younger age of puberty onset has been reported in Chilean girls. To evaluate the age of onset of puberty and prevalence of early puberty in Chilean boys. A pediatric endocrinologist examined 319 children attending schools in central Santiago. Pubertal development was assessed by testicular volume (TV) and genital inspection (GI) using Tanner graduation. Precocious and early puberty development was diagnosed if TV ≥ 4 ml or GI > stage 2 occurred in boys younger than 9 years and at 9-10 years of age, respectively. Pubertal onset occurred at 10.2 ± 1.5 years according to TV and at 11.1 ± 1.6 years according to GI (p puberty was observed in 23.8% of children according to TV and 9.5% according to GI. However, no child of less than 11 years old had a TV ≥ 4 ml, genital changes and pubic hair simultaneously. Late pubertal stages occurred at the same age according to both criteria used. Body mass index z score was not associated with the age of pubertal onset. Testicular enlargement occurs one year earlier than changes in genitalia according to inspection. Testicular growth, but not late stages of puberty, are occurring one year earlier than previously reported in Chile 10 years ago.

  6. The prognostic value of age for 1030 patients with early stage breast cancer after postoperative radiotherapy

    Xu Liming; Li Ruiying; Wang Ping; Xu Liang; Hao Jianlei; Liu Xiaobin; Pang Qingsong; Zhu Li; Cui Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prognostic value of age in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 1030 patients with early stage breast cancer (the number of positive axillary lymph nodes was less than 3) were retrospectively reviewed. Of all the patients, 468(stage I, n = 227; and stage II , n = 241) received breast conserving surgery (BCS) and 562 (stage I, n =184; and stage II, n= 378) received modified mastectomy. Patients were divided into young-age group (≤35, 136 patients), middle-age group (> 35-≤60,738 patients) and old-age group (> 60, 156 patients). The number of patients without postoperative radiation therapy after BCS is 16, 60 and 39 in the three groups, respectively. Two-dimensional conventional fractionated radiotherapy was administered. The prognostic value of the tumor size, status of axillary lymph nodes or hormonal receptors, postoperative radiation therapy were analyzed. Results: The follow-up rate was 97.86%. Of 795 patients followed up more than 5 years, 110, 569 and 116 patients were devided into the three groups, respectively. There were 40, 202 and 87 patients without radiation therapy in the three groups. The 5-year recurrence rates of the three groups were 6.2%, 8.7% and 10.4% (χ 2 = 1.14, P= 0.567). The 5-year distant metastasis rates were 4.3% , 9.5 % and 2. 5% (χ 2 = 5.31 , P = 0.070) . The 5 - year survival rates were 91.2% , 92.6% and 82.1% (χ 2 = 6. 83, P = 0.033). The young-age group had more tumors smaller than 2. 0 cm (65.4%), less positive axillary lymph nodes (13.2%), poorer differential tumor and less positive hormone acceptors (48.0%). Of patients with tumor larger than 2. 0 cm who had no radiotherapy after BCS, the 5-year survival rates were 94%, 87% and 71% (χ 2 = 20.69, P= 0.000) in the three groups. The corresponding recurrence rates were 23%, 18% ,7%, (χ 2 = 9.97, P = 0.007), and distant metastasis rates were 23%, 25% and 10% (χ 2 =8.51, P=0.014). Conclusions: The age is

  7. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The "multiple hormone deficiency" theory of aging: is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies?

    Hertoghe, T

    2005-12-01

    In the human body, the productions, levels and cell receptors of most hormones progressively decline with age, gradually putting the body into various states of endocrine deficiency. The circadian cycles of these hormones also change, sometimes profoundly, with time. In aging individuals, the well-balanced endocrine system can fall into a chaotic condition with losses, phase-advancements, phase delays, unpredictable irregularities of nycthemeral hormone cycles, in particular in very old or sick individuals. The desynchronization makes hormone activities peak at the wrong times and become inefficient, and in certain cases health threatening. The occurrence of multiple hormone deficits and spilling through desynchronization may constitute the major causes of human senescence, and they are treatable causes. Several arguments can be put forward to support the view that senescence is mainly a multiple hormone deficiency syndrome: First, many if not most of the signs, symptoms and diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, dementia) of senescence are similar to physical consequences of hormone deficiencies and may be caused by hormone deficiencies. Second, most of the presumed causes of senescence such as excessive free radical formation, glycation, cross-linking of proteins, imbalanced apoptosis system, accumulation of waste products, failure of repair systems, deficient immune system, may be caused or favored by hormone deficiencies. Even genetic causes such as limits to cell proliferation (such as the Hayflick limit of cell division), poor gene polymorphisms, premature telomere shortening and activation of possible genetic "dead programs" may have links with hormone deficiencies, being either the consequence, the cause, or the major favoring factor of hormone deficiencies. Third, well-dosed and -balanced hormone supplements may slow down or stop the progression of signs, symptoms, or diseases of senescence and may often

  9. Stages of Biological Development across Age: An Analysis of Canadian Health Measure Survey 2007-2011.

    Chao, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Wu, Chao-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The stages of biological development are not clearly defined despite the fact that they have been used to refer to concepts such as adolescence and aging. This study aimed to (1) propose and test a framework to search for stages of representative components and determine stages of stability and transition, (2) identify stages of biological development based on health questionnaire and biomarker data, and (3) interpret the major trajectories in a health and biomarker database. This study analyzed the data on the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) interviewees from cycle 1 to 3 (2007-2013) in Canada. We selected 282 variables containing information from questionnaire and on biomarkers after removing redundant variables based on high correlation. Fifty-nine nominal variables were replaced by 122 binominal variables, leaving 345 variables for analysis. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to summarize the data and the loadings were used to interpret the PCs. A stable stage was assumed to be the age groups without significantly different values of PCs. The CHMS interviewed 16,340 Canadians. Of all, 51.25% were female. The age ranged from 6 to 79 years (mean = 34.41 years, 95% CI = 34.74-34.08). The proportions of total variance explained by the first three PCs were 12.14, 4.03, and 3.19%, respectively. The differences of the first PC were not significant, especially between age 22 and 33, 34 and 40, 41 and 45, 46 and 71, and 72 and 79 years (adjusted p  > 0.05 for all). The leading variable, in terms of the variance contributed to PC1, was time spent in physical activities, followed by variables related to alcohol consumption, and smoking. The 13 leading contributors to PC2 variances were all lung function measures. There are stages of stability and transition across all age groups based on the first PCs. The first and second PCs are related to physical development and lung function. The identification of stable stages is the first step

  10. Investigating the early stages of person perception: the asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age.

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions), the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.

  11. Staging of cortical and deep grey matter functional connectivity changes in multiple sclerosis.

    Meijer, Kim A; Eijlers, Anand J C; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Schoonheim, Menno M

    2018-02-01

    Functional connectivity is known to increase as well as decrease throughout the brain in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could represent different stages of the disease. In addition, functional connectivity changes could follow the atrophy pattern observed with disease progression, that is, moving from the deep grey matter towards the cortex. This study investigated when and where connectivity changes develop and explored their clinical and cognitive relevance across different MS stages. A cohort of 121 patients with early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 122 with late RRMS and 53 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) as well as 96 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity changes were investigated for (1) within deep grey matter connectivity, (2) connectivity between the deep grey matter and cortex and (3) within-cortex connectivity. A post hoc regional analysis was performed to identify which regions were driving the connectivity changes. Patients with late RRMS and SPMS showed increased connectivity of the deep grey matter, especially of the putamen and palladium, with other deep grey matter structures and with the cortex. Within-cortex connectivity was decreased, especially for temporal, occipital and frontal regions, but only in SPMS relative to early RRMS. Deep grey matter connectivity alterations were related to cognition and disability, whereas within-cortex connectivity was only related to disability. Increased connectivity of the deep grey matter became apparent in late RRMS and further increased in SPMS. The additive effect of cortical network degeneration, which was only seen in SPMS, may explain the sudden clinical deterioration characteristic to this phase of the disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Verification of multimarkers for detection of early stage diabetic retinopathy using multiple reaction monitoring.

    Kim, Kyunggon; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Dohyun; Jin, Jonghwa; Yu, Jiyoung; Park, Kyong Soo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes and 80% of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients whose DM duration is over 10 years can be expected to suffer with DR. The diagnosis of DR depends on an ophthalmological examination, and no molecular methods of screening DR status exist. Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the early DR which is hard to be noticed in early NPDR, showing significant cause of adult blindness in type 2 diabetes patients. Protein biomarkers have been valuable in the diagnosis of disease and the use of multiple biomarkers has been suggested to overcome the low specificity of single ones. For biomarker development, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) has been spotlighted as an alternative method to quantify target proteins with no need for immunoassay. In this study, 54 candidate DR marker proteins from a previous study were verified by MRM in plasma samples from NPDR patients in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe; 15 cases each) and diabetic patients without retinopathy (15 cases) as a control. Notably, 27 candidate markers distinguished moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, generating AUC values (>0.7). Specifically, 28 candidate proteins underwent changes in expression as type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy progressed to mild and moderate NPDR. Further, a combination of 4 markers from these 28 candidates had the improved specificity in distinguishing moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, yielding a merged AUC value of nearly 1.0. We concluded that MRM is a fast, robust approach of multimarker panel determination and an assay platform that provides improved specificity compared with single biomarker assay systems.

  13. Radiosensitivity studies on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, orchidophilus aterrimus (waterhouse)

    Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Reyes, M.R.; Resilva, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different radiation doses on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse) was investigated. Among the different stages, the egg was found the most sensitive while the adult weevil was the most resistant to gamma radiation. The younger the insect within a stage, the more sensitive they are to the lethal effect of radiation. For instance, one-to three-day-old eggs were found most sensitive followed by four-to seven-day-old eggs, two- to four-day-old and 30-day-old larvae and early pupae. Late pupae and adults were the most radioresistant when irradiated with doses ranging from 150 to 450 Gy. Furthermore, young adults treated with 150 to 460 Gy did not lay any eggs while mature adults lay a few eggs but none of them hatched. Our data indicate that gamma radiation may be used as an alternative quarantine treatment for disinfestation of orchids. (author)

  14. Renal cell carcinoma in India demonstrates early age of onset & a late stage of presentation

    Shalini Agnihotri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Clinical spectrum of most of the diseases in developing countries is different from the west. Similarly whether renal cell carcinomas (RCC in a developing country like India is seen in the same spectrum in relation to the age at presentation as in the west is not described in the literature. This study was carried out to investigate the spectrum of RCC in India with regards to age of onset, stage at presentation and survival. Methods: Patients with renal tumour, treated between January 2000 to December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in north India, were analyzed for age at presentation, clinical features and histopathological characteristics. Clinical diagnosis was made by contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Renal masses diagnosed as angiomyolipoma, infective masses and hydatid cysts were excluded from the analysis. Impact of various age groups on gender, tumour size, TNM stage, Fuhrman grade, histopathological subtypes, lymph node, inferior vena cava (IVC involvement and survival was analyzed. Patients were grouped in five age groups i.e. ≤39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and more than 70 yr of age. Results: Of the total 617 patients with 617 renal tumours (2 patients had bilateral tumours but only the larger tumour was considered clinically suspected as RCC, 586 had epithelial cell tumour and the remaining 31 had non epithelial cell tumour. The mean tumour size was 8.08±3.5 cm (median 7, range 1-25 cm. Tumour of less than 4 cm size was present in only 10.4 per cent patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.15±13.34 (median 56, range 14-91 yr years. A total of 30.03 per cent of renal tumours presented in patients younger than 50 yr of age. Though there was no difference in stage, Fuhrman′s grade, IVC involvement and lymph nodal spread among various age groups, younger patients had higher proportion of non clear cell RCC and only 48.59 per cent of them presented

  15. Patients with old age or proximal tumors benefit from metabolic syndrome in early stage gastric cancer.

    Xiao-li Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. METHODS: Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P=0.036. Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P=0.009 in multivariate analysis or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P=0.047 in multivariate analysis. No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P=0.052 in univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors.

  16. Metabolomics Identifies Multiple Candidate Biomarkers to Diagnose and Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Isabel M Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is dependent on the species of trypanosome causing the disease and the stage of the disease (stage 1 defined by parasites being present in blood and lymphatics whilst for stage 2, parasites are found beyond the blood-brain barrier in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Currently, staging relies upon detecting the very low number of parasites or elevated white blood cell numbers in CSF. Improved staging is desirable, as is the elimination of the need for lumbar puncture. Here we use metabolomics to probe samples of CSF, plasma and urine from 40 Angolan patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, at different disease stages. Urine samples provided no robust markers indicative of infection or stage of infection due to inherent variability in urine concentrations. Biomarkers in CSF were able to distinguish patients at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 with absolute specificity. Eleven metabolites clearly distinguished the stage in most patients and two of these (neopterin and 5-hydroxytryptophan showed 100% specificity and sensitivity between our stage 1 and advanced stage 2 samples. Neopterin is an inflammatory biomarker previously shown in CSF of stage 2 but not stage 1 patients. 5-hydroxytryptophan is an important metabolite in the serotonin synthetic pathway, the key pathway in determining somnolence, thus offering a possible link to the eponymous symptoms of "sleeping sickness". Plasma also yielded several biomarkers clearly indicative of the presence (87% sensitivity and 95% specificity and stage of disease (92% sensitivity and 81% specificity. A logistic regression model including these metabolites showed clear separation of patients being either at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 or indeed diseased (both stages versus control.

  17. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  18. Vulvovaginitis in a pediatric population: relationship among etiologic agents, age and Tanner staging of breast development.

    Giugno, Silvina; Risso, Paula; Ocampo, Dolores; Rahman, Gisel; Rubinstein, Dra Anahí V

    2014-02-01

    Vulvovaginitis accounts for 25% of all pediatric gynecology consultations. To assess the etiology of vulvovaginitis based on age and Tanner staging of breast development. Descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted between January 1st and December 31st, 2011. Patients with vulvovaginitis were assessed based on two outcome measures: age group (GI: 0 to 8.9 years old, GII: 9 to 15.9 years old, and GIII: 16 to 18 years old), and the Tanner staging of breast development (I, II-III, IV-V). Results. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were included, 78 girls in the GI group, 134 in the GII group, and 17 in the GIII group; 81 girls were classified as TI, 36 as TII-III, and 112 as TIV-V based on Tanner staging. Shigella and Oxyuris were the most commonly found etiologic agents in younger girls. Candida albicans, other Candida species, Gardnerella and Ureaplasma urealyticum were the germs most commonly observed in older patients. Oxyuris was predominant in prepubertal girls, while Candida albicans, in postpubertal girls. Hormonal influence was more relevant than the patient's age in terms of vulvovaginitis etiology.

  19. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Hashizume, T; Miyamoto, T; Tsujimura, K [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S; Shimizu, K [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Precipitation and clustering in the early stages of ageing in Inconel 718

    Alam, Talukder; Chaturvedi, Mahesh; Ringer, Simon P.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → IN718 could be age hardened rapidly by secondary phase formation. → Co-located phases were observed in the earliest stage of detection. → Clustering of Ti/Al and Nb atoms was observed prior to precipitation. - Abstract: In this report we investigate the onset and evolution of precipitation in the early stages of ageing in the alloy WE 91, a variant of the Ni-Fe-Cr superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718). Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to study the size and volume fraction of γ' and γ'' precipitates and the extent of pre-precipitate clustering of Al/Ti and Nb. Co-located γ' and γ'' precipitates were observed from the shortest ageing times that precipitates could be visualised using atom probe. At shorter times, prior to the observation of precipitates, clustering of Al/Ti and Nb was shown to occur. The respective volume fraction of the γ' and γ'' precipitates and the clustering of Al/Ti and Nb suggest that γ'' nucleates prior to γ' during ageing at 706 deg. C for this alloy.

  1. Precipitation and clustering in the early stages of ageing in Inconel 718

    Alam, Talukder, E-mail: talukder.alam@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chaturvedi, Mahesh [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6 (Canada); Ringer, Simon P.; Cairney, Julie M. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} IN718 could be age hardened rapidly by secondary phase formation. {yields} Co-located phases were observed in the earliest stage of detection. {yields} Clustering of Ti/Al and Nb atoms was observed prior to precipitation. - Abstract: In this report we investigate the onset and evolution of precipitation in the early stages of ageing in the alloy WE 91, a variant of the Ni-Fe-Cr superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718). Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to study the size and volume fraction of {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates and the extent of pre-precipitate clustering of Al/Ti and Nb. Co-located {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates were observed from the shortest ageing times that precipitates could be visualised using atom probe. At shorter times, prior to the observation of precipitates, clustering of Al/Ti and Nb was shown to occur. The respective volume fraction of the {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates and the clustering of Al/Ti and Nb suggest that {gamma}'' nucleates prior to {gamma}' during ageing at 706 deg. C for this alloy.

  2. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  3. [Research of Embryonic Mortality Stages of Drosophila melanogaster Depending on Age and Starvation of an Imago].

    Kostenko, V V; Kolot, N V; Vorobyova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Influence of age of parents and duration of starvation on egg production and demonstration of embryonic mortality at different stages of egg development has been studied. It is shown that, with increasing age of organisms, the overall egg production reduces and the percentage of embryonic mortality increases at 0-5.5 and 5.5-17 h of development. An increase in the duration of starvation also promotes a reduction in egg production in 3- and 10-day-old adult D. melanogaster compared with short-term starvation. A statistically significant effect of factors, such as the allelic state of the white locus, the genetic background, the age of the parents, and the duration of starvation, on all studied parameters was established.

  4. A new powerful non-parametric two-stage approach for testing multiple phenotypes in family-based association studies

    Lange, C; Lyon, H; DeMeo, D; Raby, B; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new powerful nonparametric testing strategy for family-based association studies in which multiple quantitative traits are recorded and the phenotype with the strongest genetic component is not known prior to the analysis. In the first stage, using a population-based test based on the

  5. Fatal case of Herbaspirillum seropedicae bacteremia secondary to pneumonia in an end-stage renal disease patient with multiple myeloma.

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Adams, La'Tonzia L; Romagnoli, Mark; Carroll, Karen C

    2015-08-01

    Herbaspirillum spp. are rare causes of human infections associated primarily with bacteremia in cancer patients. We report the first fatal case of bacteremia secondary to pneumonia caused by Herbaspirillum seropedicae in a 65-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Weibull aging models for the single protective channel unavailability analysis by the device of stages

    Nunes, M.E.C.; Noriega, H.C.; Melo, P.F.F.

    1997-01-01

    Among the features to take into account in the unavailability analysis of protective channels, there is one that plays a dominant role - that of considering the equipment aging. In this sense, the exponential failure model is not adequate, since some transition rates are no more constant. As a consequence, Markovian models cannot be used anymore. As an alternative, one may use the device of stages that allows for transforming a Non Markovian model into an equivalent Markovian one by insertion of a fictitious states set, called stages. For a given time-dependent transition rate, its failure density is analysed as to the best combination of exponential distributions and then the moments of the original distribution and those of the combination are matched to estimate the necessary parameters. In this paper, the aging of the protective channel is supposed to follow Weibull distributions. Typical means and variances for the times to failure are considered and combinations of stages are checked. Initial conditions features are discussed in connection with states that are fictitious and to check the validity of the developed models. Alternative solutions by the discretization of the failure rates are generated. The results obtained agree quite well. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  7. OPEC/OJEC for stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year of age.

    Tweddle, D A; Pinkerton, C R; Lewis, I J; Ellershaw, C; Cole, M; Pearson, A D

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity of OPEC/OJEC chemotherapy in stage 4 neuroblastoma patients over 1 year of age. Ninety-five patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma received alternating courses of OPEC/OJEC--vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 (O), cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (P), etoposide 200 mg/m2 (E), cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 (C), and carboplatin 500 mg/m2 (J), every 21 days if there was haematological recovery. Seventy out of ninety-five (74%) patients completed seven or more courses and were evaluable for toxicity. Of these 70 patients, 33% had more than three episodes of fever and sepsis, 35% required more than five blood or platelet transfusions, 36% had grade 2 or more gastrointestinal toxicity and 9% had neurotoxicity. There was a median reduction in GFR of 32 ml/min/1.73 m2 (-46 to 134) and there was one toxic death. OPEC/OJEC is a well-tolerated therapy for stage 4 neuroblastoma over 1 year of age.

  8. Whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging for the staging of multiple myeloma

    Dutoit, Julie C.; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging technique for the detection of bone marrow infiltration, and has therefore recently been included in the new diagnostic myeloma criteria, as proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Nevertheless, conventional MRI only provides anatomical information and is therefore only of limited use in the response assessment of patients with multiple myeloma. The additional information from functional MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, can improve the detection rate of bone marrow infiltration and the assessment of response. This can further enhance the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the staging of multiple myeloma patients. This article provides an overview of the technical aspects of conventional and functional MRI techniques with practical recommendations. It reviews the diagnostic performance, prognostic value, and role in therapy assessment in multiple myeloma and its precursor stages. (orig.)

  9. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  10. The changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men.

    Huang, Rui; Zhu, Wei-Jie; Li, Jing; Gu, Yi-Qun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the changes of stage distribution of seminiferous epithelium cycle and its correlations with Leydig cell stereological parameters in aging men. Point counting method was used to analyze the stereological parameters of Leydig cells. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was calculated in the same testicular tissue samples which were used for Leydig cell stereological analysis. The aging group had shown more severe pathological changes as well as higher pathologic scores than the young group. Compared with the control group, the volume density (VV) and surface density (NA) of Leydig cells in the aging group were increased significantly. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle in the aging group was decreased coincidently compared to the young group. Leydig cell Vv in the young group has a positive relationship with stages I, II, III, V and VI of seminiferous epithelium cycle, and Leydig cell NA and numerical density (NV) were positively related to stage IV. However, only the correlation between NV and stage II was found in the aging group. The stage number of seminiferous epithelium cycle was decreased in aging testes. Changes in the stage distribution in aging testes were related to the Leydig cell stereological parameters which presented as a sign of morphological changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. [Endocrinology of cancer and age: early and late stages of ontogenesis].

    Berstein, L M

    2017-01-01

    Processes important for hormone-mediated carcinogenesis are present on different, even very early, ontogenesis stages. Early shifts in hormone-metabolic status often display opposite correlations with the risk of most common age-associated non-communicable pathologies (namely, hormone-dependent cancers and cardiovascular diseases). Additional known contradiction is the raise of reproductive system tumors incidence in the age associated with lower production of mitogenic hormones. Consequently, one should take into account production of steroids in target tissues themselves, recognize the importance of progenotoxic effect, which, apart from mitogenic function, is characteristic for estrogens and their derivatives, as well as the role of endocrine-genotoxic switchings forming so called basic triad, which is born under the influence of age-associated endocrine shifts and environmental factors. Aside from steroids-related system of increased cancer risk, attention should be paid to non-steroid ones (in particular insulin resistance- and inflammatory cytokines-associated), with their close connection to immune system functional state, low-grade chronic inflammation, obesity phenotype, and pro-/anti-inflammatory lipid factors ratio. In total, it confirms and importance of timely preventive interventions on both ontogenesis stages, early and late ones, which are often separated by several decades.

  12. Genetics of Unilateral and Bilateral Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severity Stages.

    Schick, Tina; Altay, Lebriz; Viehweger, Eva; Hoyng, Carel B; den Hollander, Anneke I; Felsch, Moritz; Fauser, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease causing visual impairment and blindness. Various gene variants are strongly associated with late stage AMD, but little is known about the genetics of early forms of the disease. This study evaluated associations of genetic factors and different AMD stages depending on unilateral and bilateral disease severity. In this case-control study, participants were assigned to nine AMD severity stages based on the characteristics of each eye. 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and attempted to correlate with AMD severity stages by uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses and trend analyses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Of 3444 individuals 1673 were controls, 379 had early AMD, 333 had intermediate AMD and 989 showed late AMD stages. With increasing severity of disease and bilateralism more SNPs with significant associations were found. Odds ratios, especially for the main risk polymorphisms in ARMS2 (rs10490924) and CFH (rs1061170), gained with increasing disease severity and bilateralism (exemplarily: rs1061170: unilateral early AMD: OR = 1.18; bilateral early AMD: OR = 1.20; unilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.28; bilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.39, unilateral geographic atrophy (GA): OR = 1.50; bilateral GA: OR = 1.71). Trend analyses showed pstages was lowest for unilateral early AMD (AUC = 0.629) and showed higher values in more severely and bilaterally affected individuals being highest for late AMD with GA in one eye and neovascular AMD in the other eye (AUC = 0.957). The association of known genetic risk factors with AMD became stronger with increasing disease severity, which also led to an increasing discriminative ability of AMD cases and controls. Genetic predisposition was also associated with the disease severity of the fellow-eye, highlighting the importance of both eyes in AMD patients.

  13. Multiple standards of aging: gender-specific age stereotypes in different life domains.

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65 - year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender- and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45 - year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging.

  14. Smoke reduction using multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no smoke teigen koka

    Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.

    1999-09-25

    A new diesel combustion concept termed MULDIC (MULtiple stage Diesel Combustion), which can reduce NO{sub x} emissions at high load conditions, was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation. The engine test showed that simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke could be obtained with MULDIC operation. In-cylinder combustion observation was carried out in order to clarify the cause of the smoke reduction of the MULDIC. In these photographs, a first stage combustion sins observed with nonluminous flame. In a second stage combustion, a highly sooting luminous flame was observed because the ignition delay was short. However this luminous flame disappeared quickly. Computational results showed that, oxygen is distributed evenly in the cylinder in later portion of the second stage combustion. Moreover, since cylinder temperature was very high, most of the soot oxidized rapidly. Thus, low smoke combustion was obtained. (author)

  15. Thermal habitat restricts patterns of occurrence in multiple life-stages of a headwater fish

    Mischa P. Turschwell; Stephen R. Balcombe; E. Ashley Steel; Fran Sheldon; Erin E. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Our lack of knowledge on the spatiotemporal drivers of the distribution of many freshwater fishes, particularly as they differ among life-history stages, is a challenge to conservation of these species. We used 2-stage hurdle models to investigate drivers of occurrence and abundance of locally threatened adult and juvenile Northern River Blackfish in the upper...

  16. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    Alshehri, Ali; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    : View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can

  17. [Accumulation of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in Pinus yunnanensis forests at different age stages].

    Miao, Juan; Zhou, Chuan-Yan; Li, Shi-Jie; Yan, Jun-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Taking three Pinus yunnanensis forests at different ages (19, 28 and 45 a) in Panxian County of Guizhou Province as test objects, we investigated vertical distributions and accumulation rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), as well as their relationships with soil bulk density. For the three forests at different age stages, SOC and TN changed consistently along the soil profile, declining with the soil depth. Both SOC and TN storage increased with the forest age. The SOC and TN storage amounts were 96.24, 121.65 and 148.13 t x hm(-2), and 10.76, 12.96 and 13.08 t x hm(-2) for the forest stands with 19 a, 28 a and 45 a, respectively. SOC had a significant positive correlation with soil TN, while both of them had a significant negative relationship with the soil bulk density. The accumulation rates of both SOC and TN storage at different growth periods were different, and the rate in the period from age 19 to 28 was higher than in the period from age 28 to 45.

  18. Multi-channel EEG-based sleep stage classification with joint collaborative representation and multiple kernel learning.

    Shi, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yingjie; Ying, Shihui

    2015-10-30

    Electroencephalography (EEG) based sleep staging is commonly used in clinical routine. Feature extraction and representation plays a crucial role in EEG-based automatic classification of sleep stages. Sparse representation (SR) is a state-of-the-art unsupervised feature learning method suitable for EEG feature representation. Collaborative representation (CR) is an effective data coding method used as a classifier. Here we use CR as a data representation method to learn features from the EEG signal. A joint collaboration model is established to develop a multi-view learning algorithm, and generate joint CR (JCR) codes to fuse and represent multi-channel EEG signals. A two-stage multi-view learning-based sleep staging framework is then constructed, in which JCR and joint sparse representation (JSR) algorithms first fuse and learning the feature representation from multi-channel EEG signals, respectively. Multi-view JCR and JSR features are then integrated and sleep stages recognized by a multiple kernel extreme learning machine (MK-ELM) algorithm with grid search. The proposed two-stage multi-view learning algorithm achieves superior performance for sleep staging. With a K-means clustering based dictionary, the mean classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are 81.10 ± 0.15%, 71.42 ± 0.66% and 94.57 ± 0.07%, respectively; while with the dictionary learned using the submodular optimization method, they are 80.29 ± 0.22%, 71.26 ± 0.78% and 94.38 ± 0.10%, respectively. The two-stage multi-view learning based sleep staging framework outperforms all other classification methods compared in this work, while JCR is superior to JSR. The proposed multi-view learning framework has the potential for sleep staging based on multi-channel or multi-modality polysomnography signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-08-12

    Process design and simulation of multi-stage membrane systems have been widely studied in many gas separation systems. However, general guidelines have not been developed yet for the attainability and the minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane system. Such information is important for conceptual process design and thus it is the topic of this work. Using a well-mixed membrane model, it was determined that the attainability curve of multi-stage systems is defined by the pressure ratio and membrane selectivity. Using the constant recycle ratio scheme, the recycle ratio can shift the attainability behavior between single-stage and multi-stage membrane systems. When the recycle ratio is zero, all of the multi-stage membrane processes will decay to a single-stage membrane process. When the recycle ratio approaches infinity, the required selectivity and pressure ratio reach their absolute minimum values, which have a simple relationship with that of a single-stage membrane process, as follows: View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can significantly reduce the required membrane selectivity without substantial energy penalty. The energy envelope curve can provide a guideline from an energy perspective to determine the minimum required membrane selectivity in membrane process designs to compete with conventional separation processes, such as distillation.

  20. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3 ) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2 ) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  1. Demirjian's stages and Cameriere's third molar maturity index to estimate legal adult age in Peruvian population.

    Quispe Lizarbe, Roselhy Juliana; Solís Adrianzén, Christian; Quezada-Márquez, Milushka Miroslava; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of Demirjian's stages (DS) and Cameriere's third molar maturity index cut-off value (I 3M age of majority on panoramic radiographs (OPTs) from the dental clinic of the Scientific University of the South (UCSUR), Lima, Peru. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on the sample of 208 digital panoramic radiographs of patients aged 14-22years examined during 2015 in UCSUR. The left lower third molars were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop® CS6. An effectiveness of specific DS and I 3M third molar maturity index (I 3M <0.08) showed to be more accurate in discriminating adults and minors in Peruvian sample when a test with high sensitivity and specificity is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth Hormone and Disease Severity in Early Stage of Multiple Sclerosis

    M. Gironi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that neurohormones such as GH and IGF-I are involved in the neuroreparative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS. GH and IGF-I blood levels in naïve MS patients with different disease courses were investigated in this study. Serum GH and IGF-I in untreated MS patients (n=64, healthy controls (HC, n=62, and patients affected by other neurological diseases (OND, n=46 were evaluated with a solid-phase-enzyme-labeled-chemiluminescent-immunometric assay. No differences were detected in GH across MS, OND, and HC (MS=0.87±1.32 ng/mL; OND=1.66±3.7; and HC=1.69±3.35; P=0.858 when considering gender, disease duration, and disease course. However, GH was lower (P=0.007 in patients with more severe disease (expanded disability scale score, EDSS≥4.0 compared with milder forms (EDSS<4. IGF-I l did not differ across the 3 groups (P=0.160, as far as concern disease course, disability, and gender were. Lower IGF-I levels were detected in subjects older than 50 years compared to younger ones for all 3 groups. Lower GH was detected in patients with more severe MS, and age was confirmed as the main factor driving IGF-I levels in all subjects. These findings, relying on the natural course of the disease, could help in shedding lights on the mechanisms involved in autoreparative failure associated with poorer prognosis in MS.

  3. Study of the behavior in vitro of the banana cultivar FHIA-01 (AAAB in the multiplication stage

    Daymí Ramírez Aguilar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work different hormonal combinations were evaluated in the way of culture for the phase of multiplication of the cv. FHIA 01 (AAAB and the most effective gelificante in the phase of multiplication. Several tests were realized where comparatively different doses of the auxinas were studied and citoquininas more used in the medium of cultures in Musa analyzing his effect in the formation of outbreaks, the coefficient of multiplication, the emission of roots and the height of the plants in the phase of multiplication. Besides different agents were compared gelificantes for multiplication stage. Since result there was obtained that 6 Bencil aminopurina (6-BAP because of 4.0mg.l-1 allowed the formation of major number of buds and a major coefficient of multiplication. The auxinas on his part affected of general form the development of the indicators evaluated in the own phase though the acid indolacético (AIA was the auxina that had a better behavior and the agent gelificante more efectiv for the phase of multiplication was the Phytagel. Key words: shoot of multiplication, growth of regulators,gelificante agents

  4. Nursing values and a changing nurse workforce: values, age, and job stages.

    McNeese-Smith, Donna K; Crook, Mary

    2003-05-01

    To identify the extent values are associated with age group and job stage; job satisfaction, productivity, and organizational commitment; as well as education, generation, ethnicity, gender, and role. Values direct the priorities we live by and are related to employee loyalty and commitment. Lack of congruency between a nurse's personal values and those of the organization decrease satisfaction and effectiveness and may lead to burnout and turnover. Little research has been done on whether values differ by age, generations, or job stages. Nurses in all roles (N = 412) in three hospitals in Los Angeles County were randomly surveyed, using valid and reliable instruments to measure the variables of interest. Nurses in the top third for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and productivity showed higher scores for many values including their associates, creativity, esthetics, and management, while those in the bottom third scored higher in economic returns only. Nurses in different generations differed little; younger generations placed higher values on economic returns and variety. Management strategies to meet nurses' values and increase their satisfaction and retention are presented.

  5. Age of Onset in Concordant Twins and Other Relative Pairs With Multiple Sclerosis

    Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Yee, Irene M.; Guimond, Colleen; Reis, Jacques; Dyment, David A.; Ebers, George C.

    2009-01-01

    The ages of onset in multiple sclerosis cases span more than 7 decades. Data are presented for affected relative pairs from a Canadian population base of 30,000 multiple sclerosis index cases (1993?2008). The effects of genetic sharing, parent of origin, intergenerational versus collinear differences, and gender on the ages of onset were evaluated in the following concordant pairs: monozygotic twins (n?=?29), dizygotic twins (n?=?10), siblings (n?=?614), first cousins (n?=?405), half siblings...

  6. Neonatal outcomes among multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestational age: Does mode of conception have an impact? A Cohort Study

    Yoon Woojin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART vs. spontaneous conception (SC have reported conflicting results in terms of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare composite outcome of mortality and severe neonatal morbidities amongst preterm multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestation infant born following ART vs. SC. Methods We conducted a single center cohort study at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on all preterm multiple births (≤ 32 weeks GA discharged between July 2005 and June 2008 were retrospectively collected from a prospective database at our centre. Details regarding mode of conception were collected retrospectively from maternal health records. Preterm multiple births were categorized into those born following ART vs. SC. Composite outcome was defined as combination of death or any of the three neonatal morbidities (grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; retinopathy of prematurity > stage 2 or chronic lung disease. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were preformed after adjustment of confounders (maternal age, parity, triplets, gestational age, sex, and small for gestational age. Results One hundred and thirty seven neonates were born following use of ART and 233 following SC. The unadjusted composite outcome rate was significantly higher in preterm multiples born following ART vs. SC [43.1% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.001; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.13, 3.45]; however, when adjusted for confounders the difference between groups was not statistically significant [OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.67, 2.89]. Conclusion In our population of preterm multiple births, the mode of conception had no detectable effect on the adjusted composite neonatal outcome of mortality and/or three neonatal morbidities.

  7. Biological maturity at birth, the course of the subsequent ontogenetic stages and age at menarche.

    Szwed, A; Kosińska, M

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to assess the influence of biological maturity at birth on growth processes in the subsequent years and during puberty in girls. The material of this study comes from the outpatient clinic cards and cross-sectional research on girls from the province of Wielkopolska in Poland. It includes data of 527 girls. The influence of perinatal maturity on body weight in the later stages of ontogeny was determined with the use of the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. In order to determine the relationship between perinatal maturity and age at menarche, the survival analysis module was used. The results show a diverse influence of perinatal maturity on the values of body weight achieved in later years of life. The indicated predictive factors included both birth weight and gestational age. In the examined girls menarche occurred between the 10th year and the 17th year of life (X¯=12.87, s=1.26; Me=13 years). The comparison showed a significant variation in age at menarche depending on the length of pregnancy (log-rank χ(2)(2)=27.068, p0.05). Remote prognoses as to the postnatal development of preterm-born children and/or children with low birth weight indicate adverse influence of these variables on age at menarche. Perinatal biological maturity of a newborn conditions the course of postnatal development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages.

    Peterman, William; Brocato, Emily R; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Eggert, Lori S

    2016-01-01

    In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (F ST and D C ) and isolation-by-distance (IBD) among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using D C , the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  9. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages

    William Peterman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (FST and DC and isolation-by-distance (IBD among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using DC, the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  10. Combined effects of multiple large-scale hydraulic engineering on water stages in the middle Yangtze River

    Han, Jianqiao; Sun, Zhaohua; Li, Yitian; Yang, Yunping

    2017-12-01

    Investigation of water stages influenced by human projects provides better understanding of riverine geomorphological processes and river management. Based on hydrological data collected over 60 years, an extreme stage-extreme discharge analysis and a specific-gauge analysis were performed to research the individual and combined effects of multiple engineering projects on a long-term time series of water stages in the middle Yangtze River. Conclusions are as follows. (1) In accordance with the operation years of the Jingjiang cutoff (CF), the Gezhouba Dam (GD), and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the time series (1955-2012) was divided into periods of P1 (1955-1970), P2 (1971-1980), P3 (1981-2002), and P4 (2003 - 2012). Water stage changes during P1-P2, P2-P3, and P3-P4 are varied because of the differences in the types and scales of these projects. The stage decreased at Shashi and increased at Luoshan owing to the operation of the CF. Additionally, after the GD was constructed, the low-flow stage decreased in the upstream reach of Chenglingji and increased in its downstream reach, whereas the flood stage merely decreased at Yichang. Moreover, the TGD resulted in an overall decrease in low-flow stages and a limited increase in flood stages because of the differential adjustments of river geometry and resistance between the low-flow channel and flood channel. (2) Although differences existed in the scouring mechanisms between streamwise erosion associated with dams and headward erosion associated with cutoffs, particular bed textures in the gravel reach led to a similar adjustment that stage reduction at Shashi was the greatest of all stations, which caused the flow slope and sediment transport capacity to decrease in the sandy reach. (3) These engineering projects caused changes in average low-flow and flood stages that varied between Yichang (- 1.58 and - 0.08 m respectively), Shashi (- 3.54 and - 0.12 m), and Luoshan (1.15 and 0.97 m) from P1 to P4. However, less

  11. Automated EEG sleep staging in the term-age baby using a generative modelling approach

    Pillay, Kirubin; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Jansen, Katrien; Naulaers, Gunnar; Van Huffel, Sabine; De Vos, Maarten

    2018-06-01

    Objective. We develop a method for automated four-state sleep classification of preterm and term-born babies at term-age of 38-40 weeks postmenstrual age (the age since the last menstrual cycle of the mother) using multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. At this critical age, EEG differentiates from broader quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS) stages to four, more complex states, and the quality and timing of this differentiation is indicative of the level of brain development. However, existing methods for automated sleep classification remain focussed only on QS and AS sleep classification. Approach. EEG features were calculated from 16 EEG recordings, in 30 s epochs, and personalized feature scaling used to correct for some of the inter-recording variability, by standardizing each recording’s feature data using its mean and standard deviation. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) were trained, with the HMM incorporating knowledge of the sleep state transition probabilities. Performance of the GMM and HMM (with and without scaling) were compared, and Cohen’s kappa agreement calculated between the estimates and clinicians’ visual labels. Main results. For four-state classification, the HMM proved superior to the GMM. With the inclusion of personalized feature scaling, mean kappa (±standard deviation) was 0.62 (±0.16) compared to the GMM value of 0.55 (±0.15). Without feature scaling, kappas for the HMM and GMM dropped to 0.56 (±0.18) and 0.51 (±0.15), respectively. Significance. This is the first study to present a successful method for the automated staging of four states in term-age sleep using multichannel EEG. Results suggested a benefit in incorporating transition information using an HMM, and correcting for inter-recording variability through personalized feature scaling. Determining the timing and quality of these states are indicative of developmental delays in both preterm and term-born babies that may

  12. Multiple Sclerosis in the Contemporary Age: Understanding the Millennial Patient with Multiple Sclerosis to Create Next-Generation Care.

    Hansen, Madison R; Okuda, Darin T

    2018-02-01

    The average age of onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) is between 20 and 40 years of age. Therefore, most new patients diagnosed with MS within the next 10 to 15 years will be from the millennial generation, representing those born between 1982 and 2000. Certain preferences and trends of this contemporary generation will present new challenges to the MS physician and effective MS care. By first understanding these challenges, relevant and successful solutions can be created to craft a system of care that best benefits the millennial patient with MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiosensitivity of different immature stages and ages of oriental fruitfly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel, to gamma radiation

    Manoto, E.C.; Blanco, L.R.; Resilva, S.S.; Baturi, E.S.

    1980-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of different ages of eggs, larvae and pupae of the oriental fruitfly to varying doses of gamma radiation. The most sensitive stage was the egg followed by the pupa and then the larva. Radiosensitivity of the eggs decreased as age increased from 2-3 to 28 hours during treatment. The LD 50 for younger eggs (2-13 hours) was less than 0.5 krad and for nearly mature eggs (18-28 hours) from 2.3 to 14.9 krad. Similarly with the larval stage, the LD 50 values increased with age of fruit flies at treatment. For 1-day-old larvae, the LD 50 was observed at 2.5 krad while for 7-day-old larvae, the LD 50 increased to 50 krad. Dosage required for 50% mortality in 1-day-old pupae was 1.4 krad and 32.1 krad for older pupae. Pupation was reduced to zero when 4-day-old larvae were exposed at 50 krad and 1-day-old larvae at 10 krad. More than 50 krad was required to prevent emergence of mature (7-day-old) pupae. The sex ratio of the emerging adults of D. dorsalis from the irradiated pupae assumed a 1:1 ratio. However, some adults had abnormally-developed wings upon emergence. Abnormality rates were greater when the pupae were treated young. Results indicate the feasibility of gamma radiation in the range of 40-50 krad for commodity treatments of fruits. (author)

  14. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  15. Screening for a Chronic Disease: A Multiple Stage Duration Model with Partial Observability.

    Mroz, Thomas A; Picone, Gabriel; Sloan, Frank; Yashkin, Arseniy P

    2016-08-01

    We estimate a dynamic multi-stage duration model to investigate how early detection of diabetes can delay the onset of lower extremity complications and death. We allow for partial observability of the disease stage, unmeasured heterogeneity, and endogenous timing of diabetes screening. Timely diagnosis appears important. We evaluate the effectiveness of two potential policies to reduce the monetary costs of frequent screening in terms of lost longevity. Compared to the status quo, the more restrictive policy yields an implicit value for an additional year of life of about $50,000, while the less restrictive policy implies a value of about $120,000.

  16. [Fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth].

    Tang, Hui; Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Li, Huan; Wen, Wei; Huang, Fang-Fang; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Shi, Yu-Ping; Yu, Yan-Liang; Chen, Li-Lian; Yuan, Rui-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth. A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines. The extremely preterm infant and early preterm infant groups had a significantly lower content of long-chain acylcarnitines in the umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth than the moderate-to-late preterm infant group (Pemulsion subgroup had a significantly higher content of short-, medium-, and long-chain acylcarnitines than the high-dose fat emulsion subgroup among the extremely preterm infants (Pemulsion subgroups within 3 days after birth. Compared with moderate-to-late preterm infants, extremely preterm infants and early preterm infants have a lower capacity to metabolize long-chain fatty acids within 3 days after birth. Early preterm infants and moderate-to-late preterm infants may tolerate high-dose fat emulsion in the early stage after birth, but extremely preterm infants may have an insufficient capacity to metabolize high-dose fat emulsion.

  17. Endophenotypes for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Extending Our Reach into the Preclinical Stages of Disease.

    Gorin, Michael B; Weeks, Daniel E; Baron, Robert V; Conley, Yvette P; Ortube, Maria C; Nusinowitz, Steven

    2014-11-28

    The key to reducing the individual and societal burden of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-related vision loss, is to be able to initiate therapies that slow or halt the progression at a point that will yield the maximum benefit while minimizing personal risk and cost. There is a critical need to find clinical markers that, when combined with the specificity of genetic testing, will identify individuals at the earliest stages of AMD who would benefit from preventive therapies. These clinical markers are endophenotypes for AMD, present in those who are likely to develop AMD, as well as in those who have clinical evidence of AMD. Clinical characteristics associated with AMD may also be possible endophenotypes if they can be detected before or at the earliest stages of the condition, but we and others have shown that this may not always be valid. Several studies have suggested that dynamic changes in rhodopsin regeneration (dark adaptation kinetics and/or critical flicker fusion frequencies) may be more subtle indicators of AMD-associated early retinal dysfunction. One can test for the relevance of these measures using genetic risk profiles based on known genetic risk variants. These functional measures may improve the sensitivity and specificity of predictive models for AMD and may also serve to delineate clinical subtypes of AMD that may differ with respect to prognosis and treatment.

  18. Endophenotypes for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Extending Our Reach into the Preclinical Stages of Disease

    Michael B. Gorin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The key to reducing the individual and societal burden of age-related macular degeneration (AMD-related vision loss, is to be able to initiate therapies that slow or halt the progression at a point that will yield the maximum benefit while minimizing personal risk and cost. There is a critical need to find clinical markers that, when combined with the specificity of genetic testing, will identify individuals at the earliest stages of AMD who would benefit from preventive therapies. These clinical markers are endophenotypes for AMD, present in those who are likely to develop AMD, as well as in those who have clinical evidence of AMD. Clinical characteristics associated with AMD may also be possible endophenotypes if they can be detected before or at the earliest stages of the condition, but we and others have shown that this may not always be valid. Several studies have suggested that dynamic changes in rhodopsin regeneration (dark adaptation kinetics and/or critical flicker fusion frequencies may be more subtle indicators of AMD-associated early retinal dysfunction. One can test for the relevance of these measures using genetic risk profiles based on known genetic risk variants. These functional measures may improve the sensitivity and specificity of predictive models for AMD and may also serve to delineate clinical subtypes of AMD that may differ with respect to prognosis and treatment.

  19. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Patel, Mehul D; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S; Patel, Ajay G; Joshi, Axay B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases.

  20. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  1. Prenatal hyperandrogenism and lipid profile during different age stages: an experimental study.

    Heber, María F; Ferreira, Silvana R; Vélez, Leandro M; Motta, Alicia B

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the effect of prenatal hyperandrogenization on lipid metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant balance. Experimental study. Research institute. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with 2 mg free T between days 16 and 19 of pregnancy, and controls (C) received vehicle (0.1 mL of sesame oil). Prenatally hyperandrogenized female offspring (T2) had a condition that resembles polycystic ovary (PCO). Animals were weighed and killed at 21 and 60 days of age (N = 15 rats/group). Ovarian tissue and truncal blood were obtained from the C and T2 groups. Circulating lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) was quantified by colorimetric-enzymatic methods. Ovarian oxidative stress was evaluated by quantifying lipid peroxidation and glutathione content by spectofotometric assays. Ovarian fat content was evaluated by Red Oil staining and ovarian messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At 60 days of age, 100% of group C rats and 20% of group T2 rats ovulated. At 21 days of age the T2 rats displayed lower body weight than C rats; however, at 60 days of age T2 and C rats showed similar body weights. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) was altered in the anovulatory and ovulatory phenotype of the T2 group, but the levels were higher in the anovulatory phenotype. Lipid peroxidation of rats at 21 and 60 days of age from T2 was similar to C but the antioxidant glutathione level was decreased in 21-day-old rats compared with C rats. The lipid content of ovarian tissue, determined by Red Oil staining, was higher in the T2 than in the C group. The mRNA expression of ovarian PPAR-γ, quantified by real time PCR, decreased in anovulatory rats at 60 days of age from T2 compared to C rats. Our findings reveal

  2. Radiotherapy of the solitary and multiple eosinophilic granuloma of the bone (stage I)

    Wiegel, T.; Sommer, K.; Baumann, M.; Kruell, A.; Huebener, K.H.; Knop, J.; Reuter, M.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1957 and 1990 15 patients with solitary (stage Ia by Greenberger) and 2 patients with mulitple (stage Ib) eosinophilic granuloma of the bone were treated by radiotherapy in 18 locations after previous surgery. The doses applied varied from 6 Gy to 42 Gy (median for patients under 18 years: 8 Gy, for patients over 18 years: 30 Gy). Median follow-up was 9 years (range, 0,3-33 years). Local control rate and survival were 100%. Three patients with granuloma developed a second granuloma within 13 years after primary diagnosis (two bone manifestations, one cutaneous manifestation). Long term follow-up of patients with solitary eosinophilic granuloma is neccessary. (orig.) [de

  3. The effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of financial decision-making.

    Dorien F Bangma

    Full Text Available Financial decision-making (FDM is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related to normal aging, may lead to a stable or even improved age-related performance in some other aspects of FDM. Therefore, the present explorative study examines the effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of FDM.One-hundred and eighty participants (range 18-87 years were assessed with eight FDM tests and several standard neuropsychological tests. Age effects were evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The validity of the prediction models was examined by internal validation (i.e. bootstrap resampling procedure as well as external validation on another, independent, sample of participants (n = 124. Multiple regression and correlation analyses were applied to investigate the mediation effect of standard measures of cognition on the observed effects of age on FDM.On a relatively basic level of FDM (e.g., paying bills or using FDM styles no significant effects of aging were found. However more complex FDM, such as making decisions in accordance with specific rules, becomes more difficult with advancing age. Furthermore, an older age was found to be related to a decreased sensitivity for impulsive buying. These results were confirmed by the internal and external validation analyses. Mediation effects of numeracy and planning were found to explain parts of the association between one aspect of FDM (i.e. Competence in decision rules and age; however, these cognitive domains were not able to completely explain the relation between age and FDM.Normal aging has a negative influence on a complex aspect of FDM, however, other aspects appear to be unaffected by normal aging or improve.

  4. The Relative Age Effect on Soccer Players in Formative Stages with Different Sport Expertise Levels.

    Práxedes, Alba; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Pizarro, David; Del Villar, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent) that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories). All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated clubs. The birth dates were classified into 4 quartiles (Q1 = Jan-Mar; Q2 = Apr-Jun; Q3 = Jul-Sept; Q4 = Oct-Dec)according to the team they belonged to. The results obtained in the chi-squared test and d value (effect size) revealed the existence of RAE in the teams with the highest expertise level, "A" (X2 = 15.342, p = .002, d = 0.4473) and "B" (X2 = 10.905, p = .012, d = 0.3657). However, in the lower level teams, "C and subsequent", this effect was not observed. Present findings show that players born during the first months of the year tend to be selected to play in teams with a higher sport expertise level of each category, due to their physical maturity. Consequently, this causes differences in terms of the experience they accumulate and the motivation that this creates in these players.

  5. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen, Sara Tangmose

    2016-01-01

    When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical regres...... the need for interval estimation. To illustrate and evaluate the method, Köhler et al. (1995) third molar scores are used to estimate the age in a dataset of 3200 male subjects in the juvenile age range.......When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical...... regression models but becomes less trivial as soon as the number of indicators increases. Each of the age indicators can lead to a different point estimate ("the most plausible value for age") and a prediction interval ("the range of possible values"). The major challenge in the combination of multiple...

  6. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Celeste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. Methods We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks,

  7. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Céleste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on

  8. Considerations Regarding Age at Surgery and Fistula Incidence Using One- and Two-stage Closure for Cleft Palate

    Simona Stoicescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although cleft lip and palate (CLP is one of the most common congenital malformations, occurring in 1 in 700 live births, there is still no generally accepted treatment protocol. Numerous surgical techniques have been described for cleft palate repair; these techniques can be divided into one-stage (one operation cleft palate repair and two-stage cleft palate closure. The aim of this study is to present our cleft palate team experience in using the two-stage cleft palate closure and the clinical outcomes in terms of oronasal fistula rate. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 80 patients who underwent palate repair over a five-year period, from 2008 to 2012. All cleft palate patients were incorporated. Information on patient’s gender, cleft type, age at repair, one- or two-stage cleft palate repair were collected and analyzed. Results: Fifty-three (66% and twenty-seven (34% patients underwent two-stage and one-stage repair, respectively. According to Veau classification, more than 60% of them were Veau III and IV, associating cleft lip to cleft palate. Fistula occurred in 34% of the two-stage repairs versus 7% of one-stage repairs, with an overall incidence of 24%. Conclusions: Our study has shown that a two-stage cleft palate closure has a higher rate of fistula formation when compared with the one-stage repair. Two-stage repair is the protocol of choice in wide complete cleft lip and palate cases, while one-stage procedure is a good option for cleft palate alone, or some specific cleft lip and palate cases (narrow cleft palate, older age at surgery

  9. Multiple essential functions of Plasmodium falciparum actin-1 during malaria blood-stage development.

    Das, Sujaan; Lemgruber, Leandro; Tay, Chwen L; Baum, Jake; Meissner, Markus

    2017-08-15

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes intracellular parasites causing immense global disease burden, the deadliest of them being the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which invades and replicates within erythrocytes. The cytoskeletal protein actin is well conserved within apicomplexans but divergent from mammalian actins, and was primarily reported to function during host cell invasion. However, novel invasion mechanisms have been described for several apicomplexans, and specific functions of the acto-myosin system are being reinvestigated. Of the two actin genes in P. falciparum, actin-1 (pfact1) is ubiquitously expressed in all life-cycle stages and is thought to be required for erythrocyte invasion, although its functions during parasite development are unknown, and definitive in vivo characterisation during invasion is lacking. Here we have used a conditional Cre-lox system to investigate the functions of PfACT1 during P. falciparum blood-stage development and host cell invasion. We demonstrate that PfACT1 is crucially required for segregation of the plastid-like organelle, the apicoplast, and for efficient daughter cell separation during the final stages of cytokinesis. Surprisingly, we observe that egress from the host cell is not an actin-dependent process. Finally, we show that parasites lacking PfACT1 are capable of microneme secretion, attachment and formation of a junction with the erythrocyte, but are incapable of host cell invasion. This study provides important mechanistic insights into the definitive essential functions of PfACT1 in P. falciparum, which are not only of biological interest, but owing to functional divergence from mammalian actins, could also form the basis for the development of novel therapeutics against apicomplexans.

  10. Dynamic microbial succession of Shanxi aged vinegar and its correlation with flavor metabolites during different stages of acetic acid fermentation.

    Zhu, Yunping; Zhang, Feifei; Zhang, Chengnan; Yang, Li; Fan, Guangsen; Xu, Youqiang; Sun, Baoguo; Li, Xiuting

    2018-06-05

    Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV), one of the famous Chinese vinegars, is produced by multispecies solid-state fermentation in which the acetic acid fermentation stage (AAF) is especially important. However, how bacterial succession and their metabolites change along with the different stages of AAF is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the dynamic bacterial succession and flavor formation in three batches of SAV using high-throughput sequencing and metabolomics approaches. It is interesting to find that AAF can be divided into three stages based on its bacterial community succession (early stage, days 0-4; medium stage, days 5-21; and later stage, days 22-26). Pantoea, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Rhizobium played an important role in the early stage; Lactobacillus was dominant in the medium stage (67.72%); and Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter and Kroppenstedtia were the key bacteria in the later stage. A total of seven organic acids and 42 volatile constituents (esters, alcohol, ketones and aldehydes) were detected during the AAF. Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the bacterial community and these flavor metabolites during the AAF of the SAV. This is the first report to explore the relationships between volatile flavor metabolites and bacterial community succession by a three-staged method and provide theoretical support for a flavor formation mechanism in traditional SAV.

  11. A multiple stage approach to mitigate the risks of telecommunication equipment under free air cooling conditions

    Dai Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analyze the challenges posed by free air cooling (FAC). ► Present a multi-stage process to mitigate the risks of FAC. ► Propose a prognostics-based method to mitigate risks in data centers in operation. ► Present a case study to show the prognostics-based method implementation. - Abstract: The telecommunication industry is concerned about the energy costs of its operating infrastructure and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. At present, more than half of the total energy consumption of data centers is devoted to the power and cooling infrastructure that supports electronic equipment. One method of reducing energy consumption is an approach called “free air cooling,” where ambient air is used to cool the equipment directly, thereby reducing the energy consumed in cooling and conditioning the air. For example, Intel demonstrated free air cooling in a 10-megawatt (MW) data center, showing a reduction in energy use and savings of US$2.87 million annually. However, the impacts of this approach on the performance and reliability of telecommunication equipment need to be identified. The implementation of free air cooling changes the operating environment, including temperature and humidity, which may have a significant impact on the performance and reliability of telecom equipment. This paper discusses the challenges posed by free air cooling and presents a multi-stage process for evaluating and mitigating the potential risks arising from this new operating environment.

  12. Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development

    Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  13. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  14. Multiple cervical hemivertebra resection and staged thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the treatment of complicated congenital scoliosis.

    Zhuang, Qianyu; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Shengru; Guo, Jianwei; Qiu, Guixing

    2016-05-01

    To present our experience of staged correction with multiple cervical hemivertebra resection and thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) treating a rare and complicated congenital scoliosis. A 14-year-old male presented with progressive torticollis and spine deformity. The malformation developed since birth, and back pain after long-time sitting or exercise arose since 6 months before, which was unsuccessfully treated by physiotherapy. X-ray showed a right cervical curve of 60° and a left compensatory thoracic curve of 90°. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) scan revealed three semi-segmented hemivertebrae (C4, C5 and C6) on the right side. Based on our staged strategy, the three consecutive cervical hemivertebrae, as the major pathology causing the deformity, were firstly resected by the combined posterior and anterior approach. Six months later, T6 PSO osteotomy was used to correct the structural compensatory thoracic curve. The cervical curve was reduced to 23° while the thoracic curve to 60° after the first-stage surgery, and the thoracic curve was further reduced to 30° after the second-stage surgery. The radiograph at 5-year follow-up showed that both the coronal and sagittal balance were well restored and stabilized, with the occipital tilt reduced from 12° to 0°. Our strategy may provide an option for similar cases with multiple consecutive cervical hemivertebrae and a large structural compensatory thoracic curve, which proved to achieve excellent correction in both the coronal and sagittal planes with acceptable neurologic risk.

  15. Inflamm-aging and arachadonic acid metabolite differences with stage of tendon disease.

    Stephanie Georgina Dakin

    Full Text Available The contribution of inflammation to the pathogenesis of tendinopathy and high prevalence of re-injury is not well established, although recent evidence suggests involvement of prostaglandins. We investigated the roles of prostaglandins and inflammation-resolving mediators in naturally occurring equine tendon injury with disease stage and age. Levels of prostaglandins E(2 (PGE(2, F(2α (PGF(2α, lipoxin A(4 (LXA(4 and its receptor FPR2/ALX were analysed in extracts of normal, sub-acute and chronic injured tendons. To assess whether potential changes were associated with altered PGE(2 metabolism, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1, prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH, COX-2 and EP(4 receptor expression were investigated. The ability of tendons to resolve inflammation was determined by assessing FPR2/ALX expression in natural injury and IL-1β stimulated tendon explants.Alterations in the profile of lipid mediators during sub-acute injury included low PGE(2 and elevated LXA(4 levels compared to normal and chronic injuries. In contrast, PGF(2α levels remained unchanged and were three-fold lower than PGE(2. The synthetic capacity of PGE(2 as measured by the ratio of mPGES-1:PGDH was elevated in sub-acute injury, suggesting aberrations in tendon prostaglandin metabolism, whilst COX-2 and EP(4 receptor were unchanged. Paradoxically low tendon PGE(2 levels in early injury may be attributed to increased local clearance via PGDH or the class switching of lipid mediators from the prostaglandin to the lipoxin axis. PGE(2 is therefore implicated in the development of tendon inflammation and its ensuing resolution. Whilst there was no relationship between age and tendon LXA(4 levels, there was an age-associated decline in FPR2/ALX receptor expression with concurrent increased PGE(2 levels in injury. Furthermore, uninjured tendon explants from younger (<10 years but not older horses (≥10 years treated with IL-1β responded by increasing FPR2/ALX

  16. [The morphological changes of Hassall corpuscles of the different maturity in vertebrate animals and human in different stages of age].

    Yurchinskij, V Ja

    With the use of methods of light microscopy we produce comparison morphological investigation of Hassall corpuscles of different maturity in animals and human with age difference. It was arranged that quantity and sizes of Hassall corpuscles in different stages of age depend on organization level, belonging to a vital form, shape and age of animal. On the base of our investigation we can make resume about functional role of Hassall corpuscles.

  17. Multiple stage MS in analysis of plasma, serum, urine and in vitro samples relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Meyer, Golo M; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews MS approaches applied to metabolism studies, structure elucidation and qualitative or quantitative screening of drugs (of abuse) and/or their metabolites. Applications in clinical and forensic toxicology were included using blood plasma or serum, urine, in vitro samples, liquids, solids or plant material. Techniques covered are liquid chromatography coupled to low-resolution and high-resolution multiple stage mass analyzers. Only PubMed listed studies published in English between January 2008 and January 2015 were considered. Approaches are discussed focusing on sample preparation and mass spectral settings. Comments on advantages and limitations of these techniques complete the review.

  18. Analysis of Brassica oleracea early stage abiotic stress responses reveals tolerance in multiple crop types and for multiple sources of stress.

    Beacham, Andrew M; Hand, Paul; Pink, David Ac; Monaghan, James M

    2017-12-01

    Brassica oleracea includes a number of important crop types such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and kale. Current climate conditions and weather patterns are causing significant losses in these crops, meaning that new cultivars with improved tolerance of one or more abiotic stress types must be sought. In this study, genetically fixed B. oleracea lines belonging to a Diversity Fixed Foundation Set (DFFS) were assayed for their response to seedling stage-imposed drought, flood, salinity, heat and cold stress. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in stress tolerance response was found for each stress, for each of four measured variables (relative fresh weight, relative dry weight, relative leaf number and relative plant height). Lines tolerant to multiple stresses were found to belong to several different crop types. There was no overall correlation between the responses to the different stresses. Abiotic stress tolerance was identified in multiple B. oleracea crop types, with some lines exhibiting resistance to multiple stresses. For each stress, no one crop type appeared significantly more or less tolerant than others. The results are promising for the development of more environmentally robust lines of different B. oleracea crops by identifying tolerant material and highlighting the relationship between responses to different stresses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    Dues, Dylan J.; Andrews, Emily K.; Schaar, Claire E.; Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxi...

  20. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relative Age Effect on Soccer Players in Formative Stages with Different Sport Expertise Levels

    Práxedes Alba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE in sport has been targeted by many research studies. The objective of this study was to analyze, in amateur clubs, the RAE of soccer players, according to the sport expertise level of the team (e.g., A, B, C and subsequent that they belong to within the same game category. 1,098 soccer players in formative stages took part in the study, with ages varying between 6 and 18 years old (U8 to U19 categories. All of them were members of 4 Spanish federated clubs. The birth dates were classified into 4 quartiles (Q1 = Jan-Mar; Q2 = Apr-Jun; Q3 = Jul-Sept; Q4 = Oct-Decaccording to the team they belonged to. The results obtained in the chi-squared test and d value (effect size revealed the existence of RAE in the teams with the highest expertise level, “A” (X2 = 15.342, p = .002, d = 0.4473 and “B” (X2 = 10.905, p = .012, d = 0.3657. However, in the lower level teams, “C and subsequent”, this effect was not observed. Present findings show that players born during the first months of the year tend to be selected to play in teams with a higher sport expertise level of each category, due to their physical maturity. Consequently, this causes differences in terms of the experience they accumulate and the motivation that this creates in these players.

  2. Prevalence of anti-retinal autoantibodies in different stages of Age-related macular degeneration.

    Adamus, Grazyna; Chew, Emily Y; Ferris, Frederick L; Klein, Michael L

    2014-12-08

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in older adults. Anti-retinal autoantibodies (AAbs) have been found in individuals with AMD. The goal of the study was to determine the AAb specificity in different stages of AMD, and determine whether there is a prevalent AAb signature. Sera of 134 participants in the Age-related Eye Disease Study were analyzed for anti-retinal AAbs by western blotting. The subjects were classified by diagnostic subgroups based upon their clinical classification: No AMD, Intermediate AMD, and Late AMD - geographic atrophy (GA) and Late AMD - neovascular (NV). The presence of anti-retinal AAb was detected in 58% patients with Intermediate and Late AMD, and 54% of those with no AMD. AAbs bound to fifteen different retinal antigens. Most individuals had 1 specific AAbs (67%), with the remainder having 2 to 4 different AAbs. Over 40% of patients with Intermediate AMD, and 46% of those with GA had anti-enolase AAbs, compared with 29% of individuals with NV and 29% with no AMD. Different AAbs signatures related to NV as compared to GA and/or Intermediate AMD were distinguished. Anti-40-kDa (10%) and 42-kDa (16%) autoantibodies were associated with Intermediate AMD, while anti-30-kDa AAbs (23%) were primarily present in GA. Anti-32-kDa (12%), 35-kDa (21%), and 60-kDa (8%) AAbs were more frequent in NV AMD. A unique AAb pattern for each of the disease subgroups was present when AMD progressed from the intermediate to the late forms of severity. Differences in the frequency of specific AAbs between AMD subgroups suggested that they may participate in pathogenicity of AMD. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations in the larger cohort and individual AMD patients over time.

  3. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (pworking hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  4. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  5. 4-Nitro styrylquinoline is an antimalarial inhibiting multiple stages of Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle.

    Roberts, Bracken F; Zheng, Yongsheng; Cleaveleand, Jacob; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Yuan, Yu; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2017-04-01

    Drugs against malaria are losing their effectiveness because of emerging drug resistance. This underscores the need for novel therapeutic options for malaria with mechanism of actions distinct from current antimalarials. To identify novel pharmacophores against malaria we have screened compounds containing structural features of natural products that are pharmacologically relevant. This screening has identified a 4-nitro styrylquinoline (SQ) compound with submicromolar antiplasmodial activity and excellent selectivity. SQ exhibits a cellular action distinct from current antimalarials, acting early on malaria parasite's intraerythrocytic life cycle including merozoite invasion. The compound is a fast-acting parasitocidal agent and also exhibits curative property in the rodent malaria model when administered orally. In this report, we describe the synthesis, preliminary structure-function analysis, and the parasite developmental stage specific action of the SQ scaffold. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple congenital brachymetatarsia. A one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure without iliac bone graft.

    Kim, J S; Baek, G H; Chung, M S; Yoon, P W

    2004-09-01

    We performed nine metatarsal and three proximal phalangeal lengthenings in five patients with congenital brachymetatarsia of the first and one or two other metatarsal bones, by a one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure using intercalcary autogenous bone grafts from adjacent shortened metatarsal bones. Instead of the isolated lengthening of the first and the other metatarsal bones, we shortened the adjacent normal metatarsal and used the excised bone to lengthen the short toes, except for the great toe, to restore the normal parabola. One skin incision was used. All the operations were performed bilaterally and the patients were followed up for a mean period of 69.5 months (29 to 107). They all regained a nearly normal parabola and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Our technique is straightforward and produces good cosmetic results. Satisfactory, bony union is achieved, morbidity is low, and no additional surgery is required for the removal of metal implants.

  7. Multiple-stage decisions in a marine central-place forager.

    Friedlaender, Ari S; Johnston, David W; Tyson, Reny B; Kaltenberg, Amanda; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Stimpert, Alison K; Curtice, Corrie; Hazen, Elliott L; Halpin, Patrick N; Read, Andrew J; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    Air-breathing marine animals face a complex set of physical challenges associated with diving that affect the decisions of how to optimize feeding. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) have evolved bulk-filter feeding mechanisms to efficiently feed on dense prey patches. Baleen whales are central place foragers where oxygen at the surface represents the central place and depth acts as the distance to prey. Although hypothesized that baleen whales will target the densest prey patches anywhere in the water column, how depth and density interact to influence foraging behaviour is poorly understood. We used multi-sensor archival tags and active acoustics to quantify Antarctic humpback whale foraging behaviour relative to prey. Our analyses reveal multi-stage foraging decisions driven by both krill depth and density. During daylight hours when whales did not feed, krill were found in deep high-density patches. As krill migrated vertically into larger and less dense patches near the surface, whales began to forage. During foraging bouts, we found that feeding rates (number of feeding lunges per hour) were greatest when prey was shallowest, and feeding rates decreased with increasing dive depth. This strategy is consistent with previous models of how air-breathing diving animals optimize foraging efficiency. Thus, humpback whales forage mainly when prey is more broadly distributed and shallower, presumably to minimize diving and searching costs and to increase feeding rates overall and thus foraging efficiency. Using direct measurements of feeding behaviour from animal-borne tags and prey availability from echosounders, our study demonstrates a multi-stage foraging process in a central place forager that we suggest acts to optimize overall efficiency by maximizing net energy gain over time. These data reveal a previously unrecognized level of complexity in predator-prey interactions and underscores the need to simultaneously measure prey distribution in marine central place forager

  8. Multiple-stage decisions in a marine central-place forager

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Tyson, Reny B.; Kaltenberg, Amanda; Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Stimpert, Alison K.; Curtice, Corrie; Hazen, Elliott L.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Read, Andrew J.; Nowacek, Douglas P.

    2016-05-01

    Air-breathing marine animals face a complex set of physical challenges associated with diving that affect the decisions of how to optimize feeding. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) have evolved bulk-filter feeding mechanisms to efficiently feed on dense prey patches. Baleen whales are central place foragers where oxygen at the surface represents the central place and depth acts as the distance to prey. Although hypothesized that baleen whales will target the densest prey patches anywhere in the water column, how depth and density interact to influence foraging behaviour is poorly understood. We used multi-sensor archival tags and active acoustics to quantify Antarctic humpback whale foraging behaviour relative to prey. Our analyses reveal multi-stage foraging decisions driven by both krill depth and density. During daylight hours when whales did not feed, krill were found in deep high-density patches. As krill migrated vertically into larger and less dense patches near the surface, whales began to forage. During foraging bouts, we found that feeding rates (number of feeding lunges per hour) were greatest when prey was shallowest, and feeding rates decreased with increasing dive depth. This strategy is consistent with previous models of how air-breathing diving animals optimize foraging efficiency. Thus, humpback whales forage mainly when prey is more broadly distributed and shallower, presumably to minimize diving and searching costs and to increase feeding rates overall and thus foraging efficiency. Using direct measurements of feeding behaviour from animal-borne tags and prey availability from echosounders, our study demonstrates a multi-stage foraging process in a central place forager that we suggest acts to optimize overall efficiency by maximizing net energy gain over time. These data reveal a previously unrecognized level of complexity in predator-prey interactions and underscores the need to simultaneously measure prey distribution in marine central place forager

  9. Optimization of advanced high-temperature Brayton cycles with multiple reheat stages

    Haihua Zhao; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents an overview and a few point designs for multiple-reheat Brayton cycle power conversion systems using high temperature molten salts (or liquid metals). All designs are derived from the General Atomics GT-MHR power conversion unit (PCU). The GT-MHR PCU is currently the only closed helium cycle system that has undergone detailed engineering design analysis, and that has turbomachinery which is sufficiently large to extrapolate to a >1000 MW(e) multiple reheat gas cycle power conversion system. Analysis shows that, with relatively small engineering modifications, multiple GT-MHR PCU's can be connected together to create a power conversion system in the >1000 MW(e) class. The resulting power conversion system is quite compact, and results in what is likely the minimum gas duct volume possible for a multiple-reheat system. To realize this, compact offset fin plate type liquid-to-gas heat exchangers (power densities from 10 to 120 MW/m 3 ) are needed. Both metal and non-metal heat exchangers are being investigated for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors for temperatures to 1000 deg. C. Recent high temperature heat exchanger studies for nuclear hydrogen production has suggested that carbon-coated composite materials such as liquid silicon infiltrated chopped fiber carbon-carbon preformed material potentially could be used to fabricate plate fin heat exchangers with reasonable price. Different fluids such as helium, nitrogen and helium mixture, and supercritical CO 2 are compared for these multiple reheat Brayton cycles. Nitrogen and helium mixture cycle need about 40% more total PCU volume than helium cycle while keeping the same net cycle efficiency. Supercritical CO 2 needs very high pressure to optimize. Due to relatively detailed design for components such as heat exchangers, turbomachinery, and duct system, relatively accurate total pressure loss can be obtained, which results in more credible net efficiency

  10. ADAPTING A PARENT-COMPLETED, SOCIOEMOTIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE IN CHINA: THE AGES & STAGES QUESTIONNAIRES: SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL.

    Bian, Xiaoyan; Xie, Huichao; Squires, Jane; Chen, Chieh-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE; Squires, Bricker, & Twombly, 2002a), developed in the United States, was translated and adapted for use in China. Lack of valid and reliable instruments for identifying social and emotional delays in young children is a worldwide issue. Professionals in China have recently focused efforts on developing methods for early identification of social, emotional, and behavioral issues in the birth-to-5 population. Following the guidelines of the International Test Commission, the ASQ:SE was translated into Simplified Chinese (ASQ:SE-C) to collect a normative sample of 2,528 children across China. Data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ASQ:SE-C, using both classical test theory and item response theory, including generating cutoff points appropriate for the Chinese sample. A panel of Chinese experts was surveyed to assess face validity and estimated utility of the newly adapted tool. Discussions of research findings and implications for future studies are provided. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Early stage and long term treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon-β

    Angela Applebee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Applebee, Hillel PanitchDepartment of Neurology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, and Neurology Service, Fletcher Allen Health Care, Burlington, VT, USAAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS affects young adults during the most productive years of their lives, and until recently many neurologists were limited to treating symptoms and attacks without any ability to alter the disease course. The 1990s ushered in an era of possibility with the approval of three interferon-beta (IFNβ therapies for the treatment of MS. Though the mechanism of action of these agents is not completely understood, it is clear they reduce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI activity as well as improve clinical outcomes. The principal randomized, blinded, multicenter trials of IFNβ all point to the need for early treatment soon after the diagnosis of MS is made. Efficacy has also been shown in patients treated after a first demyelinating event. Data on IFNβ in the treatment of secondary progressive MS (SPMS is not impressive, although it shows some benefit in SPMS patients who continue to experience MRI activity and clinical relapses, signifying a continued inflammatory component to their disease. There has been no proven efficacy of IFNβ in the treatment of primary progressive MS (PPMS. The IFNβ therapies are generally well tolerated with a favorable side effect profile. Despite benefits in MRI and clinical measures such as relapse rates and Expanded Disability Status Scale progression, patients continue to exhibit clinical progression and radiological atrophy, pointing to confounding factors and perhaps multiple etiologies of a disease that is not yet fully understood. In addition, the subject of neutralizing antibodies has recently assumed importance. The significance of these on treatment efficacy is uncertain, and until a universally accepted reliable assay is adopted, the decision to change treatment continues to rely on the clinical interpretation of

  12. Extinction and the Allee Effect in an Age-structured Ricker Population Model with Inter-stage Interaction

    Lazaryan, N.; Sedaghat, H.

    2017-01-01

    We study the evolution in discrete time of certain age-structured populations, such as adults and juveniles, with a Ricker fitness function. We determine conditions for the convergence of orbits to the origin (extinction) in the presence of the Allee effect and time-dependent vital rates. We show that when stages interact, they may survive in the absence of interior fixed points, a surprising situation that is impossible without inter-stage interactions. We also examine the shift in the inter...

  13. Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in rat seminiferous tubules

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in testis were examined in Wistar rats by both inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a microdissection technique and in situ elemental imaging of micro-PIXE analysis. The young adult animals (10 weeks old) contained higher levels of zinc and manganese in the seminiferous tubules at stages VII-VIII than stages XI through VI and IX-X and the levels were higher than those of the immature and old animals. Copper and selenium levels at stages VII-VIII of the young adult animals were also higher than those of the immature and old animals. In stages VII and VIII, zinc was higher in the central area of the seminiferous epithelium, where spermatozoa were localized, demonstrating a cell-specific property. (author)

  14. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age. In th...

  15. The effects of age on treatment and outcomes in women with stages IB1-IIB cervical cancer.

    Roque, Dario R; Cronin, Beth; Robison, Katina; Lopes, Vrishali; Rizack, Tina; Dizon, Don S

    2013-10-01

    Age may affect the treatment choice and subsequent outcome in elderly patients with cervical cancer. Given the potential for cure with either surgery or chemoradiation in early stage disease, we aimed to determine whether a patient's age influenced treatment received and the ensuing outcome. We identified 303 patients with stages IB1-IIB cervical carcinoma treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010, who were divided into two groups based on age at time of diagnosis: stage at presentation, and grade. Women ≥ 65 years of age were less likely to receive primary surgical management (p=0.03). Age did not influence disease-specific or all-cause mortality. However, women over 65 years who underwent primary surgery were at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to younger women (HR 6.53, 95% CI: 2.57-16.6). Age appears to influence treatment received by patients with stages IB1-IIB cervical cancer. Although there was no difference in cancer-specific mortality stratified by type of treatment received, surgery was associated with a 6.5-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality among women 65 years or over. © 2013.

  16. Oncofertility in patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer: fertility-sparing surgery in young women of reproductive age.

    Jiang, Xuan; Yang, Jiaxin; Yu, Mei; Xie, Weimin; Cao, Dongyan; Wu, Ming; Pan, Lingya; Huang, Huifang; You, Yan; Shen, Keng

    2017-08-15

    Fertility-sparing surgery is indicated for patients with stage I epithelial ovarian cancers. We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes and oncofertility in a cohort of patients of reproductive age with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Overall, 108 patients of reproductive age (≤ 40 years) diagnosed with stage I EOC who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 1999 and 2013 were included in the study. The Kaplan-Meier model and Cox regression analyses were used for the survival analysis. The type of surgery included fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) (48.1%) and radical surgery (RS) (51.9%). After a median follow-up of 83 months, we observed that grade 3 or clear-cell carcinoma was the only independent risk factor for disease-free survival and tumor-specific survival in the multivariate analysis. Patients with grade 3 or clear-cell carcinoma tended to be older than 30 years, have endometriosis, and undergo RS (p Fertility-sparing surgery did not affect disease-free survival or tumor-specific survival among patients of reproductive age with stage I EOC and among high-risk patients with stage IC2-3, grade 3, or clear-cell carcinoma. Thirty-four out of 52 (65.4%) FSS patients attempted to get pregnant. Twenty-eight (82.4%) achieved a successful pregnancy with a full-term delivery. Grade 3 or clear-cell carcinoma was the only independent risk factor for survival of patients of reproductive age with stage I EOC. FSS can be safely performed on patients of reproductive age with grade 1-2, stage I EOC. The safety of FSS for grade 3 and clear-cell carcinoma warrants further investigation.

  17. Multiple factors influence compliance with colorectal cancer staging recommendations: an exploratory study

    Khalifa Mahmoud A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with colorectal cancer (CRC retrieval by surgeons, and assessment by pathologists of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs predicts the need for adjuvant treatment and improved survival. Different interventions (educational presentation, engaging clinical opinion leaders, performance data sent to hospital executives to improve compliance with this practice had variable results. This exploratory study examined factors hypothesized to have influenced the outcome of those interventions. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 surgeons and pathologists at eleven hospitals. Clinicians were identified by intervention organizers, public licensing body database, and referral from interviewees. An interview guide incorporating open-ended questions was pilot-tested on one surgeon and pathologist. A single investigator conducted all interviews by phone. Transcripts were analyzed independently by two investigators using a grounded approach,ho then compared findings to resolve differences. Results Improvements in LN staging practice may have occurred largely due to educational presentations that created awareness, and self-initiated changes undertaken by pathologists. Executives that received performance data may not have shared this with staff, and opinion leaders engaged to promote compliance may not have fulfilled their roles. Barriers to change that are potentially amenable to quality improvement included perceptions about the practice (perceived lack of evidence for the need to examine at least 12 LNs and associated responsibilities (blaming other profession, technical issues (need for pathology assistants, better clearing solutions and laboratory facilities, and a lack of organizational support for multidisciplinary interaction (little communication between surgeons and pathologists or quality improvement (no change leaders or capacity for monitoring. Conclusion Use of an exploratory approach provided an in

  18. Characterization of microstructural evolution in Fe-C(-Mn) alloys during early stages of ageing using atom probe

    Xiong, X.Y.; Tran, P.; Pereloma, E.; Ringer, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Extensive studies on the effect of ageing treatment on the micro structure and mechanical properties of most commercial ferritic (a) Fe-C(-X) alloys reveal age-hardening characteristics that involve a monotonic increase towards a peak hardness after several hours of ageing. Peak hardness is always associated with the formation of precipitate particles (e.g: MnC 3 ). However, there is relatively little systematic work on the very early stages of ageing using direct nanostructural analysis and many questions remain on the potential for clustering of interstitial C atoms prior to the precipitation reaction. In this experimental work, we report a small but significant hardness peak within 300 sec during ageing at 550 deg C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations did not show any microstructural change during this early stage of ageing. In order to understand the microstructural evolution in ultra-low carbon a-Fe-C(-Mn) alloys during these early stages of ageing, 3-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) has been used to examine the C atom distribution and possible segregation of C and Mn atoms in these alloys. In this report, the 3DAP analyses and HRTEM observations of Fe-C and Fe-C-Mn alloys are correlated with age hardening measurements and possible mechanisms of the initial hardening phenomenon will be discussed

  19. Stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age, race, and ethnicity, United States, 2004-2014.

    Li, Jun; Siegel, David A; King, Jessica B

    2018-05-01

    Current literature shows different findings on the contemporary trends of distant-stage prostate cancer incidence, in part, due to low study population coverage and wide age groupings. This study aimed to examine the stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age (5-year grouping), race, and ethnicity using nationwide cancer registry data. Data on prostate cancer cases came from the 2004-2014 United States Cancer Statistics data set. We calculated stage-specific incidence and 95% confidence intervals by age (5-year age grouping), race, and ethnicity. To measure the changes in rates over time, we calculated annual percentage change (APC). We identified 2,137,054 incident prostate cancers diagnosed during 2004-2014, with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 453.8 per 100,000. Distant-stage prostate cancer incidence significantly decreased during 2004-2010 (APC = -1.2) and increased during 2010-2014 (APC = 3.3). Significant increases in distant prostate cancer incidence also occurred in men aged older than or equal to 50 years except men aged 65-74 and older than or equal to 85 years, in men with white race (APC = 3.9), and non-Hispanic ethnicity (APC = 3.5). Using data representing over 99% of U.S. population, we found that incidence rates of distant-stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2014 among men in certain ages, in white, and with non-Hispanic ethnicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Personalized therapy in multiple myeloma according to patient age and vulnerability

    Palumbo, Antonio; Bringhen, Sara; Ludwig, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) are aged > 65 years with 30% aged > 75 years. Many elderly patients are also vulnerable because of comorbidities that complicate the management of MM. The prevalence of MM is expected to rise over time because of an aging population. Most...... elderly patients with MM are ineligible for autologous transplantation, and the standard treatment has, until recently, been melphalan plus prednisone. The introduction of novel agents, such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide, has improved outcomes; however, elderly patients with MM are more......, occurrence of serious nonhematologic adverse events during treatment should be carefully taken into account to adjust doses and optimize outcomes....

  1. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Karin Van der Hiele

    Full Text Available Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation.To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job.Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years.Patients with a paid job (57% reported better physical functioning (p<0.001, better memory functioning (p = 0.01 and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018 than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005 and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029 correlated with an increased number of working hours.Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  2. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Kron 3: a fourth intermediate age cluster in the SMC with evidence of multiple populations

    Hollyhead, K.; Lardo, C.; Kacharov, N.; Bastian, N.; Hilker, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Koch, A.; Grebel, E. K.; Georgiev, I.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic study of the intermediate age (≈6.5 Gyr) massive cluster Kron 3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We measure CN and CH band strengths (at ≃3839 and 4300 Å, respectively) using VLT FORS2 spectra of 16 cluster members and find a sub-population of five stars enriched in nitrogen. We conclude that this is evidence for multiple populations in Kron 3, the fourth intermediate age cluster, after Lindsay 1, NGC 416 and NGC 339 (ages 6-8 Gyr), to display this phenomenon originally thought to be a unique characteristic of old globular clusters. At ≈6.5 Gyr this is one of the youngest clusters with multiple populations, indicating that the mechanism responsible for their onset must operate until a redshift of at least 0.75, much later than the peak of globular cluster formation at redshift ˜3.

  4. Progresive diseases study using Markov´s multiple stage models

    René Iral Palomino, Esp estadística

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors and their degree of association with a progressive disease,such as Alzheimerís disease or liver cancer, can be identifi edby using epidemiological models; some examples of these modelsinclude logistic and Poisson regression, log-linear, linear regression,and mixed models. Using models that take into account not onlythe different health status that a person could experience betweenvisits but also his/her characteristics (i.e. age, gender, genetic traits,etc. seems to be reasonable and justifi ed. In this paper we discussa methodology to estimate the effect of covariates that could beassociated with a disease when its progression or regression canbe idealized by means of a multi-state model that incorporates thelongitudinal nature of data. This method is based on the Markovproperty and it is illustrated using simulated data about Alzheimerísdisease. Finally, the merits and limitations of this method are discussed.

  5. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing

    Neltner, Janna H.; Abner, Erin L.; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Smith, Charles D.; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A.; Brenowitz, Willa D.; Van Eldik, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case–control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections immunostained for smooth muscle actin (a marker of arterioles) and CD34 (an endothelial marker), with separate analyses on grey and white matter. A total of 43 834 smooth muscle actin-positive vascular profiles and 603 798 CD34-positive vascular profiles were evaluated. In frontal cortex of cases with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing, smooth muscle actin

  6. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment

    Carolina Rosswog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. METHODS: A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n = 75 for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n = 411 for risk score development, and a validation set (n = 209. Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. RESULTS: The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9 ± 3.4 vs 63.6 ± 14.5 vs 31.0 ± 5.4; P < .001, and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients.

  7. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment.

    Rosswog, Carolina; Schmidt, Rene; Oberthuer, André; Juraeva, Dilafruz; Brors, Benedikt; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Simon, Thorsten; Berthold, Frank; Hero, Barbara; Faldum, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n=75) for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n=411) for risk score development, and a validation set (n=209). Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9±3.4 vs 63.6±14.5 vs 31.0±5.4; P<.001), and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  9. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  10. A circulating microrna profile is associated with late-stage neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of severe vision impairment in Western populations over 55 years. A growing number of gene variants have been identified which are strongly associated with an altered risk to develop AMD. Nevertheless, gene-based biomarkers which could be dysregulated at defined stages of AMD may point toward key processes in disease mechanism and thus may support efforts to design novel treatment regimens for this blinding disorder. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs which are carried by nanosized exosomes or microvesicles in blood plasma or serum, have been recognized as valuable indicators for various age-related diseases. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of cmiRNAs in AMD by genome-wide miRNA expression profiling and replication analyses in 147 controls and 129 neovascular AMD patients. We identified three microRNAs differentially secreted in neovascular (NV AMD (hsa-mir-301-3p, pcorrected = 5.6*10-5, hsa-mir-361-5p, pcorrected = 8.0*10-4 and hsa-mir-424-5p, pcorrected = 9.6*10-3. A combined profile of the three miRNAs revealed an area under the curve (AUC value of 0.727 and was highly associated with NV AMD (p = 1.2*10-8. To evaluate subtype-specificity, an additional 59 AMD cases with pure unilateral or bilateral geographic atrophy (GA were analyzed for microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p. While we found no significant differences between GA AMD and controls neither individually nor for a combined microRNAs profile, hsa-mir-424-5p levels remained significantly higher in GA AMD when compared to NV (pcorrected<0.005. Pathway enrichment analysis on genes predicted to be regulated by microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p, suggests canonical TGFβ, mTOR and related pathways to be involved in NV AMD. In addition, knockdown of hsa-mir-361-5p resulted in increased neovascularization in an in vitro angiogenesis assay.

  11. Optical Time Division Switching Using Multiple Stages of Fiber Optic Delay Lines.

    Spanke, Ronald Anthony

    Optical Time Slot Interchanges (OTSIs) can be realized by guided wave LiNbO_3 optical switches performing space division switching of optical fiber delay lines. In this dissertation the problems of reducing the total length of fiber required and also of improving the SNR characteristics of this OTSI function are addressed. Several new OTSI architectures are proposed to reduce the total fiber length while still obtaining excellent SNR characteristics. These reduced fiber architectures include the Distributed Input Delay, Distributed Output Delay, the 2-Stage decomposition and the Distributed Input/Output Delay architectures. A Parallel Feedback (PFB) OTSI architecture is proposed that achieves the theoretical minimum number of delay fibers and the theoretical minimum total length of delay fiber for a given OTSI function. Broadcast OTSI architectures are proposed that enable the data in an incoming time slot to be broadcast to one or more outgoing time slots. These broadcast OTSI architectures include the Time-Dup-Time (TDT) system, Passive Splitter/Active Combiner (PS/AC) equivalents of the point -to-point reduced fiber architectures, and the broadcast PFB architecture. For each of the point-to-point and the broadcast OTSI architectures proposed, a detailed characterization of the architecture is performed including an analysis of number of fibers, total fiber length, number of optical switches and drivers, attenuation and SNR characteristics. This dissertation also proposes several new techniques for improving the system SNR and for calibration of the OTSI architectures. A cascaded noise reduction and a differential attenuation compensation technique are used to achieve a significantly higher system SNR at the output of the OTSI. In-situ calibration techniques are discussed to determine the optimum operating voltages for the LiNbO _3 switches when alternating between states every time slot. These techniques attempt to compensate for an output power drift problem

  12. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections immunostained for smooth muscle actin (a marker of arterioles) and CD34 (an endothelial marker), with separate analyses on grey and white matter. A total of 43 834 smooth muscle actin-positive vascular profiles and 603 798 CD34-positive vascular profiles were evaluated. In frontal cortex of cases with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing, smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive arterioles had thicker walls (P < 0.05), larger perimeters (P < 0

  14. BDNF val66met polymorphism affects aging of multiple types of memory.

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Reese, Elizabeth D; Horn, Marci M; Sizemore, April N; Unni, Asha K; Meerbrey, Michael E; Kalich, Allan G; Rodrigue, Karen M

    2015-07-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age×BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (pmemory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory - in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Memory & Aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An automated technique to stage lower third molar development on panoramic radiographs for age estimation: a pilot study.

    De Tobel, J; Radesh, P; Vandermeulen, D; Thevissen, P W

    2017-12-01

    Automated methods to evaluate growth of hand and wrist bones on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging have been developed. They can be applied to estimate age in children and subadults. Automated methods require the software to (1) recognise the region of interest in the image(s), (2) evaluate the degree of development and (3) correlate this to the age of the subject based on a reference population. For age estimation based on third molars an automated method for step (1) has been presented for 3D magnetic resonance imaging and is currently being optimised (Unterpirker et al. 2015). To develop an automated method for step (2) based on lower third molars on panoramic radiographs. A modified Demirjian staging technique including ten developmental stages was developed. Twenty panoramic radiographs per stage per gender were retrospectively selected for FDI element 38. Two observers decided in consensus about the stages. When necessary, a third observer acted as a referee to establish the reference stage for the considered third molar. This set of radiographs was used as training data for machine learning algorithms for automated staging. First, image contrast settings were optimised to evaluate the third molar of interest and a rectangular bounding box was placed around it in a standardised way using Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 software. This bounding box indicated the region of interest for the next step. Second, several machine learning algorithms available in MATLAB R2017a software were applied for automated stage recognition. Third, the classification performance was evaluated in a 5-fold cross-validation scenario, using different validation metrics (accuracy, Rank-N recognition rate, mean absolute difference, linear kappa coefficient). Transfer Learning as a type of Deep Learning Convolutional Neural Network approach outperformed all other tested approaches. Mean accuracy equalled 0.51, mean absolute difference was 0.6 stages and mean linearly weighted kappa was

  16. Age differences in outcomes among patients in the "Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step" (STAGE-12) intervention.

    Garrett, Sharon B; Doyle, Suzanne R; Peavy, K Michelle; Wells, Elizabeth A; Owens, Mandy D; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; DiCenzo, Jessica; Donovan, Dennis M

    2018-01-01

    Emerging adults (roughly 18-29years) with substance use disorders can benefit from participation in twelve-step mutual-help organizations (TSMHO), however their attendance and participation in such groups is relatively low. Twelve-step facilitation therapies, such as the Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12), may increase attendance and involvement, and lead to decreased substance use. Analyses examined whether age moderated the STAGE-12 effects on substance use and TSMHO meeting attendance and participation. We utilized data from a multisite randomized controlled trial, with assessments at baseline, mid-treatment (week 4), end-of-treatment (week 8), and 3- and 6- months post-randomization. Participants were adults with DSM-IV diagnosed stimulant abuse or dependence (N=450) enrolling in 10 intensive outpatient substance use treatment programs across the U.S. A zero-inflated negative binomial random-effects regression model was utilized to examine age-by-treatment interactions on substance use and meeting attendance and involvement. Younger age was associated with larger treatment effects for stimulant use. Specifically, younger age was associated with greater odds of remaining abstinent from stimulants in STAGE-12 versus Treatment-as-Usual; however, among those who were not abstinent during treatment, younger age was related to greater rates of stimulant use at follow-up for those in STAGE-12 compared to TAU. There was no main effect of age on stimulant use. Younger age was also related to somewhat greater active involvement in different types of TSMHO activities among those in STAGE-12 versus TAU. There were no age-by-treatment interactions for other types of substance use or for treatment attendance, however, in contrast to stimulant use; younger age was associated with lower odds of abstinence from non-stimulant drugs at follow-up, regardless of treatment condition. These results suggest that STAGE-12 can be beneficial for some emerging adults

  17. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin

    Goudsmit, J.; Paul, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men

  18. Orthopantomographic evaluation of canine and first premolar using Demirjian's stages in central India: new approach to forensic age estimation.

    Pathak, Hrishikesh V; Dixit, Pradeep; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Bardale, Rajesh

    2012-07-01

    Teeth development is widely used for age estimation in forensic science. The aims of this study were as follows: first, to establish Indian data on canine and first premolar development for age estimation and second, to investigate population differences in teeth development. Orthopantomograms of 340 Indian children aged between 5 and 14 years were analyzed. Demirjian's stages were recorded for the developmental evaluation of canine and first premolar and for further descriptive statistical analysis. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test the significance of difference in teeth development by sex and stage. A one-way ANOVA was performed to investigate population differences in teeth development. Results showed statistically significant differences in teeth development by sex and stage. Accordingly, teeth development was earlier in girls. No statistically significant differences were observed in timings of Demirjian's stages among different populations. In conclusion, the findings of this study could be used for age estimation of Indian children. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  20. Influence of mycorrhizal developmental stages and plant age on rhizosphere mycoflora of Pinus kesiya (Royle

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively the population was recorded to be high around thc mycorrhizal roots. Some fungi were specific to different stages of mycorrhizal development. Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella elegans were recorded at 5% mycorrhizal association stage. Fusarium sp. was found at 20% mycorrhizal association, while Mucor spp. were obtained at 60% stage. Verticillium sp. had the highest frequency of occurrence in the beginning of mycorrhizal association but later on Penicilium spp. were found to be the most common. Sugar content of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots were determined to assess their effect on the mycorrhizospheric micropopulation. The mannitol and trehalose were present only in mycorrhizal roots.

  1. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG.Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the uprise of extremist, subcultural youth of multiple-aged groups, and the reasons whence they begin to perform distinctive functions that are specific for teenagers. Options for models of MAG humanistic educational systems formed in Russian and foreign social and pedagogical practice are listed. A complex of pedagogical conditions provided for the formation of social competence of adolescents in multiple-aged associations of humanistic orientation is considered. It has been found that this type of system is characterized by the following features: the principle of voluntary association of people, independence of subjects, rapid adaptation to changing socio-cultural situation, a variety of activities by interests, alternating change of activities, conflict resolution within the team, a high level of team spirit, selfmanagement, the creative nature of educational process, upbringing, socialization and self-realization. A brief description of conditions for development of fundamental human values among adolescents and formation of new specific complicated humanistic human and personal relations in global world is given.Scientific novelty. The author studies the following concepts: educational system of multiple-aged associations, teenager social competence, ambivalent behavior, emotional and moral compass of personality, invisible assets of the team, emergent effect of multiple-aged groups, inter-age communication. It was found that the specificity of MAG educational

  2. Uterine cervix cancer treatment at Radiumhemmet: 90 years' experience. Time trends of age, stage, and histopathology distribution.

    Hellman, Kristina; Hellström, Ann-Cathrin; Pettersson, B Folke

    2014-04-01

    Since the introduction of screening programs for cervical cancer (CC) the incidence has decreased and CC is discovered at an earlier stage. The purpose of this study was to analyze time trends in age, stage, and histopathology over a 90-year period and to our knowledge this is the largest single institutional series in the literature of invasive cervical carcinoma (CC) cases. This is a retrospective study comprising 18,472 women treated for CC from 1914 until 2004 at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm. The material is part of the international CC statistics published since 1937 in the League of Nations' Annual Reports, and since 1958 under the patronage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). During the 90-year study period, the annual number of cases treated increased to over 400 up until 1965, after which there was a gradual drop to less than 100 cases in 2004. A pronounced shift toward earlier stages at diagnosis was noted. The mean age at diagnosis increased in all stages, predominantly in advanced stages. A reduction in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases and a sixfold increase in the proportion of adenocarcinoma (AC) cases were observed. The mean age at diagnosis for squamous and AC cases shifted after 1970, when the SCC cases ultimately became 3 years older than the AC cases in contrast to around 1950 when they were 3 years younger than the AC cases. The changes in the distribution by age, stage, and histopathology during this 90-year period are probably associated with: improved social conditions and increased access to health care, the introduction of screening programs for CC in the 1960s, and a change in the risk factors for CC (changed sexual behavior, introduction of contraceptive pills, and changed smoking habits). © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways

    Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445

  4. Aging causes decreased resistance to multiple stresses and a failure to activate specific stress response pathways.

    Dues, Dylan J; Andrews, Emily K; Schaar, Claire E; Bergsma, Alexis L; Senchuk, Megan M; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage.

  5. Relationship Between Age at Menarche and Skeletal Maturation Stages in Taiwanese Female Orthodontic Patients

    Eddie Hsiang-Hua Lai

    2008-07-01

    Conclusion: The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  6. Uterine cervix cancer treatment at Radiumhemmet: 90 years′ experience. Time trends of age, stage, and histopathology distribution

    Hellman, Kristina; Hellström, Ann-Cathrin; Pettersson, B Folke

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of screening programs for cervical cancer (CC) the incidence has decreased and CC is discovered at an earlier stage. The purpose of this study was to analyze time trends in age, stage, and histopathology over a 90-year period and to our knowledge this is the largest single institutional series in the literature of invasive cervical carcinoma (CC) cases. This is a retrospective study comprising 18,472 women treated for CC from 1914 until 2004 at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm. The material is part of the international CC statistics published since 1937 in the League of Nations' Annual Reports, and since 1958 under the patronage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). During the 90-year study period, the annual number of cases treated increased to over 400 up until 1965, after which there was a gradual drop to less than 100 cases in 2004. A pronounced shift toward earlier stages at diagnosis was noted. The mean age at diagnosis increased in all stages, predominantly in advanced stages. A reduction in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases and a sixfold increase in the proportion of adenocarcinoma (AC) cases were observed. The mean age at diagnosis for squamous and AC cases shifted after 1970, when the SCC cases ultimately became 3 years older than the AC cases in contrast to around 1950 when they were 3 years younger than the AC cases. The changes in the distribution by age, stage, and histopathology during this 90-year period are probably associated with: improved social conditions and increased access to health care, the introduction of screening programs for CC in the 1960s, and a change in the risk factors for CC (changed sexual behavior, introduction of contraceptive pills, and changed smoking habits). This is a study on changes in the distribution by age, stage, and histopathology in a large series of cervical cancer treated in Sweden during a 90-year period. It also includes an historical review about the development of

  7. Uterine cervix cancer treatment at Radiumhemmet: 90 years′ experience. Time trends of age, stage, and histopathology distribution

    Hellman, Kristina; Hellström, Ann-Cathrin; Pettersson, B Folke

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of screening programs for cervical cancer (CC) the incidence has decreased and CC is discovered at an earlier stage. The purpose of this study was to analyze time trends in age, stage, and histopathology over a 90-year period and to our knowledge this is the largest single institutional series in the literature of invasive cervical carcinoma (CC) cases. This is a retrospective study comprising 18,472 women treated for CC from 1914 until 2004 at Radiumhemmet, Stockholm. The material is part of the international CC statistics published since 1937 in the League of Nations' Annual Reports, and since 1958 under the patronage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO). During the 90-year study period, the annual number of cases treated increased to over 400 up until 1965, after which there was a gradual drop to less than 100 cases in 2004. A pronounced shift toward earlier stages at diagnosis was noted. The mean age at diagnosis increased in all stages, predominantly in advanced stages. A reduction in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases and a sixfold increase in the proportion of adenocarcinoma (AC) cases were observed. The mean age at diagnosis for squamous and AC cases shifted after 1970, when the SCC cases ultimately became 3 years older than the AC cases in contrast to around 1950 when they were 3 years younger than the AC cases. The changes in the distribution by age, stage, and histopathology during this 90-year period are probably associated with: improved social conditions and increased access to health care, the introduction of screening programs for CC in the 1960s, and a change in the risk factors for CC (changed sexual behavior, introduction of contraceptive pills, and changed smoking habits). This is a study on changes in the distribution by age, stage, and histopathology in a large series of cervical cancer treated in Sweden during a 90-year period. It also includes an historical review about the development

  8. Latent constructs of adjustment to aging and subjective age in Portugal and Romania: a comparative multiple correspondence analysis

    Sofia von Humboldt

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the determinants of adjustment to aging (AtA and subjective age (SA identified by older adults and to investigate the differences of latent constructs that can work as major determinants in AtA and SA in an older Portuguese and Romanian population. Method: Measures were completed, including demographics and interviews. Complete data were available for 38 older adults aged between 74-90 years (M=80.6; SD = 5.4, from Portugal and Romenia. Data was subjected to content analysis. Representation of the associations and latent constructs were analyzed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA. Results: The most prevalent response of the interviewed participants for determinants to AtA was ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’ (18.1%. ‘With apprehension’ and ‘good enough’ (both 27.0% were identified as the most frequent SA responses. Findings showed a model for each nationality. AtA and SA for Portuguese elderly were explained by a three-factor model: ‘regardful’, ‘engaged’ and ‘conciliated’. A three-dimension model formed by ‘perseverant’, ‘congruent’ and ‘enjoyers’ was indicated as a best-fit solution for Romanian elderly. Conclusion: AtA and SA are strongly explained by increased likelihood of specific constructs in its definition. AtA is related to SA in older adults in both countries, although in different degree.

  9. Oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased brain atrophy in early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB at early stages of multiple sclerosis was associated with higher brain atrophy, when compared with patients without OB. METHODS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients with less than two years of disease onset and OB detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were included. SIENAX was used for total brain volume (TBV, gray matter volume (GMV, and white matter volume (WMV. RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 29 had positive IgG-OB. No differences were found between positive and negative patients in gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS, treatment received, and T2/T1 lesion load. TBV in positive IgG-OB patients was 1.5 mm³ x 10(6 compared with 1.64 mm³ x 10(6 in the negative ones (p=0.02. GMV was 0.51 mm³ x 10(6 in positive IgG-OB compared with 0.62 mm³ x 10(6 in negative ones (p=0.002. No differences in WMV (p=0.09 were seen. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-OB in the CSF was related to neurodegeneration magnetic resonance (MR markers in early RRMS.

  10. Fight, Flight, or Remain Silent? Juggling Multiple Accountabilities throughout the Formative Stage of a Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative.

    Kesten, Stacey M; Perez, Deborah A; Marques, Denise S; Evans, Scot D; Sulma, Adrienne

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the experiences of a research team as they navigated uncertain ethical and political terrain throughout the formative stage of a public housing redevelopment project. Specifically, we discuss the challenges related to balancing multiple accountabilities and the tensions among the various roles and responsibilities that emanated from different accountabilities. Due to contractual obligations to our funding source, established relations with community partners, and an ethical imperative to align with those holding the least power, we grappled with embodying multiple and often conflicting roles. Without oversight provided by our university institutional review board or a clear ethical framework for community psychology research and action, our team was left to negotiate the challenges that emerged through critical reflection and financial considerations. Throughout the case example presented in this paper, we highlight our difficulty in ethical decision-making with respect to the principles of obligation, disclosure, consent, commitment, and professionalism. Community psychologists often straddle the realms of academia, community partnerships, and conscious engagement with little guidance in navigating often conflicting roles and value systems. We present our narrative to highlight the complexity of scholar-activism in the context of community psychology and the necessity for developing ethical standards and guidelines tailored to meet the unique needs of community psychologists. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  11. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes. PMID:28489864

  12. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages.

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, pStage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, pStage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (pstages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the canines showed the lowest correlation for both gender.

  13. Age and gender differences in the relationship between hepatitis C infection and all stages of Chronic kidney disease.

    Li, W-C; Lee, Y-Y; Chen, I-C; Wang, S-H; Hsiao, C-T; Loke, S-S

    2014-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health issue with heavy economic burden. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of CKD, which can significantly impact the progression and mortality among patients with CKD. The prevalence of both illnesses is high in Taiwan. A multicentre and population-based cross-sectional study including 24 642 subjects was conducted to explore the association of HCV infection with the prevalence and severity of CKD. The measurements of metabolic parameters, eGFR and CKD stages were compared between subjects with HCV seropositivity and seronegativity. The analyses of association between HCV infection with CKD stages and evaluation of potential risk factors of CKD were performed by gender and age (≤ and >45 years). HCV-seropositive subjects accounted for 6.9% and had a significantly older age. The prevalence of CKD increased in those with HCV seropositivity (16.5%). Significantly higher prevalence of CKD stages ≥3 in HCV-seropositive subjects was noticed (7.8%). Age (>45 year), male gender, alcohol drinking, hypertension, creatinine and HCV infection were the significant factors associated with the presence of CKD. HCV seropositivity was an independent risk factor of developing CKD and associated with an increased risk of having CKD of all stages. The higher prevalence of earlier stage of CKD warrants longitudinal studies with frequent testing on renal function and sufficient duration to determine the changes of eGFR over time. Implementation of effective treatment intervention is also required for these subjects to prevent the progression of CKD to late stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness.

    Stanley, Christina R; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes.

  15. ERP evidence for own-age effects on late stages of processing sad faces.

    Fölster, Mara; Werheid, Katja

    2016-08-01

    Faces convey important information on interaction partners, such as their emotional state and age. Faces of the same age are, according to recent research, preferentially processed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the neural processes underlying this own-age effect are influenced by the emotional expression of the face, and to explore possible explanations such as the frequency or quality of contact to own-age versus other-age groups. Event-related potentials were recorded while 19 younger (18-30 years) and 19 older (64-86 years) observers watched younger and older sad and happy faces. Sad but not happy faces elicited higher late positive potential amplitudes for own-age than for other-age faces. This own-age effect was significant for older, but not for younger, observers, and correlated with the quality of contact with the own-age versus the other-age group. This pattern suggests that sad own-age faces are motivationally more relevant.

  16. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  17. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  18. Employment and absenteeism in working-age persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Salter, Amber; Thomas, Nina; Tyry, Tuula; Cutter, Gary; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2017-05-01

    To better understand the impact of the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) and disability on employment, absenteeism, and related factors. This study included respondents to the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry spring 2015 update survey who were US or Canadian residents, aged 18-65 years and reported having relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS), or primary progressive MS (PPMS). The RRMS and SPMS participants were combined to form the relapsing-onset MS (RMS) group and compared with the PPMS group regarding employment status, absenteeism, and disability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between employment-related outcomes and factors that may affect these relationships. Of the 8004 survey respondents, 5887 (73.6%) were 18-65 years of age. The PPMS group (n = 344) had a higher proportion of males and older mean age at the time of the survey and at time of diagnosis than the RMS group (n = 4829). Female sex, age, age at diagnosis, cognitive and hand function impairment, fatigue, higher disability levels, ≥3 comorbidities, and a diagnosis of PPMS were associated with not working. After adjustment for disability, the employed PPMS sub-group reported similar levels of absenteeism to the employed RMS sub-group. Limitations of the study include self-report of information and the possibility that participants may not fully represent the working-age MS population. In MS, employment status and absenteeism are negatively affected by disability, cognitive impairment, and fatigue. These findings underscore the need for therapies that prevent disability progression and other symptoms that negatively affect productivity in persons with MS to enable them to persist in the workforce.

  19. Association between age at onset of multiple sclerosis and vitamin D level-related factors

    Laursen, Julie Hejgaard; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare vitamin D level-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC and CYP2R1, multiple sclerosis (MS) risk SNPs in CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and HLA-DRB1*1501, and adolescent exposure to environmental risk factors for hypovitaminosis D, with MS age at onset. METHODS: This cross......, and the study was approved by the local ethics committee. RESULTS: Younger age at onset was significantly associated with low exposure to summer sun in adolescence, higher body mass index at 20 years of age, and the HLA-DRB1*1501 risk allele in both univariate analyses and in a multivariable regression analysis....... No association was found between age at onset and any of the other SNPs or vitamin D-associated environmental factors. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate an independent effect by HLA-DRB1*1501, adolescent summer sun habits, and body mass index at the age of 20 on age at onset of MS....

  20. Raman Spectral Characteristics of Oil-Paper Insulation and Its Application to Ageing Stage Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformers

    Jingxin Zou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aging of oil-paper insulation in power transformers may cause serious power failures. Thus, effective monitoring of the condition of the transformer insulation is the key to prevent major accidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of confocal laser Raman spectroscopy (CLRS for assessing the aging condition of oil-paper insulation. Oil-paper insulation samples were subjected to thermal accelerated ageing at 120 °C for up to 160 days according to the procedure described in the IEEE Guide. Meanwhile, the dimension of the Raman spectrum of the insulation oil was reduced by principal component analysis (PCA. The 160 oil-paper insulation samples were divided into five aging stages as training samples by clustering analysis and with the use of the degree of polymerization of the insulating papers. In addition, the features of the Raman spectrum were used as the inputs of a multi-classification support vector machine. Finally, 105 oil-paper insulation testing samples aged at a temperature of 130 °C were used to further test the diagnostic capability and universality of the established algorithm. Results demonstrated that CLRS in conjunction with the PCA-SVM technique provides a new way for aging stage assessment of oil-paper insulation equipment in the field.

  1. Staging of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16 year old Indian children.

    Hegde, Sapna; Patodia, Akash; Dixit, Uma

    2016-12-01

    The usefulness of the developmental status of the third molar has been studied in assessment of the chronological age of adolescents in whom the development of the other permanent teeth is nearly complete. However, little is known about the timing and pattern of third-molar development in the Indian population. This study aimed to stage the third molar development in relation to chronological age of 5-16year old Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, the status of third molar development in relation to chronological age of 1139 Indian children aged 5-16 years was evaluated radiographically, using Orhan's modification of Demirjian's method. The frequency of occurrence of the third molars varied from 47% to 70%. Crypt formation, crown completion and root completion occurred as early as 5.4, 8.7 and 15.0 years, respectively. No significant differences based on gender or side were observed in third-molar development (p>0.05). For most stages, maxillary third molars were slightly more advanced than their mandibular counterparts (p>0.05). Considering the high degree of variability observed in third molar genesis and development, the usefulness of this tooth in age determination studies may be very limited in the age group studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship Between Age at Menarche and Skeletal Maturation Stages in Taiwanese Female Orthodontic Patients

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Methods: Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8–18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation sta...

  3. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    Tsakiris, D.J.; Stel, V.S.; Finne, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Information on demographics and survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to multiple myeloma (MM) or light-chain deposit disease (LCDD) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics, causes...... causes (non-MM) was observed overtime. Patient survival on RRT was examined, unadjusted and adjusted for age and gender. Results. Of the 159 637 patients on RRT, 2453 (1.54%) had MM or LCDD. The incidence of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD, adjusted for age and gender, increased from 0.70 pmp in 1986...

  4. Targeting multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways with a resorcinol derivative leads to inhibition of advanced stages of breast cancer.

    Murase, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Rumi; Singer, Eric; Pakdel, Arash; Sarma, Pranamee; Judkins, Jonathon; Elwakeel, Eiman; Dayal, Sonali; Martinez-Martinez, Esther; Amere, Mukkanti; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; McAllister, Sean D

    2014-10-01

    The psychoactive cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can both reduce cancer progression, each through distinct anti-tumour pathways. Our goal was to discover a compound that could efficiently target both cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways. To measure breast cancer cell proliferation/viability and invasion, MTT and Boyden chamber assays were used. Modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis was measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein and annexin/propidium iodide, respectively, in combination with cell flow cytometry. Changes in protein levels were evaluated using Western analysis. Orthotopic and i.v. mouse models of breast cancer metastasis were used to test the activity of cannabinoids in vivo. CBD reduced breast cancer metastasis in advanced stages of the disease as the direct result of down-regulating the transcriptional regulator Id1. However, this was associated with moderate increases in survival. We therefore screened for analogues that could co-target cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways (CBD- and THC-associated) and discovered the compound O-1663. This analogue inhibited Id1, produced a marked stimulation of ROS, up-regulated autophagy and induced apoptosis. Of all the compounds tested, it was the most potent at inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in culture and metastasis in vivo. O-1663 prolonged survival in advanced stages of breast cancer metastasis. Developing compounds that can simultaneously target multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways efficiently may provide a novel approach for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Analysis of 1202 orthopantograms to evaluate the potential of forensic age determination based on third molar developmental stages.

    Willershausen, B; Löffler, N; Schulze, R

    2001-09-28

    A total of 1202 orthopantograms of young dental patients were analyzed to assess the correlation of third molar root development with chronological age. The investigated patients were treated at a university dental clinic on an outpatient basis, included a variety of demographic characteristics (600 males and 602 females, 28% of other than central European background), and were 15-24 years old when the radiographs were obtained. Radiographs in which more than one third molar were either missing due to agenesia or extraction, or not evaluable because of deep destruction or marked tilting, were not included in the analysis. Our findings show that the growth patterns of third molars, based on seven defined stages of root development, did correlate with chronological age; age estimation when applied to a specific individual would involve a margin of error of +/- 2-4 years. There were no significant differences between the left and right jaw segments, but the stage of root development was generally more advanced in the upper than in the lower third molars. Root development was also more advanced among boys than among girls of the same age. There were no apparent differences in growth patterns based on national/ethnic background. While only 2.5% of 18-year-olds revealed fully developed third molars in all four quadrants, this percentage leaped to 38.4% among the 21-year-olds. To summarize, while the developmental stage of third molars is not per se a highly useful indicator of chronological age in juveniles and young adults, it is nevertheless a valuable supplementary parameter given the scarcity of other available age indicators.

  6. Intense inflammation and nerve damage in early multiple sclerosis subsides at older age: a reflection by cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers.

    Mohsen Khademi

    Full Text Available Inflammatory mediators have crucial roles in leukocyte recruitment and subsequent central nervous system (CNS neuroinflammation. The extent of neuronal injury and axonal loss are associated with the degree of CNS inflammation and determine physical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between a panel of selected cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and robust clinical and demographic parameters in a large cohort of patients with MS and controls (n = 1066 using data-driven multivariate analysis. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 13 (CXCL13, osteopontin (OPN and neurofilament-light chain (NFL were measured by ELISA in 548 subjects comprising different MS subtypes (relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive and primary progressive, clinically isolated syndrome and persons with other neurological diseases with or without signs of inflammation/infection. Principal component analyses and orthogonal partial least squares methods were used for unsupervised and supervised interrogation of the data. Models were validated using data from a further 518 subjects in which one or more of the four selected markers were measured. There was a significant association between increased patient age and lower levels of CXCL13, MMP9 and NFL. CXCL13 levels correlated well with MMP9 in the younger age groups, but less so in older patients, and after approximately 54 years of age the levels of CXCL13 and MMP9 were consistently low. CXCL13 and MMP9 levels also correlated well with both NFL and OPN in younger patients. We demonstrate a strong effect of age on both inflammatory and neurodegenerative biomarkers in a large cohort of MS patients. The findings support an early use of adequate immunomodulatory disease modifying drugs, especially in younger patients, and may provide a biological explanation for the relative inefficacy of such treatments in older patients at later

  7. Aging causes collateral rarefaction and increased severity of ischemic injury in multiple tissues

    Faber, James E.; Zhang, Hua; Lassance-Soares, Roberta M.; Prabhakar, Pranay; Najafi, Amir H.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Aging is a major risk factor for increased ischemic tissue injury. Whether collateral rarefaction and impaired remodeling contribute to this is unknown. We quantified the number and diameter of native collaterals, and their remodeling in 3-, 16-, 24-, and 31-months-old mice. Methods and Results Aging caused an “age-dose-dependent” greater drop in perfusion immediately after femoral artery ligation, followed by a diminished recovery of flow and increase in tissue injury. These effects were associated with a decline in collateral number, diameter and remodeling. Angiogenesis was also impaired. Mechanistically, these changes were not accompanied by reduced recruitment of T-cells or macrophages to remodeling collaterals. However, eNOS signaling was dysfunctional, as indicated by increased protein nitrosylation and less phosphorylated eNOS and VASP in collateral wall cells. The cerebral circulation exhibited a similar age-dose-dependent loss of collateral number and diameter and increased tortuosity, resulting in an increase in collateral resistance and infarct volume (e.g., 6- and 3-fold, respectively, in 24-months-old mice) after artery occlusion. This was not associated with rarefaction of similarly-sized arterioles. Collateral remodeling was also reduced. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that aging causes rarefaction and insufficiency of the collateral circulation in multiple tissues, resulting in more severe ischemic tissue injury. PMID:21617137

  8. Exploring Lyric, Epic, and Dramatic Voices: Stages of Incandescence in the Poetry of the Aged.

    Reed, M. Ann

    1992-01-01

    Identifies true relationships between the psyche and the lyric, epic, and dramatic voices of poetry. Shows how the acts of identifying, responding to, and composing in these three voices engage healing, inspiration, and active imagination among the aging. (SR)

  9. In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Bruno J Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD, DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes.

  10. Nontranscriptional regulation of SYK by the coactivator OCA-B is required at multiple stages of B cell development.

    Siegel, Rachael; Kim, Unkyu; Patke, Alina; Yu, Xin; Ren, Xiaodi; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Roeder, Robert G

    2006-05-19

    OCA-B was originally identified as a nuclear transcriptional coactivator that is essential for antigen-driven immune responses. The later identification of a membrane bound, myristoylated form of OCA-B suggested additional, unique functions in B cell signaling pathways. This study has shown that OCA-B also functions in the pre-B1-to-pre-B2 cell transition and, most surprisingly, that it directly interacts with SYK, a tyrosine kinase critical for pre-BCR and BCR signaling. This unprecedented type of interaction-a transcriptional coactivator with a signaling kinase-occurs in the cytoplasm and directly regulates SYK stability. This study indicates that OCA-B is required for pre-BCR and BCR signaling at multiple stages of B cell development through its nontranscriptional regulation of SYK. Combined with the deregulation of OCA-B target genes, this may help explain the multitude of defects observed in B cell development and immune responses of Oca-b-/- mice.

  11. Influence of Growth Stage and Leaf Age on Expression of the Components of Partial Resistance of Faba Bean to Botrytis fabae Sard.

    A. Bouhassan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In detached leaf tests on faba bean (Vicia faba L., genotypes partially resistant and susceptible to Botrytis fabae were examined. Expression of four components of partial resistance to a virulent isolate of B. fabae differed depending on the plant age and the leaf age of the genotypes. The incubation period of resistant genotypes at the podding stage was longer than that of susceptible genotypes at the same stage. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC of the lesion size increased from the seedling to the flowering stage but declined at the podding stage in all genotypes. Differences between resistant and susceptible genotypes for lesion size were significant except on old leaves from plants at the podding stage. The latent period decreased, and spore production increased with increasing growth and leaf age but there was significant interaction with the genotype. These last two components of partial resistance were more clearly expressed at all growth stages on FRY167 (highly resistant but were expressed only at the seedling and podding stages on FRY7 (resistant. The resistant line BPL710 was not significantly different from the susceptible genotypes for the latent period at any growth stage, and for spore production at the seedling and flowering stages. Leaf age affected all genotypes, but with a significant interaction between leaf age and growth stage. Components of partial resistance were more strongly expressed on young leaves from plants at the seedling or flowering stage.

  12. Estimation of age- and stage-specific Catalan breast cancer survival functions using US and Catalan survival data

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last part of the 1990s the chance of surviving breast cancer increased. Changes in survival functions reflect a mixture of effects. Both, the introduction of adjuvant treatments and early screening with mammography played a role in the decline in mortality. Evaluating the contribution of these interventions using mathematical models requires survival functions before and after their introduction. Furthermore, required survival functions may be different by age groups and are related to disease stage at diagnosis. Sometimes detailed information is not available, as was the case for the region of Catalonia (Spain). Then one may derive the functions using information from other geographical areas. This work presents the methodology used to estimate age- and stage-specific Catalan breast cancer survival functions from scarce Catalan survival data by adapting the age- and stage-specific US functions. Methods Cubic splines were used to smooth data and obtain continuous hazard rate functions. After, we fitted a Poisson model to derive hazard ratios. The model included time as a covariate. Then the hazard ratios were applied to US survival functions detailed by age and stage to obtain Catalan estimations. Results We started estimating the hazard ratios for Catalonia versus the USA before and after the introduction of screening. The hazard ratios were then multiplied by the age- and stage-specific breast cancer hazard rates from the USA to obtain the Catalan hazard rates. We also compared breast cancer survival in Catalonia and the USA in two time periods, before cancer control interventions (USA 1975–79, Catalonia 1980–89) and after (USA and Catalonia 1990–2001). Survival in Catalonia in the 1980–89 period was worse than in the USA during 1975–79, but the differences disappeared in 1990–2001. Conclusion Our results suggest that access to better treatments and quality of care contributed to large improvements in survival in Catalonia. On

  13. L10 ordered structures in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging

    Fuzhong, X.; Mingpu, W.

    2016-07-01

    This study concerns the precipitation structures of Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78Mg (wt. %) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging. The Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78 Mg alloys were solution treated at 540 °C and 500 °C for 2 h, respectively, and then aged at 190 °C for 2 min. The precipitation structures in aged Al-3Cu-(1.78Mg) alloys were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HTREM). 001 zone axis Selected area electron diffraction patterns indicate that L10 ordered structures are formed in the two aged alloys. HRTEM experiments reveal the partial dislocations on the interfaces of L10 ordered structures. From comparing experimental results with that in the literature, it is concluded that the L10 ordered structures in aged Al-3Cu alloy consist of Al and Cu atoms, and they are comprised by Al, Cu and Mg atoms together in the aged Al-3Cu-1.78Mg alloy. On the basis of precipitate growing thermodynamics, it is thought the L10 ordered structures act as nuclei for GP zones in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys during aging. (Author)

  14. L10 ordered structures in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging

    Fuzhong, X.; Mingpu, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the precipitation structures of Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78Mg (wt. %) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging. The Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78 Mg alloys were solution treated at 540 °C and 500 °C for 2 h, respectively, and then aged at 190 °C for 2 min. The precipitation structures in aged Al-3Cu-(1.78Mg) alloys were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HTREM). 001 zone axis Selected area electron diffraction patterns indicate that L10 ordered structures are formed in the two aged alloys. HRTEM experiments reveal the partial dislocations on the interfaces of L10 ordered structures. From comparing experimental results with that in the literature, it is concluded that the L10 ordered structures in aged Al-3Cu alloy consist of Al and Cu atoms, and they are comprised by Al, Cu and Mg atoms together in the aged Al-3Cu-1.78Mg alloy. On the basis of precipitate growing thermodynamics, it is thought the L10 ordered structures act as nuclei for GP zones in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys during aging. (Author)

  15. The use of surgery in the treatment of ER+ early stage breast cancer in England: Variation by time, age and patient characteristics.

    Richards, P; Ward, S; Morgan, J; Lagord, C; Reed, M; Collins, K; Wyld, L

    2016-04-01

    To assess whether the proportion of patients aged 70 and over with ER+ operable breast cancer in England who are treated with surgery has changed since 2002, and to determine whether age and individual level factors including tumour characteristics and co-morbidity influence treatment choice. A retrospective cohort analysis of routinely collected cancer registration data from two English regions (West Midlands, Northern & Yorkshire) was carried out (n = 17,129). Trends in surgical use over time for different age groups were assessed graphically and with linear regression. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of age, comorbidity, deprivation and disease characteristics on treatment choice. Missing data was handled using multiple imputation. There is no evidence of a change in the proportion of patients treated surgically over time. The multivariable model shows that age remains an important predictor of whether or not a woman with ER+ operable breast cancer receives surgery after covariate adjustment (Odds ratio of surgery vs no surgery, 0.82 (per year over 70)). Co-morbidity, deprivation, symptomatic presentation, later stage at diagnosis and low grade are also associated with increased probability of non-surgical treatment. Contrary to current NICE guidance in England, age appears to be an important factor in the decision to treat operable ER+ breast cancer non-surgically. Further research is needed to assess the role of other age-related factors on treatment choice, and the effect that current practice has on survival and mortality from breast cancer for older women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple bands characteristics of tree-ring and age of haloxylon ammodendron in gurbantunggut desert

    Song, Y.; Zhou, C.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the multiple bands of Haloxylon ammodendron (C.A. Mey) Bunge tree-ring were studied in three edaphic types. Age equations were derived relating ground diameter and tree height, and the effects of irrigation on numbers and widths of growth bands at the longest radius were analyzed. Results showed that the number of growth bands ranged from 3.3 to 6.3 per year, the widths ranged between 0.181 mm and 0.473 mm. Multiple growth bands formed every growing season, leading to the conclusion that multiple growth bands in H. ammodendron tree-ring are a natural feature. A dark brown layer and a light brown one make up one growth band. The dark brown layers consists of fibres and vessels as well as some ray parenchyma, and each fibres layers with 22-35 cell layers; the light brown layers formed by vessels, fibres and abundant paratracheal axial parenchyma are 4-15 cell layers. The widths of growth bands at the longest radius increased significantly as the irrigation amount increased in three edaphic types (p<0.01). The numbers of growth bands at the longest radius had significant positive correlation with irrigation times. The ratio of dark brown layers to light brown layers of growth bands at the longest radius appeared to have a rising tendency with the increase in irrigation amount and times. (author)

  17. Definition, age, and correlation of the Clarence Series stages in New Zealand (late Early to early Late Cretaceous)

    Crampton, J.S.; Tulloch, A.J.; Wilson, G.J.; Ramezani, J.; Speden, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    The New Zealand local Clarence Series spans the Lower/Upper Cretaceous boundary and includes three stages, in ascending order, the Urutawan, Motuan, and Ngaterian. All three were defined originally from a type section at Motu Falls, Raukumara Peninsula. To address problems with their original definitions and to improve correlations between the New Zealand time-scale and Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, four key sections have been re-studied: the Motu Falls and adjacent Te Waka sections, and the Coverham and Seymour sections in the Clarence valley, Marlborough. The sections contain locally abundant macrofossils and have been sampled at a reconnaissance level for dinoflagellates. In addition, a middle Motuan tuff bed in the Motu Falls section has yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 101.6 ± 0.2 Ma, and an upper Ngaterian basalt flow in the Seymour section has yielded a plagioclase Ar/Ar age of 96.1 ± 0.6 Ma. The older of these dates allows, for the first time, direct age correlation of Clarence Series stages that are based on marine strata in eastern New Zealand, with non-marine rocks in the west. Thus, the Stitts Tuff, at the base of the Pororari Group in the western South Island, is shown to be middle Motuan. Based on the new data, we emend the definitions of the Clarence Series stages. The base of the Urutawan is defined using the lowest occurrence of the inoceramid bivalve Mytiloides ipuanus in the Motu Falls section. The base of the Motuan is defined using the lowest occurrence of the bivalve Aucellina euglypha in the same section. The base of the Ngaterian is defined using the lowest occurrence of the inoceramid 'I.' tawhanus in the Te Waka section. In all three cases, the placements of the lowest occurrence datums are subject to uncertainties that can only be resolved by further biostratigraphic and/or taxonomic study. Based on biostratigraphic data and the new radiometric dates, the following international correlations are proposed: Urutawan Stage = lower

  18. Change in mechanical properties of low-alloyed molybdenum alloys at two-stage strengthening during aging

    Bernshtejn, L.M.; Zakharov, A.M.; Arbuzov, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Change in mechanical properties of hardened low-alloyed molybdenum alloys (Mo-Zr-C and Mo-Zr-Nb-C) at two-stage strengthening during ageing at 1400 deg C is studied. The initial strengthening maximum following ageing for 5 hr is caused by separation of dispersed ZrC particles and is accompanied by worsened plasticity, a development characteristic of precipitation hardening processes. The second increase in strength after a 10-hr ageing is not accompanied by reduced plasticity, this being characteristic of strengthening as a result of reconstruction of the dislocation structure. Niobium (0.16 wt.%) added to Mo-Zr-C alloys simultaneously increases their plastic and strength properties. The said effect is caused by prevention of premature decomposition of alloys on account of increased low-temperature plasticity, which permits to obtain high resistance to plastic deformation

  19. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    Satgé, Daniel; Sauleau, Eric-André; Jacot, William; Raffi, Fernand; Azéma, Bernard; Bouyat, Jean-Claude; El Hage Assaf, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR = 11.53, p = 0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR = 12.00, p = 0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR = 3.19, p = 0.010). Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women

  20. Another stage of development: Biological degeneracy and the study of bodily ageing.

    Mason, Paul H; Maleszka, Ryszard; Dominguez D, Juan F

    2017-04-01

    Ageing is a poorly understood process of human development mired by a scientific approach that struggles to piece together distributed variable factors involved in ongoing transformations of living systems. Reconfiguring existing research paradigms, we review the concept of 'degeneracy', which has divergent popular and technical definitions. The technical meaning of degeneracy refers to the structural diversity underlying functional plasticity. Degeneracy is a distributed system property that can be observed within individual brains or across different brains. For example, dementias with similar behavioural anomalies can result from a diverse range of cellular "faults", which is an example of degeneracy because the symptoms are similar in spite of different underlying mechanisms. Degeneracy is a valuable epistemological tool that can transformatively enhance scientific models of bodily ageing. We propose that movement science is one of the first areas that can productively integrate degeneracy into models of bodily ageing. We also propose model organisms such as eusocial honey bees in which degeneracy can be studied at the molecular and cellular level. Developing a vocabulary for thinking about how distributed variable factors are interlinked is important if we are to understand bodily ageing not as a single entity, but as the heterogeneous construction of changing biological, social, and environmental processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Followed by an Assembly Stage Considering Aging Effects and Preventive Maintenance Activities

    Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problem for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem (HFSP followed by an assembly stage considering aging effects additional preventive and maintenance activities is studied in this paper. In this production system, a number of products of different kinds are produced. Each product is assembled with a set of several parts. The first stage is a hybrid flow shop to produce parts. All machines can process all kinds of parts in this stage but each machine can process only one part at the same time. The second stage is a single assembly machine or a single assembly team of workers. The aim is to schedule the parts on the machines and assembly sequence and also determine when the preventive maintenance activities get done in order to minimize the completion time of all products (makespan. A mathematical modeling is presented and its validation is shown by solving an example in small scale. Since this problem has been proved strongly NP-hard, in order to solve the problem in medium and large scale, four heuristic algorithms is proposed based on the Johnson’s algorithm. The numerical experiments are used to run the mathematical model and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  2. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  3. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  4. MRI EVALUATION OF PAINFUL KNEE JOINT- THE CORRELATION OF MULTIPLE COEXISTING PATHOLOGIES, AGE AND SEX

    Mukheswar Pame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 1. To evaluate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies causing painful knee and their correlation to age and sex. 2. To evaluate the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features in various knee pathologies and to identify the common lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study was performed using the clinical data of patients presenting with painful knee joint which were evaluated with MRI. Data from 200 patients examined between September 2015 and August 2016 were included into this study. The data was analysed statistically to evaluate the correlation between the MR pathological findings to age and sex of the patients. RESULTS The patient’s age ranged between 8 and 75 years (mean: 36 years. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tear was the commonest finding (60% followed by bursitis (55%, meniscal degeneration (54.6% and meniscal tear (52%. Primary signs of ACL tear were hyperintensity, discontinuity and nonvisualisation. Secondary signs like Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL buckling, PCL index of greater than 0.5, uncovered Lateral meniscus (LM and bone contusion assisted in diagnosis in indeterminate cases. Mid substance was the commonest site of ACL tear (64%. PCL tear accounted for only a small percentage (7%. Medial Meniscus (MM tear (35% was commoner than LM tear (17%. The posterior horn of meniscus was the commonest site of injury (86.5%. Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tear, Medial collateral ligament (MCL degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. A significant correlation between male gender and ACL injury was noted. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well with MCL injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with ACL injury, MCL injury and Lateral collateral ligament (LCL injury. CONCLUSIONS MRI findings of certain pathologies in a painful knee can coexist and significantly correlate with each other, age and sex of

  5. Opinion Paper: A Cognitive-cultural Segregation and the Three Stages of Aging.

    Kyriazis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that the world is divided and unequal, mostly with respect to wealth. However, the true obstacle preventing the progress of humanity is not the divide between the rich and the poor. It is the divide between the cognitive and the physical. Apart from the social and ethical issues associated with this, there are also medical ones. The implications of this divide have direct relevance to aging, both in research and in the clinical sense. We cannot simply apply the same 'healthy aging' guidelines to everybody, but we need to establish if our approach is specifically suited to the individual. Our research endeavours need to have this division in focus. In this Opinion paper I describe three separate groups of humanity, which are divided, not by economic criteria, but by a worldview of intellectual creativity. Each arbitrary group has its own health priorities. If we overlook these priorities we may, at best, give the wrong advice to our patients, or at worst waste resources and exacerbate the rate of age-related degeneration in many individuals. As our society becomes more reliant on technology, what is now considered 'healthy' may not be so, for many millions of people.

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences Are Linked to Age of Onset and Reading Recognition in Multiple Sclerosis

    Michael T. Shaw

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs exert a psychological and physiological toll that increases risk of chronic conditions, poorer social functioning, and cognitive impairment in adulthood.ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical disease features in multiple sclerosis (MS.MethodsSixty-seven participants with MS completed the ACE assessment and neuropsychological assessments as part of a larger clinical trial of cognitive remediation.ResultsAdverse childhood experience scores, a measure of exposure to adverse events in childhood, significantly predicted age of MS onset (r = –0.30, p = 0.04. ACEs were also linked to reading recognition (a proxy for premorbid IQ (r = –0.25, p = 0.04. ACE scores were not related to age, current disability, or current level of cognitive impairment measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT.ConclusionChildhood adversity may increase the likelihood of earlier age of onset and poorer estimated premorbid IQ in MS.

  7. Psychometric properties and validation of Portuguese version of Ages & Stages Questionnaires (3rd edition): 9, 18 and 30 Questionnaires.

    Lopes, Sónia; Graça, Patrícia; Teixeira, Salete; Serrano, Ana Maria; Squires, Jane

    2015-09-01

    The essential underlying foundations of Early Intervention (EI), in which parents/family play a critical role in their child's development, leads us to conclude that their contribution assessing early detection of problems is fundamental. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) is a standardized screening instrument that has been successfully studied in different countries and cultures. Translate and study the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese version of the 9, 18 and 30month questionnaires of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3). Cross-sectional study. Validity and reliability were studied in a sample of 234 parents of children within 9, 18 and 30months. The results indicated that the questionnaires had good internal consistency, strong agreement between observers and between observations with two weeks interval, and strong Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between the overall and the total for each domain. The cutoff points (i.e. 2 standard deviations below the mean domain score), that identifies children who should receive further referral for more comprehensive assessment, were close to those determined in the original ASQ-3 psychometric studies. Cronbach's alpha ranging from .42 to .70 and Pearson's r values varies from .22 to .60. Although some weaknesses were noted in psychometric qualities analysis, it can be concluded that the ASQ-PT of 9, 18 and 30months of age fulfills the requirements of a screening tool validated for the Portuguese population. To allow the early identification of children with developmental problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Brilman, Derk W.F.

    2017-01-01

    (Graph Presented) The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction

  9. Modulation method for a multiple drive system based on a two-stage direct power conversion topology with reduced input current ripple

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    operation. This is a cost effective topology compared to a standard matrix converter because the multiple three-phase loads share the cost of the controlled rectification stage. A new method to reduce the high frequency ripple from the input current is also proposed based on interleaving the switching...

  10. [Coping with chronic illness and multiple medicines in older age: self-management support as an obligation in nursing].

    Müller-Mundt, G; Schaeffer, D

    2011-02-01

    In later stages of chronic disease and especially in older age, chronically ill people are often dependent on multiple medicines. Coming to terms with complex medication regimes in everyday life is a challenging task. To provide the support actually needed, patient-centered interventions are essential, not only taking into account the patients' needs and preferences, but also promoting their ability to self manage their disease(s) and their medication regime. This paper outlines the results of a research project aimed at developing and evaluating an intervention to integrate self-management support into primary care, based on a qualitative exploration of the patients' and professionals' views. The findings stress that home care nurses should take an active part in self-management support but need to be prepared adequately. Therefore, a two-tier intervention was developed and evaluated in a prospective control study, consisting of a qualified training and guidelines for practice. The intervention serves to expand the nurses' professional competence to provide the needed individually tailored self-management support in home care.

  11. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children.

    Jorien M Kerstjens

    Full Text Available To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3 to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two.We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive--or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85.We found 61 (27% children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5% children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70. Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73% children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%, its specificity was acceptable (76%, and its negative predictive value (NPV was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds.The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.

  12. Radiation therapy for stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer in patients aged 75 years and older

    Furuta, Masaya; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Katano, Susumu

    1996-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1992, 32 patients aged 75 and older with stage I-II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were given definitive radiation therapy. These patients did not undergo surgery because of old age, poor cardiac/pulmonary condition, or refusal to give consent. The mean age was 79 years, and 11 patients were over 80 years old. The histologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 25 patients and adenocarcinoma in 7. The clinical T and N stage was T1N0 in 4 patients, T2N0 in 9, and T2N0 in 19. The total dose of radiation therapy given to each patient exceeded 60 Gy using 10-MV X-rays. The treatment was completed in all 32 patients without treatment-related complications. The 2- and 5-year overall actuarial survival rates were 40% and 16%, respectively. Eleven intercurrent deaths occurred, including 7 patients who died of heart disease. The 2- and 5-year cause-specific survival rates were 57% and 36%, respectively. None of the patients developed severe pneumonitis requiring hospitalization. All but three patients received radiation therapy on an inpatient basis. The mean duration of the hospital stay for initial treatment was 56 days, and mean ratio to total survival period (mean 739 days) was 8%. Although many elderly patients have concurrent medical complications such as heart disease and chronic pulmonary disease, the present study showed that elderly patients with clinical stage I-II NSCLC can expert a realistic probability of long-term survival with definitive radiation therapy. (author)

  13. Can innate and autoimmune reactivity forecast early and advance stages of age-related macular degeneration?

    Adamus, Grazyna

    2017-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of central vision loss in persons over 55years of age in developed countries. AMD is a complex disease in which genetic, environmental and inflammatory factors influence its onset and progression. Elevation in serum anti-retinal autoantibodies, plasma and local activation of complement proteins of the alternative pathway, and increase in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines have been seen over the course of disease. Genetic studies of AMD patients confirmed that genetic variants affecting the alternative complement pathway have a major influence on AMD risk. Because the heterogeneity of this disease, there is no sufficient strategy to identify the disease onset and progression sole based eye examination, thus identification of reliable serological biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment by sampling patient's blood is necessary. This review provides an outline of the current knowledge on possible serological (autoantibodies, complement factors, cytokines, chemokines) and related genetic biomarkers relevant to the pathology of AMD, and discusses their application for prediction of disease activity and prognosis in AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ON THE MULTIPLICITY OF THE ZERO-AGE MAIN-SEQUENCE O STAR HERSCHEL 36

    Arias, Julia I.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Apellaniz, Jesus MaIz; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Sota, Alfredo; Walborn, Nolan R.; Bidin, Christian Moni

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of high-resolution optical spectroscopic observations of the zero-age main-sequence O star Herschel 36 spanning six years. This star is definitely a multiple system, with at least three components detected in its spectrum. Based on our radial-velocity (RV) study, we propose a picture of a close massive binary and a more distant companion, most probably in wide orbit about each other. The orbital solution for the binary, whose components we identify as O9 V and B0.5 V, is characterized by a period of 1.5415 ± 0.0006 days. With a spectral type O7.5 V, the third body is the most luminous component of the system and also presents RV variations with a period close to 498 days. Some possible hypotheses to explain the variability are briefly addressed and further observations are suggested.

  15. Fisetin Acts on Multiple Pathways to Reduce the Impact of Age and Disease on CNS Function

    Maher, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems. Thus, while each disease has its own initiating mechanisms and pathologies, certain common pathways appear to be involved in most, if not all, neurological diseases described to date. Thus, it is unlikely that modulating only a single factor will be effective at either preventing disease development or slowing disease progression. A better approach is to identify small (fisetin. Fisetin not only has direct antioxidant activity but it can also increase the intracellular levels of glutathione, the major intracellular antioxidant. Fisetin can also activate key neurotrophic factor signaling pathways. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory activity against microglial cells and inhibits the activity of lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and their by-products. This wide range of actions suggests that fisetin has the ability to reduce the impact of age-related neurological diseases on brain function. PMID:25961687

  16. Automated detection of age-related macular degeneration in OCT images using multiple instance learning

    Sun, Weiwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a kind of macular disease which mostly occurs in old people,and it may cause decreased vision or even lead to permanent blindness. Drusen is an important clinical indicator for AMD which can help doctor diagnose disease and decide the strategy of treatment. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is widely used in the diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases, include AMD. In this paper, we propose a classification method based on Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) to detect AMD. Drusen can exist in a few slices of OCT images, and MIL is utilized in our method. We divided the method into two phases: training phase and testing phase. We train the initial features and clustered to create a codebook, and employ the trained classifier in the test set. Experiment results show that our method achieved high accuracy and effectiveness.

  17. Quadriceps strength, inter-extremity difference (IED) and joint status in adult persons with severe haemophilia in different age stages.

    Brunner, A; Stäuber, F; Göhler, S; Czepa, D; Krüger, S; Wendel, M; Seuser, A; Hilberg, T

    2013-03-01

    Quadriceps weakness seems to be a hallmark in adult persons with severe haemophilia (PWH). The purpose of this study was to compare PWH and non-haemophilic controls in different age stages with reference to joint status and quadriceps strength. Further aims were to examine the extent of strength-specific inter-extremity-difference (IED) and the prevalence of abnormal IED (AIED). A total of 106 adults with severe haemophilia (H) and 80 controls (C) had undergone an orthopaedic examination for classification of knee and ankle status using the WFH score. Quadriceps strength was evaluated unilaterally as well as bilaterally with a knee extensor device. Each group was divided into four age-related subgroups (HA/CA: 18-29, HB/CB: 30-39, HC/CC: 40-49, HD/CD: 50-70; in years). H presented a worse knee and ankle status than C indicated by higher WFH scores (P age-matched subgroups only HB showed higher knee scores than CB (P age-matched controls (P age in H. We discovered an AIED in 35% of H. These findings highlight the importance for the early implementation of preventive and rehabilitative muscle training programmes in the comprehensive treatment of PWH. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Overall evaluation of combustion and NO(x) emissions for a down-fired 600 MW(e) supercritical boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi

    2013-05-07

    To achieve significant reductions in NOx emissions and to eliminate strongly asymmetric combustion found in down-fired boilers, a deep-air-staging combustion technology was trialed in a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler. By performing industrial-sized measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the near wing-wall region, carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions at various settings, effects of overfire air (OFA) and staged-air damper openings on combustion characteristics, and NOx emissions within the furnace were experimentally determined. With increasing the OFA damper opening, both fluctuations in NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash were initially slightly over OFA damper openings of 0-40% but then lengthened dramatically in openings of 40-70% (i.e., NOx emissions reduced sharply accompanied by an apparent increase in carbon in fly ash). Decreasing the staged-air declination angle clearly increased the combustible loss but slightly influenced NOx emissions. In comparison with OFA, the staged-air influence on combustion and NOx emissions was clearly weaker. Only at a high OFA damper opening of 50%, the staged-air effect was relatively clear, i.e., enlarging the staged-air damper opening decreased carbon in fly ash and slightly raised NOx emissions. By sharply opening the OFA damper to deepen the air-staging conditions, although NOx emissions could finally reduce to 503 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 (i.e., an ultralow NOx level for down-fired furnaces), carbon in fly ash jumped sharply to 15.10%. For economical and environment-friendly boiler operations, an optimal damper opening combination (i.e., 60%, 50%, and 50% for secondary air, staged-air, and OFA damper openings, respectively) was recommended for the furnace, at which carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions attained levels of about 10% and 850 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, respectively.

  19. A New Generalized Two-Stage Direct Power Conversion Topology to Independently Supply Multiple AC Loads from Multiple Power Grids with Adjustable Power Loading

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    ) and continuously adjust these power fractions will become a desired feature. This paper presents a generalized Direct Power Converter topology, which is able to connect to multiple AC supplies proving complete decoupling and no circulating power between the input ports and to independently control multiple AC...

  20. Antioxidant content and cytological examination of aqueous fluid from patients with age-related cataracts at different stages.

    Wang, X; Sun, J; Dang, G F; Gao, Y; Duan, L; Wu, X Y

    2015-06-11

    We investigated the antioxidant content and conducted a cytological examination of the aqueous fluid and lenses of patients with age-related cataracts at different stages. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in the aqueous fluid and lenses were determined by the xanthine oxidase method, the colorimetric method, and the improved reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion method, respectively. SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX content in the aqueous fluid and lenses decreased significantly with increasing lenticular nucleus hardness grading. However, the number of white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils did not vary significantly with varying lenticular nucleus hardness. Antioxidant content examination is an important quantitative indicator for clinical diagnosis and treatment of age-related cataracts. Antioxidant content in the aqueous fluid and lenses decreased significantly with increasing lenticular nucleus hardness grading. Lenses at hardness level V had the lowest content of antioxidants.

  1. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  2. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  3. Intake of key micronutrients and food groups in patients with late-stage age-related macular degeneration compared with age-sex-matched controls.

    Gopinath, Bamini; Liew, Gerald; Russell, Joanna; Cosatto, Victoria; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the risk factor profile of patients presenting with late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) could help identify the most frequent modifiable AMD precursors among people who are referred for treatment. We aimed to assess dietary behaviours by comparing adjusted mean intakes of micronutrients and major food groups (fruits, vegetables, fish) among patients with AMD and a sample of age-sex-matched controls. Cross-sectional analysis of 480 late AMD cases and 518 population-based age-sex-matched controls with no AMD signs. AMD cases (aged 60+ years) were those presenting for treatment to a hospital eye clinic in Sydney, Australia, during 2012-2015. The comparator group were obtained from a cohort study (Blue Mountains Eye Study; Sydney, Australia) during 2002-2009. Dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. AMD lesions were assessed from retinal photographs. After multivariable adjustment, patients with late-stage AMD compared with controls had significantly lower intakes of vitamin E (7.4 vs 9.8 mg/day; p<0.0001), beta-carotene (6232 vs 7738 μg/day; p<0.0001), vitamin C (161 vs 184 mg/day; p=0.0002) and folate (498.3 vs 602 μg/day; p<0.0001); but had higher intakes of zinc (13.0 vs 11.9 mg/day; p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients with late AMD met the recommended intake of vegetables than controls: 52.9% versus 64.5%; p=0.0002. This study showed significant differences in intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, folate and vegetables between patients with late-stage AMD and healthy controls, and thus has provided a better understanding of the nutritional intake of patients presenting with advanced AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  5. Different patterns in the prognostic value of age for bladder cancer-specific survival depending on tumor stages.

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiajun; Lu, Xiaozhe

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pathological features and long-term survival of bladder cancer (BCa) in young patients with elderly counterparts. Using the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 93115 patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2003. Patients were categorized into young (50 years and under) and elderly groups (over 50 years of age). The overall and five-year bladder cancer specific survival (BCSS) data were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariable Cox regression models were built for the analysis of long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups in primary site, pathologic grading, histologic type, AJCC stage (pstage patients. The study findings show different patterns in the prognostic value of age for determining BCSS, depending on the tumor stages. Compared with elderly patients, young patients with bladder cancer surgery appear to have unique characteristics and a higher overall and cancer specific survival rate.

  6. Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE in the selection of young soccer players is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative age effect existing despite strategies that have been implemented to avoid its presence in the selection process. We also aimed to investigate the RAE during the three different selection stages for B13, B14 (boys, and G13, G14 (girls, and gender differences in the RAE. This was achieved by collecting data from everyone who played soccer in Troendelag, and data that would illuminate the RAE during the three stages of selection for the regional teams of the 2015/2016 season. Mann–Whitney U-tests and Chi-square tests were used as statistical methods. The main finding of this study is that, despite the intention to reduce RAE in the selection process according to the criterion that at least 40% of the players should be born in the second half of the year, both the early-born boys and girls are more likely to be selected. The results also show that the RAE occurs gradually, and the longer the players are in the selection process the more prominent it is. This study highlights the importance of being aware of the RAE when selecting young players.

  7. Genetic and experimental evidence for a mixed-age, mixed-origin bank of kelp microscopic stages in southern California.

    Carney, Laura T; Bohonak, Andrew J; Edwards, Matthew S; Alberto, Filipe

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that the microscopic stages of kelps can rapidly resume development from a delayed state. Like terrestrial seeds or aquatic resting eggs, banks of delayed kelp stages may supplement population recovery after periods of stress, playing an important role for kelp populations that experience adult sporophyte absences due to seasonal or interannual disturbances. We found that removing the microscopic stages from natural rock substratum could prevent the appearance of juvenile kelp sporophytes for three months and the establishment of a diverse kelp assemblage for over four months within a southern California kelp forest. Juveniles were observed within one month in plots where microscopic stages were left intact, which may confer an advantage for the resulting sporophytes as they attain larger sizes before later recruiting neighbors. Microsatellite diversity was high (expected heterozygosity HE approximately 0.9) for juveniles and adults within our sites. Using a microsatellite-based parentage analysis for the dominant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, we estimated that a portion of the new M. pyrifera sporophyte recruits had originated from their parents at least seven months after their parents had disappeared. Similar delay durations have been demonstrated in recent laboratory studies. Additionally, our results suggest that zoospore dispersal distances > 50 m may be supported by including additional microsatellite loci in the analysis. We propose a mixed-age and, potentially, a mixed-origin bank of M. pyrifera gametophytes promotes maximal genetic diversity in recovering populations and reduces population genetic subdivision and self-fertilization rates for intact populations by promoting the survival of zoospores dispersed > 10 m and during inhospitable environmental conditions.

  8. Place of birth,age of immigration,and disability in Hispanics with multiple sclerosis.

    Amezcua, Lilyana; Conti, David V; Liu, Lihua; Ledezma, Karina; Langer-Goulda, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in the US are a diverse community where their knowledge and risk for developing disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) may relate to their level of acculturation. To compare the risk of disability in Hispanics with MS in the US by place of birth and age of immigration. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 304 Hispanics with MS residing in Southern California. Place of birth and age of immigration were used as proxies to acculturation. Individuals were classified as US-born, early and late-immigrant (immigration to the US, respectively). Risk of disability (expanded disability status scale ≥6) was adjusted for age at symptom onset, sex, socioeconomic status, and disease duration, using logistic regression. Late-immigrants were older at symptom onset (34.2±11.9 vs. 31.9±12.9 vs. 28.5±9.7 years, pimmigrant and US-born respectively. There was no difference between groups by female sex, type of MS, ethnicity, chronic medical conditions, and disease duration while differences were noted by socioeconomic status. Being late-immigrant was independently associated with increased disability (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CIs 1.07–4.82; p=0.03) compared to US-born. Later immigration to the US in Hispanics with MS is associated with greater disability. These findings may reflect differences in social, environmental and cultural factors that may act as barriers for accessibility and utilization of health services. An in-depth assessment of the perceptions and attitudes about MS are warranted in this population.

  9. Research on Multiple-Split Load Sharing Characteristics of 2-Stage External Meshing Star Gear System in Consideration of Displacement Compatibility

    Shuai Mo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the multiple-split load sharing mechanism of gears in two-stage external meshing planetary transmission system of aeroengine. According to the eccentric error, gear tooth thickness error, pitch error, installation error, and bearing manufacturing error, we performed the meshing error analysis of equivalent angles, respectively, and we also considered the floating meshing error caused by the variation of the meshing backlash, which is from the floating of all gears at the same time. Finally, we obtained the comprehensive angle meshing error of the two-stage meshing line, established a refined mathematical computational model of 2-stage external 3-split loading sharing coefficient in consideration of displacement compatibility, got the regular curves of the load sharing coefficient and load sharing characteristic curve of full floating multiple-split and multiple-stage system, and took the variation law of the floating track and the floating quantity of the center wheel. These provide a scientific theory to determine the load sharing coefficient, reasonable load distribution, and control tolerances in aviation design and manufacturing.

  10. Age- and stage-dependent variations of muscle-specific gene expression in brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Churova, Maria V; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Ruchev, Mikhail; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the features of muscle-specific genes expression during development of brown trout Salmo trutta inhabiting the river Krivoy ruchey (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Gene expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs - MyoD1 paralogs (MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MyoD1c), Myf5, myogenin), myostatin paralogs (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MSTN-2a), fast skeletal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured in the white muscles of brown trout parr of ages 0+ (under-yearling), 1+ (yearling) and 2+ (two year old) and smolts of age 2+. Multidirectional changes in MyoD1 and MSTN paralogs expression along with myogenin, Myf 5 and MyHC expression levels in white muscles in parr of trout with age were revealed. The expression of MyoD1c, myogenin, MSTN-2a was the highest in 0+ parr and then decreased. MyoD1a/b expression levels didn't differ between age groups. The simultaneous elevation of MyHC, Myf5, MSTN-1a, and MSTN-1b was found in trout yearlings. In smolts, expression levels of MSTN paralogs, MyHC, Myf5, MyoD1a was lower than in parr. But in contrast, the MyoD1c and myogenin mRNA levels was higher in smolts. The study revealed that there are definite patterns in simultaneous muscle-specific genes expression in age groups of parr and smolts. As MyoD and MSTN paralogs expression changed differently in dependence on age and stage, it was suggested that paralogs of the same gene complementarily control myogenesis during development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards a novel model for studying the nutritional stage dynamics of the Colombian population by age and socioeconomic status.

    Meisel, Jose D; Sarmiento, Olga L; Olaya, Camilo; Lemoine, Pablo D; Valdivia, Juan A; Zarama, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing a nutritional transition in which the burden of obesity tends to shift towards the lower-socioeconomic status (SES) group. We propose a system dynamics (SD) model for assessing the nutritional stage dynamics of the Colombian urban population by age and SES projected to 2030. This SD model captures the ageing population according to body mass index (BMI) categories and SES. In this model, the transference rates (TRs) between BMI categories by age and SES are estimated using a heuristic based on data obtained from national surveys. The simulation results show that the Colombian population, particularly those aged 20 to 39 years with a lower SES, is moving towards the overweight and obese categories. The TRs for overweight and obese categories in the lower SES group (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0215 (per year) and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0098 (per year)) are increasing more rapidly than the those in the middle (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0162 (per year) and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0065 (per year)) and higher SES groups (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0166 and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0054 (per year)). Additionally, from 2005 to 2010, individuals aged 20 to 39 years had the highest TRs towards the overweight and obese categories (from 0.026 to 0.036 per year and from 0.0064 to 0.012 per year, respectively). The TRs also indicated that children aged 0 to 14 years are moving from the obese to overweight and from the overweight to not overweight categories. These TRs show that the Colombian population is experiencing an SES-related nutritional transition that is affecting the lower SES population. The proposed model could be implemented to assess the nutritional transitions experienced in other LMICs.

  12. Trading stages

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  13. The Applicability of the International Staging System in Chinese Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Bortezomib or Thalidomide-Based Regimens as Induction Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis

    Jing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Staging System (ISS is the most important prognostic system for multiple myeloma (MM. It was identified in the era of conventional agents. The outcome of MM has significantly changed by novel agents. Thus the applicability of ISS system in the era of novel agents in Chinese patients needs to be demonstrated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes and prognostic significance of ISS system in 1016 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in Chinese patients between 2008 and 2012, who received bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens as first-line therapy. The median overall survival (OS of patients for ISS stages I/II/III was not reached/55.4 months/41.7 months (p<0.001, and the median progression-free survival (PFS was 30/29.5/25 months (p=0.072, respectively. Statistically significant difference in survival was confirmed among three ISS stages in thalidomide-based group, but not between ISS stages I and II in bortezomib-based group. These findings suggest that ISS system can predict the survival in the era of novel agents in Chinese MM patients, and bortezomib may have the potential to partially overcome adverse effect of risk factors on survival, especially in higher stage of ISS system.

  14. Contemporary, age-based trends in the incidence and management of patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Filson, Christopher P; Litwin, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Although kidney cancer incidence and nephrectomy rates have risen in tandem, clinical advances have generated new uncertainty regarding the optimal management of patients with small renal tumors, especially the elderly. To clarify existing practice patterns, we assessed contemporary trends in the incidence and management of patients with early-stage kidney cancer. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, we identified adult patients diagnosed with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer from 2000 to 2010. We determined age-adjusted and age-specific incidence and management rates (i.e., nonoperative, ablation, partial nephrectomy [PN], and radical nephrectomy) per 100,000 adults and determined the average annual percent change (AAPC). Finally, we compared management groups using multinomial logistic regression accounting for patient characteristics, cancer information, and county-level measures for health. From 2000 to 2010, we identified 41,645 adults diagnosed with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer. Overall incidence increased from 3.7 to 7.0 per 100,000 adults (AAPC = 7.0%, Pmanagement and ablation approached nephrectomy rates for those aged 75 to 84 years and became the predominant strategy for patients older than 84 years. Adjusting for clinical, oncological, and environmental factors, older patients less frequently underwent PN and more often received ablative or nonoperative management (P<0.001). As the incidence of early-stage kidney cancer rises, patients are increasingly treated with nonoperative and nephron-sparing strategies, especially among the most elderly. The broader array of treatment options suggests opportunities to better personalize kidney cancer care for seniors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Human Plasma Metabolomics Study across All Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Identifies Potential Lipid Biomarkers.

    Laíns, Inês; Kelly, Rachel S; Miller, John B; Silva, Rufino; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Kim, Ivana K; Murta, Joaquim N; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using mass spectrometry (MS). Cross-sectional observational study. We prospectively recruited participants with a diagnosis of AMD and a control group (>50 years of age) without any vitreoretinal disease. All participants underwent color fundus photography, used for AMD diagnosis and staging, according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification scheme. Fasting blood samples were collected and plasma was analyzed by Metabolon, Inc. (Durham, NC), using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution MS. Metabolon's hardware and software were used to identify peaks and control quality. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were performed to assess differences in the metabolomic profiles of AMD patients versus controls, while controlling for potential confounders. For biological interpretation, pathway enrichment analysis of significant metabolites was performed using MetaboAnalyst. The primary outcome measures were levels of plasma metabolites in participants with AMD compared with controls and among different AMD severity stages. We included 90 participants with AMD (30 with early AMD, 30 with intermediate AMD, and 30 with late AMD) and 30 controls. Using UPLC and MS, 878 biochemicals were identified. Multivariate logistic regression identified 87 metabolites with levels that differed significantly between AMD patients and controls. Most of these metabolites (82.8%; n = 72), including the most significant metabolites, belonged to the lipid pathways. Analysis of variance revealed that of the 87 metabolites, 48 (55.2%) also were significantly different across the different stages of AMD. A significant enrichment of the glycerophospholipids pathway was identified (P = 4.7 × 10 -9 ) among these metabolites. Participants with AMD have altered plasma metabolomic profiles compared with controls. Our data suggest

  16. Directionality of coupling of physiological subsystems: age-related changes of cardiorespiratory interaction during different sleep stages in babies.

    Mrowka, Ralf; Cimponeriu, Laura; Patzak, Andreas; Rosenblum, Michael G

    2003-12-01

    Activity of many physiological subsystems has a well-expressed rhythmic character. Often, a dependency between physiological rhythms is established due to interaction between the corresponding subsystems. Traditional methods of data analysis allow one to quantify the strength of interaction but not the causal interrelation that is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of interaction. Here we present a recently developed method for quantification of coupling direction and apply it to an important problem. Namely, we study the mutual influence of respiratory and cardiovascular rhythms in healthy newborns within the first 6 mo of life in quiet and active sleep. We find an age-related change of the coupling direction: the interaction is nearly symmetric during the first days and becomes practically unidirectional (from respiration to heart rhythm) at the age of 6 mo. Next, we show that the direction of interaction is mainly determined by respiratory frequency. If the latter is less than approximately 0.6 Hz, the interaction occurs dominantly from respiration to heart. With higher respiratory frequencies that only occur at very young ages, the dominating direction is less pronounced or even abolished. The observed dependencies are not related to sleep stage, suggesting that the coupling direction is determined by system-inherent dynamical processes, rather than by functional modulations. The directional analysis may be applied to other interacting narrow band oscillatory systems, e.g., in the central nervous system. Thus it is an important step forward in revealing and understanding causal mechanisms of interactions.

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens.

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-04-05

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken.

  18. Effect of Osteonecrosis Intervention Rod Versus Core Decompression Using Multiple Small Drill Holes on Early Stages of Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Prospective Study on a Series of 60 Patients with a Minimum 1-Year-Follow-Up.

    Miao, Haixiong; Ye, Dongping; Liang, Weiguo; Yao, Yicun

    2015-01-01

    The conventional CD used 10 mm drill holes associated with a lack of structural support. Thus, alternative methods such as a tantalum implant, small drill holes, and biological treatment were developed to prevent deterioration of the joint. The treatment of CD by multiple 3.2 mm drill holes could reduce the femoral neck fracture and partial weight bearing was allowed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of osteonecrosis intervention rod versus core decompression using multiple small drill holes on early stages of necrosis of the femoral head. From January 2011 to January 2012, 60 patients undergoing surgery for osteonecrosis with core decompression were randomly assigned into 2 groups based on the type of core decompression used: (1) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 16 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with a porous tantalum rod insertion. The diameter of the drill hole for the intervention rod was 10mm.(2) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 14 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with core decompression using five drill holes on the lateral femur, the diameter of the hole was 3.2 mm. The average age of the patient was 32.6 years (20-45 years) and the average time of follow-up was 25.6 months (12- 28 months) in the rod implanted group. The average age of the patient was 35.2 years (22- 43 years) and the average time of follow-up was 26.3 months (12-28 months) in the small drill holes group. The average of surgical time was 40 min, and the mean volume of blood loss was 30 ml in both surgical groups. The average of Harris score was improved from 56.2 ± 7.1 preoperative to 80.2 ± 11.4 at the last follow-up in the rod implanted group (p holes group (pholes group. No significant difference was observed in radiographic stage between the two groups. There was no favourable result on the outcome of a tantalum intervention implant compared to multiple small drill holes. CD via

  19. Some considerations in applying stock-recruitment models to multiple-age spawning populations

    Lawler, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Several approaches used during the Hudson River power plant hearings (1977-1980) to permit quantitative estimation of the impact of power plant operation on the river's striped bass population are presented. The Ricker stock-recruitment model was adopted as a starting point to provide a reasonable working conceptualization of the stock-recruitment processes operating in this river. This model was then modified in a variety of ways to reflect multiple-age spawning by striped bass, and the results were fit to data on the river's commercial striped bass catch and effort, organized to reflect certain average age distribution parameters. Environmental variation in the system, represented in an overall fashion by the spring and summer variation in the river's freshwater flow, and the effect of certain assumed modes of cannibalism were also included in these analyses. Quantitative estimates of the Ricker parameters alpha and beta representing compensatory reserve and density dependent mortality, respectively, in the system were extracted from these fits. In addition, an approach to modeling the influence of certain density-dependent and density-independent growth factors on the various modes of mortality is presented. All of the above procedures are directed toward estimating the change a given impact may induce on the stock-recruitment model parameters alpha and beta. These changes in alpha and beta are used in various equilibrium reduction models to estimate the percentage change in the equilibrium spawning population that, all other things remaining equal, can be expected in the presence of the impact under study. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging

    Samuel Neal Lockhart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.

  1. {sup 11}C-Acetate as a new biomarker for PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma: initial staging and postinduction response assessment

    Lin, Chieh; Tsai, Shu-Fan; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Gueishan (China); Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Ho, Chi-Lai [Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, Hong Kong (China); Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Yu-Chun [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Po-Nan; Tang, Tzung-Chih [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Huang, Yenlin [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Taoyuan (China); Rahmouni, Alain [AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, CHU Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France)

    2014-01-15

    We investigated the potential value of {sup 11}C-acetate (ACT) PET/CT in characterizing multiple myeloma (MM) compared with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Bone marrow histological and whole-body (WB) MRI findings served as the reference standards. In this prospective study, 15 untreated MM patients (10 men and 5 women, age range 48-69 years) underwent dual-tracer {sup 11}C-ACT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and WB MRI for pretreatment staging, and 13 of them had repeated examinations after induction therapy. Diffuse and focal bone marrow uptake was assessed by visual and quantitative analyses, including measurement of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson test. At staging, all 15 patients had diffuse myeloma involvement upon bone marrow examination with 30-90 % of plasma cell infiltrates. Diffuse infiltration was detected in all of them (100 %) using {sup 11}C-ACT with a positive correlation between bone marrow uptake values and percentages of plasma cell infiltrates (r = +0.63, p = 0.01). In contrast, a diagnosis of diffuse infiltration could be established using {sup 18}F-FDG in only six patients (40 %). Focal lesions were shown in 13 patients on both {sup 11}C-ACT PET/CT and WB MRI, and in 10 patients on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Focal lesions demonstrated {sup 11}C-ACT uptake with a mean SUV{sub max} of 11.4 ± 3.3 (range 4.6-19.6, n = 59), which was significantly higher than the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (mean SUV{sub max} 6.6 ± 3.1, range 2.3-13.7, n = 29; p < 0.0001). After treatment, the diffuse bone marrow {sup 11}C-ACT uptake showed a mean SUV{sub max} reduction of 66 % in patients with at least a very good partial response versus 34 % in those with at most a partial response only (p = 0.01). PET/CT using {sup 11}C-ACT as a biomarker showed a higher detection rate for both diffuse and focal myeloma lesions at diagnosis than using {sup 18}F-FDG, and may be

  2. 11C-Acetate as a new biomarker for PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma: initial staging and postinduction response assessment

    Lin, Chieh; Tsai, Shu-Fan; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Ho, Chi-Lai; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Po-Nan; Tang, Tzung-Chih; Huang, Yenlin; Rahmouni, Alain

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the potential value of 11 C-acetate (ACT) PET/CT in characterizing multiple myeloma (MM) compared with 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Bone marrow histological and whole-body (WB) MRI findings served as the reference standards. In this prospective study, 15 untreated MM patients (10 men and 5 women, age range 48-69 years) underwent dual-tracer 11 C-ACT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT and WB MRI for pretreatment staging, and 13 of them had repeated examinations after induction therapy. Diffuse and focal bone marrow uptake was assessed by visual and quantitative analyses, including measurement of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ). Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson test. At staging, all 15 patients had diffuse myeloma involvement upon bone marrow examination with 30-90 % of plasma cell infiltrates. Diffuse infiltration was detected in all of them (100 %) using 11 C-ACT with a positive correlation between bone marrow uptake values and percentages of plasma cell infiltrates (r = +0.63, p = 0.01). In contrast, a diagnosis of diffuse infiltration could be established using 18 F-FDG in only six patients (40 %). Focal lesions were shown in 13 patients on both 11 C-ACT PET/CT and WB MRI, and in 10 patients on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Focal lesions demonstrated 11 C-ACT uptake with a mean SUV max of 11.4 ± 3.3 (range 4.6-19.6, n = 59), which was significantly higher than the 18 F-FDG uptake (mean SUV max 6.6 ± 3.1, range 2.3-13.7, n = 29; p 11 C-ACT uptake showed a mean SUV max reduction of 66 % in patients with at least a very good partial response versus 34 % in those with at most a partial response only (p = 0.01). PET/CT using 11 C-ACT as a biomarker showed a higher detection rate for both diffuse and focal myeloma lesions at diagnosis than using 18 F-FDG, and may be valuable for response assessment. (orig.)

  3. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  4. Age-related loss in attention-based modulation of tactile stimuli at early stages of somatosensory processing.

    Bolton, David A E; Staines, W Richard

    2012-06-01

    Normal aging has been linked to impairments in gating of irrelevant sensory information and neural markers of diminished cognitive processing. Whilst much of the research in this area has focussed on visual and auditory modalities it is unclear to what degree these findings apply to somatosensation. Therefore we investigated how age impacts early event-related potentials (ERPs) arising from relevant or irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli to the fingertips. Specifically, we hypothesised that older adults would demonstrate reduced attention-based modulation of tactile ERPs generated at early stages of cortical somatosensory processing. In accord with previous research we also expected to observe diminished P300 responses to attended targets and behavioural deficits. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only (as instructed) with comparisons between two age groups: (1) Young adults (age range 20-39) and (2) Older adults (age range 62-89). ERP amplitudes for the P50, N70, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at several electrodes (C4, CP4, CP3 and FC4). The P300 in response to attended target stimuli was measured at CPZ. There was no effect of attention on the P50 and N70 however the P100, N140 and LLP were modulated with attention. In both age groups the P100 and LLP were more positive during trials where the stimuli were attended to, whilst the N140 was enhanced for non-attended stimuli. Comparisons between groups revealed a reduction in P100 attention-based modulation for the older adults versus the young adults. This effect was due to a loss of suppression of the non-attended stimuli in older subjects. Moreover, the P300 was both slower and reduced in peak amplitude for older subjects in response to attended targets. Finally, older adults demonstrated impaired performance in terms of both reduced target detection

  5. Age-dependent role for Ras-GRF1 in the late stages of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    Darcy, Michael J; Trouche, Stéphanie; Jin, Shan-Xue; Feig, Larry A

    2014-03-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in pattern separation, a process required for the behavioral task of contextual discrimination. One unique feature of the dentate gyrus that contributes to pattern separation is adult neurogenesis, where newly born neurons play a distinct role in neuronal circuitry. Moreover,the function of neurogenesis in this brain region differs in adolescent and adult mice. The signaling mechanisms that differentially regulate the distinct steps of adult neurogenesis in adolescence and adulthood remain poorly understood. We used mice lacking RASGRF1(GRF1), a calcium-dependent exchange factor that regulates synaptic plasticity and participates in contextual discrimination performed by mice, to test whether GRF1 plays a role in adult neurogenesis.We show Grf1 knockout mice begin to display a defect in neurogenesis at the onset of adulthood (~2 months of age), when wild-type mice first acquire the ability to distinguish between closely related contexts. At this age, young hippocampal neurons in Grf1 knockout mice display severely reduced dendritic arborization. By 3 months of age, new neuron survival is also impaired. BrdU labeling of new neurons in 2-month-old Grf1 knockout mice shows they begin to display reduced survival between 2 and 3 weeks after birth, just as new neurons begin to develop complex dendritic morphology and transition into using glutamatergic excitatory input. Interestingly, GRF1 expression appears in new neurons at the developmental stage when GRF1 loss begins to effect neuronal function. In addition, we induced a similar loss of new hippocampal neurons by knocking down expression of GRF1 solely in new neurons by injecting retrovirus that express shRNA against GRF1 into the dentate gyrus. Together, these findings show that GRF1 expressed in new neurons promotes late stages of adult neurogenesis. Overall our findings show GRF1 to be an age-dependent regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which

  6. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    Thevissen, P. W.; FIEUWS, Steffen; Willems, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years ...

  7. Ages and Stages: Teen

    ... Syndrome Tanning and Tanning Salon Safety Tips for Young People Teenagers and Gangs Teens and Acne Treatment Teens and Sun: Keeping Them Safe Without Ruining Their Fun The Teenage Brain VIDEO Ways To Build Your Teenager’s Self-Esteem What’s Going On in the Teenage Brain? Zits ...

  8. Radiologic assessment of third molar tooth and spheno-occipital synchondrosis for age estimation: a multiple regression analysis study.

    Demirturk Kocasarac, Husniye; Sinanoglu, Alper; Noujeim, Marcel; Helvacioglu Yigit, Dilek; Baydemir, Canan

    2016-05-01

    For forensic age estimation, radiographic assessment of third molar mineralization is important between 14 and 21 years which coincides with the legal age in most countries. The spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is an important growth site during development, and its use for age estimation is beneficial when combined with other markers. In this study, we aimed to develop a regression model to estimate and narrow the age range based on the radiologic assessment of third molar and SOS in a Turkish subpopulation. Panoramic radiographs and cone beam CT scans of 349 subjects (182 males, 167 females) with age between 8 and 25 were evaluated. Four-stage system was used to evaluate the fusion degree of SOS, and Demirjian's eight stages of development for calcification for third molars. The Pearson correlation indicated a strong positive relationship between age and third molar calcification for both sexes (r = 0.850 for females, r = 0.839 for males, P < 0.001) and also between age and SOS fusion for females (r = 0.814), but a moderate relationship was found for males (r = 0.599), P < 0.001). Based on the results obtained, an age determination formula using these scores was established.

  9. Fingolimod Prescribed for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis in Patients Younger Than Age 18 Years.

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Brito Ferreira, Maria Lucia; Finkelsztejn, Alessandro; Gomes, Sidney; Magno Goncalves, Marcus Vinicius; Moraes Machado, Maria Iris; Marques, Vanessa Daccach; Cunha Matta, Andre Palma; Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Apostolos Pereira, Samira Luisa; Tauil, Carlos Bernardo

    2015-08-01

    There have been no clinical trials for approval of medications for treating multiple sclerosis in patients younger than age 18 years. All treatments are based on personal experience and data from open observational studies. Fingolimod is an oral drug for multiple sclerosis that has been shown to be efficient and safe in adults. The aim of our study is to describe patients with multiple sclerosis who started treatment with fingolimod before the age of 18 years. Seventeen patients treated with fingolimod were identified in the Brazilian database of children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis. The average time of use of the drug was 8.6 months. Fingolimod showed a good safety and efficacy profile in these patients, all of whom had very active multiple sclerosis. After starting treatment with fingolimod, only one patient had a relapse and a new lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. The patients' degree of disability did not progress. No major adverse events were reported in relation to the first dose of the drug, nor in the short- and medium-term treatment. No patient has been followed for longer than 18 months, thus limiting long-term conclusions. Off-label use of fingolimod in patients younger than age 18 years may be a good therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Single and Multiple Ascending-dose Studies of Oral Delafloxacin: Effects of Food, Sex, and Age.

    Hoover, Randall; Hunt, Thomas; Benedict, Michael; Paulson, Susan K; Lawrence, Laura; Cammarata, Sue; Sun, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is describe the results of 2 studies that examined the pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability of single and multiple ascending doses of oral delafloxacin and the effects of food, sex, and age on oral delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability. The first study contained 3 parts and used unformulated delafloxacin in a capsule. Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 mg) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. Part 2 was a single-dose crossover study in which 20 men received 250 mg delafloxacin with or without food. Part 2 also included a parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 16 women and 16 elderly men and women who were randomized (3:1) to receive 250 mg delafloxacin or placebo. Part 3 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple (100, 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg once daily for 5 days) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. The second study was a single-dose, randomized, 3-period crossover study in which participants received 900 mg delafloxacin (2 × 450-mg tablets) under fasted conditions, with a high-fat meal, or fasted with a high-fat meal 2 hours after dosing. Serial blood samples were collected, and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of delafloxacin were determined. Delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ increased with increasing oral dose over the dose range of 50 to 1600 mg. The increases in delafloxacin AUC0-∞ were dose proportional at doses of ≥200 mg. Steady state was reached by day 3 of dosing with minimal accumulation of delafloxacin. The Cmax of delafloxacin was decreased slightly in the presence of food. No sex difference in delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters was observed. In the elderly men and women, mean delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ were 35% higher than observed for young adults, which could be partially explained by a decrease in

  11. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.

  12. Dental age assessment of adolescents and emerging adults in United Kingdom Caucasians using censored data for stage H of third molar roots.

    Boonpitaksathit, Teelana; Hunt, Nigel; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Lucas, Victoria S

    2011-10-01

    The root of the third permanent molar is the only dental structure that continues development after completion of growth of the second permanent molar. It is claimed that the lack of a clearly defined end point for completion of growth of the third permanent molar means that this tooth cannot be used for dental age assessment. The aim of this study was to estimate the mean age of attainment of the four stages (E, F, G, and H) of root development of the third molar. The way in which the end point of completion of stage H can be identified is described. A total of 1223 dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) available in the archives of the Eastman Dental Hospital, London, were used for this study. The ages of the subjects ranged from 12.6 to 24.9 years with 63 per cent of the sample being female. Demirjan's tooth development stages (TDSs), for the first and second molars, were applied to the third molars by a single examiner. For each of stages E, F, and G and for stage H censored data, the mean ages of the males and females were compared, separately within each tooth morphology type using the two sample t-test (P ages of the upper and lower third molars on each side, separately for each gender. The mean age of attainment and the 99 per cent confidence interval (CI) for each TDS were calculated for each third molar. The final stage H data were appropriately censored to exclude data above the age of completion of root growth. The results showed that, for each gender, the age in years at which individuals attained each of the four TDSs was approximately normally distributed. The mean age for appropriately censored data was always lower than the corresponding mean age of the inappropriately censored data for stage H (male UR8 19.57, UL8 19.53, LL8 19.91, and LR8 20.02 and female UR8 20.08, UL8 20.13, LL8 20.78, and LR8 20.70). This inappropriately censored data overestimated the mean age for stage H. The appropriately censored data for the TDSs of the third molar may be

  13. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  14. Palynology, geochemistry and Re-Os age of the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary, central Appalachian basin, USA

    Geboy, N.; Tripathy, G. R.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Blake, B. M.; Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Wales and Germany and therefore has implications across the Carboniferous Euramerican Belt. Further, the Betsie has been interpreted to represent the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary in North America, making this directly measured age an important marker not only within the CAB but also for refinement of the Carboniferous timescale.

  15. Hydraulic Fracture Induced Seismicity During A Multi-Stage Pad Completion in Western Canada: Evidence of Activation of Multiple, Parallel Faults

    Maxwell, S.; Garrett, D.; Huang, J.; Usher, P.; Mamer, P.

    2017-12-01

    Following reports of injection induced seismicity in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, regulators have imposed seismic monitoring and traffic light protocols for fracturing operations in specific areas. Here we describe a case study in one of these reservoirs, the Montney Shale in NE British Columbia, where induced seismicity was monitored with a local array during multi-stage hydraulic fracture stimulations on several wells from a single drilling pad. Seismicity primarily occurred during the injection time periods, and correlated with periods of high injection rates and wellhead pressures above fracturing pressures. Sequential hydraulic fracture stages were found to progressively activate several parallel, critically-stressed faults, as illuminated by multiple linear hypocenter patterns in the range between Mw 1 and 3. Moment tensor inversion of larger events indicated a double-couple mechanism consistent with the regional strike-slip stress state and the hypocenter lineations. The critically-stressed faults obliquely cross the well paths which were purposely drilled parallel to the minimum principal stress direction. Seismicity on specific faults started and stopped when fracture initiation points of individual injection stages were proximal to the intersection of the fault and well. The distance ranges when the seismicity occurs is consistent with expected hydraulic fracture dimensions, suggesting that the induced fault slip only occurs when a hydraulic fracture grows directly into the fault and the faults are temporarily exposed to significantly elevated fracture pressures during the injection. Some faults crossed multiple wells and the seismicity was found to restart during injection of proximal stages on adjacent wells, progressively expanding the seismogenic zone of the fault. Progressive fault slip is therefore inferred from the seismicity migrating further along the faults during successive injection stages. An accelerometer was also deployed close

  16. Do Age and Sex of School Students Make Significant Difference in Their Multiple Intelligences?

    Ravi, R.; Vedapriya, S. Gethsi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Intelligences are a new educational theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983. Multiple intelligences describe an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. This theory consists of verbal-linguistic, logical and mathematics, visual and spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,…

  17. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  18. Systematic procedure for identifying the five main ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphysis using computed tomography: a practical proposal for forensic age diagnostics.

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Schulz, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2017-01-01

    In forensic age estimations of living individuals, computed tomography of the clavicle is widely used for determining the age of majority. To this end, the degree of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis can be determined by means of two classification systems complementing each other: a 5-stage system and an additional 6-stage system that further sub-classifies the stages 2 and 3. In recent years, practical experience and new data revealed that difficulties and even wrong stage determinations may occur especially when following the short descriptions of the fundamental 5-stage system only. Based on current literature, this article provides a systematic procedure for identifying the five main ossification stages by listing important preconditions and presenting an algorithm that is comprised of four specific questions. Each question is accompanied by comprehensive and detailed descriptions which specify the criteria used for differentiation. The information is subdivided into "single-slice view" and "multi-slice view." In addition, illustrative case examples and schematic drawings facilitate application of the procedure in forensic practice. The pitfalls associated with the criteria of stage determination will be discussed in detail. Eventually, two general rules will be inferred to assign correct ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphysis by means of computed tomography.

  19. Personalized therapy in multiple myeloma according to patient age and vulnerability: a report of the European Myeloma Network (EMN)

    Palumbo, Antonio; Bringhen, Sara; Ludwig, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) are aged > 65 years with 30% aged > 75 years. Many elderly patients are also vulnerable because of comorbidities that complicate the management of MM. The prevalence of MM is expected to rise over time because of an aging population. Most...... elderly patients with MM are ineligible for autologous transplantation, and the standard treatment has, until recently, been melphalan plus prednisone. The introduction of novel agents, such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide, has improved outcomes; however, elderly patients with MM are more......, occurrence of serious nonhematologic adverse events during treatment should be carefully taken into account to adjust doses and optimize outcomes....

  20. Exploratory application of the Ages and Stages (ASQ) child development screening test in a low-income Peruvian shantytown population

    Kyerematen, Victoria; Hamb, Averine; Oberhelman, Richard A; Cabrera, Lilia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Berry, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Public health research on child health is increasingly focusing on the long-term impacts of infectious diseases, malnutrition and social deprivation on child development. The objectives of this exploratory study were to (1) implement the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) in children aged 3 months to 5 years in a low-income Peruvian population and (2) to correlate outcomes of the ASQ with risk factors such as nutritional status, diarrhoea incidence and wealth index. Setting Primary data collection was carried out in the Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, a periurban low-income community in Lima, Peru. Participants The study population included 129 children selected through community census data, with a mean age of 22 months (SD 6.8) and with almost equal gender distribution (51% males). Intervention A Peruvian psychologist administered the age-appropriate (ASQ2 for participants enrolled in 2009, ASQ3 for participants enrolled in 2010). Results of the ASQ are reported separately for five scales, including Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social. Primary and secondary outcome measures For each scale, results are reported as normal or suspect, meaning that some milestone attainment was not evident and further evaluation is recommended. Results Overall, 50 of 129 children (38.7%) had suspect results for at least one of the five scales, with the highest rates of suspect results on the Communication (15.5%) and Problem Solving scales (13.9%). Higher rates of suspect outcomes were seen in older children, both overall (p=0.06) and on Problem Solving (p=0.009), and for some scales there were trends between suspect outcomes and wealth index or undernutrition. Conclusions The ASQ was successfully applied in a community-based study in a low-income Peruvian population, and with further validation, the ASQ may be an effective tool for identifying at-risk children in resource-poor areas of Latin America. PMID:24413354

  1. Assessment of Choroidal Microstructure and Subfoveal Thickness Change in Eyes With Different Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Lu, Linna; Xu, Shiqiong; He, Fangling; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yidan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhiliang; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness. Choroidal structural changes seem to be inevitable in AMD pathogenesis. Our study revealed associated choroidal microstructural changes in AMD eyes.The aim of the study was to compare choroidal microstructural changes in eyes with AMD of different stages.The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional case series.The participants comprised of 32 age-matched normal eyes as controls, and 26 fellow uninvolved eyes of intermediate/late AMD, 29 of early AMD, 28 of intermediate AMD, and 39 of late AMD.All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The choroid images, including subfoveal choroidal thickness, percentage of Sattler layer area, and en face images of the choroid, were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.The main outcome measures were subfoveal choroidal thickness changes, percentage of Sattler layer area changes, and en face images of the choroid in AMD eyes.One hundred fifty-four eyes of 96 individuals with mean age of 67.1±9.2 years were included. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 295.4 ± 56.8 μm in age-matched normal eyes, 306.7 ± 68.4 μm in fellow uninvolved eyes with AMD, 293.8 ± 80.4 μm in early AMD, 215.6 ± 80.4 μm in intermediate AMD, and 200.4 ± 66.6 μm in late AMD (F = 14.2, all P < 0.001). Choroidal thickness was greater in early AMD eyes than in intermediate/late AMD eyes (P < 0.001). Mean percentage of Sattler layer area in each group showed a similar tendency. Microstructure of the choroid showed reduced vascular density of Sattler layer areas in late AMD eyes compared with normal eyes.Decreasing subfoveal choroidal thickness and percentage of Sattler layer area were demonstrated in the progression of AMD. The choroidal change was related to atrophy of the microstructural changes of underlying capillaries and medium-sized vessels.

  2. Early two-stage double opposing Z-plasty or one-stage push-back palatoplasty?: comparisons in maxillary development and speech outcome at 4 years of age.

    Yamanishi, Tadashi; Nishio, Juntaro; Sako, Michiyo; Kohara, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiko; Yamanishi, Yukiko; Adachi, Tadafumi; Miya, Shigenori; Mukai, Takao

    2011-02-01

    Determining the optimal timing and procedure of palatal surgery for children with cleft lip and palate has long raised a major controversy. An early two-stage palatoplasty protocol has been a recent trend in an attempt to obtain preferable maxillary growth without compromising adequate speech development. In this study, we aim to address whether the resulting maxillofacial growth and speech development obtained by an early 2-stage palatoplasty protocol are better than those obtained by conventional 1-stage push-back palatoplasty. Seventy-two nonsyndromic children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 2 groups: 30 children, who were treated with early 2-stage palatoplasty, in which soft palate closure was performed using a modified Furlow's procedure at 12 months of age and hard palate closure was performed at 18 months of age (Early Tow Stage [ETS] group: 22 boys, 8 girls), and 42 children, who underwent 1-stage Wardill-Kilner push-back palatoplasty at 12 months of age (Push Back [PB] group: 31 boys, 11 girls). Cephalometric analysis for maxillofacial growth and assessments of speech development were performed for each child at 4 years of age. The ETS group showed a lager maxillary length than the PB group [anterior nasal spine (ANS)-ptm': ETS, 46.7 ± 2.0 mm; PB, 43.6 ± 2.3 mm]. The ANS in the ETS group was positioned more anteriorly than that in the PB group (N'-ANS: ETS, 2.5 ± 1.8 mm; PB, 0.26 ± 2.5 mm), whereas the posterior edge of the maxilla positioned anteroposteiorly was comparable between the 2 groups. The anterior facial height was significantly greater in the ETS group than in the PB group (N-N': ETS, 43.3 ± 2.9 mm; PB, 40.1 ± 2.3 mm, S-S': ETS, 29.7 ± 3.2 mm; PB, 31.0 ± 3.2 mm). No statistically significant differences were observed in the incidence of either velopharyngeal incompetence or articulation errors between the 2 groups at 4 years of age. Our results show that the early 2

  3. [The influence of age and illness duration on cognitive impairment in aging patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS)].

    Leclercq, Eugénie; Cabaret, Maryline; Guilbert, Alma; Jougleux, Caroline; Vermersch, Patrick; Moroni, Christine

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to dissociate age and duration of illness effects on cognitive impairment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Cognitive impairment among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is well known. However, few studies were devoted to assess the respective role of disease duration and age on cognitive functions in MS patients. Therefore, two studies were carried out on relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients using some tests of the BCcogSEP--a French test battery evaluating cognitive functions in MS. The cognitive deficits of RR-MS patients aged 50 years and over and whose symptoms had been present for more than 20 years were more severe than those of MS patients with a shorter illness duration (less than 10 years) or matched-age control participants. The more impaired cognitive functions were information-processing speed, episodic memory, verbal fluency and attention. On the other hand, cognitive performances of young RR-MS patients were similar to those of older RR-MS patients when all patients had the same illness duration (8 years in this study). Older patients even achieved better performance than younger ones on verbal fluency. This can be partly explained by the theory of cognitive reserve, as reported in previous cognitive aging studies. In RR-MS patients, the influence of illness duration seems to be a predominant factor in the development of cognitive impairment.

  4. L10 ordered structures in Al-Cu-(Mg alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging

    Fuzhong, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the precipitation structures of Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78Mg (wt. % alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging. The Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78 Mg alloys were solution treated at 540 °C and 500 °C for 2 h, respectively, and then aged at 190 °C for 2 min. The precipitation structures in aged Al-3Cu-(1.78Mg alloys were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HTREM. 001 zone axis Selected area electron diffraction patterns indicate that L10 ordered structures are formed in the two aged alloys. HRTEM experiments reveal the partial dislocations on the interfaces of L10 ordered structures. From comparing experimental results with that in the literature, it is concluded that the L10 ordered structures in aged Al-3Cu alloy consist of Al and Cu atoms, and they are comprised by Al, Cu and Mg atoms together in the aged Al-3Cu-1.78Mg alloy. On the basis of precipitate growing thermodynamics, it is thought the L10 ordered structures act as nuclei for GP zones in Al-Cu-(Mg alloys during aging.En este trabajo se estudian las estructuras de precipitación en Al-3Cu y Al-3Cu-1,78Mg (% en peso en los estados iniciales de envejecimiento a temperatura elevada. Las aleaciones Al-3Cu y Al-3Cu-1.78 Mg fueron sometidas a un tratamiento térmico de solución de 2 h a 540 °C y 500 °C, respectivamente, y posteriormente envejecidas 2 min a 190 °C. Las estructuras de precipitación en Al-3Cu-(1.78Mg envejecido fueron caracterizadas por microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM y por microscopía electrónica de transmisión de alta resolución (HTREM. Los diagramas de difracción de electrones de área seleccionada indican que se forman estructuras ordenadas L10 en las dos aleaciones envejecidas. Experimentos de HRTEM revelan la presencia de dislocaciones parciales en las intercaras de las estructuras L10 ordenadas. Comparando estos resultados experimentales con la

  5. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    Harcourt Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol® to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds. In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid, stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures. We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other

  6. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Reveals Multiple QTLs Governing Tolerance Response for Seedling Stage Chilling Stress in Indica Rice

    Sharat K. Pradhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop is sensitive to cold stress at seedling stage. A panel of population representing 304 shortlisted germplasm lines was studied for seedling stage chilling tolerance in indica rice. Six phenotypic classes were exposed to six low temperature stress regimes under control phenotyping facility to investigate response pattern. A panel of 66 genotypes representing all phenotypic classes was used for ensuring genetic diversity, population structure and association mapping for the trait using 58 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 2 direct trait linked markers. A moderate level of genetic diversity was detected in the panel population for the trait. Deviation of Hardy-Weinberg's expectation was detected in the studied population using Wright's F statistic. The panel showed 30% variation among population and 70% among individuals. The entire population was categorized into three sub-populations through STRUCTURE analysis. This revealed tolerance for the trait had a common primary ancestor for each sub-population with few admix individuals. The panel population showed the presence of many QTLs for cold stress tolerance in the individuals representing like genome-wide expression of the trait. Nineteen SSR markers were significantly associated at chilling stress of 8°C to 4°C for 7–21 days duration. Thus, the primers linked to the seedling stage cold tolerance QTLs namely qCTS9, qCTS-2, qCTS6.1, qSCT2, qSCT11, qSCT1a, qCTS-3.1, qCTS11.1, qCTS12.1, qCTS-1b, and CTB2 need to be pyramided for development of strongly chilling tolerant variety.

  7. Treatment planning with intensity modulated particle therapy for multiple targets in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer

    Anderle, Kristjan; Stroom, Joep; Vieira, Sandra; Pimentel, Nuno; Greco, Carlo; Durante, Marco; Graeff, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Intensity modulated particle therapy (IMPT) can produce highly conformal plans, but is limited in advanced lung cancer patients with multiple lesions due to motion and planning complexity. A 4D IMPT optimization including all motion states was expanded to include multiple targets, where each target (isocenter) is designated to specific field(s). Furthermore, to achieve stereotactic treatment planning objectives, target and OAR weights plus objective doses were automatically iteratively adapted. Finally, 4D doses were calculated for different motion scenarios. The results from our algorithm were compared to clinical stereotactic body radiation treatment (SBRT) plans. The study included eight patients with 24 lesions in total. Intended dose regimen for SBRT was 24 Gy in one fraction, but lower fractionated doses had to be delivered in three cases due to OAR constraints or failed plan quality assurance. The resulting IMPT treatment plans had no significant difference in target coverage compared to SBRT treatment plans. Average maximum point dose and dose to specific volume in OARs were on average 65% and 22% smaller with IMPT. IMPT could also deliver 24 Gy in one fraction in a patient where SBRT was limited due to the OAR vicinity. The developed algorithm shows the potential of IMPT in treatment of multiple moving targets in a complex geometry.

  8. Multiple linear regression to develop strength scaled equations for knee and elbow joints based on age, gender and segment mass

    D'Souza, Sonia; Rasmussen, John; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    and valuable ergonomic tool. Objective: To investigate age and gender effects on the torque-producing ability in the knee and elbow in older adults. To create strength scaled equations based on age, gender, upper/lower limb lengths and masses using multiple linear regression. To reduce the number of dependent...... flexors. Results: Males were signifantly stronger than females across all age groups. Elbow peak torque (EPT) was better preserved from 60s to 70s whereas knee peak torque (KPT) reduced significantly (PGender, thigh mass and age best...... predicted KPT (R2=0.60). Gender, forearm mass and age best predicted EPT (R2=0.75). Good crossvalidation was established for both elbow and knee models. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study of muscle strength created and validated strength scaled equations of EPT and KPT using only gender, segment mass...

  9. Associations between Poor Sleep Quality and Stages of Change of Multiple Health Behaviors among Participants of Employee Wellness Program.

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Using the Transtheoretical Model of behavioral change, this study evaluates the relationship between sleep quality and the motivation and maintenance processes of healthy behavior change. The current study is an analysis of data collected in 2008 from an online health risk assessment (HRA) survey completed by participants of the Kansas State employee wellness program (N=13,322). Using multinomial logistic regression, associations between self-reported sleep quality and stages of change (i.e. precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) in five health behaviors (stress management, weight management, physical activities, alcohol use, and smoking) were analyzed. Adjusted for covariates, poor sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of contemplation, preparation, and in some cases action stage when engaging in the health behavior change process, but generally a lower likelihood of maintenance of the healthy behavior. The present study demonstrated that poor sleep quality was associated with an elevated likelihood of contemplating or initiating behavior change, but a decreased likelihood of maintaining healthy behavior change. It is important to include sleep improvement as one of the lifestyle management interventions offered in EWP to comprehensively reduce health risks and promote the health of a large employee population.

  10. National cohort study of absolute risk and age-specific incidence of multiple adverse outcomes between adolescence and early middle age.

    Mok, Pearl L H; Antonsen, Sussie; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny; Webb, Roger T

    2015-09-19

    Psychiatric illness, substance misuse, suicidality, criminality and premature death represent major public health challenges that afflict a sizeable proportion of young people. However, studies of multiple adverse outcomes in the same cohort at risk are rare. In a national Danish cohort we estimated sex- and age-specific incidence rates and absolute risks of these outcomes between adolescence and early middle age. Using interlinked registers, persons born in Denmark 1966-1996 were followed from their 15(th) until 40(th) birthday or December 2011 (N = 2,070,904). We estimated sex- and age-specific incidence rates of nine adverse outcomes, in three main categories: Premature mortality (all-causes, suicide, accident); Psychiatric morbidity (any mental illness diagnosis, suicide attempt, alcohol or drug misuse disorder); Criminality (violent offending, receiving custodial sentence, driving under influence of alcohol or drugs). Cumulative incidences were also calculated using competing risk survival analyses. For cohort members alive on their 15(th) birthday, the absolute risks of dying by age 40 were 1.99 % for males [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.95-2.03 %] and 0.85 % for females (95 % CI 0.83-0.88 %). The risks of substance misuse and criminality were also much higher for males, especially younger males, than for females. Specifically, the risk of a first conviction for a violent offence was highest amongst males aged below 20. Females, however, were more likely than males to have a hospital-treated psychiatric disorder. By age 40, 13.25 % of females (95 % CI 13.16-13.33 %) and 9.98 % of males (95 % CI 9.91-10.06 %) had been treated. Women aged below 25 were also more likely than men to first attempt suicide, but this pattern was reversed beyond this age. The greatest gender differentials in incidence rates were in criminality outcomes. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the incidence rates and absolute risks of these multiple adverse outcomes

  11. Is there a stepwise increase in neonatal morbidities according to histological stage (or grade) of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis?: effect of gestational age at delivery.

    Lee, Yeri; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kim, Jung-Sun; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-03-01

    To test if there is a stepwise difference in neonatal outcomes according to the stage (or grade) of histological inflammatory response in the chorioamniotic membranes and umbilical cords of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). This retrospective study included singleton pregnancies diagnosed as PPROM and delivered prior to 34 weeks of gestation (n=339). Acute histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis were subdivided into stages (or grade) as defined by Redline et al. Neonatal composite morbidities and mortality were also monitored. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Increasing stage (or grade) of acute histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis was significantly associated with an earlier gestational age at membrane rupture and delivery. Among neonatal outcomes, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, and composite morbidity showed incremental incidence according to increased stage (or grade) of acute chorioamnionitis, while periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis did not. Only RDS, BPD, and composite morbidity showed similar incremental incidences associated with severity of funisitis stage. However, the incremental trends of each neonatal outcome were found to be nonsignificant by multivariate analysis adjusting confounding variables including gestational age at delivery. Higher incidences of neonatal morbidity according to increased stage (or grade) of either acute histological chorioamnionitis or funisitis were due to an earlier gestational age at delivery.

  12. Guide to using Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX v.1.1) for Removal of River Stage Effects from Well Water Levels

    Mackley, Rob D.; Spane, Frank A.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2010-09-01

    A software tool was created in Fiscal Year 2010 (FY11) that enables multiple-regression correction of well water levels for river-stage effects. This task was conducted as part of the Remediation Science and Technology project of CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). This document contains an overview of the correction methodology and a user’s manual for Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX) v.1.1. It also contains a step-by-step tutorial that shows users how to use MRCX to correct river effects in two different wells. This report is accompanied by an enclosed CD that contains the MRCX installer application and files used in the tutorial exercises.

  13. Application of a coproantigen ELISA as an indicator of efficacy against multiple life stages of Fasciola hepatica infections in sheep.

    George, S D; Vanhoff, K; Baker, K; Lake, L; Rolfe, P F; Seewald, W; Emery, D L

    2017-11-15

    At present diagnosis of true resistance and determination of drug efficacy in Fasciola hepatica infection rely solely on terminal experiments. The coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) has been reported previously as a sensitive and specific tool appropriate to detect treatment failure, and potentially drug resistance. Two studies were conducted to determine whether the cELISA was appropriate for on-farm efficacy and resistance testing in Australian Merino sheep. In Study 1 sheep were infected orally with 50 F. hepatica metacercariae on three occasions, twelve, six and two weeks prior to a single flukicide treatment with triclabendazole, closantel or albendazole. Sheep were sampled weekly for a further seven weeks prior to necropsy. Following effective treatment, no faecal antigen was detected from 1 week. When immature stages (≤6 weeks) survived treatment, coproantigen reappeared from 6 weeks post-treatment. Therefore, cELISA conducted 1-4 weeks after treatment will demonstrate obvious treatment failure against adult F. hepatica, but is not sufficiently sensitive to detect survival of immature fluke until these reach maturity. In study 2, fluke burdens of sheep necropsied 13 weeks post single infection were compared to fecal worm egg counts (FWEC) and cELISA at necropsy. Regression analysis demonstrated that cELISA correlated strongly with fluke burden, whilst FWEC correlated weakly with cELISA. The correlation between FWEC and fluke burden was also weak, although stronger than that of FWEC with cELISA. The cELISA is an appropriate tool for monitoring effectiveness of treatments against Fasciola hepatica if an adult infection is present, however when immature stages of the parasite are present it is not as reliable. Where immature parasites are present it is recommended that initial cELISA be followed with a secondary cELISA at least 6 weeks after treatment to ensure resistance to immature stages is detected. Further testing is justified for monitoring the effectiveness

  14. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms

    Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs’ production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic fracture

  15. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine impairs mouse spermatogenesis at multiple stages through different usage of DNA methyltransferases

    Song, Ning; Endo, Daisuke; Song, Bin; Shibata, Yasuaki; Koji, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a progressive process comprising spermatogonial proliferation, spermatocytic meiosis, and later spermiogenesis, which is considered to be under the regulation of epigenetic parameters. To gain insights into the significance of DNA methylation in early spermatogenesis, 5-azadC was used as a molecular biological tool to mimic the level of DNA methylation in vivo. Since the drug is incorporated into DNA during the S-phase, spermatogonia and spermatocytes would be affected primarily in mouse spermatogenesis. Adult male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with 5-azadC at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days, allowing us to examine its maximum effect on the kinetics of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In this short-term protocol, 5-azadC induced significant histological abnormalities, such as a marked increase in apoptosis of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, followed by severe loss of spermatids, while after termination of 5-azadC treatment, normal histology was restored in the testis within 35 days. Quantification of the methylation level of CCGG sites as well as whole DNA showed spermatogonial hypomethylation, which correlated with increased apoptosis of spermatogonia. Interestingly, the hypomethylated cells were simultaneously positive for tri-methylated histone H3 at K4. On the other hand, no changes in methylation level were found in spermatocytes, but PCNA staining clearly showed disordered accumulation of S-phase spermatocytes, which increased their apoptosis in stage XII. In addition, different immunohistochemical staining pattern was found for DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs); DNMT1was expressed in the majority of all germ cells, but DNMT3a and b were only expressed in spermatogonia. Our results indicate that 5-azadC caused DNA hypomethylation in spermatogonia, but induced prolongation of S-phase in spermatocytes, resulting in the induction of apoptosis in both cases. Thus, 5-azadC affects spermatogenesis at more than

  16. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)

  17. Sustained expression of a neuron-specific isoform of the Taf1 gene in development stages and aging in mice

    Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren; Makino, Satoshi; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Tamiya, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We identified the mouse homologue of neuron-specific TAF1 (N-Taf1). ► Taf1 mRNA was expressed in most tissues and cell lines. ► N-Taf1 mRNA was expressed in the brain and Neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. ► Taf1 and N-Taf1 showed different expression profile in development stage and aging. -- Abstract: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II–mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.

  18. Sustained expression of a neuron-specific isoform of the Taf1 gene in development stages and aging in mice

    Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Graduate School, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Central Scientific Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Makino, Satoshi, E-mail: smakino@genetix-h.com [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192 (Japan); Munkhbat, Batmunkh [Central Scientific Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Tamiya, Gen [Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the mouse homologue of neuron-specific TAF1 (N-Taf1). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 mRNA was expressed in most tissues and cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Taf1 mRNA was expressed in the brain and Neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 and N-Taf1 showed different expression profile in development stage and aging. -- Abstract: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.

  19. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma aged 21-40 years versus 41-60 years: a multi-institutional case-control study.

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Nahi, Hareth; Avivi, Irit; Gozzetti, Alessandro; Niesvizky, Ruben; Yadlapati, Sujitha; Jayabalan, David S; Robak, Paweł; Pika, Tomas; Andersen, Kristian T; Rasche, Leo; Mądry, Krzysztof; Woszczyk, Dariusz; Raźny, Małgorzata; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Knopińska-Posłuszny, Wanda; Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Guzicka-Kazimierczak, Renata; Joks, Monika; Grosicki, Sebastian; Ciepłuch, Hanna; Rymko, Marcin; Vesole, David H; Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-12-01

    We compared the outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) patients aged 21-40 and 41-60 years in the novel agent era. This case-control study included 1089 patients between 2000 and 2015. Cases and controls were matched for sex, International Staging System (ISS) stage and institution. There were 173 patients in the younger group and 916 patients in the older group. Younger patients presented with a higher incidence of lytic lesions (82% vs. 72%; P = 0·04) and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (83% vs. 68%; P = 0·007), but lower rate of elevated lactate dehydrogenase (21% vs. 44%; P < 0·001). Five- and 10-year overall survival (OS) in younger versus older patients was 83% vs. 67% and 56% vs. 39%, respectively (P < 0·001). Similar results were seen when studying the subset of 780 patients who underwent autologous transplantation. Younger patients with ISS stage 1 had a better OS than older patients (P < 0·001). There was no survival difference between younger and older patients with ISS stage 2 or 3. Younger MM patients, aged 21-40 years, treated in the era of novel agents have a better OS than their counterparts aged 41-60 years, but the survival advantage observed in younger patients was lost in more advanced stages of MM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Using large-scale Granger causality to study changes in brain network properties in the Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) stage of multiple sclerosis

    Abidin, Anas Z.; Chockanathan, Udaysankar; DSouza, Adora M.; Inglese, Matilde; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) is often considered to be the first neurological episode associated with Multiple sclerosis (MS). At an early stage the inflammatory demyelination occurring in the CNS can manifest as a change in neuronal metabolism, with multiple asymptomatic white matter lesions detected in clinical MRI. Such damage may induce topological changes of brain networks, which can be captured by advanced functional MRI (fMRI) analysis techniques. We test this hypothesis by capturing the effective relationships of 90 brain regions, defined in the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas, using a large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) framework. The resulting networks are then characterized using graph-theoretic measures that quantify various network topology properties at a global as well as at a local level. We study for differences in these properties in network graphs obtained for 18 subjects (10 male and 8 female, 9 with CIS and 9 healthy controls). Global network properties captured trending differences with modularity and clustering coefficient (pdifferences in some regions of the inferior frontal and parietal lobe. We conclude that multivariate analysis of fMRI time-series can reveal interesting information about changes occurring in the brain in early stages of MS.

  1. The Use of Multiple Correspondence Analysis to Explore Associations between Categories of Qualitative Variables in Healthy Ageing.

    Costa, Patrício Soares; Santos, Nadine Correia; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to illustrate the applicability of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) in detecting and representing underlying structures in large datasets used to investigate cognitive ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain main cognitive dimensions, and MCA was used to detect and explore relationships between cognitive, clinical, physical, and lifestyle variables. Two PCA dimensions were identified (general cognition/executive function and memory), and two MCA dimensions were retained. Poorer cognitive performance was associated with older age, less school years, unhealthier lifestyle indicators, and presence of pathology. The first MCA dimension indicated the clustering of general/executive function and lifestyle indicators and education, while the second association was between memory and clinical parameters and age. The clustering analysis with object scores method was used to identify groups sharing similar characteristics. The weaker cognitive clusters in terms of memory and executive function comprised individuals with characteristics contributing to a higher MCA dimensional mean score (age, less education, and presence of indicators of unhealthier lifestyle habits and/or clinical pathologies). MCA provided a powerful tool to explore complex ageing data, covering multiple and diverse variables, showing if a relationship exists and how variables are related, and offering statistical results that can be seen both analytically and visually.

  2. Evaluation of multiple intelligences in children aged 7 to 11 years through the implementation of an interactive software

    Rebolledo Rodríguez, Rigel A.; Samaniego González, Euclides

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the evaluation project of multiple intelligences in children aged 7 to 11 years through the implementation of an interactive software, developed on Android for tablets, allowing parents, teachers, tutors, psy-chologists or other responsible adult, identifying the different types of intelligences that have children in order to know each other and develop their skills and their future potential. Similarly, research was developed to evaluate the effective-ness of the t...

  3. Multiple joint muscle function with ageing: the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships in young and older men.

    Allison, Sarah J; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Folland, Jonathan P

    2013-05-01

    Whilst extensive research has detailed the loss of muscle strength with ageing for isolated single joint actions, there has been little attention to power production during more functionally relevant multiple joint movements. The extent to which force or velocity are responsible for the loss in power with ageing is also equivocal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of force and velocity to the differences in power with age by comparing the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships in young and older men during a multiple joint leg press movement. Twenty-one older men (66 ± 3 years) and twenty-three young men (24 ± 2 years) completed a series of isometric (maximum and explosive) and dynamic contractions on a leg press dynamometer instrumented to record force and displacement. The force-velocity relationship was lower for the older men as reflected by their 19 % lower maximum isometric strength (p decrement in force was greater and therefore the major explanation for the attenuation of power during a functionally relevant multiple joint movement.

  4. Optimization and maintenance tests considering multiple failure modes, aging and imperfect maintenance

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Sanchez, A.; Carlos, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the optimization of the test and maintenance intervals under the criteria of unavailability or cost including the effect of the aging of the components and models of imperfect maintenance. The results obtained in the case of application, which focuses on a system of safety of a nuclear power station, show differences, mainly in the outage when you consider the aging. (Author)

  5. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  6. Synaptic genes are extensively downregulated across multiple brain regions in normal human aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Coleman, Paul D.; Cribbs, David H.; Rogers, Joseph; Gillen, Daniel L.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Synapses are essential for transmitting, processing, and storing information, all of which decline in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because synapse loss only partially accounts for the cognitive declines seen in aging and AD, we hypothesized that existing synapses might undergo molecular changes that reduce their functional capacity. Microarrays were used to evaluate expression profiles of 340 synaptic genes in aging (20–99 years) and AD across 4 brain regions from 81 cases. The analysis revealed an unexpectedly large number of significant expression changes in synapse-related genes in aging, with many undergoing progressive downregulation across aging and AD. Functional classification of the genes showing altered expression revealed that multiple aspects of synaptic function are affected, notably synaptic vesicle trafficking and release, neurotransmitter receptors and receptor trafficking, postsynaptic density scaffolding, cell adhesion regulating synaptic stability, and neuromodulatory systems. The widespread declines in synaptic gene expression in normal aging suggests that function of existing synapses might be impaired, and that a common set of synaptic genes are vulnerable to change in aging and AD. PMID:23273601

  7. Use of multiple age tracers to estimate groundwater residence times and long-term recharge rates in arid southern Oman

    Müller, Th.; Osenbrück, K.; Strauch, G.; Pavetich, S.; Al-Mashaikhi, K.-S.; Herb, C.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Aeschbach, W.; Sanford, W.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple age tracers were measured to estimate groundwater residence times in the regional aquifer system underlying southwestern Oman. This area, known as the Najd, is one of the most arid areas in the world and is planned to be the main agricultural center of the Sultanate of Oman in the near future. The three isotopic age tracers "4He, "1"4C and "3"6Cl were measured in waters collected from wells along a line that extended roughly from the Dhofar Mountains near the Arabian Sea northward 400 km into the Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula. The wells sampled were mostly open to the Umm Er Radhuma confined aquifer, although, some were completed in the mostly unconfined Rus aquifer. The combined results from the three tracers indicate the age of the confined groundwater is  100 ka in the central section north of the mountains, and up to and > one Ma in the Empty Quarter. The "1"4C data were used to help calibrate the "4He and "3"6Cl data. Mixing models suggest that long open boreholes north of the mountains compromise "1"4C-only interpretations there, in contrast to "4He and "3"6Cl calculations that are less sensitive to borehole mixing. Thus, only the latter two tracers from these more distant wells were considered reliable. In addition to the age tracers, δ"2H and δ"1"8O data suggest that seasonal monsoon and infrequent tropical cyclones are both substantial contributors to the recharge. The study highlights the advantages of using multiple chemical and isotopic data when estimating groundwater travel times and recharge rates, and differentiating recharge mechanisms. - Highlights: • Multiple age tracers are required for the interpretation of the groundwater system. • Different tracers are applicable along different sections of the flowpath. • Groundwater residence times >1 Ma have been determined for the northern Najd area.

  8. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years was selected from an existing dataset collected by Gunst et al. containing 2,513 panoramic radiographs with known third molar developmental stages of Belgian Caucasian men and women. This subset was randomly split in a training set to develop a classical regression analysis and a Bayesian model for the multivariate distribution of the third molar developmental stages conditional on age and in a test set to assess the performance of both models. The aim of this study was to verify if the Bayesian approach differentiates the age of maturity more precisely and removes the bias, which disadvantages the systematically overestimated young individuals. The Bayesian model offers the discrimination of subjects being older than 18 years more appropriate and produces more meaningful prediction intervals but does not strongly outperform the classical approaches.

  9. Impact of Age and Antibody Type on Progression From Single to Multiple Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes Relatives.

    Bosi, Emanuele; Boulware, David C; Becker, Dorothy J; Buckner, Jane H; Geyer, Susan; Gottlieb, Peter A; Henderson, Courtney; Kinderman, Amanda; Sosenko, Jay M; Steck, Andrea K; Bingley, Polly J

    2017-08-01

    Islet autoantibodies are markers of type 1 diabetes, and an increase in number of autoantibodies detected during the preclinical phase predicts progression to overt disease. To refine the effect of age in relation to islet antibody type on progression from single to multiple autoantibodies in relatives of people with type 1 diabetes. We examined 994 relatives with normal glucose tolerance who were positive for a single autoantibody, followed prospectively in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulin (IAA), insulinoma-associated antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8 and islet cell antibodies were tested every 6 to 12 months. The primary outcome was confirmed development of multiple autoantibodies. Age was categorized as <8 years, 8 to 11 years, 12 to 17 years, and ≥18 years, and optimal age breakpoints were identified by recursive partitioning analysis. After median follow-up of 2 years, 141 relatives had developed at least one additional autoantibodies. Five-year risk was inversely related to age, but the pattern differed by antibody type: Relatives with GADA showed a gradual decrease in risk over the four age groups, whereas relatives with IAA showed a sharp decrease above age 8 years. Recursive partitioning analysis identified age breakpoints at 14 years in relatives with GADA and at 4 years in relatives with IAA. In relatives with IAA, spread of islet autoimmunity is largely limited to early childhood, whereas immune responses initially directed at glutamic acid decarboxylase can mature over a longer period. These differences have important implications for monitoring these patients and for designing prevention trials. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth study: outcomes in children at 5 years of age (MACS-5).

    Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Murphy, Kellie E; Willan, Andrew R; Matthews, Stephen G; Ohlsson, Arne; Saigal, Saroj; Armson, B Anthony; Kelly, Edmond N; Delisle, Marie-France; Gafni, Amiram; Lee, Shoo K; Sananes, Renee; Rovet, Joanne; Guselle, Patricia; Amankwah, Kofi; Saleem, Mariam; Sanchez, Johanna

    2013-12-01

    A single course of antenatal corticosteroid therapy is recommended for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age. However, 50% of women remain pregnant 7 to 14 days later, leading to the question of whether additional courses should be given to women remaining at risk for preterm birth. The Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study (MACS) was an international randomized clinical trial that compared multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids with a single course in women at risk of preterm birth. To determine the effects of single vs multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy on death or neurodevelopmental disability (neuromotor, neurosensory, or neurocognitive/neurobehavioral function) at 5 years of age in children whose mothers participated in MACS. Our secondary aims were to determine the effect on height, weight, head circumference, blood pressure, intelligence, and specific cognitive (visual, spatial, and language) skills. Cohort follow-up study of children seen between June 2006 and May 2012 at 55 centers. In total, 1724 women (2141 children) were eligible for the study, of whom 1728 children (80.7% of the 2141 eligible children) participated and 1719 children contributed to the primary outcome. Single and multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy. The primary outcome was death or survival with a neurodevelopmental disability in 1 of the following domains: neuromotor (nonambulatory cerebral palsy), neurosensory (blindness, deafness, or need for visual/hearing aids), or neurocognitive/neurobehavioral function (abnormal attention, memory, or behavior). There was no significant difference between the groups in the risk of death or neurodevelopmental disability: 217 of 871 children (24.9%) in the multiple-courses group vs 210 of 848 children (24.8%) in the single-course group (odds ratio, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.81 to 1.29]; P = .84). Multiple courses, compared with a single

  11. Population projection and development of the loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi, as affected by temperature: application of an age-stage, two-sex life table

    The loreyi leafworm, Mythimna (=Leucania) loreyi (Duponchel), has recently emerged as a major pest of grain crops in China. Little is known about its basic biology and ecology, making it difficult to predict its population dynamics. An age-stage, two-sex life table was constructed for this insect wh...

  12. A high lymph node yield in colon cancer is associated with age, tumour stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjær, Ole

    2016-01-01

    by curative resection of stage I-III colon cancer in the period 2003-2011. The association between a LNY ≥ 12 and age, sex, body mass index, open vs. laparoscopic surgery, acute vs. elective surgery, pT stage, tumour sub-site and year of diagnosis was analysed. RESULTS: A total of 13,766 patients were...... eligible for the analysis. In total, 71.4 % of the patients had a LNY ≥ 12. In multivariate analysis, age, pT stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery were independently associated with the probability of a LNY ≥ 12. Odds ratios (ORs) were as follows: age ... of a LNY ≥ 12: OR 1.480 (CI 1.445-1.516) for each increasing year in the study period. CONCLUSION: A LNY ≥ 12 is significantly associated with age, pT stage, tumour sub-site and priority of surgery. A significant increase in the LNY over the period of the study was observed, probably reflecting the effect...

  13. Evaluation of the Turkish Version of the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional" in Identifying Children with Social-Emotional Problems

    Kucuker, Sevgi; Kapci, Emine Gul; Uslu, Runa Idil

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of the Age and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker & E. Twombly, 2003) for Turkish children was examined. A total of 608 mothers completed the ASQ-SE's. Overall sensitivity and overall specificity were 83.7% and 89.9%, respectively. Test-retest reliability, assessed by classifying children…

  14. Early Childhood Psychosocial Screening in Culturally Diverse Populations: A Survey of Clinical Experience With the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE)

    Lyman, D. Russell; Njoroge, Wanjiku F. M.; Willis, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a qualitative study to seek the feedback of service providers with regard to the usefulness of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional as a screening tool for multicultural populations. They addressed provider satisfaction with the tool by surveying a multidisciplinary sample of practitioners who provide a range…

  15. Predicting Maternal Health Care Use by Age at Marriage in Multiple Countries.

    Godha, Deepali; Gage, Anastasia J; Hotchkiss, David R; Cappa, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    In light of the global pervasiveness of child marriage and given that improving maternal health care use is an effective strategy in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality, the available empirical evidence on the association of child marriage with maternal health care utilization seems woefully inadequate. Furthermore, existing studies have not considered the interaction of type of place of residence and parity with child marriage, which can give added insight to program managers. Demographic Health Survey data for seven countries are used to estimate logistic regression models including interactions of age at marriage with area of residence and birth order. Adjusted predicted probabilities at representative values and marginal effects are computed for each outcome. The results show a negative association between child marriage and maternal health care use in most study countries, and this association is more negative in rural areas and with higher orders of parity. However, the association between age at marriage and maternal health care use is not straightforward but depends on parity and area of residence and varies across countries. The marginal effects in use of delivery care services between women married at age 14 years or younger and those married at age 18 years or older are more than 10% and highly significant in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, and Nepal. The study's findings call for the formulation of country-and age at marriage-specific recommendations to improve maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple plumage traits convey information about age and within-age-class qualities of a canopy-dwelling songbird, the Cerulean Warbler

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Ben

    2014-01-01

    Colorful plumage traits in birds may convey multiple, redundant, or unreliable messages about an individual. Plumage may reliably convey information about disparate qualities such as age, condition, and parental ability because discrete tracts of feathers may cause individuals to incur different intrinsic or extrinsic costs. Few studies have examined the information content of plumage in a species that inhabits forest canopies, a habitat with unique light environments and selective pressures. We investigated the information content of four plumage patches (blue-green crown and rump, tail white, and black breast band) in a canopy-dwelling species, the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), in relation to age, condition, provisioning, and reproduction. We found that older males displayed wider breast bands, greater tail white, and crown and rump feathers with greater blue-green (435–534 nm) chroma and hue than males in their first potential breeding season. In turn, older birds were in better condition (short and long term) and were reproductively superior to younger birds. We propose that these age-related plumage differences (i.e. delayed plumage maturation) were not a consequence of a life history strategy but instead resulted from constraints during early feather molts. Within age classes, we found evidence to support the multiple messages hypothesis. Birds with greater tail white molted tails in faster, those with more exaggerated rump plumage (lower hue, greater blue-green chroma) provisioned more, and those with lower rump blue-green chroma were in better condition. Despite evidence of reliable signaling in this species, we found no strong relationships between plumage and reproductive performance, potentially because factors other than individual differences more strongly influenced fecundity.

  17. Screening accuracy of the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition as a broadband screener for motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke Aka

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition may be used to identify gross and fine motor problems in children. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 43, 22-54 m) participated in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated by comparing the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition scores to the developmental evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale - second edition. The results revealed that both the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition gross and fine motor domain may be used to identify children without motor problems. In contrast, sensitivity analyses revealed the likelihood of under screening motor problems in this population. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition met only the criteria of a fair to good accuracy to identify poor gross motor (sensitivity = 100%) and below-average fine motor development (sensitivity = 71%) in this sample. Hence, the capacity of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition to identify motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder appears to be limited. It is recommended to include a formal standardized motor test in the diagnostic procedure for all children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    Glenn, Charles F; Chow, David K; David, Lawrence; Cooke, Carol A; Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2004-12-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits on behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration was not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments.

  19. The effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of financial decision-making

    Bangma, Dorien F.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Financial decision-making (FDM) is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related

  20. Elder Care, Multiple Role Involvement, and Well-Being Among Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan.

    Kikuzawa, Saeko

    2015-12-01

    Japan's population is aging at an unprecedented rate. Combined with the tradition of family responsibility for elder care, this rapid population aging has resulted in middle-aged Japanese people being much more likely today than in past decades to face the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents alongside their other major roles. Using nationally representative Japanese data, this study assessed the individual and combined implications of caregiving and other role involvements for the well-being of middle-aged men and women. Some evidence was found for deleterious psychological consequences of the caregiver role. However, in contrast to expectations, the interaction between the roles of caregiver and worker was positively associated with well-being among both men and women. The results suggest the importance of middle-aged adults being able to keep working when they have to care for their aging parents. Another important finding was significant gender differences in the psychological consequences of holding multiple family- and work-related roles and in combining these with the caregiver role. Further analysis showed that the spousal role was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with satisfaction for men but not for women. Gender differences in the findings appear to reflect the significant gender asymmetry in role experiences in Japan.

  1. Habitual caffeine consumption and its relation to memory, attention, planning capacity and psychomotor performance across multiple age groups.

    Hameleers, P. A. H. M; Van Boxtel, M. P. J; Hogervorst, E; Riedel, W. J; Houx, P. J; Buntinx, F; Jolles, J

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated the association between habitual caffeine intake via coffee and tea and cognitive performance. This was done as part of a larger research programme into the determinants of cognitive ageing (the Maastricht Aging Study: MAAS). Possible withdrawal effects that may have explained in part the positive association between performance and intake in an earlier study were controlled for. In addition, all cognitive tests in this study were administered under strict laboratory conditions. A group of 1875 healthy adults, stratified for age (range 24 - 81 years), sex, and general ability, were screened for habitual intake of coffee and tea and took part in extensive cognitive testing. Multiple regression analysis with control for age, sex, socio-demographic variables, and substance use showed that habitual caffeine consumption was significantly related to better long-term memory performance and faster locomotor speed. No relationships were found between habitual caffeine consumption and short-term memory, information processing, planning, and attention as measured with the Stroop Test. Moreover, no difference in sensitivity to caffeine intake between different age groups was found, suggesting that caffeine intake did not counteract age-related cognitive decline. Several recommendations are made to improve the design of future studies in this field. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging in differentiating early-stage subcortical ischemic vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing.

    Min-Chien Tu

    Full Text Available To describe and compare diffusion tensor imaging (DTI parameters between patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD and Alzheimer's disease (AD diagnosed using structuralized neuropsychiatric assessments, and investigate potential neuronal substrates related to cognitive performance.Thirty-five patients with SIVD, 40 patients with AD, and 33 cognitively normal control (NC subjects matched by age and education level were consecutively recruited and underwent cognitive function assessments and DTI examinations. Comparisons among these three subgroups with regards to cognitive performance and DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD values were performed. Partial correlation analysis after controlling for age and education was used to evaluate associations between cognitive performance and DTI parameters.With regards to cognitive performance, the patients with SIVD had lower total scores in frontal assessment battery (FAB compared to those with AD (p < 0.05 in the context of comparable Mini-Mental Status Examination and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scores. With regards to DTI parameters, there were more regions of significant differences in FA among these three subgroups compared with MD. Compared with NC group, the patients with SIVD had significant global reductions in FA (p < 0.001 ~ 0.05, while significant reductions in FA among the patients with AD were regionally confined within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and bilateral forceps major, and the anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum of the left side (p < 0.01 ~ 0.05. Analysis of FA values within the left forceps major, left anterior thalamic radiation, and genu of the corpus callosum revealed a 71.8% overall correct classification (p < 0.001 with sensitivity of 69.4%, specificity of 73.8%, positive predictive value of 69.4%, and negative predictive value

  3. A comparative study of proliferative activity and tumor stage of pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and non-PAM in gestational age women.

    Merkel, Emily A; Martini, Mary C; Amin, Sapna M; Yélamos, Oriol; Lee, Christina Y; Sholl, Lauren M; Rademaker, Alfred W; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pregnancy on the development, progression, and prognosis of melanoma is controversial. We sought to compare clinical characteristics, histologic features, and proliferative activity in pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) and melanoma in nonpregnant women of reproductive age (non-PAM). In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records and pathology reports from women given a diagnosis of melanoma between 2006 and 2015. We also examined tumor proliferation rates using mitotic count and 2 immunohistochemical markers of proliferation, phosphohistone H3 and Ki-67. In 50 PAM and 122 non-PAM cases, a diagnosis of melanoma in situ was associated with PAM. Among invasive melanomas, there was no difference in proliferative activity between groups. Pregnancy status was also not associated with age at diagnosis, tumor site, Breslow depth, Clark level, ulceration, or overall stage. This was a retrospective study with a small sample size of mostly patients with early-stage melanoma. In our study of primarily early-stage melanoma, pregnancy did not have a significant impact on tumor proliferation. Particularly for patients given a diagnosis of stage I melanoma who are undergoing close surveillance, a history of PAM should not outweigh traditional factors, such as advanced maternal age, in planning future pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple Comparison of Age Groups in Bone Mineral Density under Heteroscedasticity

    Ahmet Sezer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a silent disease because individuals may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so fragile. Bone mineral density (BMD test helps to detect osteoporosis and determine the risk fractures. This study covers bone measurement data from total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons who participated in the 1996–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in USA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA method is known as the primary method for detecting osteoporosis because of its high precision and accuracy. Testing the equality of the means of normal populations when the variances are unknown and unequal is a fundamental problem in clinical trials and biomedical research. In this study we compare age groups based upon BMD in case of unequal variance being present among the groups. First we test equality of variances among the age groups by the Hartley test. And then Scott-Smith test is used to test equality of BMD means for the age groups. Finally, Tukey-Cramer confidence intervals are constructed to detect which groups start to differ from the reference group in which BMD reaches the peak level.

  5. Analysis of age, sex, location, size and multiplicity of colonic diverticulosis in Korean

    Son, Mi Young; Chang, Jae Chun; Kwoen, Hyuk Po; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Sun Yong; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan

    1989-01-01

    Recently, colonic diverticulosis in Korea is one of rapidly increased disease in its incidence but it is different from that of western counties in the incidence or developing pattern. So, authors reviewed 1921 cases of double contrast study performed during 20 months, from Jan 1st , 1987 to Aug 30th, 1988 at the Department of Radiology. Yeungnam University Hospital to analyzed current disease pattern of the colonic diverticulosis. The results were as follows; 1. The incidence were 11.8%(226/1921) and predominant in male. 2. The mean age of patients was 48.41 years and older in female, but their incidence was not increased with advancing age over 6th decade. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 7.6 and higher in cases involving several anatomic location than limited to one location. 4. Diverticulosis more commonly involved several anatomic location than one location. 5. Left sided colonic diverticulosis was found in relatively older age group and more frequently involved descending colon than sigmoid colon most commonly seen in western people. 6. Recently, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is increasing in both the right and left colon, which is thought to be due to various factors and partly to the routine use of double contrast study of the colon

  6. Analysis of age, sex, location, size and multiplicity of colonic diverticulosis in Korean

    Son, Mi Young; Chang, Jae Chun; Kwoen, Hyuk Po; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Sun Yong; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    Recently, colonic diverticulosis in Korea is one of rapidly increased disease in its incidence but it is different from that of western counties in the incidence or developing pattern. So, authors reviewed 1921 cases of double contrast study performed during 20 months, from Jan 1st , 1987 to Aug 30th, 1988 at the Department of Radiology. Yeungnam University Hospital to analyzed current disease pattern of the colonic diverticulosis. The results were as follows; 1. The incidence were 11.8%(226/1921) and predominant in male. 2. The mean age of patients was 48.41 years and older in female, but their incidence was not increased with advancing age over 6th decade. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 7.6 and higher in cases involving several anatomic location than limited to one location. 4. Diverticulosis more commonly involved several anatomic location than one location. 5. Left sided colonic diverticulosis was found in relatively older age group and more frequently involved descending colon than sigmoid colon most commonly seen in western people. 6. Recently, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is increasing in both the right and left colon, which is thought to be due to various factors and partly to the routine use of double contrast study of the colon.

  7. The κ Andromedae system: new constraints on the companion mass, system age, and further multiplicity

    Hinkley, Sasha; David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile Cerro Calan, Las Condes (Chile); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Veicht, Aaron; Nilsson, Ricky [Astrophysics Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Vasisht, Gautam; Cady, Eric; Roberts, Jennifer E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zimmerman, Neil [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dekany, Richard [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-12-20

    κ Andromedae is a B9IVn star at 52 pc for which a faint substellar companion separated by 55 ± 2 AU was recently announced. In this work, we present the first spectrum of the companion, 'κ And B,' using the Project 1640 high-contrast imaging platform. Comparison of our low-resolution YJH-band spectra to empirical brown dwarf spectra suggests an early-L spectral type. Fitting synthetic spectra from PHOENIX model atmospheres to our observed spectrum allows us to constrain the effective temperature to ∼2000 K as well as place constraints on the companion surface gravity. Further, we use previously reported log(g) and T {sub eff} measurements of the host star to argue that the κ And system has an isochronal age of 220 ± 100 Myr, older than the 30 Myr age reported previously. This interpretation of an older age is corroborated by the photometric properties of κ And B, which appear to be marginally inconsistent with other 10-100 Myr low-gravity L-dwarfs for the spectral type range we derive. In addition, we use Keck aperture masking interferometry combined with published radial velocity measurements to rule out the existence of any tight stellar companions to κ And A that might be responsible for the system's overluminosity. Further, we show that luminosity enhancements due to a nearly 'pole-on' viewing angle coupled with extremely rapid rotation is unlikely. κ And A is thus consistent with its slightly evolved luminosity class (IV), and we propose here that κ And, with a revised age of 220 ± 100 Myr, is an interloper to the 30 Myr Columba association with which it was previously associated. The photometric and spectroscopic evidence for κ And B combined with our reassessment of the system age implies a substellar companion mass of 50{sub −13}{sup +16} M {sub Jup}, consistent with a brown dwarf rather than a planetary-mass companion.

  8. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.......c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two...

  9. Relationship between the Increased Haemostatic Properties of Blood Platelets and Oxidative Stress Level in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with the Secondary Progressive Stage

    Agnieszka Morel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with complex pathogenesis, different clinical courses and recurrent neurological relapses and/or progression. Despite various scientific papers that focused on early stage of MS, our study targets selective group of late stage secondary progressive MS patients. The presented work is concerned with the reactivity of blood platelets in primary hemostasis in SP MS patients. 50 SP MS patients and 50 healthy volunteers (never diagnosed with MS or other chronic diseases were examined to evaluate the biological activity of blood platelets (adhesion, aggregation, especially their response to the most important physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen and the effect of oxidative stress on platelet activity. We found that the blood platelets from SP MS patients were significantly more sensitive to all used agonists in comparison with control group. Moreover, the platelet hemostatic function was advanced in patients suffering from SP MS and positively correlated with increased production of O2-∙ in these cells, as well as with Expanded Disability Status Scale. We postulate that the increased oxidative stress in blood platelets in SP MS may be primarily responsible for the altered haemostatic properties of blood platelets.

  10. Stage of visual field loss and age at diagnosis in 1988 patients with different glaucomas: implications for glaucoma screening and driving ability.

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Gramer, Eugen

    2018-04-01

    To compare stage of visual field loss (VFL) and age at diagnosis between patients with different types of glaucoma with regard to glaucoma screening and driving ability. In a cross-sectional study of 1988 consecutive patients with different types of glaucoma VFL at diagnosis and age at diagnosis were assessed. Patients with binocular advanced or severe VFL were classified unable, patients with no VFL in one eye and VFL I-V (Aulhorn classification) in the other eye able, all other constellations questionably able to drive. There were significant differences in age at diagnosis between different glaucomas and between patients with different stages of VFL at diagnosis. Age-related assessment of VFL at diagnosis in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) compared to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) showed that NTG is not a disease of the elderly but a disease with late diagnosis at severe VFL. In POAG a solely age-related glaucoma screening, e.g. from the age of 50 years, does not sufficiently lead to diagnosis at an early stage of the disease. In POAG solely based on binocular VFL 11.5% of patients were judged unable, 29.2% questionably able to drive, in NTG 19.6%/43.1%, pigmentary glaucoma 16%/22%, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma 9.1%/16.7%, and in primary angle-closure glaucoma 14.6%/30%. Depending on type of glaucoma more than 50% of patients require counselling regarding safe driving as part of clinical care. A disease-specific, age-related perimetric examination considering additional risk factors like family history of glaucoma is essential for early detection of glaucoma and road safety.

  11. Detection and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction with quantitative post-mortem cardiac 1.5T MR.

    Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Schuster, Frederick; Riva, Fabiano; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, quantitative MR sequences have started being used in post-mortem imaging. The goal of the present study was to evaluate if early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction can be detected and discerned by quantitative 1.5T post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values. In 80 deceased individuals (25 female, 55 male), a cardiac MR quantification sequence was performed prior to cardiac dissection at autopsy in a prospective study. Focal myocardial signal alterations detected in synthetically generated MR images were MR quantified for their T1, T2 and PD values. The locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at autopsy heart dissection and cardiac tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in PMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction. In PMCMR seventy-three focal myocardial signal alterations were detected in 49 of 80 investigated hearts. These signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n=39), acute (n=14), subacute (n=10) and chronic (n=10) age stages of myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their quantitative T1, T2 and PD values, a significant difference between all defined age groups of myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 1.5T PMCMR quantification based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values is feasible for characterization and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Could age modify the effect of genetic variants in IL6 and TNF-α genes in multiple myeloma?

    Martino, Alessandro; Buda, Gabriele; Maggini, Valentina; Lapi, Francesco; Lupia, Antonella; Di Bello, Domenica; Orciuolo, Enrico; Galimberti, Sara; Barale, Roberto; Petrini, Mario; Rossi, Anna Maria

    2012-05-01

    Cytokines play a central role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis thus genetic variations within cytokines coding genes could influence MM susceptibility and therapy outcome. We investigated the impact of 8 SNPs in these genes in 202 MM cases and 235 controls also evaluating their impact on therapy outcome in a subset of 91 patients. Despite the overall negative findings, we found a significant age-modified effect of IL6 and TNF-α SNPs, on MM risk and therapy outcome, respectively. Therefore, this observation suggests that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes could be an important mediator of the complex interplay between ageing and cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural reading

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate how younger and older (60+) adults use syntactic and semantic information to disambiguate noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g. park). In event-related potential work using the same materials, Lee and Federmeier (2009, 2011) found that young adults elicited a sustained frontal negativity to NV-homographs when only syntactic cues were available (i.e., in syntactic prose); this effect was eliminated by semantic constraints. The negativity was only present in older adults with high verbal fluency. The current study shows parallel findings: young adults exhibit inflated first fixation durations to NV-homographs in syntactic prose, but not semantically congruent sentences. This effect is absent in older adults as a group. Verbal fluency modulates the effect in both age groups: high fluency is associated with larger first fixation effects in syntactic prose. Older, but not younger, adults also show significantly increased rereading of the NV-homographs in syntactic prose. Verbal fluency modulates this effect as well: high fluency is associated with a reduced tendency to reread, regardless of age. This relationship suggests a tradeoff between initial and downstream processing costs for ambiguity during natural reading. Together, the eye-tracking and ERP data suggest that effortful meaning selection recruits mechanisms important for suppressing contextually inappropriate meanings, which also slow eye movements. Efficacy of fronto-temporal circuitry, as captured by verbal fluency, predicts the success of engaging these mechanisms in both young and older adults. Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012). PMID:23687920

  15. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  16. Use of multiple age tracers to estimate groundwater residence times and long-term recharge rates in arid southern Oman

    Müller, Th.; Osenbrück, K.; Strauch, G.; Pavetich, S.; Al-Mashaikhi, K.-S.; Herb, C.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Aeschbach, W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple age tracers were measured to estimate groundwater residence times in the regional aquifer system underlying southwestern Oman. This area, known as the Najd, is one of the most arid areas in the world and is planned to be the main agricultural center of the Sultanate of Oman in the near future. The three isotopic age tracers 4He, 14C and 36Cl were measured in waters collected from wells along a line that extended roughly from the Dhofar Mountains near the Arabian Sea northward 400 km into the Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula. The wells sampled were mostly open to the Umm Er Radhuma confined aquifer, although, some were completed in the mostly unconfined Rus aquifer. The combined results from the three tracers indicate the age of the confined groundwater is  100 ka in the central section north of the mountains, and up to and > one Ma in the Empty Quarter. The 14C data were used to help calibrate the 4He and 36Cl data. Mixing models suggest that long open boreholes north of the mountains compromise 14C-only interpretations there, in contrast to 4He and 36Cl calculations that are less sensitive to borehole mixing. Thus, only the latter two tracers from these more distant wells were considered reliable. In addition to the age tracers, δ2H and δ18O data suggest that seasonal monsoon and infrequent tropical cyclones are both substantial contributors to the recharge. The study highlights the advantages of using multiple chemical and isotopic data when estimating groundwater travel times and recharge rates, and differentiating recharge mechanisms.

  17. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  18. Shift work at young age is associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis in a Danish population.

    Gustavsen, S; Søndergaard, H B; Oturai, D B; Laursen, B; Laursen, J H; Magyari, M; Ullum, H; Larsen, M H; Sellebjerg, F; Oturai, A B

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an important role for environmental factors in developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore several studies have indicated that the effect of environmental factors may be especially pronounced in adolescents. Recently only one study investigated and found that shift work at young age is associated with an increased risk of developing MS. In this study we focused on the effect of shift work in the vulnerable period between 15-19 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between shift work at young age and the risk of developing MS. We performed a large case-control study including 1723 patients diagnosed with MS and 4067 controls. MS patients were recruited from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Biobank and controls from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Information on working patterns and lifestyle factors was obtained using a comprehensive lifestyle-environmental factor questionnaire with participants enrolled between 2009 and 2014. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between shift work at age 15-19 years and the subsequent risk of MS and were controlled for effects due to established MS risk factors. We found a statistically significant association when total numbers of night shifts were compared with non-shift workers. For every additional 100 night shifts the odds ratio (OR) for MS was 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.34, p=0.001). Increasing intensity of shift work also increased MS risk. For every additional night per month the OR was 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.06, p=0.002). Duration of shift work in years was not associated with risk of MS. This study supports a statistically significant association between shift work at age 15-19 years and MS risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of comorbidity on the effect of adjuvant treatment and age in patients with early-stage breast cancer

    Land, L H; Dalton, S O; Jensen, M-B

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of comorbidity at breast cancer diagnosis increases with age and is likely to influence the likelihood of receiving treatment according to guidelines. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breast cancer treatment on mortality, taking age at diagnosis and comorbidity...

  20. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to test whether oxidative stress (OS) is a potential toxicity pathway following toluene exposure and to determine if these effects are age-dependent. We ...

  1. Role of BMI and age in predicting pathologic vertebral fractures in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients: A retrospective cohort study.

    Chen, Yi-Lun; Liu, Yao-Chung; Wu, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chiu, Hsun-I; Lee, Gin-Yi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Pei; Lin, Ting-Wei; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Vertebral fractures affect approximately 30% of myeloma patients and lead to a poor impact on survival and life quality. In general, age and body mass index (BMI) are reported to have an important role in vertebral fractures. However, the triangle relationship among age, BMI, and vertebral fractures is still unclear in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. This study recruited consecutive 394 patients with NDMM at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015. Risk factors for vertebral fractures in NDMM patients were collected and analyzed. The survival curves were demonstrated using Kaplan-Meier estimate. In total, 301 (76.4%) NDMM patients were enrolled in the cohort. In the median follow-up period of 18.0 months, the median survival duration in those with vertebral fractures ≥ 2 was shorter than those with vertebral fracture BMI BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m 2 (adjusted RR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.44-5.43). In multivariable logistic regression, BMI BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m 2 (adjusted OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.43-15.08). Among age stratifications, patients with both old age and low BMI were at a greater risk suffering from increased vertebral fractures, especially in patients > 75 years and BMI BMI. Elder patients with low BMI should consider to routinely receive spinal radiographic examinations and regular follow-up. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Baron, John A.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age < 50) populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n = 6, 862). Tumor characteristics...

  3. The Effect Of Two-Stage Age Hardening Treatment Combined With Shot Peening On Stress Distribution In The Surface Layer Of 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Kaczmarek Ł.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article present the results of the study on the improvement of mechanical properties of the surface layer of 7075 aluminum alloy via two-stage aging combined with shot peening. The experiments proved that thermo-mechanical treatment may significantly improve hardness and stress distribution in the surface layer. Compressive stresses of 226 MPa±5.5 MPa and hardness of 210±2 HV were obtained for selected samples.

  4. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  5. A middle-aged man with a troubled liver: Combination therapy in advanced (BCLC Stage C hepatocellular carcinoma

    Zamri Zuhdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma carries a bad prognosis with a survival of only few months. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC Guidelines recommended sorafenib monotherapy as the treatment modality for advanced BCLC Stage C disease, citing a two-month increase in survival rates. Here, we highlight a case with advanced HCC (BCLC Stage C treated with combination therapy of liver resection and Sorafenib therapy. The patient’s current survival rate was beyond 10 months. We also discuss the current evidence on liver resection with Sorafenib therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma. The description of the case may benefit in future diagnosis and treatment. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2018; 7(1.000: 29-32

  6. Reliability of Schmeling's stages of ossification of medial clavicular epiphyses and its validity to assess 18 years of age in living subjects.

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; De Angelis, D; Merelli, V; Giuliodori, A; Cingolani, M; Cattaneo, C; Ferrante, L

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, due to the global increase in migration movements, forensic age estimation of living young adults has become an important focus of interest. Minors often have no identification documents providing their correct birth dates. Establishing the age of majority is therefore fundamental in order to determine whether juvenile penal systems or penal systems in force for adults are to be applied. Radiological examination of the clavicles is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. In this retrospective study, a sample of chest radiographs of 274 subjects, aged between 12 and 25 years, was studied according to Schmeling's method in order to examine the ossification of both medial clavicular epiphyses. All stage classifications were evaluated by five examiners. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was analysed by Cohen's K statistic. Intra-examiner agreement was insufficient for two of the experts. Inter-examiner agreement, among the other three operators, was moderate (K = 0.509). Study of reliability highlighted difficulties in interpretation, the need to select qualified personnel and choice of the best radiographic image in order to reduce any anatomic overlaps. Although ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses is recommended to assess whether an individual has already reached the age of majority or not, these results suggested that it is very difficult to clearly identify the five stages of ossification by using conventional chest radiography.

  7. A comparison of cervical vertebral maturation assessment of skeletal growth stages with chronological age in Thai between cleft lip and palate and non-cleft patients.

    Pisek, Poonsak; Godfrey, Keith; Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Leelasinjaroen, Pornnapha

    2013-09-01

    (1) To search for any difference in chronological age related to stages of the cervical vertebral maturation index stages (CVMIs) comparing groups of cleft lip and palate (CLP) and non-cleft (non-CLP) subjects; (2) To investigate the relationship between chronological age and CVMIs in both groups of subjects. Cervical vertebrae C2, C3, C4 were assessed on 1,549 cephalometric films (503 CLP films, 1,046 non-CLP films of subjects aged 5 to 18 years) using Hassel and Farman's method. T-tests showed mean chronological ages of CVMIs 2, 3 and 6 were different at p = 0.001, 0.024 and 0.016, respectively. CVMIs 1, 4 and 5 showed no significant differences. The CLP group achieved each CVMI score one year ahead of the non-CLP group, except for CVMI 4. Spearman's rank order correlations were r = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.76-0.83) for CLP, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.74-0.79) for non-CLP. CLP subjects tended to have a slightly advanced growth compared with non-CLP subjects. A high correlation coefficient was found between chronological age and cervical vertebral skeletal maturation.

  8. Optimizing the number of cleavage stage embryos to transfer on day 3 in women 38 years of age and older: a Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database study.

    Stern, Judy E; Goldman, Marlene B; Hatasaka, Harry; MacKenzie, Todd A; Surrey, Eric S; Racowsky, Catherine

    2009-03-01

    To determine the optimal number of day 3 embryos to transfer in women >or=38 years by conducting an evidence-based evaluation. Retrospective analysis of 2000-2004 national SART data. National writing group. A total of 36,103 day 3 embryo transfers in women >or=38 years undergoing their first assisted reproductive technology cycle. None. Logistic regression was used to model the probability of pregnancy, delivery, and multiple births (twin or high order) based on age- and cycle-specific parameters. Pregnancy rates, delivery rates, and multiple rates increased up to transfer of three embryos in 38-year-olds and four in 39-year-olds; beyond this number, only multiple rates increased. In women >or=40 years, delivery rates and multiple rates climbed steadily with increasing numbers transferred. Multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant effect of age, number of oocytes retrieved, and embryo cryopreservation on delivery and multiple rates. Maximum FSH level was not an independent predictor by multivariate analysis. Use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection was associated with lowered delivery rate. No more than three or four embryos should be transferred in 38- and 39-year-olds, respectively, whereas up to five embryos could be transferred in >or=40-year-olds. Numbers of embryos to transfer should be adjusted according to number of oocytes retrieved and availability of excess embryos for cryopreservation.

  9. Genetic History of Xinjiang's Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia.

    Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Ni, Xumin; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Yajun; Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chang; Lou, Haiyi; Ning, Zhilin; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Meng; Tian, Lei; Wang, Xiaoji; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jing; Khan, Asifullah; Guan, Yaqun; Tang, Kun; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions. In XJU, we identified four major ancestral components that were potentially derived from two earlier admixed groups: one from the West, harboring European (25-37%) and South Asian ancestries (12-20%), and the other from the East, with Siberian (15-17%) and East Asian (29-47%) ancestries. By using a newly developed method, MultiWaver, the complex admixture history of XJU was modeled as a two-wave admixture. An ancient wave was dated back to ∼3,750 years ago (ya), which is much earlier than that estimated by previous studies, but fits within the range of dating of mummies that exhibited European features that were discovered in the Tarim basin, which is situated in southern Xinjiang (4,000-2,000 ya); a more recent wave occurred around 750 ya, which is in agreement with the estimate from a recent study using other methods. We unveiled a more complex scenario of ancestral origins and admixture history in XJU than previously reported, which further suggests Bronze Age massive migrations in Eurasia and East-West contacts across the Silk Road. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Williamson, Sheara; Varma, Deepti; Brown, Michael; Jansen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA). Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capaci...

  11. Comparison of multiple tau-PET measures as biomarkers in aging and Alzheimer's disease

    Maass, Anne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg (Germany); Landau, Susan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Baker, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Horng, Andy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lockhart, Samuel N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); La Joie, Renaud [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rabinovici, Gil D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jagust, William J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-06-03

    The recent development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers enables in vivo quantification of regional tau pathology, one of the key lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau PET imaging may become a useful biomarker for clinical diagnosis and tracking of disease progression but there is no consensus yet on how tau PET signal is best quantified. The goal of the current paper was to evaluate multiple whole-brain and region-specific approaches to detect clinically relevant tau PET signal. Two independent cohorts of cognitively normal adults and amyloid-positive (Aβ+) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD-dementia underwent [18F]AV-1451 PET. Methods for tau tracer quantification included: (i) in vivo Braak staging, (ii) regional uptake in Braak composite regions, (iii) several whole-brain measures of tracer uptake, (iv) regional uptake in AD-vulnerable voxels, and (v) uptake in a priori defined regions. Receiver operating curves characterized accuracy in distinguishing Aβ- controls from AD/MCI patients and yielded tau positivity cutoffs. Clinical relevance of tau PET measures was assessed by regressions against cognition and MR imaging measures. Key tracer uptake patterns were identified by a factor analysis and voxel-wise contrasts. Braak staging, global and region-specific tau measures yielded similar diagnostic accuracies, which differed between cohorts. While all tau measures were related to amyloid and global cognition, memory and hippocampal/entorhinal volume/thickness were associated with regional tracer retention in the medial temporal lobe. Key regions of tau accumulation included medial temporal and inferior/middle temporal regions, retrosplenial cortex, and banks of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, our data indicate that whole-brain tau PET measures might be adequate biomarkers to detect AD-related tau pathology. However, regional measures covering AD-vulnerable regions may

  12. Simultaneous determination of components released from dental composite resins in human saliva by liquid chromatography/multiple-stage ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Hsu, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ven-Shing; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Dental composite resins are widely used for fixing teeth; however, the monomers used in dental composite resins have been found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic, namely triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA). In this study, we incubated dental composite resins with human saliva for demonstrating the released monomers and biodegradation products. A simple saliva sample dilution method without purification or derivatization was used for quantification. We found that liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-stage ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n) ) operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was able to separate the three monomers within 10 min. The calibration curves were linear (R² >0.996) over a wide range for each monomer in saliva: TEGDMA, 5-500 ppb; UDMA, 5-100 ppb, and Bis-GMA, 5-700 ppb. Furthermore, several biodegradation products were discovered with data-dependent MS/MS scan techniques. Although TEGMA degradation products have previously been reported, we identified two previously unknown UDMA degradation products. The LC-MS/MS method developed in this study was able to successfully quantify monomers and their principal biodegradation products from dental composite resins in human saliva. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Sheara Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  14. Personal and socio-psychological characteristics of women of reproductive age, operated on for symptomatic endometriod desease, at the stage of pregnancy planning

    T. P. Chuieva-Pavlovska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometrioid disease occurs in every tenth woman of reproductive age and often leads not only to physical discomfort, but also frustrates them psychosocially, reduces professional, psychosocial and reproductive adaptation in general. The aim: to reveal the personal and psychosocial characteristics of women at the stage of pregnancy planning, operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, in connection with the task of optimizing the management and improvement of pregnancy outcomes. Material and methods. Under observation, there were 123 women operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, 125 somatically and gynecologically conditionally healthy fertile women. All the women were going to plan a pregnancy. The diagnosis of endometriosis in all cases was identified histologically. The psychosocial and personal characteristics of these women at the stage of pregnancy planning were studied. Conclusions.  The peculiarities of the personal and psychosocial characteristics of women at the stage of pregnancy planning, operated on for symptomatic endometriosis, are unfavorable child-parent relations, destructive relationships with their own mother, complicated course of pregnancy in the mother, high personal anxiety, impaired sex and age identification in women, inadequate (infantile, disadaptive forms of responding to stressful situations, emotional instability.

  15. Media Exposure in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children Is Associated with Multiple Measures of Self-Regulatory Behavior.

    Munzer, Tiffany G; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Contreras, Dawn; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C; Radesky, Jenny

    2018-05-01

    Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015). Screen media exposure was measured by daily screen media exposure (hr/d), television (TV) in the bedroom, frequency of background TV, and TV with meals (1 = rarely/never, 4 = frequently). Child self-regulatory behaviors were measured by the following: child ability to delay gratification, a standardized waiting paradigm; teacher-reported Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation; and parent-reported difficult temperament on the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Multivariate regression analyses modeled screen media exposure predicting each self-regulatory measure, adjusting for child age, sex, parent age, education, marital status, income-to-needs ratio, number of adults in household, parent depressive symptoms, and sensitivity. Children were aged 4.1 years (SD = 0.5), parents were aged 29.6 years (SD = 6.8), 48% had high school education or less, and 67% were married. Daily screen media exposure and background TV were associated with weaker observed self-regulation (β: -10.30 seconds for each hr/d media, -12.63 seconds for 1-point increase, respectively). Background TV and TV with meals were associated with greater parent-reported difficult temperament (β: 0.04 and 0.05 CBQ, respectively, for 1-point increase). Greater screen media exposure had small but significant associations with weaker observed and parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, self-regulatory behaviors. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directionality of associations.

  16. Determinants of Health Insurance Coverage among People Aged 45 and over in China: Who Buys Public, Private and Multiple Insurance

    Jin, Yinzi; Hou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Donglan

    2016-01-01

    Background China is reforming and restructuring its health insurance system to achieve the goal of universal coverage. This study aims to understand the determinants of public, private and multiple insurance coverage among people of retirement-age in China. Methods We used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey 2011 and 2013, a nationally representative survey of Chinese people aged 45 and over. Multinomial logit regression was performed to identify the determinants of public, private and multiple health insurance coverage. We also conducted logit regression to examine the association between public insurance coverage and demand for private insurance. Results In 2013, 94.5% of this population had at least one type of public insurance, and 12.2% purchased private insurance. In general, we found that rural residents were less likely to be uninsured (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34–0.47) and were less likely to buy private insurance (RRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). But rural-to-urban migrants were more likely to be uninsured (RRR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.24–1.57). Public health insurance coverage may crowd out private insurance market (Odds Ratio = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63), particularly among enrollees of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance. There exists a huge socioeconomic disparity in both public and private insurance coverage. Conclusion The migrants, the poor and the vulnerable remained in the edge of the system. The growing private insurance market did not provide sufficient financial protection and did not cover the people with the greatest need. To achieve universal coverage and reduce socioeconomic disparity, China should integrate the urban and rural public insurance schemes across regions and remove the barriers for the middle-income and low-income to access private insurance. PMID:27564320

  17. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was

  18. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease

    Caitlin C. Murphy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in younger (age < 50 populations, we examined demographic, clinicopathologic, and socioeconomic characteristics and treatment receipt in a population-based sample of patients newly diagnosed with stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute’s Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 (n=6,862. Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age < 50 and older (age 50–69, age ≥ 70 CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13% and Hispanic (15% than patients aged 50–69 years (11% and 10%, resp. and ≥70 years (7% each. A larger proportion of young white (41% and Hispanic (33% patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%. The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%. Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years.

  19. Patterns of Sociodemographic and Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Stages II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients by Age: Examining Potential Mechanisms of Young-Onset Disease.

    Murphy, Caitlin C; Sanoff, Hanna K; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Baron, John A; Lund, Jennifer L; Sandler, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims. As a first step toward understanding the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger (age stages II and III CRC. Methods. Patients were sampled from the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care studies in 1990/91, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 ( n = 6, 862). Tumor characteristics and treatment data were obtained through medical record review and physician verification. We compared sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment patterns of younger (age age 50-69, age ≥ 70) CRC patients. Results. Younger patients were more likely to be black (13%) and Hispanic (15%) than patients aged 50-69 years (11% and 10%, resp.) and ≥70 years (7% each). A larger proportion of young white (41%) and Hispanic (33%) patients had rectal tumors, whereas tumors in the right colon were the most common in young black patients (39%). The majority of younger patients received chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although receipt of microsatellite instability testing was suboptimal (27%). Conclusion. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC differ considerably by race/ethnicity, with a higher proportion of black and Hispanic patients diagnosed at the age of < 50 years.

  20. Primary Multiple Simultaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhages between 1950 and 2013: Analysis of Data on Age, Sex and Outcome

    Denchai Laiwattana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MSICHs are quite rare. Although occasional reports have been found, there have been no systematic reviews. The published case reports and case series contain overlapping data, leading to erroneous information about MSICHs. This is the first extensive review of accessible studies published in English on MSICHs. Our primary objective was to analyze the demographic data on age, sex, outcome and prognosis with regard to primary MSICHs. Summary: A PubMed search without language restriction for articles with results from human studies and registered between January 1950 and September 2013 yielded 677 articles. The following inclusion criteria were applied: (1 reported case(s or case series on primary MSICHs; (2 text partly or fully in English, and (3 text contains identifiable data on age, sex and outcome of patients. A total of 24 articles met all the inclusion criteria. The reference lists of these 24 articles were inspected for additional relevant articles, which yielded another 20 articles. In all, 248 cases were identified; 143 cases were excluded for various reasons: 52 duplicate cases, 18 cases of multiple nonsimultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages, 25 cases of secondary MSICHs, and 48 cases with incomplete data on age, sex and outcome. The remaining 105 cases were analyzed. MSICHs were found to be more common in bilateral cases (53.33%: there were bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhages (33.33%, bilateral thalamic hemorrhages (18.10%, bilateral lobar hemorrhages (0.95% and bilateral cerebellar hemorrhages (0.95%. Nonbilateral MSICHs were found in 46.67% of the cases. The hematomas were commonly distributed in the basal ganglia (45.83%, thalamus (30.56% and cerebellum (10.19%. MSICHs were more frequently encountered in males (60.95%; average age: 59.13 ± 12.49 years. The average age of the female patients was higher (63.89 ± 13.11 years. Patients with primary MSICHs had a

  1. Primary Multiple Simultaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhages between 1950 and 2013: Analysis of Data on Age, Sex and Outcome.

    Laiwattana, Denchai; Sangsawang, Bussara; Sangsawang, Nucharee

    2014-01-01

    Primary multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MSICHs) are quite rare. Although occasional reports have been found, there have been no systematic reviews. The published case reports and case series contain overlapping data, leading to erroneous information about MSICHs. This is the first extensive review of accessible studies published in English on MSICHs. Our primary objective was to analyze the demographic data on age, sex, outcome and prognosis with regard to primary MSICHs. A PubMed search without language restriction for articles with results from human studies and registered between January 1950 and September 2013 yielded 677 articles. The following inclusion criteria were applied: (1) reported case(s) or case series on primary MSICHs; (2) text partly or fully in English, and (3) text contains identifiable data on age, sex and outcome of patients. A total of 24 articles met all the inclusion criteria. The reference lists of these 24 articles were inspected for additional relevant articles, which yielded another 20 articles. In all, 248 cases were identified; 143 cases were excluded for various reasons: 52 duplicate cases, 18 cases of multiple nonsimultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages, 25 cases of secondary MSICHs, and 48 cases with incomplete data on age, sex and outcome. The remaining 105 cases were analyzed. MSICHs were found to be more common in bilateral cases (53.33%): there were bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhages (33.33%), bilateral thalamic hemorrhages (18.10%), bilateral lobar hemorrhages (0.95%) and bilateral cerebellar hemorrhages (0.95%). Nonbilateral MSICHs were found in 46.67% of the cases. The hematomas were commonly distributed in the basal ganglia (45.83%), thalamus (30.56%) and cerebellum (10.19%). MSICHs were more frequently encountered in males (60.95%; average age: 59.13 ± 12.49 years). The average age of the female patients was higher (63.89 ± 13.11 years). Patients with primary MSICHs had a survival rate of 56.20%. There

  2. Macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer comparison in different stages of age-related macular degeneration.

    Zucchiatti, Ilaria; Parodi, Maurizio Battaglia; Pierro, Luisa; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Gagliardi, Marco; Castellino, Niccolò; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    To employ optical coherence tomography (OCT) to analyze the morphologic changes in the inner retina in different categories of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Observational cross-sectional study. Single-center study. Inclusion criteria were age over 50, diagnosis of Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) category 2 and 3, naïve neovascular AMD, and atrophic AMD. Healthy patients of similar age acted as a control group. Primary outcome measures were the changes in ganglion cell complex (GCC) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Secondary outcomes included modifications of rim area and cup-to-disc ratio. One hundred and thirty eyes of 130 patients were recruited: 26 eyes for AREDS category 2, 26 for AREDS category 3, 26 for neovascular AMD, 26 with atrophic AMD, and 26 controls. Mean peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly lower in neovascular AMD, compared to controls (P = .004); peripapillary RNFL did not significantly vary among AREDS category 2 and 3 and atrophic AMD groups, compared to controls. Mean GCC thickness was higher in the control group, becoming progressively thinner up to neovascular and atrophic AMD groups (P < .0001). Rim area was significantly thinner in the neovascular AMD group compared with controls (P = .047); cup-to-disc ratio was higher in the neovascular AMD group compared with the control group (P = .047). This study demonstrates that eyes with neovascular AMD display reduced RNFL and GCC thickness. RNFL is partially spared in atrophic advanced AMD. The identification of alteration in RNFL and GCC thickness may reveal useful for future therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Forensic age assessment by 3.0T MRI of the knee: proposal of a new MRI classification of ossification stages.

    Vieth, Volker; Schulz, Ronald; Heindel, Walter; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Buerke, Boris; Schmeling, Andreas; Ottow, Christian

    2018-03-13

    To explore the possibility of determining majority via a morphology-based examination of the epiphyseal-diaphyseal fusion by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional study developing and applying a new stage classification was conducted. 344 male and 350 female volunteers of German nationality between the ages of 12-24 years were scanned between May 2013 and June 2015. A 3.0 T MRI scanner was used, acquiring a T1-weighted (T1-w) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE) and a T2-weighted (T2-w) TSE sequence with fat suppression by spectral pre-saturation with inversion recovery (SPIR). The gathered information was sifted and a five-stage classification was formulated as a hypothesis. The images were then assessed using this classification. The relevant statistics were defined, the intra- and interobserver agreements were determined, and the differences between the sexes were analysed. The application of the new classification made it possible to correctly assess majority in both sexes by the examination of the epiphyses of the knee joint. The intra- and interobserver agreement levels were very good (κ > 0.80). The Mann-Whitney-U Test implied significant sex-related differences for most stages. Applying the presented MRI classification, it is possible to determine the completion of the 18th year of life in either sex by 3.0 T MRI of the knee joint. • Based on prospective referential data a new MRI classification was formulated. • The setting allows assessment of the age of an individual's skeletal development. • The classification scheme allows the reliable determination of majority in both sexes. • The staging shows a high reproducibility for instructed and trained professional personnel. • The proposed classification is likely to be adaptable to other long bone epiphyses.

  4. Panels of tumor-derived RNA markers in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer: their dependence on age, gender and clinical stages.

    Chian, Chih-Feng; Hwang, Yi-Ting; Terng, Harn-Jing; Lee, Shih-Chun; Chao, Tsui-Yi; Chang, Hung; Ho, Ching-Liang; Wu, Yi-Ying; Perng, Wann-Cherng

    2016-08-02

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived gene signatures were investigated for their potential use in the early detection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, 187 patients with NSCLC and 310 age- and gender-matched controls, and an independent set containing 29 patients for validation were included. Eight significant NSCLC-associated genes were identified, including DUSP6, EIF2S3, GRB2, MDM2, NF1, POLDIP2, RNF4, and WEE1. The logistic model containing these significant markers was able to distinguish subjects with NSCLC from controls with an excellent performance, 80.7% sensitivity, 90.6% specificity, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.924. Repeated random sub-sampling for 100 times was used to validate the performance of classification training models with an average AUC of 0.92. Additional cross-validation using the independent set resulted in the sensitivity 75.86%. Furthermore, six age/gender-dependent genes: CPEB4, EIF2S3, GRB2, MCM4, RNF4, and STAT2 were identified using age and gender stratification approach. STAT2 and WEE1 were explored as stage-dependent using stage-stratified subpopulation. We conclude that these logistic models using different signatures for total and stratified samples are potential complementary tools for assessing the risk of NSCLC.

  5. Trends in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Age and Stage at Diagnosis in Gharbiah, Egypt, over 10 Years (1999–2008

    Kelly A. Hirko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009–2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads for 2009–2015. Results. From 1999 to 2008, the AAPC in breast cancer incidence rates in Gharbiah significantly increased among women 50 years and older and among localized tumors (AAPC %, 95% CI, 3.1% to 8.0%. Our results predict a significant increase in breast cancer caseloads from 2009 to 2015 among women aged 30–39 (AAPC %, 95% CI, 0.9% to 1.1% and among women aged 40–49 years (AAPC %, 95% CI, 1.0% to 2.6%. Conclusion. These results have important implications for allocating limited resources, managing treatment needs, and exploring the consequences of prior interventions and/or changing risk factors in Egypt and other developing countries at the same stages of demographic and health transitions.

  6. Influence of multiple sclerosis, age and degree of disability, in the position of the contrast sensitivity curve peak

    A F Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contrast sensitivity (CS function is one of the most important tests available for evaluating visual impairment. Multiple sclerosis (MS can produce highly selective losses in visual function and psychophysical studies have demonstrated CS deficits for some spatial frequencies. Aims: This work studies the differences in CS between a group of controls and a group of MS patients, focusing on the location of the maximum sensitivity peak, shape of the curve, and determination of the most affected spatial frequencies. Materials and Methods: Using a sinusoidal stimulus the authors assessed CS function in 28 subjects with definitive relapsing remitting MS, and in 50 controls with acuities of 20/25 or better. The peaks of the CS curves were studied by fitting third degree polynomials to individual sets of data. Results: Compared with the control group, the CS function curve for MS subjects showed more deficits in extreme points (low- and high-spatial frequencies. Our results display significant CS losses, at the high-frequencies band level, in the beginning of the disease. When the disease progresses and the disabilities appear, there are greater losses at the low-frequencies band level. In average, the CS curve peaks for the MS group were shifted in relation to the control group. Conclusions: CS losses in the MS group suggest an association with ageing and disability level in the expanded disability status scale. The position of the CS function peak is influenced by MS, age, and degree of disability.

  7. Conservative care as a treatment option for patients aged 75 years and older with CKD stage V: a National survey in the Netherlands.

    Susanto, Christopher; Kooman, J; Courtens, A M; Konings, C J A M

    2018-01-01

    Conservative care for patients aged 75 years and older with CKD stage 5 as a treatment option besides dialysis was proposed officially in the Netherlands in October 2016. This national survey showed the current implementation of this option in Netherlands nephrology departments. A web-based survey was sent to medical managers of 60 nephrology departments in the Netherlands in August 2016. Twenty-one medical managers (35%) completed the survey. The term "conservative care" is frequently used and well known. The estimated number of patients in whom the decision for maximal conservative care was made in 2015 was 310 of 2249 patients with CKD stage 5 age 75 years and older (range 5-50 patients per department). 164 patients became symptomatic and received no dialysis. There is no official registration for this treatment option and patient category. The practice patterns vary widely. Only one of 21 respondents reported a conservative care outpatient clinic. Formal training or education regarding conservative care is not available in most of departments. 95% of respondents discussed this treatment option with their patients. General practitioners are always being informed about their patient's decision. Their main role is providing or organizing palliative care support at the end of life and discussing advance care planning. Most respondents (86%) considered to include their patients in a prospective multicentre observational study, conservative care versus dialysis. Conservative care as a treatment option for patients with CKD stage 5 aged 75 years and older is well established. The practice patterns are varied in the Netherlands. Follow-up studies are needed to see whether the new multidisciplinary guideline facilitates harmonization of practice pattern. Funding is needed to optimize the implementation of conservative care.

  8. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests.

    Alicia Ledo

    Full Text Available Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies.

  9. Perinatal multiple exposure to neurotoxic (lead, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and aluminum) substances and neurodevelopment at six and 24 months of age

    Marques, Rejane C.; Bernardi, José V.E.; Dórea, José G.; Moreira de Fatima R, Maria; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    We studied neurodevelopment in infants from two communities. Children living in the vicinity of tin-ore kilns and smelters – TOKS; n = 51) were compared to children from a fishing village (Itapuã; n = 45). Mean hair-Hg (HHg) concentrations were significantly higher in Itapuã children which received significantly (p = 0.0000001) less mean ethylmercury (88.6 μg) from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) than the TOKS children (120 μg). Breast-milk Pb concentrations were significantly higher in the TOKS mothers (p = 0.000017; 10.04 vs. 3.9 μg L −1 ). Bayley mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) were statistically significant (respectively p < 0.0000001, p = 0.000007) lower for the TOKS children only at 24 months of age. Multivariate regression analysis showed that MDI was negatively affected by breast-milk Pb and by HHg. PDI was positively affected by breastfeeding and negatively affected by ethylmercury. Milestone achievements were negatively affected by breast-milk Pb (age of walking) and by HHg (age of talking). - Highlights: • Maternal MeHg and Pb, and iatrogenic EtHg (plus Al) exposures are real life scenarios. • Multiple exposures in early life are a dominant cause of neurodevelopmental delays. • Aggravation and/or reversibility of outcomes followed identifiable exposure patterns. - Distinct patterns of metal exposures showed significant differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes. Pb and EtHg showed a dominant cause of neurodevelopmental delays

  10. The Existence of Primary Age-Related Tauopathy Suggests that not all the Cases with Early Braak Stages of Neurofibrillary Pathology are Alzheimer's Disease.

    Giaccone, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Primary Age-Related Tauopathy (PART) is a hotly debated issue. As most lines of evidence support the tenet that tau pathology occurs downstream of amyloid-β deposition, it seems reasonable to consider PART as a separate disease process not necessarily related to Aβ and hence AD. Following this view, the early stages of neurofibrillary pathology may not always be the forerunner of diffuse neurofibrillary changes and AD. The ongoing debate further enhances the need for greater caution against any future predictions using tau cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers.

  11. Longitudinal Associations Between Microstructural Changes and Microperimetry in the Early Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Wu, Zhichao; Cunefare, David; Chiu, Elizabeth; Luu, Chi D; Ayton, Lauren N; Toth, Cynthia A; Farsiu, Sina; Guymer, Robyn H

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether longitudinal changes in mesopic visual function on microperimetry occurred independent of its associations with microstructural parameters on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the early stages of AMD. Forty-one AMD eyes underwent microperimetry testing and SD-OCT scans over a 12-month period at 6-month intervals. Microstructural parameters analyzed include the retinal pigment epithelium-drusen complex (RPEDC) layer thickness, number of hyperreflective foci (HF) and their inner retinal migration (represented by a weighted axial distribution score; AxD), and the number of atrophic areas. Microperimetric sensitivity was 0.29 dB (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.38 to -0.20 dB, P < 0.001) and 0.13 dB (95% CI = -0.22 to -0.03 dB, P = 0.008) lower in each sector for every 10-μm higher RPEDC layer thickness and 1-HF present, but was not associated with the AxD score or the number of atrophic areas present (P ≤ 0.464). However, each 10-μm greater RPEDC layer thickness and 1-HF present was not independently associated with a further decline in sensitivity (-0.08 dB/year, 95% CI = -0.24 to 0.07 dB/year, P = 0.288 and 0.09 dB/year, 95% CI = -0.06 to 0.24 dB/year, P = 0.242, respectively) over time when accounting for the association between RPEDC layer thickness and number of HF with microperimetric sensitivity. Longitudinal changes in mesopic visual function measured on microperimetry paralleled changes in the microstructural changes over a 12-month time frame, without any changes occurring independent of the associations between structure and function alone.

  12. Age

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  13. Bilingualism, executive control, and age at diagnosis among people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease in Wales.

    Clare, Linda; Whitaker, Christopher J; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen; Martyr, Anthony; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Quinn, Catherine; Thomas, Enlli M; Gathercole, Virginia C Mueller; Hindle, John V

    2016-09-01

    The observation of a bilingual advantage in executive control tasks involving inhibition and management of response conflict suggests that being bilingual might contribute to increased cognitive reserve. In support of this, recent evidence indicates that bilinguals develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) later than monolinguals, and may retain an advantage in performance on executive control tasks. We compared age at the time of receiving an AD diagnosis in bilingual Welsh/English speakers (n = 37) and monolingual English speakers (n = 49), and assessed the performance of bilinguals (n = 24) and monolinguals (n = 49) on a range of executive control tasks. There was a non-significant difference in age at the time of diagnosis, with bilinguals being on average 3 years older than monolinguals, but bilinguals were also significantly more cognitively impaired at the time of diagnosis. There were no significant differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in performance on executive function tests, but bilinguals appeared to show relative strengths in the domain of inhibition and response conflict. Bilingual Welsh/English speakers with AD do not show a clear advantage in executive function over monolingual English speakers, but may retain some benefits in inhibition and management of response conflict. There may be a delay in onset of AD in Welsh/English bilinguals, but if so, it is smaller than that found in some other clinical populations. In this Welsh sample, bilinguals with AD came to the attention of services later than monolinguals, and reasons for this pattern could be explored further. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. [Evaluation of temporality semantic knowledge in normal aging and in mild and moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease].

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, T; Batt, M; Empereur, F; Braun, M; Trognon, A

    2015-04-01

    Episodic and semantic processes are involved in temporality used in daily life. Episodic memory permits one to place an event on the time axis, while semantic memory makes us aware of the time segmentation and its symbolic representation. Memory of the knowledge connected to the passing of time is materialized on the calendar and can be seen symbolically on the dial of a clock. In AD, semantic memory processes are preserved longer than processes related to episodic memory. We wonder whether the specific field of knowledge about time is altered during AD. We validated a specific evaluation with a control group (354 healthy subjects). Then we applied this battery to assess AD patients to appreciate the feasibility of this tool for this population. We then compared 22 AD patients with a control group matched for age, sex and educational level. Our clinical scale of temporal semantic knowledge consists of four parts: (a) hour reading with a.m. and p.m. hours; (b) using a clock: 12 clock faces with the hour numbers already placed: the patient draws hour and minute hands for various hours; (c) temporal segmentation: exploration of the knowledge on daytime scale and of the calendar; (d) time duration estimation: calculate how long the interview has lasted after indicating the time of its beginning and its end, then the time between 10.40 to 12.00. While age and educational level had an influence on all the scores, in the two groups control and patients, gender did not. Temporal segmentation, independent of the cultural level, revealed the best acquired knowledge in our control population. All the scores differentiated patients from control subjects. The temporal semantic knowledge correlated with the AD severity seemed to be correlated with the attention, verbal comprehension, and some components of executive functions, but was not related to the clock drawing test result. Depression did not have any influence on this scale in our AD group. The temporal semantic knowledge

  15. Outcome of one stage combined open reduction, pelvic and derotation femoral osteotomy in congenital dislocated hips of children younger than three years age

    Bhatti, A.; Kumar, J.; Butt, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of one-stage combined operative management of congenital dislocation of hips in children aged 18-36 months. Methods: The descriptive case series study was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2011. Children aged 18-36 months suffering from congenital dislocation of hips were included. Those with Tonnis stage III and IV were managed with one-stage operative procedure without preliminary traction. The operative procedure included adductor tenotomy, open reduction, capsulorraphy, Salter's osteotomy and a femoral derotation osteotomy. Catteral's 'Test of Stability' was used after open reduction as an indicator for need of pelvic and femoral osteotomies. Follow-up ranged between 1 and 7 years. The patients were evaluated clinically on McKay's criteria and radiologically on Severin's criteria. Klisic's overall rating was used to know mean of the assessments. Results: There were 38 patients with 50 congenital dislocations of hip. There were 26(68.42%) females and 12(31.57%) males with a female-to-male ratio of 2:1. Mean age at the time of operation was 24.26+-7.6 months. Of the total, 12(31.57%) patients had bilateral involvement, 11(28.94%) had right-sided and 15(39.47%) had left- sided involvement. Right side to Left ratio was 1:1.2. At the time of last follow-up, 25(50%) hips behaved excellent on McKay's criteria. According to radiographic classification on Severin's criteria, 24(48%) hips were in excellent class. Avascular necrosis of femoral head was noted in 3(6%) hips, re-subluxation/re-dislocations were observed in 3(6%) hips and 1(2.6%) patient had 1cm femoral lengthening. Conclusion: One-stage open reduction, capsulorrapyhy, Salter's osteotomy and femoral derotation osteotomy without preliminary traction to re-locate congenital dislocation of hips in late presenting children is a safe and highly effective method. It produces a low rate of

  16. SERUM ELECTROLYTES AND ENZYMES IN ENDOMETRITIC NILI-RAVI BUFF ALOES OF TWO AGE GROUPS AND AT TWO STAGES OF LACTATION

    A. Sarwar, R. U. Shahid, S. Masood, R. Kausar and S. G. Sha

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Serum concentrations of tour electrol~1es including sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and Chloride ( Cl and activities of two enzymes i.e. aspartate transaminase ( AST and alanine transaminase (ALT were compared amongst 80 pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes in a 23 factorial experiment: between endometritic and health~ lots of two age groups and at two stages of lactation. The analysis of variance revealed that: endometritic buffaloes showing muco-purulent vaginal discharge exhibited raise in ALT, AST and Cl, while decline in Ca. Milking stage affected two parameters namely, serum Cl and AL T. Both Cl and ALT were found to be decreased up to 11 months of lactation. Age groups remained inert on all of the parameters studied. This data indicates that electrolytes and enzymes clearly deviate from their normal levels in endometritic buffaloes which may in turn affect reproductive performance negatively. Thus maintenance of optimal uterine health and balanced nutrition, particularly with reference to blood constituents are critical for better reproductive performance in animals of this species.

  17. Aging

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  18. Single-Fraction Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Patients 80 Years of Age and Older With Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Karube, Masataka; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Nakajima, Mio; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Miyamoto, Tadaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In an aging society, many senior citizens want less invasive treatment because of potential medical complications. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has started to treat stage I lung cancer with single-fraction carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) as a dose escalation prospective phase 1/2 trial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of CIRT for patients 80 years of age and older, undergoing single-fraction CIRT. Methods and Materials: Peripheral non-small cell lung cancer patients who were treated with single-fraction CIRT were prospectively followed. We analyzed the data from among these patients 80 years of age and older. Results: There were 70 patients. Median age was 83 years (range: 80-89) and median follow-up period was 42.7 months (range: 12-128 months). Three-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 88.0%, 81.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. Five-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 85.8%, 64.9%, and 39.7%, respectively. There were no adverse effects higher than grade 2 either in the acute or late phase in terms of skin and lung. Analgesic agents were necessary for only 5 patients (7.1%), to relieve muscular or rib fracture pain caused by irradiation. Conclusions: Single-fraction CIRT was low-risk and effective, even for the elderly.

  19. Single-Fraction Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Patients 80 Years of Age and Older With Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Karube, Masataka, E-mail: mstk117@gmail.com [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Nakajima, Mio [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Miyamoto, Tadaaki; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujisawa, Takehiko [Chiba Foundation for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: In an aging society, many senior citizens want less invasive treatment because of potential medical complications. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has started to treat stage I lung cancer with single-fraction carbon-ion radiation therapy (CIRT) as a dose escalation prospective phase 1/2 trial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of CIRT for patients 80 years of age and older, undergoing single-fraction CIRT. Methods and Materials: Peripheral non-small cell lung cancer patients who were treated with single-fraction CIRT were prospectively followed. We analyzed the data from among these patients 80 years of age and older. Results: There were 70 patients. Median age was 83 years (range: 80-89) and median follow-up period was 42.7 months (range: 12-128 months). Three-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 88.0%, 81.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. Five-year local control, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 85.8%, 64.9%, and 39.7%, respectively. There were no adverse effects higher than grade 2 either in the acute or late phase in terms of skin and lung. Analgesic agents were necessary for only 5 patients (7.1%), to relieve muscular or rib fracture pain caused by irradiation. Conclusions: Single-fraction CIRT was low-risk and effective, even for the elderly.

  20. Aging

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  1. A cross-sectional study examining multiple mobility device use and fall status among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Finlayson, Marcia L; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Asano, Miho

    2014-01-01

    To document the prevalence of multiple mobility device use among adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) (≥ 55 years) and examine the association between falls status (faller/non-faller) and the number of mobility devices used. Cross-sectional data generated through telephone interviews with 353 participants was used for this secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to address the first study purpose. Multiple device use was measured by the number of devices used, which ranged from 0 (never use a cane, walker, manual wheelchair, or power wheelchair/scooter) to 4 (use all four mobility devices at least some of the time). Logistic regression analysis was used to address the second purpose, with fall status used as the dependent variable (non-fallers [falls, this association requires further research to determine directionality.

  2. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria.

    Afolabi, Bamgboye M; Ezedinachi, Emmanuel Nu; Arikpo, Iwara; Ogunwale, Abiodun; Ganiyu, Damilola Fatimah; Abu, Rashidat A; Ajibade, Adewunmi A

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81%) were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents ( χ 2 =29.9, P =0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2). Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women and 67% among singles. Knowledge of contraceptive method was negatively associated with marital status ( t =-2.24, P =0.025) but positively associated with source of information on contraceptives ( t =20.00, P =0.000). Use of contraceptives was positively associated with stage of reproductive age ( t =1.94, P =0.05) and source of information on contraceptives ( t =11.22, P =0.000), but negatively

  3. Reconstruction of multiple P-T-t stages from retrogressed mafic rocks: Subduction versus collision in the Southern Brasília orogen (SE Brazil)

    Tedeschi, Mahyra; Lanari, Pierre; Rubatto, Daniela; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio; Hermann, Jörg; Dussin, Ivo; Pinheiro, Marco Aurélio P.; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2017-12-01

    The identification of markers of subduction zones in orogenic belts requires the estimation of paleo-geothermal gradients through pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) estimates in mafic rocks that potentially derive from former oceanic units once. However, such markers are rare in supracrustal sequences specially in deeply eroded and weathered Precambrian orogens, and reconstructing their metamorphic history is challenging because they are commonly retrogressed and only preserve a few mineral relicts of high-pressure metamorphism. Metamorphosed mafic rocks from Pouso Alegre region of the Neoproterozoic Southern Brasília Orogen outcrop as rare lenses within continental gneisses. They have previously been classified as retrograde eclogites, based on the presence of garnet and the characteristic symplectitic texture replacing omphacite. These rocks were interpreted to mark the suture zone between the Paranapanema and São Francisco cratons. To test the possible record of eclogitic conditions in the Pouso Alegre mafic rocks, samples including the surrounding felsic rocks have been investigated using quantitative compositional mapping, forward thermodynamic modeling and in-situ dating of accessory minerals to refine their P-T-t history. In the metamorphosed mafic rocks, the peak pressure assemblage of garnet and omphacite (Jd20, reconstructed composition) formed at 690 ± 35 °C and 13.5 ± 3.0 kbar, whereas local retrogression into symplectite or corona occurred at 595 ± 25 °C and 4.8 ± 1.5 kbar. The two reactions were coupled and thus took place at the same time. A zircon U-Pb age of 603 ± 7 Ma was obtained for metamorphic rims and linked to the retrogression stage. Monazite and metamorphic zircon U-Th-Pb ages for the surrounding rocks are at ca. 630 Ma and linked to peak pressure conditions similar to the one recorded by the mafic rocks. The low maximal pressure of 14 kbar and the high geothermal gradient do not necessarily support subduction process

  4. [Adherence to pharmaceutical guidance in patients over 85 years of age with chronic heart failure-stage C. Effects on 12-month mortality].

    Esteve Arríen, Ainhoa; Domínguez de Pablos, Gema; Minaya Saiz, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    To describe factors related to prescription on discharge of treatment for Chronic Heart Failure(CHF)-Stage C and to analyse whether this is related to 12month-mortality. Observational follow-up study of patients over 85 hospitalized during 2006/7 with Stage C-Chronic Heart Failure in an outskirt support hospital. Drug-prescription adherence was assessed according to the American Heart Society 2005-Guidelines and recommendations of the American Geriatrics Society-2007. A multivariate analysis of logistic regression was performed to obtain odds for 12-month mortality for each recommended therapy, adjusting by mortality risk factors. 104 patients aged 90+/-3yr were followed on discharge, 85% of which were women. NYHA-classes were distributed NYHA I-28,2%, II-37,9%, III-30,1%, IV-3,9%. Most frequently prescribed drugs were loop diuretics (83,3%) and IACEs/ARB (62%), and the less frequent beta-blockers (19,1%). IACEs/ARB were prescribed to those with lower functional impairment (p=0.04), and beta-blockers to those with worse NYHA class (p=0.02). All recommended prescriptions had a tendency to 12 month mortality risk reduction, even adjusted by age, functional status, co-morbidity, NYHA class and co-morbid atrial fibrillation, except for spironolactone (OR-1,8; IC95% 0,48-17,19). Treatment with CHF disease-modifying therapies except for spironolactone can reduce 12 month risk mortality, also in the oldest old. There exists room for improvement in frequency of drug prescription in this group of age.

  5. Quantitative changes in proteins responsible for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit at different ripening stages: A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring.

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-06-03

    To better understand the regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, a targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was conducted on two strawberry cultivars at three ripening stages. This quantitative proteomic workflow was improved through an OFFGEL electrophoresis to fractionate peptides from total protein digests. A total of 154 peptide transitions from 47 peptides covering 21 proteins and isoforms related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were investigated. The normalized protein abundance, which was measured using isotopically-labeled standards, was significantly changed concurrently with increased anthocyanin content and advanced fruit maturity. The protein abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanidin synthase, chalcone isomerase; flavanone 3-hydroxylase; dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, was all significantly increased in fruit of more advanced ripeness. An interaction between cultivar and maturity was also shown with respect to chalcone isomerase. The good correlation between protein abundance and anthocyanin content suggested that a metabolic control point may exist for anthocyanin biosynthesis. This research provides insights into the process of anthocyanin formation in strawberry fruit at the level of protein concentration and reveals possible candidates in the regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation of strawberry fruit during ripening is challenging due to limited molecular biology tools and established hypothesis. Our targeted proteomic approach employing LC-MS/MS analysis and MRM technique to quantify proteins in relation to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in strawberry fruit during fruit ripening is novel. The identification of peptides

  6. Older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms predict the amount and severity of work-related difficulties in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Raggi, Alberto; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brambilla, Laura; Brenna, Greta; Confalonieri, Paolo Agostino; Cortese, Francesca; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato Emilio; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; De Torres, Laura

    2018-04-16

    This cross-sectional study aims to identify the predictors of work-related difficulties in a sample of employed persons with multiple sclerosis as addressed with the Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of work difficulties: predictors included demographic variables (age, formal education), disease duration and severity, perceived disability and psychological variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety). The targets were the questionnaire's overall score and its six subscales. A total of 177 participants (108 females, aged 21-63) were recruited. Age, perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of the questionnaire total score, and the final model explained 43.7% of its variation. The models built on the questionnaire's subscales show that perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of most of its subscales. Our results show that, among patients with multiple sclerosis, those who were older, with higher perceived disability and higher depression symptoms have more and more severe work-related difficulties. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties can be fruitfully exploited to plan tailored actions to limit the likelihood of near-future job loss in persons of working age with multiple sclerosis. Implications for rehabilitation Difficulties with work are common among people with multiple sclerosis and are usually addressed in terms of unemployment or job loss. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties is a disease-specific questionnaire developed to address the amount and severity of work-related difficulties. We found that work-related difficulties were associated to older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms. Mental health issues and perceived disability should be consistently included in future research targeting work-related difficulties.

  7. Cerebral blood flow of patients with age-associated memory impairment and the early stage of Alzheimer`s disease. A study by SPECT using the ARG method

    Ishiwata, Akiko; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atushi; Terashi, Akiro [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    In order to further understand the pathology of Alzheimer`s disease (AD), we have utilized image analysis in diagnosing the early stages of AD in patients with cognitive disorders. CT and MRI, however, have not been feasible since only atrophy is seen and it is difficult to differentiate the changes in AD from age associated changes. In this study we tried to determine whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements using single photon emission CT (SPECT) are feasible for the early diagnosis of AD. Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured using SPECT in three subject groups: Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI, n=9), mild AD (n=16), and normal aged patients (mean age=68.3; n=20). The subjects were then observed for three years. The region of interest (ROI) for the medial temporal lobe was set at OM-30deg to cover the maximum area of the hippocampus. The absolute values of rCBF in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes and the cerebellum were significantly lower in the mild AD subjects than in the normal aged subjects. A significant decrease in rCBF was also seen in the medial temporal lobe in both the AD and the AAMI subjects compared to the normal controls. During the three years of follow up, no cases of dementia were seen in the AAMI subjects. However, there were two patients who appeared to have difficulty in adapting to daily life due to amnesia, one with a decrease in rCBF of the medial temporal lobe on the second SPECT, and the other showing a low rCBF the first time. This study suggests that AAMI subjects may comprise both AD and normal subjects. Therefore a more prospective study is needed. (author)

  8. Cerebral blood flow of patients with age-associated memory impairment and the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. A study by SPECT using the ARG method

    Ishiwata, Akiko; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atushi; Terashi, Akiro

    1998-01-01

    In order to further understand the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have utilized image analysis in diagnosing the early stages of AD in patients with cognitive disorders. CT and MRI, however, have not been feasible since only atrophy is seen and it is difficult to differentiate the changes in AD from age associated changes. In this study we tried to determine whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements using single photon emission CT (SPECT) are feasible for the early diagnosis of AD. Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured using SPECT in three subject groups: Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI, n=9), mild AD (n=16), and normal aged patients (mean age=68.3; n=20). The subjects were then observed for three years. The region of interest (ROI) for the medial temporal lobe was set at OM-30deg to cover the maximum area of the hippocampus. The absolute values of rCBF in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes and the cerebellum were significantly lower in the mild AD subjects than in the normal aged subjects. A significant decrease in rCBF was also seen in the medial temporal lobe in both the AD and the AAMI subjects compared to the normal controls. During the three years of follow up, no cases of dementia were seen in the AAMI subjects. However, there were two patients who appeared to have difficulty in adapting to daily life due to amnesia, one with a decrease in rCBF of the medial temporal lobe on the second SPECT, and the other showing a low rCBF the first time. This study suggests that AAMI subjects may comprise both AD and normal subjects. Therefore a more prospective study is needed. (author)

  9. Corrected Age for Preemies

    ... Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby ... Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > ...

  10. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III profile in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease: performance in subtests sensitive to and resistant to normal decline with ageing.

    Matsuda, Osamu; Saito, Masahiko; Kato, Mayumi; Azami, Hiroki; Shido, Emi

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the significance of age-related subtest scores from the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects of this study included 58 elderly Japanese persons classified into two groups: AD group (n = 29) and control group (n = 29). These groups did not differ in age, years of education, gender ratio, Hasegawa's Dementia Scale-Revised score, or Full-Scale IQ score. No subject scored below the cut-off point on Hasegawa's Dementia Scale-Revised, a frequently used dementia screen test in Japan. At the index score level, General Ability Index scores were the only scores that differed significantly between the groups, with the AD group scoring significantly lower than the control group (P Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III profile of very early AD may be characterized by weak performance on subtests normally resistant to decline with ageing. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. Cisplatin vs. carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy in patients >65 years of age with stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Ezer, Nicole; Smith, Cardinale B.; Galsky, Matthew D.; Mhango, Grace; Gu, Fei; Gomez, Jorge; Strauss, Gary M.; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is considered the standard care for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There have been limited data comparing outcomes of carboplatin vs. cisplatin-based CRT, particularly in elderly. Material and methods: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare registry, we identified 1878 patients >65 years of age with unresected stage III NSCLC that received concurrent CRT between 2002 and 2009. We fitted a propensity score model predicting use of cisplatin-based therapy and compared adjusted overall and lung-cancer specific survival of carboplatin- vs. cisplatin-treated patients. Rates of severe toxicity requiring hospital admission were compared in propensity score adjusted analyses. Results: Overall 1552 (83%) received carboplatin (77% in combination with paclitaxel) and 17% cisplatin (67% in combination with etoposide). Adjusted cox models showed similar overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86–1.12) and lung cancer-specific (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.84–1.17) survival among patients treated with carboplatin vs. cisplatin. Adjusted rates of neutropenia (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21–0.61), anemia (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.51–0.89), and thrombocytopenia (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31–0.85) were lower among carboplatin-treated patients; other toxicities were not different between groups. Conclusion: Carboplatin-based CRT is associated with similar long-term survival but lower rates of toxicity. These findings suggest carboplatin may be the most appropriate chemotherapeutic agent for elderly stage III patients

  12. The effects of intracranial volume adjustment approaches on multiple regional MRI volumes in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Olga eVoevodskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In neurodegeneration research, normalization of regional volumes by intracranial volume (ICV is important to estimate the extent of disease-driven atrophy. There is little agreement as to whether raw volumes, volume-to-ICV fractions or regional volumes from which the ICV factor has been regressed out should be used for volumetric brain imaging studies. Using multiple regional cortical and subcortical volumetric measures generated by Freesurfer (51 in total, the main aim of this study was to elucidate the implications of these adjustment approaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data were analyzed from two large cohorts, the population-based PIVUS cohort (N=406, all subjects age 75 and the Alzheimer disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort (N=724. Further, we studied whether the chosen ICV normalization approach influenced the relationship between hippocampus and cognition in the three diagnostic groups of the ADNI cohort (Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy individuals. The ability of raw vs adjusted hippocampal volumes to predict diagnostic status was also assessed. In both cohorts raw volumes correlate positively with ICV, but do not scale directly proportionally with it. The correlation direction is reversed for all volume-to-ICV fractions, except the lateral and third ventricles. Most grey matter fractions are larger in females, while lateral ventricle fractions are greater in males. Residual correction effectively eliminated the correlation between the regional volumes and ICV and removed gender differences. The association between hippocampal volumes and cognition was not altered by ICV normalization. Comparing prediction of diagnostic status using the different approaches, small but significant differences were found. The choice of normalization approach should be carefully considered when designing a volumetric brain imaging study.

  13. Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive abilities in elderly persons with hearing aids fitted at the initial stages of hearing loss

    C. Obuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relation between the use of hearing aids at the initial stages of hearing loss and age-related changes in the auditory and cognitive abilities of elderly persons. 12 healthy elderly persons participated in an annual auditory and cognitive longitudinal examination for three years. According to their hearing level, they were divided into 3 subgroups - the normal hearing group, the hearing loss without hearing aids group, and the hearing loss with hearing aids group. All the subjects underwent 4 tests: pure-tone audiometry, syllable intelligibility test, dichotic listening test (DLT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R Short Forms. Comparison between the 3 groups revealed that the hearing loss without hearing aids group showed the lowest scores for the performance tasks, in contrast to the hearing level and intelligibility results. The other groups showed no significant difference in the WAIS-R subtests. This result indicates that prescription of a hearing aid during the early stages of hearing loss is related to the retention of cognitive abilities in such elderly people. However, there were no statistical significant correlations between the auditory and cognitive tasks.

  14. The Effects of Comorbidity and Age on RTOG Study Enrollment in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Who Are Eligible for RTOG Studies

    Firat, Selim; Byhardt, Roger W.; Gore, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of measured comorbidity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) combined modality therapy (CMT) study enrollment in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy-one patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score ≥70 and clinical Stage III NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively for comorbidity, RTOG study eligibility, and enrollment at initial consultation. Effect of comorbidity scores (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) were tested on patient selection for CMT, RTOG enrollment, and overall survival. Results: Comorbidity (Grade 4; p 2, p = 0.001), and weight loss (>5%, p = 0.001). Thirty-three patients (19%) were enrolled in a CMT RTOG study (Group 1). Forty-nine patients (29%) were eligible but not enrolled (Group 2), and 57 (33%) were ineligible (Group 3). The most common ineligibility reasons were weight loss (67%) and comorbidity in the exclusion criteria of the RTOG studies (63%). Group 1 patients were the youngest (p = 0.02), with the lowest comorbidity scores (p 2; p = 0.006) and age (≥70; p = 0.05) were independent factors influencing RTOG study enrollment in patients meeting study eligibility requirements (Groups 1 and 2). Conclusions: Comorbidity scales could be useful in stratification of patients in advanced lung cancer trials and interpretation of results particularly regarding the elderly population.

  15. Conscious and unconscious sensory inflows allow effective control of the functions of the human brain and heart at the initial ageing stage.

    Bykov, Anatolij T; Malyarenko, Tatyana N; Malyarenko, Yurij E; Terentjev, Vladimir P; Dyuzhikov, Alexandr A

    2006-11-01

    The authors of the present article based their assumption on the concept that the sensory systems are the "windows to the brain" through which various functions of the human organism can be controlled. Comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms of the optimization of the sensory systems, brain, and cardiac functions has increased based on the prolonged sensory flows using conscious and unconscious aromatherapy and multimodal sensory activation. Sensory flow evoked stable systemic responses, including adaptive alteration of psycho-emotional state, attention, memory, sensorimotor reactions, intersensory interaction, visual information processing, statokinetic stability, and autonomic heart rhythm control. The efficacy and expediency of the use of sensory flow for non-medicinal correction of vital functions of the human organism at the initial stages of ageing was revealed.

  16. Consequences of Hatch Phenology on Stages of Fish Recruitment.

    David M Bogner

    Full Text Available Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A. Sandhill lake. Yellow perch hatched earlier in the season and displayed a more truncated hatch duration compared to bluegill. The timing of hatch influenced recruitment dynamics for both species but important hatching metrics were not similar between species across life stages. A longer hatch duration resulted in greater larval yellow perch abundance but greater age-1 bluegill abundance. In contrast, bluegill larval and age-0 abundances were greater during years when hatching duration was shorter and commenced earlier, whereas age-0 yellow perch abundance was greater when hatching occurred earlier. As a result of hatch phenology, yellow perch recruitment variability was minimized sooner (age-0 life stage than bluegill (age-1 life stage. Collectively, hatch phenology influenced recruitment dynamics across multiple life stages but was unique for each species. Understanding the complexities of when progeny enter an environment and how this influences eventual recruitment into a population will be critical in the face of ongoing climate change.

  17. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: A novel quantitative model of multiple discrete stage transitions applied to crustacean larval development

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the holding temperatures and developmental stages of larvae of red and blue king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus and P. platypus) reared to...

  18. [Comparison of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP) test and Amsler grid test in the diagnosis of different stages of age-related macular degeneration].

    Kampmeier, J; Zorn, M M; Lang, G K; Botros, Y T; Lang, G E

    2006-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years of age. A rapid loss of vision occurs especially in cases with choroidal neovascularisation. Early detection of ARMD and timely treatment are mandatory. We have prospectively studied the results of two diagnostic self tests for the early detection of metamorphopsia and scotoma, the PHP test and the Amsler grid test, in different stages of ARMD. Patients with ARMD and best corrected visual acuity of 6/30 or better (Snellen charts) were examined with a standardised protocol, including supervised Amsler grid examination and PHP, a new device for metamorphopsia or scotoma measurement, based on the hyperacuity phenomenon in the central 14 degrees of the visual field. The stages of ARMD were independently graded in a masked fashion by stereoscopic ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic fundus colour photographs, fluorescein angiography, and OCT. The patients were subdivided into 3 non-neovascular groups [early, late (RPE atrophy > 175 microm) and geographic atrophy], a neovascular group (classic and occult CNV) and an age-matched control group (healthy volunteers). 140 patients, with ages ranging from 50 to 90 years (median 68 years), were included in the study. Best corrected visual acuity ranged from 6/30 to 6/6 with a median of 6/12. 95 patients were diagnosed as non-neovascular ARMD. Thirty eyes had early ARMD (9 were tested positive by the PHP test and 9 by the Amsler grid test), and 50 late ARMD (positive: PHP test 23, Amsler grid test 26). The group with geographic atrophy consisted of 15 eyes (positive: PHP test 13, Amsler grid test 10). Forty-five patients presented with neovascular ARMD (positive: PHP test 38, Amsler grid test 36), 34 volunteers served as control group (positive: PHP test 1, Amsler grid test 5). The PHP and Amsler grid tests revealed comparable results detecting metamorphopsia and scotoma in early ARMD (30 vs. 30 %) and late ARMD (46 vs. 52 %). However, the

  19. Early-stage chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and osteoporosis as risk factors of sarcopenia in aged population: the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009.

    Kim, J E; Lee, Y-H; Huh, J H; Kang, D R; Rhee, Y; Lim, S-K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcopenia means the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with aging. In this study, we found that insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease stage 3, and osteoporosis at the femur neck were closely associated with sarcopenia in elderly men. These conditions modified to slow down the progression of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is known to have multiple contributing factors; however, its modifiable risk factors have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the most influential and modifiable risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study using data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009. This study included 940 men and 1,324 women aged 65 years and older who completed a body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height(2) of less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group. Using univariate analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, high-risk drinking, family income, osteoporosis, daily energy, and protein intake were associated with sarcopenia in men; age, BMI, limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, occupation, osteoporosis at the total hip, and daily energy intake were associated with sarcopenia in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR ≥2.5 (odds ratio [OR] for sarcopenia, 2.27; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.25), chronic kidney disease stage 3 (OR, 3.13; 95 % CI, 1.14-8.61), and osteoporosis at the femur neck (OR, 6.83; 95 % CI, 1.08-43.41) were identified as risk factors for sarcopenia in men. Insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis at the femur neck should be modified to prevent the acceleration of skeletal muscle

  20. Estimating the age of the adult stages of the blow flies Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by means of the cuticular hydrocarbon n-pentacosane.

    Bernhardt, Victoria; Pogoda, Werner; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W; Amendt, Jens

    2017-09-01

    Age estimation of insects like blow flies plays an important role in forensic entomology and can answer questions in regard to time of death. So far the focus is on the immature stages of these insects, but recently the adult fly became a target of interest. It has been established that the profile of specific cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) changes in a consistent pattern as adult insects age; thus, their analysis could be a promising tool for the age estimation of adult insects. We investigated the CHC n-pentacosane (nC25) on the legs of the adult blow flies Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vicina with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The flies were kept at room temperature (17°C±2°C) and 12:12 L:D from Day 1 to Day 20 post-emergence. For each of five flies per species, the amount of nC25 on all legs was determined daily. The amounts of nC25 on C. vicina increased linearly (R 2 =0.949). No significant difference between sexes could be detected. While L. sericata showed the same linear increase in general, we found significant (page is constructed from these data. Although the influence of various environmental factors, e.g., fluctuating temperatures, still needs to be tested, nC25 seems to be a promising tool for the age estimation of adult flies. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Emission characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation; Nidan nensho diesel kikan no haishutsubutsu tokusei. EGR no eikyo

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    For an aim to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it has become possible to realize it with smoke emission maintained at low levels by taking the following steps: initial combustion is carried out as lean pre-mixed combustion by adopting early fuel injection; the fuel is injected again after completion of this combustion; and EGR is combined with two-stage combustion which performs diffusion combustion under high temperature atmosphere. When a large quantity of EGR is used, cylinder temperature drops to have ignition timing delayed in the first stage, serving for improving fuel consumption. The problem of increase in smoke generation is solved by optimizing the injection timing at the second stage to suppress smoke generation increase, resulting in realization of lower NOx emission. By completing the second-stage fuel injection before ignition of the first-stage injection, it was possible to realize further lower NOx emission. Smoke increase due to higher EGR ratio was suppressed by pre-mixing both fuels injected in the first and second stages, although this is a high load operation. In addition, oxygen concentration and cylinder temperature were reduced, the gas pre-mixture was homogenized, and combustion velocity was suppressed by delaying the angle of ignition timing. This made low smoke combustion at {lambda} = 1 possible even in compressed ignition combustion. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Relations between Temperament and Metacognition and Frames of Reference in Behaviors in Public Situations in Early and Middle Adolescence: An Analysis of Age Stages

    Nana Kanzaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a questionnaire survey using a cross-sectional sample of early and middle adolescents aged 10–15 (n = 351 in order to investigate relationships between temperament, metacognition, and frames of reference in behaviors in public situations. The sample was divided into two groups by age (ear group: 10–12; middle-adolescence group: 13–15 and were analyzed by Multiple Group Structural Equation Modeling. Explanatory variables were four components of temperament [effortful control (EfC, affiliativeness (Afil, surgency (Sur, and negative affect (NgA] and metacognition. Objective variables were three components of frames of reference in behaviors in public situations [egocentrism (Ego, neighborhood evaluation (Nei, and public values (Pub]. In both age groups, EfC had a negative effect on Ego, and Sur had a negative effect on Nei. However, only in the middle-adolescence group did Afil and NgA have significant effects on Pub. Meanwhile, metacognition in the ear group had a positive effect on Ego and Nei, but these relations disappeared in the middle-adolescence group, and only in the middle-adolescence group did metacognition have a positive effect on Pub. We discuss frames of reference in behaviors in public situations from the viewpoint of the development of social cognition in early and middle adolescence in relation to temperament and metacognition.

  3. Health-related quality of life and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages - longitudinal results from the population-based KORA cohort in a working age population.

    Wacker, Margarethe E; Hunger, Matthias; Karrasch, Stefan; Heinrich, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger; Holle, Rolf

    2014-08-09

    It is widely recognized that health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but there is a lack of research on longitudinal associations of COPD and HRQL. This study examined the effects of COPD in early stages of disease on HRQL over ten years in a working-age general population setting in Southern Germany while considering the influence of common comorbidities. In the population-based KORA F4 study (2006-08) 1,321 participants aged 41-61 years performed spirometry and reported information on HRQL (measured by the generic SF-12) and comorbidities. For the same participants, HRQL information was available seven years before and three years after the lung function test from the previous S4 (1999-2001) and the F4L follow-up study (2010). Using linear mixed models, the physical and mental component summary scores (PCS-12 / MCS-12) of the SF-12 were compared over time between COPD groups. 7.8% of participants were classified as having COPD (according to the LLN definition and the Global Lungs Initiative), 59.4% of them in grade 1. Regression models showed a negative cross-sectional association of COPD grade 2+ with PCS-12 which persisted when comorbidities were considered. Adjusted mean PCS-12 scores for the COPD grade 2+ group were reduced (-3.5 (p=0.008) in F4, -3.3 (p=0.014) in S4 and -4.7 (p=0.003) in F4L) compared to the group without airflow limitation. The size of the COPD effect in grade 2+ was similar to the effect of myocardial infarction and cancer. Over ten years, a small decline in PCS-12 was observed in all groups. This decline was larger in participants with COPD grade 2+, but insignificant. Regarding MCS-12, no significant cross-sectional or longitudinal associations with COPD were found. Despite small HRQL differences between COPD patients in early disease stages and controls and small changes over ten years, our results indicate that it is important to prevent subjects with airflow

  4. Nature of multiplicity correlations in 12C-nucleus reaction at 4.5 AGeV

    Saleem Khan, M.; Shukla, Praveen Prakash; Khushnood, H.

    2011-01-01

    Multiplicity correlations in high energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions are considered one of the most important parameter to study the dynamics of particles production. In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the nature of the multiplicity correlations

  5. Do differences in maternal age, parity and multiple births explain variations in fetal and neonatal mortality rates in Europe? - Results from the EURO-PERISTAT project

    Anthony, S.; Jacobusse, G.W.; Pal-De Bruin, K.M. van der; Buitendijk, S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal mortality rates differ markedly between countries in Europe. If population characteristics, such as maternal age, parity or multiple births, contribute to these differences, standardised rates may be useful for international comparisons of health status and especially quality of care. This

  6. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

    Afolabi BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bamgboye M Afolabi,1 Emmanuel NU Ezedinachi,2 Iwara Arikpo,2 Abiodun Ogunwale,3 Damilola Fatimah Ganiyu,1 Rashidat A Abu,1 Adewunmi A Ajibade1 1Health, Environment and Development Foundation, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Institute of Tropical Disease and Research, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Project Hope, Washington, DC, USA Background: Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. Objective: This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. Results: In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81% were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents (χ2=29.9, P=0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2. Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women

  7. Hemodialysis Decreases the Etiologically-Related Early Vascular Aging Observed in End-Stage Renal Disease: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Bia, Daniel; Galli, Cintia; Zócalo, Yanina; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Wray, Sandra; Armentano, Ricardo; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the early vascular aging (EVA) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, attempting to determine a potential association between EVA and the etiology of ESRD, and to investigate the association of hemodialysis and EVA in ESRD patients during a 5-year follow-up period. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was obtained in 151 chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHP) and 283 control subjects, and in 25 CHP, who were followed-up after a 5-year lapse. cfPWV increased in ESRD patients compared to control subjects. The cfPWV-age relationship was found to have a steeper increase in ESRD patients. The highest cfPWV and EVA values were observed in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of the EVA in HD patients on a 5-year follow-up. Patients in ESRD showed higher levels of EVA. cfPWV and EVA differed in ESRD patients depending on their renal failure etiology. CHP showed an EVA reduction after a 5-year follow-up period. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A Bayesian modeling approach for estimation of a shape-free groundwater age distribution using multiple tracers

    Massoudieh, A.; Visser, A.; Sharifi, S.; Broers, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the

  9. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day−1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year−1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  10. Comparison of Visual Function in Older Eyes in the Earliest Stages of Age-related Macular Degeneration to Those in Normal Macular Health.

    Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Clark, Mark E; Jackson, Gregory R; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    To compare the ability of several visual functional tests in terms of the strength of their associations with the earliest phases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which bears on their potential to serve as functional endpoints in evaluating treatments for early AMD and prevention strategies. Eyes from adults ≥60 years old were identified as being in normal macular health or in the earliest stages of AMD (steps 2, 3 or 4) through grading of color stereo-fundus photos by an experienced grader masked to all other study variables who used the 9-step Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification system for AMD severity. Visual function was assessed using the following tests: best-corrected visual acuity, low luminance visual acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity, macular cone-mediated light sensitivity and rod-mediated dark adaptation. A total of 1260 eyes were tested from 640 participants; 1007 eyes were in normal macular health (defined as step 1 in AREDS system) and 253 eyes had early AMD (defined as steps 2, 3 or 4). Adjusting for age and gender, early AMD eyes had two times the odds of having delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation than eyes in normal macular health (p = 0.0019). Visual acuity, low luminance acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity and macular light sensitivity did not differ between normal eyes and early AMD eyes. Eyes in the earliest phases of AMD were two times more likely to have delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation, as assessed by the rod-intercept, as compared to older eyes in normal macular health, whereas there was no difference in early AMD versus normal eyes in tests of visual acuity, low luminance acuity, macular light sensitivity and spatial contrast sensitivity.

  11. Effects of multiple-step thermal ageing treatment on the hardness characteristics of A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy

    Abdulwahab, M.; Madugu, I.A.; Yaro, S.A.; Hassan, S.B.; Popoola, A.P.I.

    2011-01-01

    The work outlined the hardness characteristics of thermally aged high chromium sodium modified A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy using the multiple-step thermal ageing treatment (MSTAT) approach. This novel approach consists of double thermal ageing (DTAT) and single thermal ageing treatment (STAT). The investigation also includes the development of a new temperature-compensated-time parameter, P, for the studied alloy at different ageing temperatures and time considered. The results obtained in the DTAT developed for the A356.0-type Al-Si-Mg alloy showed an improvement in the precipitation hardening (PH) ability and hardness characteristics as compared to the convectional STAT temper. The observations were evidenced from the X-ray diffractometry (XRD) pattern indicating the possible strengthening phases. Equally, the hardness behavior was correlated with the microstructures using optical microscope (OPM) and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope (SEM-EDS).

  12. Informal social networks of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : Relationship with age, communicative abilities and current living arrangements

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; Post, W.J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regression analysis for 200 people

  13. Radiographic study on the anterior portion of the neck of the condylar process. Aged-related developmental changes based on Hellman's dental stage

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamato, Rieko; Tada, Miwako [Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The condylar process is directly and indirectly influenced by the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint, which functions to regulate jaw movement. Age-related changes in the condylar process were found in both external and internal structures. Observation of X-ray profiles afforded identification of areas of interest in the anterior portion of the neck of condylar process. This portion anatomically includes the pterygoid fovea; moreover, the process serves as a terminal for the lateral pterygoid muscle. Rather than directly analyzing bone structure, we made distinct measurements in regions of interest by X-ray image analysis. Subsequently, changes in occlusion during each developmental stage were evaluated. In addition, bone mineral density measurements were performed. Greater growth was recognized in the long axis of the condylar process in comparison to the short axis. The long axis indicated a 2.7-fold increase in ODL (length along the major axis) from the IA period to the VA period; additionally, the total absolute length increased by 3.1-fold. The short axis demonstrated a 2.3-fold increase in ODS (length along the minor axis) from the IA period to the VA period; furthermore, the total average length revealed a 1.9-fold increase. Bone mineral density was highest in the anterior portion (region of interest) and was higher in the posterior portion (cortical bone); than in the middle portion (central bone). Among these 3 areas, density differences became larger as the developmental stage of occlusion progressed. Detailed measurements in the region of interest demonstrated significant increases from the IIC period to the IIIA (B) period, and distinct peak times of increases were observed in bone mineral density: the center bone structure, as well as the posterior cortical bone, showed significant increases between the IIIC period and the IVA period. The anterior border displayed to constant increase with an exception for the period between stages

  14. Effects of prolonged exercise versus multiple short exercise sessions on risk for metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Chung, JinWook; Kim, KwangJun; Hong, Jeeyoung; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-08-22

    Many people, although they may recognise the positive effects of exercise, do not exercise regularly owing to lack of time. This study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged single-session exercise and multiple short sessions of exercise on the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. Thirty-six participants were divided into the single-session group, multiple-session group, and control group. The single-session group engaged in one session of treadmill exercise for 30 min a day; the multiple-session group had three sessions of 10 min a day. Both groups exercised 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group did not perform any exercise. The single-session group showed decreases in weight (0.97 kg [95% C.I. = 0.09-1.83], p exercise is superior to multiple short sessions for improving the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. However, multiple short sessions can be recommended as an alternative to prolonged exercise when the goal is to decrease blood glucose or waist circumference.

  15. Aortic-Radial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio in End-stage Renal Disease Patients: Association with Age, Body Tissue Hydration Status, Renal Failure Etiology and Five Years of Hemodialysis.

    Bia, Daniel; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Galli, Cintia; Wray, Sandra; Armentano, Ricardo; Zócalo, Yanina; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the hydration status may be involved in the arterial stiffening process observed in hemodialyzed patients. The ratio between carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV ratio) was recently proposed to characterize the patient-specific stiffening process. to analyze: (1) the PWV-ratio in healthy and hemodialyzed subjects, analyzing potential changes associated to etiologies of the ESRD, (2) the PWV-ratio and hydration status using multiple-frequency bioimpedance and, (3) the effects of hemodialysis on PWV-ratio in a 5-year follow-up. PWV-ratio was evaluated in 151 patients differentiated by the pathology determining their ESRD. Total body fluid (TBF), intra and extra cellular fluid (ICF, ECF) were measured in 65 of these patients using bioelectrical-impedance. The association between arterial, hemodynamic or fluid parameters was analyzed. PWV-ratio was evaluated in a group of patients (n = 25) 5 years later (follow-up study). PWV-ratio increased in the ESRD cohort with respect to the control group (1.03 ± 0.23 vs. 1.31 ± 0.37; p hydration status, but not with the blood pressure. PWV-ratio could be considered a blood pressure-independent parameter, associated with the age and hydration status of the patient.

  16. Integrating multiple stressors across life stages and latitudes: Combined and delayed effects of an egg heat wave and larval pesticide exposure in a damselfly.

    Sniegula, Szymon; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses. Exposure of eggs to the heat wave had no effect on larval traits, yet had delayed costs (lower fat and flight muscle mass) in the adult stage thereby crossing two life history transitions. These delayed costs were only present in central-latitude populations potentially indicating their lower heat tolerance. Exposure of larvae to the pesticide reduced larval growth rate and prolonged development time, and across metamorphosis reduced the adult fat content and the flight muscle mass, yet did not affect the adult heat tolerance. The pesticide-induced delayed emergence was only present in the slower growing central-latitude larvae, possibly reflecting stronger selection to keep development fast in the more time-constrained high-latitude populations. We observed no synergistic interactions between the egg heat wave and the larval pesticide exposure. Instead the pesticide-induced reduction in fat content was only present in animals that were not exposed to the egg heat wave. Our results based on laboratory conditions highlight that multistressor studies should integrate across life stages to fully capture cumulative effects of pollutants with other stressors related to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple Genes Related to Muscle Identified through a Joint Analysis of a Two-stage Genome-wide Association Study for Racing Performance of 1,156 Thoroughbreds

    Dong-Hyun Shin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thoroughbred, a relatively recent horse breed, is best known for its use in horse racing. Although myostatin (MSTN variants have been reported to be highly associated with horse racing performance, the trait is more likely to be polygenic in nature. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants strongly associated with racing performance by using estimated breeding value (EBV for race time as a phenotype. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study to search for genetic variants associated with the EBV. In the first stage of genome-wide association study, a relatively large number of markers (~54,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs were evaluated in a small number of samples (240 horses. In the second stage, a relatively small number of markers identified to have large effects (170 SNPs were evaluated in a much larger number of samples (1,156 horses. We also validated the SNPs related to MSTN known to have large effects on racing performance and found significant associations in the stage two analysis, but not in stage one. We identified 28 significant SNPs related to 17 genes. Among these, six genes have a function related to myogenesis and five genes are involved in muscle maintenance. To our knowledge, these genes are newly reported for the genetic association with racing performance of Thoroughbreds. It complements a recent horse genome-wide association studies of racing performance that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand our knowledge of the polygenic nature of racing performance in Thoroughbreds.

  18. Tumor Control Probability Modeling for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Using Multiple Bio-physical Models

    Liu, Feng; Tai, An; Lee, Percy; Biswas, Tithi; Ding, George X.; El Naqa, Isaam; Grimm, Jimm; Jackson, Andrew; Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring); LaCouture, Tamara; Loo, Billy; Miften, Moyed; Solberg, Timothy; Li, X Allen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze pooled clinical data using different radiobiological models and to understand the relationship between biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor control probability (TCP) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Method and Materials The clinical data of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial or Kaplan-Meier TCP from 46 selected studies were collected for SBRT of NSCLC in the literature. The TCP data were separated for Stage T1 and T2 tumors if possible, otherwise collected for combined stages. BED was calculated at isocenters using six radiobiological models. For each model, the independent model parameters were determined from a fit to the TCP data using the least chi-square (χ2) method with either one set of parameters regardless of tumor stages or two sets for T1 and T2 tumors separately. Results The fits to the clinic data yield consistent results of large α/β ratios of about 20 Gy for all models investigated. The regrowth model that accounts for the tumor repopulation and heterogeneity leads to a better fit to the data, compared to other 5 models where the fits were indistinguishable between the models. The models based on the fitting parameters predict that the T2 tumors require about additional 1 Gy physical dose at isocenters per fraction (≤5 fractions) to achieve the optimal TCP when compared to the T1 tumors. Conclusion This systematic analysis of a large set of published clinical data using different radiobiological models shows that local TCP for SBRT of early-stage NSCLC has strong dependence on BED with large α/β ratios of about 20 Gy. The six models predict that a BED (calculated with α/β of 20) of 90 Gy is sufficient to achieve TCP ≥ 95%. Among the models considered, the regrowth model leads to a better fit to the clinical data. PMID:27871671

  19. Sleep Stage Transition Dynamics Reveal Specific Stage 2 Vulnerability in Insomnia.

    Wei, Yishul; Colombo, Michele A; Ramautar, Jennifer R; Blanken, Tessa F; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-09-01

    Objective sleep impairments in insomnia disorder (ID) are insufficiently understood. The present study evaluated whether whole-night sleep stage dynamics derived from polysomnography (PSG) differ between people with ID and matched controls and whether sleep stage dynamic features discriminate them better than conventional sleep parameters. Eighty-eight participants aged 21-70 years, including 46 with ID and 42 age- and sex-matched controls without sleep complaints, were recruited through www.sleepregistry.nl and completed two nights of laboratory PSG. Data of 100 people with ID and 100 age- and sex-matched controls from a previously reported study were used to validate the generalizability of findings. The second night was used to obtain, in addition to conventional sleep parameters, probabilities of transitions between stages and bout duration distributions of each stage. Group differences were evaluated with nonparametric tests. People with ID showed higher empirical probabilities to transition from stage N2 to the lighter sleep stage N1 or wakefulness and a faster decaying stage N2 bout survival function. The increased transition probability from stage N2 to stage N1 discriminated people with ID better than any of their deviations in conventional sleep parameters, including less total sleep time, less sleep efficiency, more stage N1, and more wake after sleep onset. Moreover, adding this transition probability significantly improved the discriminating power of a multiple logistic regression model based on conventional sleep parameters. Quantification of sleep stage dynamics revealed a particular vulnerability of stage N2 in insomnia. The feature characterizes insomnia better than-and independently of-any conventional sleep parameter. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants.

  1. Shift work at young age is associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis in a Danish population

    Gustavsen, S; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Oturai, D B

    2016-01-01

    and found that shift work at young age is associated with an increased risk of developing MS. In this study we focused on the effect of shift work in the vulnerable period between 15-19 years. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between shift work at young age and the risk...

  2. Proteomics-based investigation of multiple stages of OSCC development indicates that the inhibition of Trx-1 delays oral malignant transformation.

    Chen, Xijuan; Hu, Qinchao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Chunyang; Xia, Juan; Yang, Linglan; Cheng, Bin; Chen, Xiaobing

    2018-03-01

    The majority of cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develop from oral potentially malignant disorders, which have been confirmed to be involved in chronic oxidative stimulation. However, no effective treatment approaches have been used to prevent the development of dysplasia into cancerous lesions thus far. In the present study, a well-established OSCC model was used to detect proteomics profiles at different stages during oral malignant transformation. Of the 15 proteins that were found to be upregulated in both the dysplasia and carcinoma stages, the oxidative stress-associated proteins, thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), glutaredoxin-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 were note as the proteins with significant changes in expression Trx-1 was identified to be the most significantly upregulated protein in the precancerous stage. Validation experiments confirmed that Trx-1 was overexpressed both in dysplasia and cancerous tissue samples, and the inhibition of Trx-1 was able to promote the apoptosis of OSCC cells under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the experimental application of a Trx-1-specific inhibitory agent in an animal model led to a lower cancerization rate and a delay in tumor formation. The possible mechanisms were associated with the increased apoptosis via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that Trx-1 may be an important target for delaying oral malignant transformation, which provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of OSCC.

  3. Aging influences multiple indices of oxidative stress in the heart of the Fischer 344/NNia x Brown Norway/BiNia rat.

    Asano, Shinichi; Rice, Kevin M; Kakarla, Sunil; Katta, Anjaiah; Desai, Devashish H; Walker, Ernest M; Wehner, Paulette; Blough, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P lead to age-associated alterations in cardiac oxidative stress.

  4. Long-term (60-month results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    Boyer D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available David Boyer,1 K Bailey Freund,2 Carl Regillo,3 Marc H Levy,4 Sumit Garg5 1Retina-Vitreous Associates Medical Group, Beverly Hills, CA, 2Vitreous-Retina-Macula Consultants of New York, New York, NY; 3Wills Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA, 4Sarasota Retina Institute, Sarasota, FL, 5The Gavin Herbert Eye Institute (University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800 resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127], with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA, quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD. Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months.Results: Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76, with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10% and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%; and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%, corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%, and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%. Significant

  5. Groundwater age determination using 85Kr and multiple age tracers (SF6, CFCs, and 3H to elucidate regional groundwater flow systems

    Makoto Kagabu

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The groundwater ages could not be estimated using CFCs or SF6, particularly in the urban areas because of artificial additions to the concentration over almost the entire study area. However, even in these regional circumstances, apparent ages of approximately 16, 36, and not less than 55 years were obtained for three locations on the A–A’ line (recharge area, discharge area, and stagnant zone of groundwater, respectively from 85Kr measurements. This trend was also supported by lumped parameter model analysis using a time series of 3H observations. In contrast, along the B–B’ line, the groundwater age of not less than 55 years at three locations, including the recharge to discharge area, where CFCs and SF6 were not detected, implies old groundwater: this is also the area in which denitrification occurs. In the C area, very young groundwater was obtained from shallow water and older groundwater was detected at greater depths, as supported by the long-term fluctuations of the NO3−–N concentration in the groundwater. The results of this study can be effectively used as a “time axis” for sustainable groundwater use and protection of groundwater quality in the study area, where groundwater accounts for almost 100% of the drinking water resources.

  6. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    Kyle J. Beauchemin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.

  7. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development.

    Beauchemin, Kyle J; Wells, Julie M; Kho, Alvin T; Philip, Vivek M; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H; Bult, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS). Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular) defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) archive (GSE74243). Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org).

  8. Effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognition through 2 y of age in rural Bangladesh: the JiVitA-3 Trial.

    Christian, Parul; Kim, Jeongyong; Mehra, Sucheta; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Wu, Lee; Klemm, Rolf; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P

    2016-10-01

    Childhood undernutrition may have prenatal origins, and the impact of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth is not well known. We assessed the effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on child growth and cognitive development. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, prenatal MM supplementation compared with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation was examined for its impact on growth assessed longitudinally from birth up to 24 mo of age (n = 8529) and, in a subsample (n = 734), on cognitive function at 24 mo of age by use of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition test. Prevalence of stunting at birth [length for age z score (LAZ): growth. Ponderal and linear growth velocities were somewhat slower from 3 to 12 mo of age in the MM group than in the IFA group, but not from 12 to 24 mo of age. There was no difference between groups on composite scores of cognition, language, and motor performance at 24 mo of age. In this Bangladeshi trial, maternal pre- and postnatal MM supplementation resulted in improvements in LAZ and reduction in stunting through 3 mo of age, but not thereafter and had no impact on cognitive and motor function at 2 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT000860470. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Attempt of multiple stage injection with EGR for high load operation of a premixed compression ignition engine; Tadan funsha ni yoru yokongo asshuku chakka kikan no unten ryoiki kakudai

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan); Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-01-25

    By injecting fuel at the very early stage of compression stroke and thus creating homogeneous lean mixture before ignition, (PREDIC ; PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion), simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke was obtained. However, since increasing the mixture equivalence ratio cause knocking, it was difficult to operate at higher load conditions. In this study, in order to reduce combustion rate at high load conditions in a premixed compression ignition engine, multiple stage injection method and EGR were combined, and heterogeneous mixture was made before ignition. The engine test results showed that NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced to less than 50 ppm, without knocking even at full load conditions. In addition, smoke emissions were also maintained below invisible level. It can be understood that the premixing of fuel was advanced, smoke was reduced, and EGR rate was increased, resulting lower heat release rate and NO{sub x} emissions. (author)

  10. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to 30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per year. ECD loss was less in group 1 than in group 2 (35% versus 40%, respectively) at 60 months. Conclusion Long-term results show substantial retention of improvement in BDCVA. Chronic ECD loss was consistent with that reported for conventional intraocular lenses. The IMT performed as well in group 1 (the younger group) as it did in group 2 through month 60. Younger patients retained more vision than their older counterparts and had fewer adverse events. Although not a specified outcome for this study, patients younger than 65 years also fared better than those in group 2 and retained more vision with fewer adverse events through month 60. PMID:26124633

  11. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  12. A petrologic and ion microprobe study of a Vigarano Type B refractory inclusion - Evolution by multiple stages of alteration and melting

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.

    1993-01-01

    A Type B Ca-, Al-rich 6-m-diam inclusion (CAI) found in the Vigarano C3V chondrite was inspected using optical and scanning electron microscopies and ion microprobe analyses. It was found that the primary constituents of the CAI inclusion are (in percent), melilite (52), fassaite, (20), anorthite (18), spinel (10), and trace Fe-Ni metal. It is noted that, while many of the properties of the inclusion indicate solidification from a melt droplet, the Al-26/Mg-26 isotopic systematics and some textural relationships are incompatible with single-stage closed system crystallization of a homogeneous molten droplet, indicating that the history of this inclusion must have been more complex than melt solidification alone. Moreover, there was unusually high content of Na in melilite, suggesting that the droplet did not form by melting of pristine high-temperature nebular condensates.

  13. Differential diagnosis and cancer staging of a unique case with multiple nodules in the lung - lung adenocarcinoma, metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma.

    Bai, Yun; Qiu, Jianxing; Shang, Xueqian; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Yan; Li, Ting

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite this, there have been few cases of simultaneous primary and metastatic cancers in the lung reported, let alone coexisting with tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case. A 61-year-old man with a history of colon adenocarcinoma was revealed as having three nodules in the lung 11 months after colectomy. The nodule in the left upper lobe was primary lung adenocarcinoma, the larger one in the right upper lobe was a metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and the smaller one in the right upper lobe was colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma. Our paper focused on the differential diagnosis and cancer staging of this unique case, and discussed the uncommon phenomenon of the lung acting as a recipient in tumor-to-tumor metastasis.

  14. A comparative study between the use of artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression for caustic concentration prediction in a stage of alumina production

    Giovanni Leopoldo Rozza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With world becoming each day a global village, enterprises continuously seek to optimize their internal processes to hold or improve their competitiveness and make better use of natural resources. In this context, decision support tools are an underlying requirement. Such tools are helpful on predicting operational issues, avoiding cost risings, loss of productivity, work-related accident leaves or environmental disasters. This paper has its focus on the prediction of spent liquor caustic concentration of Bayer process for alumina production. Caustic concentration measuring is essential to keep it at expected levels, otherwise quality issues might arise. The organization requests caustic concentration by chemical analysis laboratory once a day, such information is not enough to issue preventive actions to handle process inefficiencies that will be known only after new measurement on the next day. Thereby, this paper proposes using Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Networks techniques a mathematical model to predict the spent liquor´s caustic concentration. Hence preventive actions will occur in real time. Such models were built using software tool for numerical computation (MATLAB and a statistical analysis software package (SPSS. The models output (predicted caustic concentration were compared with the real lab data. We found evidence suggesting superior results with use of Artificial Neural Networks over Multiple Linear Regression model. The results demonstrate that replacing laboratorial analysis by the forecasting model to support technical staff on decision making could be feasible.

  15. Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation

    Handyside, Alan H.; Montag, Markus; Magli, M. Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception

  16. Multiple prescriptions of antibiotics for children aged 0 to 5 years in relation to type of antibiotic

    Thrane, Nana; Olesen, Charlotte; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    1999-01-01

    The risk of receiving more than one prescription within an antibiotic course was examined for all children aged 0 to 5 years in a Danish county during 1997. We identified 29,307 prescriptions of systemic antibiotics for 16,245 children in a prescription database. Ten per cent of the prescriptions...

  17. Insights into the genetic architecture of early stage age-related macular degeneration: a genome-wide association study meta-analysis.

    Elizabeth G Holliday

    Full Text Available Genetic factors explain a majority of risk variance for age-related macular degeneration (AMD. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS for late AMD implicate genes in complement, inflammatory and lipid pathways, the genetic architecture of early AMD has been relatively under studied. We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of early AMD, including 4,089 individuals with prevalent signs of early AMD (soft drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial changes and 20,453 individuals without these signs. For various published late AMD risk loci, we also compared effect sizes between early and late AMD using an additional 484 individuals with prevalent late AMD. GWAS meta-analysis confirmed previously reported association of variants at the complement factor H (CFH (peak P = 1.5×10(-31 and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2 (P = 4.3×10(-24 loci, and suggested Apolipoprotein E (ApoE polymorphisms (rs2075650; P = 1.1×10(-6 associated with early AMD. Other possible loci that did not reach GWAS significance included variants in the zinc finger protein gene GLI3 (rs2049622; P = 8.9×10(-6 and upstream of GLI2 (rs6721654; P = 6.5×10(-6, encoding retinal Sonic hedgehog signalling regulators, and in the tyrosinase (TYR gene (rs621313; P = 3.5×10(-6, involved in melanin biosynthesis. For a range of published, late AMD risk loci, estimated effect sizes were significantly lower for early than late AMD. This study confirms the involvement of multiple established AMD risk variants in early AMD, but suggests weaker genetic effects on the risk of early AMD relative to late AMD. Several biological processes were suggested to be potentially specific for early AMD, including pathways regulating RPE cell melanin content and signalling pathways potentially involved in retinal regeneration, generating hypotheses for further investigation.

  18. Stage design

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  19. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  20. Staging Mobilities

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  1. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  2. Evaluation of the short term 12 hour toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Epioblasma triquetra and its host fish (Percina caprodes).

    Boogaard, Michael A; Newton, Teresa J; Hubert, Terrance D; Kaye, Cheryl A; Barnhart, M Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the risk of 12-h exposures of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of the federally endangered snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra) and its primary host fish the common logperch (Percina caprodes) as well as a surrogate to the snuffbox, the ellipse (Venustaconcha ellipsiformis). Life stages examined included free glochidia, 1-wk juveniles, and adults of the ellipse; free glochidia, glochidia on host fish, and 1-wk juveniles of the snuffbox; and adult logperch. Larval sea lampreys were also tested alongside adult ellipse and logperch for direct comparison. Survival exceeded 82% among all life stages in both mussel species at levels up to 1.8 times what would be applied during treatments, suggesting that routine sea lamprey control operations would not adversely affect mussels. However, substantial mortality of adult logperch was observed at TFM concentrations typically applied to streams, and loss of host fish could adversely affect snuffbox reproduction. In addition, TFM had no significant effect on the number of glochidia that metamorphosed on adult logperch. Although the snuffbox is not likely to be acutely affected from sea lamprey control operations, mitigation efforts to minimize impacts to the host fish should be considered. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Timing and Stages of Puberty

    ... and stages of puberty Timing and stages of puberty Adolescence and puberty can be so confusing! Here’s some info on what to expect and when: Puberty in girls usually starts between the ages of ...

  4. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic.

    Barreto, Rodrigo R; de Farias, Wialla K T; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are different from those of other sharks that occupy the same niche (e.g., Prionace glauca). Consequently, considerable declines in abundance have been detected over various parts of its range, most of which are linked to oceanic longline fishing. The species has conflicting life history parameters in studies conducted in the last 30 years, especially with regard to age and growth. The main discrepancies regard the interpretation of the periodicity of the deposition of band pairs (BPs) on vertebrae and the possibility of ontogenetic variations in growth. Shortfin mako sharks (n = 1325) were sampled by onboard observers of the Brazilian chartered pelagic longline fleet based in northeast Brazil from 2005 to 2011. Lengths were 79 to 250 and 73 to 296 cm (fork length, FL) for males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference in size between sexes and differences in the proportion of individuals in each size class. The onboard observers collected a subsample of vertebrae (n = 467), only 234 of which were suitable for analyses. Reliability between readings was satisfactory. However, it was not possible to validate periodicity in the formation of age bands in the sample. Thus, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used to calculate growth rates for the species through the interpretation of BPs in different scenarios: one BP per year (s1), two BPs per year (s2) and two BPs per year until five years of life (s3). Growth parameters varied for both females (Linf

  6. High-dose rapid and standard induction chemotherapy for patients aged over 1 year with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a randomised trial.

    Pearson, Andrew D J; Pinkerton, C Ross; Lewis, Ian J; Imeson, John; Ellershaw, Caroline; Machin, David

    2008-03-01

    The current standard treatment for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma includes initial induction chemotherapy with a 21-day interval between induction treatments. We aimed to assess whether an intensive chemotherapy protocol that had a 10-day interval between treatments would improve event-free survival (EFS) in patients aged 1 year or over with high-risk neuroblastoma. Between Oct 30, 1990, and March 18, 1999, patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who had not received previous chemotherapy were enrolled from 29 centres in Europe. Patients were randomly assigned to rapid treatment (cisplatin [C], vincristine [O], carboplatin [J], etoposide [E], and cyclophosphamide [C], known as COJEC) or standard treatment (vincristine [O], cisplatin [P], etoposide [E], and cyclophosphamide [C], ie, OPEC, alternated with vincristine [O], carboplatin [J], etoposide [E], and cyclophosphamide [C], ie, OJEC). Both regimens used the same total cumulative doses of each drug (except vincristine), but the dose intensity of the rapid regimen was 1.8-times higher than that of the standard regimen. The standard regimen was given every 21 days if patients showed haematological recovery, whereas the rapid regimen was given every 10 days irrespective of haematological recovery. Response to chemotherapy was assessed according to the conventional International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC). In responders, surgical excision of the primary tumour was attempted, followed by myeloablation (with 200 mg/m2 of melphalan) and haemopoietic stem-cell rescue. Primary endpoints were 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year EFS. Data were analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered on the clinical trials site of the US National Cancer Institute website, number NCT00365755, and also as EU-20592 and CCLG-NB-1990-11. 262 patients, of median age 2.95 years (range 1.03-20.97), were randomly assigned-132 patients to standard and 130 patients to rapid treatment. 111 patients in the standard group and 109

  7. Best Host Age of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Multiplication of Four Native Parasitoids from the Americas

    Poncio, S; Montoya, P; Cancino, J; Nava, D E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions. Not all parasitoid species developed with the same efficiency in immature individuals of A. obliqua; U. anastrephae and C. haywardi showed the higher parasitism rates. The emergence and parasitism of U. anastrephae were equal using larvae from 5 to 8 d, while C. haywardi reared in 1- to 8-d-old pupae showed higher averages of parasitism. These results suggest that native parasitoids can be used to strengthen the implementation of biological control projects against A. obliqua, a pest of economic importance in South America.

  8. [Relationships of the stages of behavior change in dietary habits of the mothers of school-age children with the breakfast intake of the children and the health-associated behavior of the family].

    Imamura, Kayoko; Senoue, Aya; Wada, Miyuki; Sakoda, Makiko; Seto, Kozue; Haraguchi, Miho; Matsukida, Emi; Maruyama, Chizuko

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the relationships of the different stages of behavior change in dietary habits followed by the mothers of school-age children with the actual breakfast intake of these children and the health-associated behavior of the family. We carried out a questionnaire-based survey of 1949 children at 18 elementary schools and of 881 families with children attending seven elementary schools in Kagoshima prefecture. We were supplied with information about children's breakfast intake and content on the day they took the survey and information about mothers' breakfast intake and the stage of behavior change in dietary habits to which they belonged, for which five stages were defined using the stage-of-change model. The collection rates were 83.3% and 83.1% among children and mothers respectively. Of the children, 83.1% ate breakfast every day, while 15.1% were not in the habit of having breakfast. Furthermore, 98.6% children had eaten breakfast on the day of the survey, but 15.1% had eaten only staple foods such as rice or bread; only 34.0% children combined staple foods, a main dish, and vegetables/fruits in their breakfast. Regarding dietary stage, 28.1% of the mothers belonged to the "maintenance" stage; 24.0%, the "action" stage; 6.9%, the "preparation" stage; 9.8%, the "contemplation" stage; and 5.7%, the "precontemplation" stage. Mothers belonging to the first two stages constituted the "action group," because they were already taking care of their dietary habits, and mothers belonging to the latter three stages constituted the "no-action group", because they were not taking care of their dietary habits. The mothers who could provide no answers to the question constituted the "no-answer group" (25.5%). A comparison of the three groups revealed that mothers belonging to the no-answer group had more children who went without breakfast than the action group (P = 0.000). The children of mothers belonging to the no-action group (P = 0.003) and the no

  9. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microgli